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大学生自我创业已经不是一个新鲜的话题了。那么自我创业有何利,又有何弊呢? 看过本文之后你就知道了。或许这对面临毕业的你还是个不小的帮助呢!

Self employment Self employment could bring many advantages. One of the advantages of being self-employed is that the profit the business makes belongs to the owner. If the self-employed person succeeds in business, he has the chance to earn a great deal of money. The profit earned is the reward for the owner’s effort, ability and creativity. Thus, a second advantage is that a person’s intelligence and abilities have a direct effect on the earnings. A third advantage of being self-employed is that a person can control his working hours. While not all self-employed people are completely free, most of them have more control over this area than the salaried people. However, being self-employed is not without problems. First, being one’s own boss places the responsibility directly on that individual shoulders. Everyone has some weaknesses in a certain aspects. These weaknesses will affect how successful a self-employed person is. Second, though the

self-employed can earn considerable profits with a successful business, losses can force them out of business and sometimes, place them in debt. A third disadvantage concerns income security. Self-employed people have no guaranteed wage. Their earnings can vary greatly, depending on business conditions. Salaried people, however, can generally count on continued earnings. In addition, salaried people often enjoy fringe benefits that mean greater peace of mind. One of these benefits may be insurance paid for by the employer that continues the employee’s salary in the event of sickness or accident while many self-employed people do not have such protection①. [253 words]

行文点评 文章结构简单明了。第一段阐述了自我创业的 3 个好处。第二段分析了自我创 业所存在的问题。 两段中“first, second, third”的使用,不仅使文章在句式上显得条理分明, 更在内容上体现了连贯性。


自我创业 自我创业的好处之一是商业利润归创业者所有。如果创业者生意成功,他有可 能挣很多钱。这些利润是对创业者努力、能力和创造力的回报。因此,自我创业的 第二个好处是一个人的才智和能力直接反映在收入上。自我创业的第三个优势是自

己做老板能够支配自己的工作时间。虽然不是所有的创业者都有完全的自由,但是 相对于工薪族来说,他们大多数人在这方面拥有更多的自主权。 但是,自我创业并不是一帆风顺的事。首先,做自己的老板把责任直接放到了 个人的肩上。每个人在某些方面都会有一些弱点,而这些弱点会对创业者的成功产 生影响。其次,自己做老板时,虽然生意成功会带来很大的盈利,但是一旦失败就 可能造成破产,有时甚至会负债累累。第三个弊端涉及收入的稳定性。创业者没有 稳定的工资。依据生意的状况,他们的收入浮动很大。而工薪族通常可以依靠持续 稳定的工资。此外,他们通常可以享受着额外福利,这意味着他们的心态可以更加 的平和。其中一项福利就是由雇主为雇员支付保险,以保障他们在生病或遇到意外 的情况下还能继续领到工资。相比之下,很多创业者就没有这种保障了。 词汇斟酌 ?in debt 负债 ?count on 指望,依靠 ?fringe a.附加的,额外的;边缘的 佳句临摹 ①【注释】in the event of sth 万一;倘若 【临摹】In the event of his death Shelia will inherit the money.一旦 他故去,希拉就会继承这笔钱。 思如泉涌 Something attempted, something done. 有尝试就会有收获。 Actions speak louder than words. 行动胜于语言。 有些人并非特别聪明,却能得到大家的认可和支持。我们说这些人有个人魅力。个 人魅力不仅源于聪明、诚实等优秀品质,还源于与他人交往时的态度和技巧。

Communicating a Sense of Personal Power Communicating a sense of personal power comes from a belief that you can reach your goals in your own way. Powerful people give others power and encourage others to express themselves openly. You communicate a sense of personal power by developing these traits: Authority Authority is inner confidence — a trust in your skills and abilities. It comes from the inside, from an attitude of “I can do that”. “I deserve success”.This attitude radiates outward as you assert your right, honestly ask for what you want and need, and develop a willingness to give to others and yourself. Being self-assured Self-assured behavior is active, direct, and honest. It communicates an impression of self-respect and respect for others.By being self-assured, we view our wants, needs, and rights as equal with those of others. A self-assured person wins by influencing, listening, and negotiating so that other people choose to cooperate willingly. Accessibility The powerful person is a master net worker. Good networking increases your visibility and gives you a valuable circle of people from whom you can give and receive support and information. Imagine yourself as the center of a wheel surrounded by spokes of contacts. Image

You communicate power through your image. Do you project an image consistent with strong leadership①? Stand tall and walk proudly, remembering that you have value as a person. When you meet others, make direct contact and keep your handshake firm and friendly. Clearly state who you are and what you do. Communication habits Take a deep breath to project a firm voice. Avoid slang, and jargon, and vocal hesitations that can hinder effective communication. Use only the body movements and gestures necessary to make your point, no more. Learn how to write clearly and concisely. [312 words]

行文点评 文章是总分结构。第一段先说明发挥你的个人魅力的信念来源:你可以用自己 的方式实现自己的目标。接着作者从五个方面介绍个人魅力的通常表现,每个方面 作者都指明了它对发挥个人魅力的重要性,以及如何做到这一点。




发挥你的个人魅力来源于这样一个信念:即你可以用自己的方式实现自己的目标。 有影响力的人赋予他人力量并鼓励他人公开表述自己的意见。发挥个人魅力通常体 现在以下几个方面: 威信 威信是内在的信心,即坚信自己的技能和能力。它来自于内心,来自于“我能 做好那件事”、“我会成功”的态度。当你维护你的权利,真诚地去寻求你的所需 所想,并愿意为他人和自己做出奉献的时候,这种态度就会外露出来。 自信 自信表现为积极、直率和诚实。它表达了一种自尊和尊重他人的意愿。通过自 信,我们视自己的需求和权利与他人的需要和权利是平等的。一个自信的人通过影 响、倾听与讨论来赢取他人自愿的合作。 亲和力 一个有影响力的人是人际交往的大师。良好的人际交往会使你为人所知,使你 周围有一个高层次的人际关系网,从他们那里你可以给予或获得支持与信息。把你 自己想象成轮轴,周围由关系的辐条环绕。 形象 你可以通过你的形象来施加影响力。你想象过自己具有极强的领导能力的形象 吗?站直,昂首挺胸地前进,记住,作为一个人你自身具有价值。当你与他人会面时, 要直接接触,友好而有力地握手。清楚地表达你是谁,是做什么的。 交流习惯 深吸一口气,说出坚定的话语,避免使用俚语、行话,说话不要吞吞吐吐,否 则会影响有效的交流。在必要时使用身体语言和手势,多则无益。要学会如何用笔 头清晰而简洁地表达自己的思想感情。

