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GMAT 逻辑训练


2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(4) Time 30 minutes 20 Questions 1. Contrary to the statements of labor leaders, the central economic problem facing America today is not the distribution of wealth. It is productivity. With the productivity of U.S. industry stagnant, or even declining slightly, the economic pie is no longer growing. Labor leaders, of course, point to what they consider an unfair distribution of the slices of pie to justify their demands for further increases in wages and benefits. And in the past, when the pie was still growing, management could afford to acquiesce. No longer. Until productivity resumes its growth, there can be no justification for further increases in the compensation of workers. Which of the following statements by a labor leader focuses on the logical wea kness in the argument above? (A) Although the economic pie is no longer growing, the portion of the pie allo cated to American workers remains unjustly small. (B) If management fails to accommodate the demands of workers, labor lead ers will be forced to call strikes that will cripple the operation of industry. (C) Although productivity is stagnant, the U.S. population is growing, so that the absolute size of the economic pie continues to grow as well. (D) As a labor leader, I can be concerned only with the needs of working peop le, not with the problems faced by management (E) The stagnation of U.S. industry has been caused largely by factors—such as foreign competition—beyond the control of American workers. 2. Freud’s theories of the workings of the mind, while brilliant for their day, were formulated before most of this century’s great advances in neurophysiology and biochemistry. Today, we have a far deeper understanding of the biological components of thought, emotion, and behavior than was dreamed of eighty years ago. It would be foolish to continue parroting Freud’s psychological theories as if these advances had never occurred. It can be inferred from the passage above that the author would be most likel y to favor (A) the abandonment of most of Freud’s theories

(B) a greater reliance on biological rather than psychological explanations of b ehavior (C) a critical reexamination of Freud’s place in the history of psychology (D) a reexamination of Freud’s theories in the light of contemporary biology (E) increased financial support for studies in neurophysiology and biochemistr y 3. To avoid a hostile takeover attempt, the board of directors of Wellco, Inc., a provider of life and health insurance, planned to take out large loans and use them to purchase a publishing company, a chocolate factory, and a nationwide chain of movie theaters. The directors anticipated that these purchase initially would plunge the corporation deep into debt, rendering it unattractive to those who wanted to take it over, but that steadily rising insurance rates would allow the company to pay off the debt within five years. Meanwhile, revenues from the three new businesses would enable the corporation as a whole to continue to meet its increased operating expenses. Ultimately, according o the directors’ plan, the diversification would strengthen the corporation by varying the sources and schedules of its annual revenues. Which of the following, assuming that all are equally possible, would most en hance the chances of the plan’s success? (A) A widespread drought decreases the availability of cacao beans, from whic h chocolate is manufacture, diving up chocolate prices worldwide. (B) New government regulations require a 30 percent across-the-board rate rollback of all insurance companies, to begin immediately and to be completed within a five-year period. (C) Congress enacts a statute, effective after six months, making it illegal for any parent not to carry health insurance coverage for his or her child. (D) Large-screen televisions drop dramatically in price due to surprise alterations in trade barriers with Japan; movie theater attendance dwindles as a consequence. (E) A new, inexpensive process is discovered for making paper pulp, and pape r prices fall to 60 percent of their former level. 4. In 1981, for the first time in over two decades, the average scores of high school students on standardized math and English tests did not decline. During

the same year, millions of American students enjoyed their first exposure to the new world of the microcomputer, whether in schools, video arcades, or other settings. The conclusion is clear: far from stultifying the intellectual capacities of students, exposure to computers can actually enhance them. The most serious weakness of the argument above is its failure to (A) discuss the underlying causes of the twenty-year decline in students’ test scores (B) cite specific figures documenting the increases in test scores (C) distinguish among the various types of computer being used by high scho ol students (D) define the intellectual capacities tested by the standardized math and Eng lish tests referred to (E) explain exactly how high school students’ abilities on math and English tes ts could have been enhanced by exposure to computers Questions 5-6 are based on the following. Although its purpose is laudable, the exclusionary rule, which forbids a court t o consider evidence seized in violation of the defendant’s constitutional rights, has unduly hampered law-enforcement efforts. Even when the rights violation was a minor or purely technical one, turning on a detail of procedure rather than on the abrogation of some fundamental liberty, and even when it has been clear that the police officers were acting in good faith, the evidence obtained has been considered tainted under this rule and may not even by introduced. In consequence, defendants who were undoubtedly guilty have been set free, perhaps to steal, rape, or murder again. 5. The author of the passage above assumes all of the following EXCEPT: (A) The constitutional rights of criminal defendants should be protected. (B) Most cases in which the exclusionary rule has been invoked have involved purely technical violations of constitutional principles. (C) The number of cases whose outcome has been affected by the exclusionar y rule is significant. (D) Some of the defendants set free under the exclusionary rule have been g

uilty of serious criminal offenses. (E) Merely technical violations of the rules concerning evidence should be trea ted differently from deliberate assaults upon human rights. 6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely endorse which of the following proposals? (A) Change of the exclusionary rule to admit evidence obtained by police offic ers acting in good faith (B) A constitutional amendment curtailing some of the protections traditionall y afforded those accused of a crime (C) A statute limiting the application of the exclusionary rule to cases involvin g minor criminal offenses (D) Change of the exclusionary rule to allow any evidence, no matter how obt ained, to be introduced in court (E) A constitutional amendment allowing police officers to obtain vital evidenc e by any means necessary when in pursuit of a known criminal 7. The postal service is badly mismanaged. Forty years ago, first-class letter delivery cost only three cents. Since then, the price has increased nearly tenfold, with an actual decrease in the speed and reliability of service. Each of the following statements, if true, would tend to weaken the argument above EXCEPT: (A) The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased dramatica lly over the last forty years. (B) Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs. (C) Private delivery services usually charge more than does the postal service for comparable delivery charges. (D) The average delivery time for a first-class letter four decades ago was actually slightly longer than it is today. (E) The average level of consumer prices overall has increased more than 300 percent over the last forty years.

8. When the government of a nation announced recently that a leader of the nation’s political opposition had died of a mysterious illness in prison, few seasoned observers of the regime were surprised. As the police captain in an old movie remarked when asked about the condition of a prisoner, “We’re trying to decide whether he committed suicide or died trying to escape.” The statements above invite which of the following conclusions? (A) The opposition leader was probably killed trying to escape from prison. (B) The opposition leader may not be dead at all. (C) It is unlikely that the head of the regime knows the true cause of the opp osition leader’s death. (D) The opposition leader probably killed himself. (E) The regime very likely was responsible for the death of the opposition lea der. Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of th e average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mind ful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many peo ple assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that, th erefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survi val. We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primi tive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Afri ca, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and t ending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is spent as they c hoose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialize d societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter work day of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of indu strialization. 9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above? (A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than th ose in nonindustrialized societies.

(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in t he early stages of industrialization. (C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure. (D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eve ntually be shortened. (E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work. 10. Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above? (A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization. (B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans. (C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction betw een work activities and leisure activities. (D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours. (E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workda y of ten to twelve hours. 11. Gloria: Those who advocate tuition tax credits for parents whose children attend private schools maintain that people making no use of a government service should not be forced to pay for it. Yet those who choose to buy bottled water rather than drink water from the local supply are not therefore exempt from paying taxes to maintain the local water supply. Roger: Your argument is illogical. Children are required by law to attend scho ol. Since school attendance is a matter not of choice, but of legal requirement , it is unfair for the government to force some parents to pay for it twice. Which of the following responses by Gloria would best refute Roger’s charge t hat her argument is illogical? (A) Although drinking water is not required by law, it is necessary for all peopl

e, and therefore my analogy is appropriate. (B) Those who can afford the tuition at a high-priced private school can well bear the same tax burden as those whose children attend public schools. (C) If tuition tax credits are granted, the tax burden on parents who choose p ublic schools will rise to an intolerable level. (D) The law does not say that parents must send their children to private sch ools, only that the children must attend some kind of school, whether public o r private. (E) Both bottled water and private schools are luxury items, and it is unfair th at some citizens should be able to afford them while others cannot. Questions 12-13 are based on the following. Since the passage of the state’s Clean Air Act ten years ago, the level of indus trial pollutants in the air has fallen by an average of 18 percent. This suggests that the restrictions on industry embodied in the act have worked effectively. However, during the same period the state has also suffered through a perio d of economic decline. The number of businesses in the state has fallen by 10 percent, and the number of workers employed has fallen by 12 percent. It is probable that the business decline, rather than the regulations in the act, is r esponsible for at least half of the decline in the pollution. 12. Which of following is an assumption made in the passage above?

(A) Most businesses in the state have obeyed the regulations embodied in the Clean Air Act. (B) The economic decline of the state can be attributed, in part, to the effects of the Clean Air Act. (C) The amount of air pollution in a given area is likely to be proportional to t he number of businesses and workers active in that area. (D) The restrictions on business activity in other states are less stringent than are those embodied in the Clean Air Act. (E) The Clean Air Act has been only very slightly successful in achieving the g oal of reduced air pollution. 13. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion

drawn in the passage above? (A) During the last ten years, economic conditions in the nation as a whole ha ve been worse than those within the state. (B) Amendments to the Clean Air Act that were enacted six years ago have su bstantially strengthened its restrictions on industrial air pollution. (C) Of the businesses that ceased operating in the state during the last ten ye ars, only 5 percent were engaged in air-polluting industries. (D) Several large corporations left the state during the last ten years partly in order to avoid compliance with the Clean Air Act. (E) Due to its small budget, the state office charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act has prosecuted only two violators of the law since its passage. 14. A nutritionist studying the effects of massive doses of vitamin C found that of a group of 600 people who regularly took 1,500 mg of vitamin C daily for a year, fewer than 9 percent suffered serious cases of flu; of a group of 600 people who took 250 mg of vitamin C (the standard recommended daily allowance) daily for a year, 34 percent suffered at least one serious case of flu; and of a group of 600 people who took no vitamin C for a year (other than that found in the foods in a balanced diet), 32 percent suffered at least one serious case of flu. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the evidence above? (A) The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing serious cases of flu increases in direct proportion to the amount of vitamin C taken. (B) Vitamin C is helpful in preventing disease. (C) Doses of vitamin C that exceed the standard recommended daily allowanc e by 500 percent will reduce the incidence of serious cases of flu by 25 percen t. (D) Massive doses of vitamin C can help to prevent serious case of flu. (E) A balanced diet contains less than 250 mg of vitamin C. 15. Susan: Those who oppose experimentation on animals do not properly value the preservation of human life. Although animal suffering is unfortunate, it is justifiable if it can lead to cures for human ailments.

Melvin: But much animal experimentation involves testing of ordinary consum er products such as soaps, dyes, and cosmetics. Susan: These experiments are justifiable on the same grounds, since cleanlin ess, convenience, and beauty are worthwhile human values deserving of supp ort. Which of the following is the best statement of the logical flaw in Susan’s argu ment? (A) Her claim that animal experimentation is justifiable if it supports human v alues contradicts her claim that such experimentation is justifiable only if it le ads to cures for human ailments. (B) She places a higher value on human cleanliness, convenience, and beauty than she does on the preservation of animal life. (C) She uses the word “value” in two different senses. (D) She assumes that all ordinary consumer products aid in the preservation of human life. (E) She fails to show how mere support for human values actually preserves human lives. 16. Which of the following best completes the passage below?As long as sav ings deposits are insured by the government, depositors will have no incentiv e to evaluate the financial strength of a savings bank. Yield alone will influenc e their choice of bank. To attract deposits, banks will be forced to offer the hi ghest possible interest rates. And since paying higher rates inevitably strains the financial strength of a bank, ______ (A) the government will be forced o impose limitations on interest rates (B) deposit insurance will ultimately lead to the financial weakening of many banks (C) savers will be forced to choose between deposit insurance and higher inte rest rates (D) deposits will tend to go to the banks with the greatest financial strength (E) bank profits will tend to rise to ever-higher levels

17. Every painting hanging in the Hoular Gallery is by a French painter. No painting in the Hoular Gallery is by a Vorticist. Only Vorticists use acrylic monochromes in their works. If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true? (A) No French painters are Vorticists. (B) All Vorticists use acrylic monochromes in their works. (C) Some French painters do not use acrylic monochromes in their works. (D) No French painters use acrylic monochromes in their works. (E) All French painters who use acrylics use acrylic monochromes in their wor ks. 18. We commonly speak of aesthetic judgments as subjective, and in the short term they are, since critics often disagree about the value of a particular contemporary work of art. But over time, the subjective element disappears. When works of art have continued to delight audiences for centuries, as have the paintings of Michelangelo, the music of Bach, and the plays of Shakespeare, we can objectively call them great. The statements above best support which of the following conclusions? (A) When Michelangelo, Bach, and Shakespeare were alive, critics disagreed a bout the value of their work. (B) The value of a contemporary work of art cannot be objectively measured. (C) The reputation of a work of art often fluctuates greatly from one generatio n to the next. (D) The mere fact that a work of art has endured for centuries does not estab lish its greatness. (E) If critics agree about the value of a particular cotemporary work of art, th en the work can objectively be called great. 19. Since the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit was mandated on our highways, both money and human lives have been saved.