词汇斟酌 ? trait n. 显著的特点, 特性 ? authority n. 权威, 威信, 权威人士 ? radiate vt. 放射, 辐射, 传播 ? assert v. 断言, 声称 ? negotiate v. (与某人)商议, 谈判, 磋商, ? accessibility n. 易接近, 可到达 ? spoke n. 辐条 ? slang n. 俚语 ? jargon n. 行话 佳句临摹 ①【注释】be consistent with 一致,相符 【临摹】What you said now is not consistent with what you said last week. 你现在说的话与你上星期说的话不相符。 思如泉涌 As a man’s heart is, so does he speak. 言为心声。 A great talker is a great liar. 最会饶舌的人也是最会说谎的人。 很多人都认为那些身处象牙塔的大学生们过得很安逸,其实不然。他们每天也要面 临着很多压力:高额学费带来的经济压力,父母要求过高所带来的精神压力? College Pressure I see two kinds of pressure working on college students today: economic pressure, parental pressure. It is easy to look around for rebels — to blame


the colleges for charging too much money, the parents for pushing them too far. But there are no rebels, only victims. The pressure is heavy on students who just want to graduate and get a job. If I were an employer I would rather employ graduates who have this range and curiosity than those who narrowly pursued safe subjects and high grades. I know incalculable students whose inquiring minds cheer me. I like to hear the play of their ideas. I don’t know if they are getting A or C, and I don’t care. I also like them as people. The country needs them, and they will find satisfying jobs. I tell them to relax, but they can’t. Nor can I blame them. They live in a brutal economy. Today it is not unusual for a student, even if he works part time at college and full time during the summer, to increase to 5, 000 in loans after graduation.Encouraged at commencement to go forth into the world, he is already behind as he goes forth. How could he not feel under pressure throughout college to prepare for this day of reckoning①? Along with economic pressure goes parental pressure. Inevitably, the two are deeply integrated. Poor students! They are caught in one of the oldest webs of love and duty and guilt. The parents mean well: they are trying to steer their sons and daughters toward a secure future. But the sons and daughters want to major in history or classics or philosophy—subjects with no “practical” value. Where’s the payoff on the humanities? It’s not easy to persuade such loving parents that the humanities do indeed pay off. The intellectual faculties

developed by studying subjects like history and classics are just the faculties that make creative leaders in business or almost any general field. Luckily for me, most of them got into their field by an indirect route, to their surprise, after many roundabout ways. They can hardly conceive of a career that was not preplanned. They can hardly imagine allowing the hand of God or chance to nudge them down some unforeseen trail. [391 words] 行文点评 本文脉络清晰。第一段第一句直接点题,提出大学生面临的两种压力:economic pressure 和 parental pressure。段末“victims”一词的运用,奠定了本文的感情 基调:作者对大学生担负的压力感到同情。 第二段和第三段中分析了大学生在经济上面临压力的原因。第四段是过渡段。 第五段阐述了父母的压力对大学生的影响,用一个感叹句开头,具有烘托感情的效 果,充分表达了作者对大学生的同情。最后一段排比句的应用从相反的方面描述,更 把大学生所遭受的压力凸显出来。 好文妙译 大学生的压力 我发觉今天的大学生有两种压力:经济压力和来自父母的压力。环顾四周,你 很容易发现一些叛逆者,他们指责学校收费太高,报怨父母对他们的要求过高。但 他们不是叛逆者,而是受害者。 对于那些只想从大学毕业并且找到一个工作的人来说,压力是很大的。如果我 是雇主,我宁愿雇佣那些有好奇心的博学之才而不是那些只选一些容易过的且能达 高分的课程的学生。我认识无数学生,他们的好奇之心使我兴奋不已。我喜欢听他

们阐述自己的观点。我不知道他们得的是 A 还是 C,我不在乎这些。我也同样喜欢他 们所散发出来的人性魅力。国家需要他们,他们也会找到自己满意的工作。我告诉 他们要放松,但他们做不到。 但我也不能责怪他们,因为他们生活在残酷的经济时代。今天对一个学生来说, 即使他在念书时兼职打工,在暑假全职工作,在毕业后欠下 5000 美元的债务也是很 平常的。在毕业典礼上他们被告知即将踏入社会,而事实上,在踏入社会之际他已 落后于他人了。为了面对这个清算日,他们在大学生活中怎会感受不到压力呢? 与经济压力同时存在的还有来自父母的压力,这两者不可避免地融合在一起。 可怜的学生们!他们被古老的爱、责任、负疚感所包围。父母们本意是好的,他 们正把自己的儿女引向一个安全的未来。但这些孩子却想主修历史、古典文学、哲 学这些没有“现实”价值的专业。学人文科学的报偿在何处呢?要说服父母相信人文 科学有所报偿并不容易。由学习历史和古典文学所培养出来的能力正是商业及其他 一般领域有创造力的领导人所必备的能力。 幸运的是,许多学生几经曲折终于到达他们自己的领域,对此他们感到吃惊。 因为他们很难想象可以从事一项未经事先计划的事业,很难想象上帝之手或者机缘 能把他们推到未曾预见到的人生轨道上来。 词汇斟酌 ? rebel n.反叛分子,反对者 ? victim n.牺牲品,受害者 ? curiosity n.好奇(心) ? brutala.残忍的,无情的,冷酷的 ? commencement n.①开始②毕业典礼,学位授予典礼 ? reckoning n.结算,清算

? inevitably ad.不可避免地 ? steer vt.引导 ? faculty n.能力,技能,天赋 ? roundabout a.绕道的,绕圈子的 ? conceive vi.(of)构想出,设想 ? nudge vt.用肘轻推,推进 佳句临摹 ①【注释】a day of reckoning 得到惩罚的日子 【临摹】You’re enjoying yourself now, but a day of reckoning will come. 别看你现在逍遥,将来会遭报应的。 思如泉涌 No sweet without sweat. 先苦后甜。 Pain past is pleasure. 过去的痛苦就是快乐。 我们或许不能像伟人那样超凡脱俗,但可以时时借助幽默来使自己开心,使自己超 脱尘世的种种烦恼。漫画就是这样的一种幽默形式。 Art and Humor Millions of people struggle out of bed each morning, fumble into some clothes, and make their way to a cup of coffee and the morning newspaper ①. They need something cheerful to remind them that the rest of the day will be less difficult than getting up. This need may be the reason that many of them turn their half-opened eyes to the comics section of the newspaper as they sip their first cups of coffee of the day. Cartoons reflect the times and the troubles and worries of people. They

give people an opportunity to laugh at themselves and at familiar situations. For example, a cartoon might say that the government of a country is responsible for the bad economy and also show the government leaders as a group of ridiculous people. Being able to use the leaders as scapegoats and to laugh at the leaders somehow makes people feel better about their situation. Cartoons also make people laugh at their own personal worries. Young people who are not always sure of how to act can smile at their awkwardness. Old people whose grown children pay little attention to them can chuckle at their neglect and loneliness. Students who have studied too little before an examination can laugh at their anxiety. Everyone’s problems are made bigger–than–life in the comics. Perhaps the problems seem funny because there is humor in something that is real being made unreal. A cartoon combines art and humor. When it is skillfully done, a simple line drawing and a few words can make people laugh. Their troubles seem less important, and they enjoy life more fully. [276 words] 行文点评 这篇文章结构比较清晰。第一段提出观点: 漫画可以令人快乐,作者用了 struggle out of bed, fumble into some clothes, 形象地展示了一个大多数读者都非常熟悉的生活场景。第二、三段从公众和个人的 角度说明,漫画反映人们的时代和生活特点;每段的第一句话都是主题句(topic sentence),即每一段都在第一句提出这一段的分论点,再对其加以论证。第四段总 结全文,点明文章的主题。

文中排比句的运用, 比如第三段中对不同类型人的笑的描述 Young people ? Old people ? Students ?,也值得读者在写作中借鉴。 好文妙译 艺术与幽默 每天清晨,成千上万的人不情愿地起床,摸索着穿上衣服,然后喝咖啡,看早 报。他们需要一些令人高兴的事情来提醒自己一天中剩余的时间将不会像起床那样 难受。这就是为什么他们会在喝一天中的第一杯咖啡时将惺忪的睡眼投向报纸上的 连环漫画专栏的原因。 漫画反映一个时代,也反映人们的问题和烦恼。它给了人们一个自我解嘲的机 会,让人们对他们熟悉的事情发笑。例如,某幅漫画会把经济不景气归咎于一个国 家的政府,但也会把政府领导人画成一群可笑的人。把领导人当成替罪羊来加以嘲 讽,在某种程度上这会让人们对自己的处境感觉好一点。 漫画也使人们对个人烦恼付之一笑。年轻人不知所措时可以对困境微微一笑。 被成年子女冷落的老人可以对自己被人遗忘、孤独的境地轻轻苦笑。而“平时不烧 香,临时抱佛脚”的学生也可以对考试前的焦虑笑一笑。连环画把人们的问题夸张 地表现出来。也许那些问题看上去很可笑,这是因为当真实的事物被夸大到不真实 的程度时,本身就产生了幽默。 漫画结合了艺术和幽默。巧妙地画几笔简单的线条,写几句简洁的话就能让人 开怀大笑。人们的烦心事看上去不再那么重要了,而人们也能够更充分地享受生活。 词汇斟酌 fumble v. 笨拙地做,摸索 comic n. 连环画页,连环漫画 ?sip v. 呷,啜

?ridiculous a.荒谬的, 可笑的 ?scapegoat n.替罪羊 ?awkwardness n.笨拙, 不雅观 ?chuckle vi.吃吃的笑, 咯咯叫 佳句临摹 ①【解析】make one’s way (to/toward sth)向?前进 【临摹】I’ll make my way home now.我现在要回家了。 思如泉涌 It is a great art to laugh at your own misfortune. 对己之不幸付之一笑, 这是一门伟大的艺术。 Art lies in concealing art. 隐而不露即艺术。 出国留学也许是很多学生梦寐以求的事情。很多家长也愿意让孩子出国去“镀金”, 或丰富人生经历。但或许他们没有想到过留学在外也会面临着一些潜在的危险。 Studying Overseas Study overseas can be the adventure of a lifetime, and the majority of these experiences are healthy and safe. But, unless some simple precautions are taken, a young person living without a parent in a foreign country can encounter cultural disorientation and real, physical dangers. While auto and motorcycle accidents are a primary cause for concern, there are a host of other factors that need to be considered①, preferably, well in advance of a student’s departure②. There are the familiar risks of unsafe sex and illegal drugs. No different from home, you say? Traveling students and their parents often don’t realize

how cultural and legal differences can enhance these “risk factors.” Simply put, what is “safe” or tolerated behavior in the United States can be interpreted quite differently in a foreign country. In a strange place with new rules, even responsible teenagers may occasionally “lose their heads” and take chances that they wouldn’t normally take, like traveling unaccompanied to a strange country, not telling anyone where they are, or buying or selling on the black market. As a result, young travelers can easily find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time. Still, college students often reason that “horror stories” about incarcerated Americans overseas “will never happen to me!” In his MP article Legal Rights of Travelers, international law expert Jeffrey R. Miller describes some of the penalties facing the errant traveler. These can be extreme by American standards. However, safety is indeed everyone’s responsibility. The school program, the parents and the student all need to take part. Avoid potentially troublesome situations because as a foreigner you are more vulnerable. Be more cautious than at home. Here’s an obvious but critically important safety rule: Always let someone know where you are and never travel alone. [298 words] 行文点评 文章第一段便指出,出国留学除了考虑健康和人身安全之外,还要考虑到更多 其他的因素。第二段指出最常见的安全隐患。第三段指出陌生环境下孩子们可能的