All of the following, if true, would strengthen the claim above EXCEPT: (A) Most highway users find that travel times are not appreciably lengthened by the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit. (B) Highway driving at 55 miles per hour or less is more fuel-efficient than hig h-speed driving. (C) Nearly all highway safety experts agree that more accidents occur at spee ds over 55 miles per hour than at lower speeds. (D) The percentage of fatalities occurring in highway accidents at speeds grea ter than 55 miles per hour is higher than that for low-speed accidents. (E) Automobiles last longer and require fewer repairs when driven at consiste ntly lower speeds. 20. The city council will certainly vote to approve the new downtown redevelopment plan, despite the objections of environmentalists. After all, most of the campaign contributions received by members of the city council come from real estate development firms, which stand to benefit from the plan. Which of the following statements, if true, would most weaken the argument above? (A) Several members of the city council receive sizable campaign contribution s from environmental lobbying groups. (B) Members of the city council are required to report the size and source of e ach campaign contribution they receive. (C) Not every real estate development firm in the city will be able to participa te in, and profit from, the new downtown redevelopment plan. (D) The members of the city council have often voted in ways that are oppose d to the interests of their campaign contributors (E) Some environmentalists have stated that the new downtown redevelopme nt plan might be environmentally sound if certain minor modifications are ma de.

答案: 1.A 6.A 11.A 16.B 2.D 7.E 12.C 17.C 3.C 8.E 13.C 18.B 4.E 9.D 14.D 19.A 5.B 10.B 15.E 20.D

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(1) Time 30 minutes 20 Questions 1. Mr. Janeck: I don’t believe Stevenson will win the election for governor. Fe w voters are willing to elect a businessman with no political experience to suc h a responsible public office. Ms. Siuzdak: You’re wrong. The experience of running a major corporation is a valuable preparation for the task of running a state government. M. Siuzdak’s response shows that she has interpreted Mr. Janeck’s remark to imply which of the following? (A) Mr. Janeck considers Stevenson unqualified for the office of governor. (B) No candidate without political experience has ever been elected governor of a state. (C) Mr. Janeck believes that political leadership and business leadership are cl osely analogous. (D) A career spent in the pursuit of profit can be an impediment to one’s abilit y to run a state government fairly. (E) Voters generally overestimate the value of political experience when selec ting a candidate. 2. Which of the following best completes the passage below? One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______ (A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress (B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would

substantially increase actual government revenues (C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country (D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than rea l (E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be 3. As part of our program to halt the influx of illegal immigrants, the administ ration is proposing the creation of a national identity card. The card would be available only to U.S. citizens and to registered aliens, and all persons would be required to produce the card before they could be given a job. Of course, s uch a system holds the potential, however slight, for the abuse of civil libertie s. Therefore, all personal information gathered through this system would be held strictly confidential, to be released only by authorized personnel under a ppropriate circumstances. Those who are in compliance with U.S. laws would have nothing to fear from the identity card system.In evaluating the above pr oposal, a person concerned about the misuse of confidential information woul d be most interested in having the author clarify the meaning of which of the following phrases? (A) “all persons” (line 5) (B) “however slight” (line 7) (C) “civil liberties” (line 8) (D) “appropriate circumstances” (line 11) (E) “U.S. laws” (line 2) 4. At one time, European and Japanese companies tried to imitate their Ameri can rivals. Today, American appliance manufacturers import European scienti sts to lead their research staffs; American automakers design cars that mimic the styling of German, Italian, and French imports; and American electronics firms boast in their advertising of “Japanese-style” devotion to quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, America has lost the battle for international prestige.Each of the following statements, if true, would help to support the claim above EXCEPT: (A) An American camera company claims in its promotional literature to prod

uce cameras “as fine as the best Swiss imports.” (B) An American maker of stereo components designs its products to resembl e those of a popular Japanese firm. (C) An American manufacturer of video games uses a brand name chosen bec ause it sounds like a Japanese word. (D) An American maker of televisions studies German-made televisions in order to adopt German manufacturing techniques (E) An American maker of frozen foods advertises its dinners as “Real Europe an-style entrees prepared by fine French and Italian chefs.” 5. Johnson is on firm ground when he asserts that the early editors of Dickinson’s poetry often distorted her intentions. Yet Johnson’s own, more faithful, text is still guilty of its own forms of distortion. To standardize Dickinson’s often indecipherable handwritten punctuation by the use of the dash is to render permanent a casual mode of poetic phrasing that Dickinson surely never expected to see in print. It implies that Dickinson chose the dash as her typical mark of punctuation when, in fact, she apparently never made any definitive choice at all.Which of the following best summarizes the author’s main point? (A) Although Johnson is right in criticizing Dickinson’s early editors for their di stortion of her work, his own text is guilty of equally serious distortions. (B) Johnson’s use of the dash in his text of Dickinson’s poetry misleads reader s about the poet’s intentions. (C) Because Dickinson never expected her poetry to be published, virtually an y attempt at editing it must run counter to her intentions. (D) Although Johnson’s attempt to produce a more faithful text of Dickinson’s poetry is well-meaning, his study of the material lacks sufficient thoroughness . (E) Dickinson’s editors, including Johnson, have failed to deal adequately with the problem of deciphering Dickinson’s handwritten manuscriipts. 6. A law requiring companies to offer employees unpaid time off to care for th eir children will harm the economic competitiveness of our nation’s businesses . Companies must be free to set their own employment policies without mand ated parental-leave regulations.Which of the following, if true, would most

seriously weaken the conclusion of the argument above? (A) A parental-leave law will serve to strengthen the family as a social institution in this country. (B) Many businesses in this country already offer employees some form of par ental leave. (C) Some of the countries with the most economically competitive businesses have strong parental-leave regulations. (D) Only companies with one hundred or more employees would be subject to the proposed parental-leave law. (E) In most polls, a majority of citizens say they favor passage of a parental-l eave law. 7. If A, then B. If B, then C. If C, then D. If all of the statements above are true, which of the following must also be tr ue? (A) If D, then A. (B) If not B, then not C. (C) If not D, then not A. (D) If D, then E. (E) If not A, then not D. 8. Dear Applicant: Thank you for your application. Unfortunately, we are unable to offer you a po sition in our local government office for the summer. As you know, funding fo r summer jobs is limited, and it is impossible for us to offer jobs to all those w ho want them. Consequently, we are forced to reject many highly qualified ap plicants.

Which of the following can be inferred from the letter? (A) The number of applicants for summer jobs in the government office excee ded the number of summer jobs available. (B) The applicant who received the letter was considered highly qualified. (C) Very little funding was available for summer jobs in the government office . (D) The application of the person who received the letter was considered care fully before being rejected. (E) Most of those who applied for summer jobs were considered qualified for t he available positions. 9. Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the driver’s carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the reasoning in the passa ge above? (A) In most fatal automobile accidents, the driver of a car in which an occupa nt is killed is at fault. (B) Drivers of automobiles are rarely killed in auto accidents. (C) Most deaths in fatal automobile accidents are suffered by occupants of car s rather than by pedestrians. (D) Auto safety experts should increase their efforts to provide protection for those in the passenger seats of automobiles. (E) Automobile passengers sometimes play a contributing role in causing auto accidents. Questions 10-11 are based on the following As one who has always believed that truth is our nation’s surest weapon in th e propaganda war against our foes, I am distressed by reports of “disinformat ion” campaigns by American intelligence agents in Western Europe. In a disinf

ormation campaign, untruths are disseminated through gullible local journalis ts in order to damage the interests of our enemies and protect our own. Thos e who defend this practice say that lying is necessary to counter Soviet disinf ormation campaigns aimed at damaging America’s political interests. These a pologists contend that one must fight fire with fire. I would point out to the ap ologists that the fire department finds water more effective. 10. The author of the passage above bases his conclusion on which of the following? (A) A circular definition of “disinformation” (B) An example of the ineffectiveness of lying as a weapon in the propaganda war (C) An analogy between truth and water (D) An appeal to the authority of the fire department (E) An attack on the character of American intelligence agents in Western Eur ope 11. The author’s main point is that ________. (A) although disinformation campaigns may be effective, they are unacceptab le on ethical grounds (B) America’s moral standing in the world depends on its adherence to the tru th (C) the temporary political gains produced by disinformation campaigns gener ally give way to long-term losses (D) Soviet disinformation campaigns have done little to damage America’s sta nding in Europe (E) disinformation campaigns do not effectively serve the political interests of the United States 12. Are you still reading the other newspaper in town? Did you know that the Daily Bugle is owned by an out-of-town business syndicate that couldn’t care less about the people of Gotham City? Read the Daily Clarion, the only real voice of the people of Gotham City!Which of the following most directly refutes the argument raised in the a

dvertisement above? (A) Over half of the advertising revenues of the Daily Clarion come from firms whose headquarters are located outside of Gotham City. (B) The Daily Clarion usually devotes more of its pages to out-of-town news than does the Daily Bugle. (C) Nearly 40 percent of the readers of the Daily Clarion reside outside the li mits of Gotham City. (D) The editor-in-chief and all the other members of the editorial staff of the Daily Bugle have lived and worked in Gotham City for ten years or more. (E) The Daily Bugle has been published in Gotham City for a longer time than has the Daily Clarion. Questions 13-14 are based on the following. The earth’s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the U nited States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many y ears to come. 13. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Per capita resource consumption in the United States is at an all-time high . (B) The United States wastes resources. (C) The United States uses more resources than any other country. (D) The United States imports most of the resources it uses. (E) Curbing U.S. resource consumption will significantly retard world resource depletion. 14. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above? (A) New resource deposits are constantly being discovered. (B) The United States consumes one-third of all resources used in the world.

(C) Other countries need economic development more than the United States does. (D) Other countries have agreed to hold their resource consumption at presen t levels. (E) The United States has been conserving resources for several years. 15. Alba: I don’t intend to vote for Senator Frank in the next election. She is not a strong supporter of the war against crime. Tam: But Senator Frank sponsored the latest anticrime law passed by the Sen ate. Alba: If Senator Frank sponsored it, it can’t be a very strong anticrime law. Which of the following identifies the most serious logical flaw in Alba’s reasoni ng? (A) The facts she presents do not support her conclusion that Senator Frank i s soft on crime. (B) She assumes without proof that crime is the most important issue in the u pcoming election. (C) She argues in a circle, using an unsupported assertion to dismiss conflicti ng evidence. (D) She attacks Senator Frank on personal grounds rather than on he merit a s a political leader. (E) In deciding not to vote for Senator Frank, she fails to consider issues othe r than crime. 16. Which of the following best completes the passage below?the most serious fla w in television’s coverage of election campaigns is its tendency to focus on th e horse-race side of politics—that is, to concentrate on the question “Who’s winning?” at the expense of substantive coverage of the issues and the candidates’ positions on them. The endless interviews with campaign managers, discussions of campaign strategies, and, especially, the obsession with opinion polls have surrounded elections with the atmosphere of a football game or a prizefight. To reform this situation, a first step might well be______