反常行为。第四段指出孩子们对安全问题掉以轻心的态度。第五段总结全文,并提 出了一些安全建议。 本文语句十分地道,句式多样。段落之间存在的一些具有连接功能的词语,如 still, however 等,让文章连贯性更强。 好文妙译 留学在外 我们将出国留学看作是生命中的一次冒险。在留学过程中,最需要考虑的是你 的健康和人身安全。除非你预先做一些安排,否则的话,一个年少的孩子生活在远 离父母的异地他乡,可能会面临一些文化困扰,或者某种真正的、伤及人身的危险。 尤其是由汽车或者摩托车而造成的事故。另外我们最好在孩子临行之前,预先考虑 到更多其他的因素。 其中最常见的就是被视为洪水猛兽的性和毒品问题了。你认为这和你在国内没 有什么不同吗?留学生和他们的父母并没有认识到这种文化和法律的差异会加剧这 类冒险因素。简单地说,美国人眼中所谓的安全或者可容忍的行为,在别的国家里 却可能不是。 在一个规矩完全不同的陌生地方,即便是一个很有责任感的孩子也会偶尔迷失 自己,会做出一些违反常理的事情。比如说孤身去一个陌生的城市旅行,不告诉其 他人自己在哪儿,或者出入于黑市做些买卖。结果,这些年轻的游子们经常会发现 自己不合时宜地出现在不该出现的地方。 然而,大学生们却常常认为那些监禁海外美国人的恐怖故事永远都不会发生在 自己身上。国际法专家 Jeffrey R. Miller 在他呈交给议会的论文《旅游者的合法 权益》中指出,应对那些行踪不定的旅行者加以某种惩罚。在美国人眼里,这样做 是有点过分了。

然而,保障自身安全是每个人的责任。学校里有些课程是要求学生及其家长一 起参加的。因为作为一个外国人,你会更加容易受伤害。所以一定要比在国内更小 心,尽量不要找麻烦。还有一条简单却极为重要的规律:无论你去哪儿,一定要让 别人知道;千万不要单独外出旅行。 词汇斟酌 ? precaution n.预防,防备,警惕

? encounter vt.遇见,遭遇 ? disorientation n.迷失 ? interpret vt.解释,诠释 ? incarcerate v.将某人监禁 ? penalty n.触发,惩罚 ? errant a.为冒险而周游的 ? vulnerable a.易受伤害的 佳句临摹 ①【注释】a host of sb/sth 大群,众多,许多(人或事物) 【临摹】I can’t come, for a whole host of reasons.由于种种原因,我来 不了。 ②【注释】in advance of sth 预先;事前 【临摹】Galileo’s ideas were well in advance of the age in which he lived. 伽利略的思想远远超越了他所在的那个时代。 思如泉涌 Look before you leap. 三思而后行。 When at Rome, do as the Romans do. 入乡随俗。

学生上大学的目的各不相同:探索知识,充实自己;改变自身处境,谋求好的社会地 位;满足父母的期望?还有人从未认真想过。 The Purpose of School Have you ever asked yourself why children go to school? You will probably say that they go to learn their own language and other languages, arithmetic, geography, geometry, history, science and all the other subjects. That is quite true, but why do they learn these things? And are these things all that they learn at school? We send our children to school to prepare them for the time when they will be big and will have to work for themselves. They learn their own language so that they will be able to tell others clearly what they want and what they know, and understand what others tell them. They learn foreign languages in order to be able to benefit from what people in other countries have written and said and in order to make people from other countries understand what they themselves mean. They learn arithmetic in order to be able to measure and count things in their daily life, geography in order to know something about the world around them, and history to know something about human beings they meet every day. Nearly everything they study at school has some practical use in their life, but is that the only reason why they go to school? No. There is more in education than just learning facts. We go to school, above all①, to learn how to learn, so that, when we have left school, we can continue to learn. A man who really knows how to learn will always be successful, because whenever he has to do something new which he has never

had to do before, he will rapidly teach himself how to do it in the best way. The uneducated person, on the other hand②, is either unable to do something new, or does it badly.The purpose of schools, therefore, is not just to teach languages, arithmetic, geography, etc., but teach pupils the way to learn. [330 words] 行文点评 全文结构清晰、脉络分明。开篇点题,提出问题:为什么要上学。第二段阐述 观点,指出学习每一门课程的目的,接着作者笔锋一转,用一个 but 提出质疑:上 学的惟一理由就是把学校里学的一切在现实中应用吗?在第三段作者针对这个问题 提出观点,即上学的真正目的就是学会如何学习。 本文细致地分析了接受学校教育的目的。文章虽短,但层层深入,说理透彻, 发人深思。 好文妙译 上学的目的 你是否问过自己为什么孩子要上学?你可能会说他们上学是去学习母语和其他 语言,去学习数学、地理、几何、历史、科学及其他学科。此话不假,但他们为什 么要学这些?这些东西是他们在校学习的全部内容吗? 我们送孩子上学是为了让他们为自己长大后的工作做准备。学习母语是为了让 他们能够明确地告诉别人自己想要什么和知道什么,并能理解别人的话。学习外语 是为了从外国人的著作和言语中获益并让外国人了解自己说话的含义。学数学是为 了日常计量和算数,学习地理是为了了解周围的世界,学习历史是为了了解人类, 因为他们每天都会与之打交道。在学校里学的一切在他们的日常生活中都有实际应 用,但这就是他们上学的惟一理由吗?