(A) a shortening of the length of election campaigns to a period of six weeks (B) a stringent limit on campaign spending (C) a reduction in the television coverage of opinion polls during election cam paigns (D) the publication and distribution of voter-education literature to inform the public about each candidate’s position on the major issues (E) a limit on the length and number of political advertisements broadcast on television 17. With Proposition 13, if you bought your house 11 years ago for $75,000, your property tax would be approximately $914 a year (1 percent of $75,000 increased by 2 percent each year for 11 years); and if your neighbor bought an identical house next door to you for $200,000 this year, his tax would be $2,000 (1 percent of $200,000). Without Proposition 13, both you and your neighbor would pay $6,000 a year in property taxes (3 percent of $200,000).Which of the following is the conclusion for which the author most likely is arguing in the passage above? (A) Proposition 13 is unconstitutional because it imposes an unequal tax on pr operties of equal value. (B) If Proposition 13 is repealed, every homeowner is likely to experience a s ubstantial increase in property taxes. (C) By preventing inflation from driving up property values, Proposition 13 ha s saved homeowners thousands of dollars in property taxes. (D) If Proposition 13 is not repealed, identical properties will continue to be ta xed at different rates. (E) Proposition 13 has benefited some homeowners more than others. Questions 18-19 are based on the following. At an enormous research cost, a leading chemical company has developed a manufacturing process for converting wood fibers into a plastic. According to t he company, this new plastic can be used for, among other things, the hulls o f small sailboats. But what does the company think sailboat hulls used to be made of? Surely the mania for high technology can scarcely go further than t his.

18. The author’s opinion of the manufacturing process described in the passage is based primarily on the fact that _________. (A) plastic is unlikely to be durable enough for high-quality sailboat hulls (B) the research costs of developing the process outweigh any savings possibl e from the use of the plastic (C) a small sailboat is not normally regarded as a high-tech product (D) hulls for small sailboats can be made from wood without converting it into plastic (E) many other spheres of human activity are in far greater need of technolog ical research 19. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author’s conclusion? (A) The plastic produced by the process is considerably lighter, stronger, and more watertight than wood. (B) The wood used in producing the plastic is itself in increasingly short suppl y. (C) The cost of the manufacturing process of the plastic increases the cost of producing a sailboat hull by 10 to 15 percent. (D) Much of the cost of the research that developed the new process will be w ritten off for tax purposes by the chemical company. (E) The development of the new plastic is expected to help make the chemical company an important supplier of boat-building materials. 20. A young man eager to become a master swordsman journeyed to the home of the greatest teacher of swordsmanship in the kingdom. He asked the teacher, “How quickly can you teach me to be a master swordsman?” The old teacher replied, “It will take ten years.” Unsatisfied, the young man asked, “What if I am willing to work night and day, every day of the year?” the teacher replied, “In that case, it will take twenty years.”The teacher’s main point is that an important quality of a master swordsman is _________. (A) humility

(B) willingness to work hard (C) respect for one’s elders (D) patience (E) determination

答案: 1. A 6. C 11. E 16. C 2. D 7. C 12. D 17. B 3. D 8. A 13. E 18. D 4. E 9. A 14. B 19. A 5. B 10. C 15. C 20. D

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(2) Time 30 minutes 20 Questions 1. Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corpor ation to the stockholders.A number of charges have been raised against me, s ome serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for th eir own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In t he American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt? (A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes. (B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation. (C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense. (D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years. (E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

2. In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT: (A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry. (B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air. (C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.

(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable . (E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an ac tual increase in the number of species in the area. 3. Which of the following best completes the passage below?In opposing gove rnment regulation of business, conservatives often appeal to the Jeffersonian ideal of limited government, expressing the wish that government would “get off the backs of the American people.” Yet, paradoxically, many of these sam e conservatives address questions of private morality, such as those dealing with sexual behavior, by calling for______ (A) a return to the restrictive sexual morality of the Victorian era (B) a strengthening of the role of the family in setting moral norms for society

(C) a limitation on the amount of sexually provocative material appearing in b ooks, motives, and television shows (D) greater freedom for individuals to choose their own way of handling sexua l issues (E) an increased governmental role in the regulation and control of private se xual behavior Questions 4-5 are based on the following: In an experiment, two different types of recorded music were played for neon ates in adjacent nurseries in a hospital. In nursery A, classical music was play ed; in nursery B, rock music was played. After two weeks, it was found that t he babies in nursery A cried less, suffered fewer minor ailments, and gained more weight than did the babies in nursery B. 4. In evaluating the validity of the conclusion suggested by the experiment ab ove, it would be most important to know which of the following? (A) The musical preferences of the parents of the two groups of newborns (B) Whether the newborns in both nurseries were equally healthy and happy at the start of the experiment

(C) Whether loud rock music can damage the hearing of newborns (D) What the average weight of the neonates was before and after the experi ment (E) Whether the music was played in the nurseries at all times or only at cert ain times 5. Which of the following additional experimental data would support the hypothesis that classical music is beneficial to the development of newborn? (A) The neonates in a nursery where no music was played fared better than t hose in nursery B. (B) Nursery A contained 15 percent more premature babies than nursery B. (C) The newborns in nursery A cried less, suffered fewer minor ailments, and gained more weight than did newborns in a nursery with no music. (D) The music played in nursery A was louder than that played in nursery B. (E) The ratio of nurses to newborns in nursery B was 1 to 4; in nursery A, it w as 1 to 6. 6. The ancient city of Cephesa was not buried by an eruption of Mt. Amnos in A.D. 310, as some believe. The eruption in the year 310 damaged the city, but it did not destroy it. Cephesa survived for another century before it finally met its destruction in another eruption around A.D. 415.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the author’s claim that the city of Cephesa was not buried by the eruption of Mt. Amnos in A.D. 310? (A) The city of Cephesa is mentioned in a historical work known to have been written in A.D. 400. (B) Coins bearing the image of an emperor who lived around A.D. 410 have b een discovered in the ruins of Cephesa, which were preserved by the cinders and ashes that buried the city. (C) Geological evidence shows that the eruption of Mt. Amnos in A.D. 415 dep osited a 10-foot-thick layer of lava on the city of Cephesa. (D) Artworks from the city of Cephesa have been found in the ruins of anothe r city known to have been destroyed in A.D. 420.