当然不是。教育不仅仅是学习事实。首先,我们上学是为了学会如何学习,这 样,当我们离开学校时,我们就能继续学习。一个会学习的人总会是一个有成就的 人,因为不管他何时需要做以前从未做过的事的时候,他都能很快地自己学会以最 好的办法来做。相反地,一个未受过教育的人不是无法做好新事情,就是做得很糟。 因此,学校存在的目的不仅仅是教授语言、数学、地理等知识,还要教给学生学习 的方法。 词汇斟酌 ? arithmetic n.算术 ? geometry n.几何 ? prepare sb. for sth. 让某人为某事做好准备 佳句临摹 ①【注释】above all 最重要的;尤其 【临摹】He longs above all to see his family again.他尤其渴望再见到家 里人。 ②【注释】on the other hand 另一方面 【临摹】I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I ought to be studying. 我想去参加聚会,但从另一方面来说,我应该留下来学习。 思如泉涌 Art is long, but life is short. 人生有涯,而学无涯。 What is learned in the cradle is carried to the grave. 儿时所学,终生 难忘。


望与生俱来,人人都有。它可以催人上进,使人奋起,创造事业辉煌;也可以使人得 陇望蜀,永不满足,最终陷于痛苦。如何看待,如何运用,不同人的心中有一杆不 同的秤? Appetite One of the major pleasures in life is appetite, and one of our major duties should be to preserve it. Appetite is the keenness of living: it is one of the senses that tells you that you are still curious to exist, that you still have an edge on your longings and want to bite into the world and taste its numerous flavors and juices. By appetite, of course, I don’t mean just the desire for food, but any condition of unsatisfied desire, any burning in the blood that proves you want more than you’ve got, and that you haven’t used up your life. Wilde said he felt sorry for those who never got their heart’s desire, but sorrier still for those who did. For appetite, for me, is this state of wanting, which keeps one’s expectations alive. I remember learning this lesson long ago as a child, when treats and indulgence were few, and when I discovered that the greatest pitch happiness was not in actually eating a toffee but in gazing at it beforehand. True, the first bite was delicious, but once the toffee was gone one was left with nothing, neither toffee nor lust. Besides, the whole toffeeness of toffees was imperceptibly diminished by the gross act of having eating it. No, the best was in wanting it, in sitting and looking at it, when one tasted an endless treasure house of flavors. So, for me, one of the keenest pleasures of appetite remains in the wanting, not the satisfaction. In wanting a peach, or a whisky,

or a particular texture or sound, or to be with a particular friend, for in those condition, of course, I know that the object of desire is always at its most flawlessly perfect. For that matter, I don’t want three square meals a day — I want one huge, delicious, orgiastic, table groaning blow out, say every four days, and then not be too sure where the next one is coming from①. A day of fasting is not for me just a device for denying oneself a pleasure, but rather a way of anticipating a rarer moment of supreme enjoyment. [360 words] 行文点评 作者开篇点题,指出 One of the major pleasures in life is appetite。进 而作者给 appetite 下了一个定义,即对任何事物的渴望。接着用王尔德的话引出作 者的观点: Appetite is the state of wanting。在第二段中,作者用 I remember... 讲述了自己吃太妃糖的亲身经历,描述生动形象,贴近生活,由这段经历作者引出 了文章的主题——欲望最大的乐趣在于对之渴求,而非满足。 作者谈的是食欲(appetite),却又不仅仅谈对食物的热望。作者由小见大,由 食欲谈及欲望(desire),及其满足(satisfaction)。文章充满智慧(wits),是一篇 上佳的小品文。读者应能够体会作者刻意营造的一种轻灵跳跃(staccato)之感:No, the best was in wanting it, in sitting and looking at it(不,最重要的是对 它的渴望和坐下来盯着它看的感觉)。这句话充分体现了作者有极高的驾驭语言的能 力。 好文妙译 欲望


生活中一项最大的乐趣便是有个好胃口,而我们的主要职责之一便是保持这一 好胃口。胃口是对生活的一种强烈的愿望,这是一种感觉,它告诉你你仍渴望着, 你还有许多渴望尚待实现,还想继续生活在这世界上,品尝各种风味。所谓胃口(欲 望),当然,我不仅仅指对食物的热望,而且指任何未满足的渴望的情形,任何血液 的沸腾都证明了你要的不仅仅是这些,你还未好好享受人生。王尔德说他对那些从 未得到满足的人表示遗憾,但对那些已经心满意足的人更感到悲哀。欲望对我来说, 是一种渴求的状态,它使希望永存。 我记得懂得这一点是在很久以前,还是个孩子的时候,那时有人款待和纵酒享 乐的机会很少。而我发觉最大的幸福不在于吃太妃糖,而在于吃前凝视它的那一段 时间。诚然,咬第一口时味道不错,但一旦太妃糖吃完了,一切皆化为乌有,无论 是太妃糖还是欲望全都没了。此外,太妃糖的味道也在大口咀嚼中毫无觉察地消失 了。不,最棒的是对它的渴望和坐下来盯着它看时的感觉,仿佛置身于 美食宝库遍尝天下美味佳肴时才有的感觉。所以对我而言,欲望的最大乐趣之 一在于对之渴求,而非满足感。想吃一个桃子,或喝一杯威士忌,或是期待一个特 别的质感或声音,又或是渴望能和一个特别的朋友在一起,在这些情况下,我当然知 道欲望的目的通常在于其无瑕疵的完美。对此,我不想过一天三顿的正常生活,而 想每四天来一顿丰富可口的美味佳肴,大吃大喝一顿,接下来不知下一顿从何而来。 一天的禁食对我来说并非像是被剥夺了快乐,而是期待更多纵情享乐的时刻。 词汇斟酌 appetite n.①胃口,食欲②欲望 keenness n.渴望 numerous a.众多的,许多的 flavor n.①味,滋味,味道②特色,风味

indulgencen.放任 pitchn.程度,强度 beforehandad.预先,事先 lustn.渴望,欲望 vi.(after, for)对?有强烈的欲望 imperceptibly ad.察觉不到地, 微细地 diminish vi.变少,变小,降低 vt.减少,减小,降低 orgiastic a.狂欢的 ? groan vi.①呻吟,抱怨②发出呻吟的声音 ? fast v.禁食,斋戒 ? device n.手段,策略 ? supremea.①最高的,至上的②极度的,最重要的 佳句临摹 ①【注释】blow out 减弱;停止;熄灭 【临摹】Somebody opened the door and the candle blew out.有人打开了门, 蜡烛随之被吹灭了。 思如泉涌 A sound mind is in a sound body. 健全的精神寓于健康的身体中。 All progress is based upon a universal innate desire on the part of every organism to live beyond its income. 世人莫不怀着一种与生俱来的欲望,要把 支出超过收入,此乃一切进步的动力。 何为伟大的作品?其伟大之处在哪里?既然是伟大的作品,为何人们又望而却步、不 想去读呢?本文作者就这几个问题进行了深入探讨。 Great Books Sharpen Our Minds