(E) A historical work written in A.D. 430 refers to the eruption of Mt. Amnos i n A.D. 415. 7. June is taller than Kristin. Letty is taller than Maria. Maria is shorter than Nancy. Kristin and Nancy are exactly the same height. If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true? (A) Letty is taller than Nancy. (B) Letty is taller than June. (C) Kristin is shorter than Letty. (D) June is taller than Maria. (E) Kristin is shorter than Maria. 8. Current farm policy is institutionalized penalization of consumers. It increas es food prices for middle- and low-income families and costs the taxpayer billions of dollars a year.Which of the following statements, if true, would provide support for the author’s claims above? I. Farm subsidies amount to roughly $20 billion a year in federal payouts and $12 billion more in higher food prices. II. According to a study by the Department of Agriculture, each $1 of benefits provided to farmers for ethanol production costs consumers and taxpayers $4. III. The average full-time farmers have an average net worth of over $300, 000. (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III 9. Reva: Using extraneous incentives to get teenagers to change their attitud e toward school and schoolwork won’t work. Take the program in West Virgini a, for instance, where they tried to reduce their dropout rate by revoking the driving licenses of kids who left school. The program failed miserably.Anne: It ’s true that the West Virginia program failed, but many schools have devised i ncentive programs that have been very successful in improving attendance an d reducing discipline problems.According to Anne, the weak point in Reva’s cl aim is that it (A) fails to consider the possibility that the majority of potential dropouts in W est Virginia do not have driving licenses (B) doesn’t provide any exact figures for the dropout rate in West Virginia bef ore and during the program (C) ignores a substantial body of evidence showing that parents and employer s have been using extrinsic incentives with positive results for years (D) assumes that a positive incentive—a prize or a reward—will be no more effective than a negative incentive, like the revoking of a driving license (E) is based on a single example, the incentive program in West Virginia, whic h may not be typical 10. In many surveys, American consumers have expressed a willingness to sp end up to 10 percent more for products that are ecologically sound. Encourag ed by such surveys, Bleach-O Corporation promoted a new laundry detergent, Bleach-O Green, as safer for the environment. Bleach-O Green cost 5 percent more than typical detergents. After one year, Bleach-O Green had failed to capture a significant share of the detergent market and was withdrawn from sale.Which of the following questions is LEAST likely to be relevant in determining the reasons for the failure of Bleach-O Green? (A) How effective as a detergent was Bleach-O Green? (B) How many other detergents on the market were promoted as safe for the environment? (C) How much more did Bleach-O Green cost to manufacture than ordinary detergents?

(D) To what extent did consumers accept the validity of Bleach-O Green advertised and promoted to consumers? (E) How effectively was Bleach-O Green advertised and promoted to consume rs? 11. The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionatel y on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehi cles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost h alf the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.Which of the following, if tru e, would most weaken the argument above? (A) The trucking industry has enjoyed record after-tax profits in three of the past four years. (B) Because of their weight, trucks cause over 50 percent of the damage sust ained by highway surfaces each year. (C) Without an economically viable trucking industry, the cost of goods in the United States would rise significantly. (D) Road use taxes paid by trucking companies have decreased by 3 percent over the past five years. (E) Due to years of neglect, U.S. highways today are badly in need of major r epairs and rebuilding. 12. The upcoming presidential election in the West African republic of Ganelon is of grave concern to the U.S. State Department. Ganelon presently has stro ng political and military ties to the United States. However, the Socialist party is widely expected to win the election, leading to fears that Ganelon will soon break away from the pro-American bloc and adopt a nonaligned or openly anti-American stance.Which of the following is an assumption made in the passage above? (A) A Socialist party government in Ganelon is more likely to oppose the Unit ed States than is a non-Socialist party government. (B) The people of the United States recognize their nation’s interest in the poli tical stability of West Africa. (C) A weakening of U.S. political ties with Ganelon could have serious conseq uences for U.S. relations with other African nations.

(D) The Socialist party leaders in Ganelon believe that their nation’s interests would best be served by an alliance with anti-American forces. (E) The Socialist party will win the upcoming election in Ganelon. 13. No nation can long survive unless its people are united by a common tong ue. For proof, we need only consider Canada, which is being torn asunder by conflicts between French-speaking Quebec and the other provinces, which are dominated by English speakers.Which of the following, if true, most effectively challenges the author’s conclusion? (A) Conflicts over language have led to violent clashes between the Basque-s peaking minority in Spain and the Spanish-speaking majority. (B) Proposals to declare English the official language of the United States hav e met with resistance from members of Hispanic and other minority groups. (C) Economic and political differences, along with linguistic ones, have contrib uted to the provincial conflicts in Canada. (D) The public of India, in existence sine 1948, has a population that speaks hundreds of different, though related, languages. (E) Switzerland has survived for nearly a thousand years as a home for speak ers of three different languages. 14. As an experienced labor organizer and the former head of one of the natio n’s most powerful labor unions, Grayson is an excellent choice to chair the ne w council on business-labor relations.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above? (A) The new council must have the support of the nation’s labor leaders if it is to succeed. (B) During his years as a labor leader, Grayson established a record of good r elations with business leaders. (C) The chair of the new council must be a person who can communicate dire ctly with the leaders of the nation’s largest labor unions. (D) Most of the other members of the new council will be representatives of b usiness management interests. (E) An understanding of the needs and problems of labor is the only qualificati

on necessary for the job of chairing the new council. 15. In the effort to fire a Civil Service employee, his or her manager may hav e to spend up to $100,000 of tax money. Since Civil Service employees know how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf. This explains in large part why t he government is so inefficient.It can be properly inferred on the basis of the statements above that the author believes which of the following? I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on workers. II. More government workers should be fired. III. Most government workers are Civil Service employees. (A) I only (B) I and III only (C) II only (D) I, II, and III (E) III only 16. Some commentators complain that a “litigation explosion” in the past dec ade has led to unreasonably high costs for U.S. businesses by encouraging m ore product liability suits against manufacturers. However, these complaints a re based mainly on myth. Statistics show that the number of successful produ ct liability suits has remained almost the same, and the average sum awarded in damages has grown no faster than the inflation rate.Which of the following , if true, would most weaken the argument above?

(A) The number of unsuccessful suits has skyrocketed, imposing huge new le gal expenses on businesses. (B) Several of the largest awards ever made in product liability cases occurre d within the last two years. (C) The rise of the consumer movement has encouraged citizens to seek legal redress for product flaws. (D) Lawyers often undertake product liability cases on a contingency basis, so

their payment is based on the size of the damages awarded. (E) Juries often award damages in product liability suits out of emotional sym pathy for an injured consumer. 17. Ronald: According to my analysis of the national economy, housing prices should not increase during the next six months unless interest rates drop sig nificantly.Mark: I disagree. One year ago, when interest rates last fell signific antly, housing prices did not increase at all.It can be inferred from the conver sation above that Mark has interpreted Ronald’s statement to mean that (A) housing prices will rise only if interest rates fall (B) if interest rates fall, housing prices must rise (C) interest rates and housing prices tend to rise and fall together (D) interest rates are the only significant economic factor affecting housing pr ices (E) interest rates are likely to fall significantly in the next six months 18. It’s time we stopped searching for new statistics to suggest that we are n ot spending enough on education. In fact, education spending increased 30 p ercent overall during the last decade.Which of the following, if true, would mo st weaken the argument above? (A) Despite increased spending on education, enrollment in our elementary a nd secondary schools declined about 4 percent during the last ten years. (B) Our spending on gasoline increased more than 100 percent during the last decade. (C) When adjusted for inflation, our per-pupil expenditure on education this year is less than it was ten years ago. (D) Eleven other economically developed nations spend more on education th an we do. (E) The achievement levels of our students have been declining steadily since 1960, and the last decade produced no reversal in this trend. 19. The U.S. census is not perfect: thousands of Americans probably go unco unted. However, the basic statistical portrait of the nation painted by the cens

us is accurate. Certainly some of the poor go uncounted, particularly the hom eless; but some of the rich go uncounted as well, because they are often abro ad or traveling between one residence and another.Which of the following is a n assumption on which the argument above depends? (A) Both the rich and the poor have personal and economic reasons to avoid being counted by the census. (B) All Americans may reasonably be classified as either poor or rich. (C) The percentage of poor Americans uncounted by the census is close to the percentage of rich Americans uncounted. (D) The number of homeless Americans is approximately equal to the number of rich Americans. (E) The primary purpose of the census is to analyze the economic status of th e American population. 20. Which of the following best completes the passage below?In today’s plural istic society, textbook publishers find themselves in an increasingly uncomfort able position. Since the schools are regarded as a repository of society’s mora l and cultural values, each group within society wishes to prevent any materia l that offends its own values from appearing in textbooks. As a result, stance on an issue is certain to run afoul of one group or another. And since textboo k publishers must rely on community goodwill to sell their books, it is inevitab le that______ (A) fewer and fewer publishers will be willing to enter the financially uncertain textbook industry (B) the ethical and moral content of textbooks will become increasingly neutr al and bland (C) more and more pressure groups will arise that seek to influence the conte nt of textbooks (D) the government will be forced to intervene in the increasingly rancorous d ebate over the content of textbooks (E) school boards, teachers, and principals will find it nearly impossible to cho ose among the variety of textbooks being offered

答案: 1.D 6.B 11.B 16.A 2.A 7.D 12.A 17.B 3.E 8.D 13.E 18.C 4.B 9.E 14.E 19.C 5.C 10.C 15.A 20.B

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(3) Time 30 minutes 20 Questions Questions 1-2 are based on the following. We have heard a good deal in recent years about the declining importance of the two major political parties. It is the mass media, we are told, that decide t he outcome of elections, not the power of the parties. But it is worth noting th at no independent or third-party candidate has won any important election in recent years, and in the last nationwide campaign, the two major parties raised and spent more money than ever before in support of their candidates and platforms. It seems clear that reports of the imminent demise of the two-party system are premature at best. 1. Which of the following is an assumption made in the argument above? (A) The amount of money raised and spent by a political party is one valid crit erion for judging the influence of the party. (B) A significant increase in the number of third-party candidates would be evidence of a decline in the importance of the two major parties. (C) The two-party system has contributed significantly to the stability of the American political structure. (D) The mass media tend to favor an independent or third-party candidate over a candidate from one of the two major parties (E) The mass media are relatively unimportant in deciding the outcome of mo st elections. 2. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above ? (A) The percentage of voters registered as independents is higher today than ever before. (B) In a recent presidential campaign, for the first time ever, an independent candidate was invited to appear in a televised debate with the major-party ca ndidates. (C) Every current member of the U.S. Senate was elected as the candidate of one of the two major parties.

(D) In a recent opinion poll, most voters stated that a candidate’s party affilia tion was an insignificant factor in judging his or her fitness for office. (E) In the last four years, the outcome of several statewide elections has bee n determined by the strength of the third-party vote. 3. Psychologists conducted a series of experiments to test the effect upon sch oolchildren of violence in films. In the first experiment, grammar school childr en were shown a film that included scenes of a male teenager engaging in vio lent acts against others, such as punching, pushing, and kicking. During a fre e-play session following the film viewing, 42 percent of the children were observed to engage in one or more violent acts similar to those in the film. In a second experiment, a different group of children was shown a similar film featuring a female teenager. Only 14 percent of the children were observed behaving violently afterward. The psychologists concluded that children are more likely to imitate violent behavior on film when a male model is shown than when a female model is shown. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the psychologists ’ conclusion? (A) In both experiments, the victims of the filmed violence included both male s and females. (B) In the second experiment, 28 percent of the children appeared upset duri ng the viewing the violent film scenes. (C) The first group included 19 male students and 20 female students; the se cond group included 20 male students and 21 female students. (D) In the first group, 58 percent of the children appeared bored during the s howing of the film, and 12 percent fell asleep (E) The percentage of children known to have discipline problems prior to the experiment was greater in the first group than in the second group. 4. Mainline Airways was bought by its employees six years ago. Three years a go, Mainline hired QualiCo Advertising Agency to handle its promotions and a dvertising division. Today Mainline’s profits are over 20 percent higher than th ey were five years ago and 10 percent higher than they were three years ago. Employee ownership and a good advertising agency have combined to make Mainline more profitable.