Great books are those that contain the best materials on which the human mind can work in order to gain insight, understanding, and wisdom. Each of them, in its own way, raises the recurrent basic questions which men must face. Because these questions are never completely solved, these books are the sources and monuments of a continuing intellectual tradition. Garl Van Doren once referred to great books as “the books that never have to be written again.” They are the rare, perfect achievements of sustained excellence. Their beauty and clarity show that they are masterpieces of the fine as well as of the liberal arts. Such books are justifiably called great whether they are books of science, poetry, theology, mathematics, or politics. The richness of great books shows itself in the many levels of meaning they contain. They lend themselves to a variety of interpretations. This does not mean they are ambiguous or that their integrity is compromised. The different interpretations complement one another and allow the reader to discover the unity of the work from a variety of perspectives. We need not read other books more than once to get all that they have to say. But we can always go deeper into great books. As sources of enlightenment they are inexhaustible. The interest in many good books that are written is limited to a definite period of history. They do not exhibit the universal appeal that results from dealing with the fundamental questions which confront men in all times and places and in a way that men in all times and places can understand. Great

books, on the contrary, transcend the provincial limits of their origin①. They remain as world literature. The ones we are sure are great are the ones men everywhere turn to again and again through the centuries. [310 words] 行文点评 文章一开始先解释什么是“伟大的作品”。紧接着在第二段中引用名人对“伟 大的作品”的解释,增强文章的说服力。第三段介绍伟大作品的内容丰富、涵义深 刻的特点。最后一段将好书与伟大作品进行比较,得出伟大作品的另一个特点:伟 大的作品没有历史的局限性。 好文妙译 伟大的作品使人头脑敏锐 伟大的作品是那些包含有最佳素材的书籍,人们可以学习这些素材以期获得洞 察力、理解力和智慧。每部伟大的作品都以自己的方式提出一些生活中不断出现而 且人们又必须面对的基本问题。因为这些问题从来没有被彻底解决,所以这些书成 了一种持续不断的知识传统的源泉和丰碑。 卡尔·多伦曾把伟大的作品称为“永远不需要再写的书”。它们都是保持着卓 越水平的罕见的完美之作。它们的显著与清晰表明它们不仅是文学作品,也是杰出 名著。这样的书,不论它描述地是科学、诗词、神学、数学,还是政治方面,都无 可非议地被称作是伟大的作品。 伟大作品的丰富内涵可以在其多个不同意义层次上显示出来。它们可以有多种 不同的解释。这并不意味着它们表意暧昧或在完整性上有所折衷。不同的解释彼此 互补,而且让读者从不同的角度发现作品的统一性。其他的书我们只要读一遍就能


了解它们要说的全部。但读伟大的作品时,我们总是可以深入探究。作为思想与知 识启迪的源泉,它们会永不枯竭。 有许多好书,它们的重要性只限于某一特定的历史时期。它们没有展示出那种 经久不衰的吸引力,而这种吸引力来源于用各个时代各个地区的所有人都能理解的 方式来讨论各时代各地区的人都要面对的根本问题。相反,伟大的作品超越了它们 的时空来源的狭隘局限。它们作为世界性的文学作品保存下来。那些我们确信是伟 大作品的正是那些世界各地的人们几百年来一遍又一遍地读着的书。 词汇斟酌 ?recurrent a.再发生的, 周期性发生的, 循环的 ?monument n.纪念碑,纪念物,纪念馆 ?justifiably ad.合理地,无可非议地 ?ambiguous a.引起歧义的,模棱两可的,含糊不清的 ?integrity n. 完整,完全,完善 ?compromise vi.妥协,折中 ?complement vt.补充,与?相配 ?inexhaustible a.无穷无尽的 ?transcend vt.超出,超越(经验、理性、信念等)的范围 ?provincial a.偏狭的 佳句临摹 ①【注释】on the contrary 与此相反,正相反 【临摹】It doesn’t seem ugly to me;on the contrary, I think it’s rather beautiful. 我觉得它并不丑,恰恰相反,它挺美。 思如泉涌

A good book is the best of friends, the same today and forever. 一本 好书,相伴一生。 A fool attempting to be witty is an object of profoundest pity. 蠢人 装聪明,实在最可怜。 考试,作为检验教育结果的一种手段,已经存在了数千年。它简直无处不在,无时 不有? Examinations Exert a Negative Influence on Education We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person’s knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It is really extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to devise anything more efficient and reliable than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person’s true ability and aptitude. As anxiety makers, examinations are second to none①. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success or failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of sharp competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of drop-outs: young people who are written off as utter failures before they


have even begun a career②? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students? A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memories. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under pressure. [299 words] 行文点评 本文是一篇典型的三段论文章。在第一段中,作者表明了自己的观点:考试不 能说明一个人真正的能力和资质。第二段阐述了把考试作为检验成功与否的标准给 学生带来的负面影响。第三段从教育的目的上说明考试根本不能训练人独立思维的 能力。 文章每一段都有一定的特色。开头段用的是现象描述法,先概括文章内容涉及 的现状,然后引出主题。中间段的末尾处接连用两个问句,引起读者关于考试弊端 的思考。 结尾段则用一组排比句: “...do not... but to...;...do not...but..., ” 来增强气势,突出强调考试的负面影响,深化了文章的主题。 好文妙译 考试对教育的负面影响 每一个学科领域所取得的进步都可能让我们称奇,然而用于测试一个人的学识 和能力的方式却仍和从前一样原始。经过这么多年,教育者们仍没能创立出一种比

考试更有效、更可靠的方法,这实在是不可思议。尽管有很多人虔诚地宣称考试可 以测出你掌握的知识,却仍有这样一个共识,即考试所收到的效果往往与之相悖。 考试或许是一种测验记忆力的好方法,或者是让人在极端压力下快速工作的诀窍,但 是它却一点儿也不能说明一个人真正的能力和才智。 考试作为“焦虑症制造者”是无人能及的。这是因为有那么多事情都依赖着考 试。考试在我们的社会中是成功或失败的标志。在具有决定意义的某一天,你的一 生可能就被决定了。一个孩子步入学校大门那一刻起,他便步入了一个竞争残酷的 世界。在那里,成功和失败都被清晰地加以界定和衡量。辍学者的数量日渐增加—— 那些年轻人甚至还没有开始工作便被认为是彻底的失败者——对此,我们难道不感 到惊奇吗?对学生的自杀率难道我们能无动于衷吗? 除了其他目的之外,良好的教育应该能训练人独立思维的能力。考试却根本做 不到这一点。教学大纲生硬地规定了学生必须学些什么,这便鼓励了学生去死记硬 背。考试不但未能激发学生去广泛地阅读,反而限制了他们的阅读范围。它不但未 能促使学生去探求更多的知识,反而导致了死记硬背。最成功的应试者往往不是受 教育最好的人,他们只不过是在应付工作压力的技巧方面训练有素罢了。 词汇斟酌 ?marvel vi.(at)惊叹,赞佩 ?pious a.虔诚的 ?aptitude n.(学习方面的)才能,资质,天资 ?drop-outn. 辍学者 ?suicide n.①自杀②自取灭亡 ?lay down 规定,制定 ?syllabus n.课程大纲

?induce vt.引起,导致 ?cramming n.突击式学习;填鸭式教学 佳句临摹 ①【注释】second to none 不亚于任何人或事物 【临摹】As a dancer, he is second to none.他的舞艺无人能出其右。 ②【注释】write sb/sth off 认为某人或某事物已经失败 【临摹】He lost this match, but don’t write him off as a future champion. 他输了这场比赛,但不要以为他以后当不了冠军。 思如泉涌 There are obviously two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live. 教育显然有两种:一种是教人怎样谋生,另 一种是教人怎样生活。 A fool can ask more questions than seven wise men can answer. 一愚发 问,七智结舌。 不同的职业有不同的回报。再者,回报也分多种,有金钱,有公众的赞誉,也有自 我价值的实现? The Rewards of the Professions The probability that any person should ever be qualified for the employment to which he is educated, is very different in different occupations. In the greater part of mechanic trades, success is almost certain; but very uncertain in the liberal professions. Put your son apprentice to a shoemaker, there is little doubt of his learning to make a pair of shoes, but send him to study the law, it is at least twenty to one if ever he makes such a

proficiency as it will enable him to live by the business. In a perfectly fair lottery, those who draw the prizes ought to gain all that is lost by those who draw the blanks. In a profession where twenty fail for one that succeeds, that one ought to gain all that should have been gained by the unsuccessful nineteen ones. The counselor at law, who, perhaps, at near forty years of age, begins to make something by his profession, ought to receive the retribution, not only of his own so tedious and expensive education, but of that of more than ten others who are never likely to make anything by it. How extravagant the fees of counselors at law may sometimes appear, their real retribution is never equal to this. Those professions keep their level, however, with other occupations, and notwithstanding these discouragements, all the most generous and liberal spirits are eager to crowd into them. Two different causes contribute to recommend them. First, the desire of the reputation which attends upon superior excellence in any of them; and, secondly, the natural confidence which every man has, more or less, not only in his own abilities, but in his own good fortune①. To excel in any profession, in which but few arrive at mediocrity, is the most decisive mark of what is called genius or superior talents. The public admiration which attends upon such distinguished abilities,makes always a part of their reward;a greater or smaller in proportion as it is higher or lower in degree.It makes a considerable part of it in the profession of


physic;a still greater perhaps in that of law;in poetry and philosophy it makes almost the whole. [377 words] 行文点评 本文观点新颖,从一个独特的角度向我们阐述了职业回报的衡量标准。第一段 的第一句为主题句,紧接着作者引用具体数据围绕这一主题进行论证,具有较强的 说服力。在第二段中,作者用 however 将话题一转,顺势引出了本文要讨论的问题: 不同的职业有不同的衡量回报的标准。在最后一段,作者围绕这一观点展开了充分 的论证。 好文妙译 职业的回报 每个人在接受相关教育后能胜任工作的可能性,由于行业的不同而千差万别。 就大多数技工行业而言,成功几乎十拿九稳;但文科性职业则很难预测。假设你让儿 子跟鞋匠做学徒,他学会做鞋当然毫无疑问。但若送他去学法律,让他对这一行业 驾轻就熟并借此谋生,成功率只有二十分之一。在一次非常公正的摇奖中,中彩者 所赢份额应当等同于摸白票者所输之全部。某种职业,只有二十分之一的成功率, 那惟一成功者所获得的应当是十九位失败者本可获得的全部。律师或许年届四十时 开始在事业上小有所成,他理应得到回报,这不仅是他本人繁重昂贵的教育投入的 回报,也包括另外十几位可能一事无成的同行的投入。律师的收费似乎过高,但他 们真正应得的报酬却远非这个数目。 然而,有些职业同其他各行保持一致,尽管有诸多不尽如人意之处,仍有许多 慷慨大度、胸襟开阔之士渴望跻身其中。可能有两个原因促成这种取向:首先是对 名誉的渴望,在任何一个行业里只要表现卓越都能得到它;其次是每个人与生俱来或

多或少的自信心,不仅相信自身的能力,也坚信自己能走好运。 被称为天才或才能超群者最显著的一点是在任何一种职业中都能出类拔萃,很 少有平庸之辈。公众对这种杰出才能的赞誉构成他们所得回报的一部分,赞誉的高 低与成就的大小相关。这种回报在医生职业中占重要部分;律师职业中或许所占比例 更大;而在诗歌和哲学领域里则几乎占了全部。 词汇斟酌 mechanic n. 技工,机修工 apprentice n. 学徒,徒弟 proficiency n. 熟练,精通 lottery n. ①抽彩给奖法②碰运气的事,难于算计的事 counselor n. 顾问, 法律顾问 tedious a. 乏味的,单调的,冗长的 extravagant a. ①奢侈的,铺张的②过度的,过分的 retribution n. 报偿 notwithstanding prep.& ad. 尽管 generous a. ①慷慨的,大方的②宽厚的,宽宏大量的 mediocrity n. 平常, 平庸之才 decisive a. ①决定性的②坚定的,果断的,决断的 philosophy n. ①哲学②哲理,人生哲学,见解 佳句临摹 ①【注释】more or less 差不多,几乎 【临摹】I’ve more or less finished reading the book. 我差不多已经把 这本书看完了。

思如泉涌 As you sow, you shall mow. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 A good dog deserves a good bone. 好狗应啃好骨头。/有功者受赏。 俗话说,声音是第二张脸。声音优美能给他人留下良好的印象。因此,我们平时学习 语言时应多注重自己的语音、语调。字正腔圆、不急不缓、自然大方才能给人留下 好印象。 Speaking Effective American English On job interviews when first conversing with an individual and when addressing small or large groups, the first few seconds are critical in setting the tone for how you’ll be perceived. If she has an annoying regional accent, uses incorrect grammar, has a limited vocabulary, and if she has an irritatingly sharp piercing voice, sounds whiny or bossy or doesn’t articulate her words clearly, it’s an immediate turn-off①. This isn’t someone who you would hire or proudly introduce to your friends and business associates. This doesn’t mean that everyone should try to sound like a professional actor or broadcaster. All of us have qualities unique to our own way of speaking, our individual voiceprint as distinctive as our fingerprints. Our voice is very personal and an important part of our identity. Some natural characteristics of our voice may be very appealing. The idea is to take the voice with which you’ve been gifted and give it the very best sound that you can. With the right type of practice, by paying attention to the quality of your voice and by knowing how to properly express yourself, you’ll almost immediately improve your opportunities in job

interviews, social situations, in selling, and in running a meeting or addressing groups of people. Let’s say it again, it all begins with the instrument, your voice. If its sound and quality is flawed and needs improvement, that’s where you start. that’s what everyone hears whether in casual conversation or in making a major speech to a large audience. Pure vowel sounds, articulation, proper breathing, expressive speaking patterns, a pleasing vocal range, naturalness, all these will make you get twice the result with half the effort. [287 words] 行文点评 本文结构清晰,衔接自然。第一句话直接切入主题,引起读者的兴趣:你的声 音决定了别人对你的印象。 接下来连用两个 if 引导的从句从反面说明声音的重要性。 进而作者笔锋一转,指出我们说话不需要像 professional actor 或 broadcaster 那么标准,我们的声音是个性化的,它是我们身份的重要特征。这时,读者可能会产 生好奇:How to make our voice appealing? 针对这个问题,作者在第二段直接提出解决办法:要利用你声音的天赋。第一 句话为全段的主题句, 接下来围绕这个观点展开论述。 最后一段作者用 Let’s say it again 进一步强调了声音的重要性,再次重申了自己的观点,深化了文章的主题。 好文妙译 说一口地道的美国英语 求职面试时,当你与他人第一次交谈时或在与少数或许多人谈话时,开始的几秒 钟是重要的,因为它决定了别人对你的印象。如果她有严重的地方口音、语法错漏百 出、词汇量有限;如果她声音刺耳,听起来像与人抱怨或发号施令或者吐字不清,就

会立即引起人的反感。你不会雇用这种人或把这种人自豪地介绍给你的朋友或同事。 但这并不是说每个人说起话来要像专业演员或播音员那样标准。我们每个人说话都 有自己独特的方式,我们各自的声音就像我们的指纹一样独特。我们的声音是个性化 的,而且它是我们身份的重要特征。我们声音的一些自然特质也许非常吸引人。 现在我们要讲的是利用你声音的天赋,尽量使其悦耳动听。只要经过适当的练习, 注意你的音质,了解适当的表达方式,你就能在求职面试、社会交往、推销、组织会 议或在众人前发言时立刻获得更多的机遇。 在此要强调的是,一切从你的声音这个工具开始。如果你的声音和音质有缺陷, 需要改进,这就是你的出发点。因为无论在闲谈时或在对许多听众演讲时,你的声音 首先为人熟知。元音字正腔圆,发音清晰,呼吸匀称,表达方式合适,声音悦耳,说话自 然,所有这些都会使你事半功倍。 词汇斟酌 ?perceive vt. 感知,感觉,察觉 ?annoying a. 恼人的, 讨厌的 ?regional accent 地方口音 ?irritatingly ad. 刺激地, 使愤怒地 ?piercing a. 刺骨的, 刺穿的 ?whiny a. 好发牢骚的, 嘀咕不停的 ?bossy a. 专横的 ?articulate vt. ①明确有力地表达②清晰地吐(字),清晰地发(音) ?associate n. 伙伴,同事,合伙人 ?appealing a. 吸引人的 ?flawed a. 有瑕疵的,有缺陷的

佳句临摹 ①【注释】turn-off 厌烦或反感的人或事物 【临摹】Smelly feet are definitely a turn-off as far as I’m concerned. 脚要是有味儿可真恶心,这是我的看法。 思如泉涌 Speech is silver, silence is gold. 能言是银,沉默是金。 The tongue is boneless but it breaks bones. 舌无骨却能折断骨。


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