Which of the following best describes the weak point in the argument above? (A) It fails to establish a causal connection between the change in ownership at Mainline Airways and the hiring of QualiCo, on the one hand, and the rise i n Mainline’s profits, on the other. (B) It presents no evidence showing that employee-owned airlines are any more profitable than other airlines. (C) It assumes that the profits of Mainline Airways will continue to rise. (D) It gives no exact figures for the current profits of Mainline Airways. (E) It fails to explain how the profits of Mainline Airways are calculated. 5. At many colleges today, regulations have been imposed that forbid the use in speech or print of language that “offends” or “insults” the members of any group, especially women and racial, ethnic, and religious minorities. Although these regulations are defended in the name of “democracy,” they restrict free dom of speech and the press in a way that opposes the true spirit of democra cy. The argument above attempts to prove its case primarily by (A) impugning the credentials of an opponent (B) providing examples that support a theoretical principle (C) taking advantage of inconsistencies in the definition of “democracy” (D) revealing a contradiction in an opposing point of view (E) appealing to the patriotic feelings of its audience 6. In 1980, a Danish ten- re coin minted in 1747 was sold at auction for $8,000. Eleanor Bixby owns another Danish ten- re coin minted in 1747. When she puts it on the market next week, it will fetch a price over $18,000. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn abov e? (A) Since 1980, the average price for rare coins has increased by over 150 pe rcent.

(B) There are only four coins like the one in question in the entire world. (C) Since 1980, the consumer price index has risen by over 150 percent. (D) In 1986, a previously unknown cache of one hundred coins just like the o ne in question was found. (E) Thirty prominent, wealthy coin collectors are expected to bid for Bixby’s c oin. 7. Merco has been in business longer than Nolen. Inc, Olean Industries was fo unded years before the Potter Company, and the Potter Company was started years after the Quarles Corporation. Nolen, Inc., and the Quarles Corporation were founded in the same year. If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true? (A) Olean Industries has been in business for more years than Merco. (B) Olean Industries has been in business for more years than the Quarles Co rporation. (C) Nolen, Inc., has not been in business for as many years as Olean Industri es. (D) Merco has been in business for more years than the Potter Company. (E) Nolen, Inc., has not been in business for as many years as the Potter Com pany. 8. Which of the following best completes the passage below?A primary factor i n perpetuating the low salaries of women workers has been their segregation in the so-called pink-collar occupations, such as nursing, teaching, library science, and secretarial work. Partly because these jobs have traditionally been held by women, their salary levels have been depressed, and, despite increased attempts to unionize these workers in recent years, their pay continues to lag. Moreover, although a large percentage of women than ever before are now entering and remaining in the job market, most continue to gravitate toward the pink-collar fields, despite the lower salaries. It seems clear, therefore, that if the average salaries of women workers are to approach those of men, ______ (A) labor unions must redouble their efforts to improve the lot of working wo men

(B) society’s perception of pink-collar jobs as less important and less demanding than other jobs must be changed (C) more men must be encouraged to enter fields traditionally occupied by wo men (D) the number of jobs in the pink-collar fields relative to the size of the work force as a whole must be markedly increased (E) more women must enter occupations other than those traditionally reserv ed for them 9. Determining the authenticity of purported pre-Columbian artifacts is never easy. Carbon-14 dating of these artifacts is often impossible due to contamination by radioactive palladium (which occurs naturally in the soils of Central and South America). However, historians and anthropologists have evolved two reliable criteria, which, utilized in combination, have proven effective for dating these artifacts. First, because authentic pre-Columbian artifacts characteristically occur in a coarse, granular matrix that is shifted by major earthquakes, they often exhibit the unique scratch patterns known as gridding. In addition, true pre-Columbian artifacts show a darkening in surface color that is caused by centuries of exposure to the minute amounts of magnesium in the soil of the Americas. The criteria above would be LEAST useful in judging the authenticity of which of the following? (A) An ax head of black obsidian, unearthed from a kitchen midden (B) A pottery bowl with a red ocher design, found in the ruins of a temple (C) A set of gold ear weights, ornamented with jasper pendants (D) A black feather cape from a king’s burial vault (E) A multicolored woven sash found near the gravesite of a slave Questions 10-11 are based on the following. From time to time, the press indulges in outbursts of indignation over the use of false or misleading information by the U.S. government in support of its p olicies and programs. No one endorses needless deception. But consider this historical analogy. It is known that Christopher Columbus, on his first voyage to the New World, deliberately falsified the log to show a shorter sailing distan

ce for each day out than the ships had actually traveled. In this way, Columb us was able to convince his skeptical sailors that they had not sailed past the point at which they expected to find the shores of India. Without this deceptio n, Columbus’s sailors might well have mutinied, and the New World might nev er have been discovered. 10. The author of the passage above assumes each of the following EXCEPT: (A) Government deception of the press is often motivated by worthy objective s. (B) Without government deception, popular support for worthwhile governme nt policies and programs might well fade. (C) Attacks on the government by the press are often politically motivated. (D) Deception for deception’s sake should not be condoned. (E) A greater good may sometimes require acceptance of a lesser evil. 11. Which of the following is the main weakness of the historical analogy dra wn in the passage above? (A) The sailors in Columbus’s crew never knew that they had been deceived, while government deception is generally uncovered by the press. (B) A ship’s log is a record intended mainly for use by the captain, while press reports are generally disseminated for use by the public at large. (C) The members of a ship’s crew are selected by the captain of the ship, whil e those who work in the press are self-selected. (D) The crew of a ship is responsible for the success of a voyage, while the pr ess is not responsible for the use others make of the factual information it pu blishes. (E) In a democracy, the people are expected to participate in the nation’s poli tical decision making, while the members of a ship’s crew are expected simply to obey the orders of the captain. 12. Which of the following best completes the passage below? Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from th e midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes a

t least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great -grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______ (A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule (B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity (C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adverse ly (D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields

(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields 13. In general, a professional athlete is offered a million-dollar contract only if he or she has just completed an unusually successful season. However, a study shows that an athlete signing such a contract usually suffers a decline in performance the following season. This study supports the theory that a million-dollar contract tends to weaken an athlete’s desire to excel by diminishing his or her economic incentive. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn a bove? (A) On the average, athletes whose contracts call for relatively small salaries with possible bonuses for outstanding achievement perform better than other athletes. (B) Athletes are generally offered million-dollar contracts mainly because of the increased ticket sales and other revenues they generate. (C) Many professional athletes have careers marked by year-to-year fluctuations in their overall levels of performance. (D) On the average, higher-salaried athletes tend to have longer and more successful professional careers than do lower-salaried athletes.

(E) Six of the ten leading batters in the National League this season signed mi llion-dollar contracts during the off-season. 14. Dr. A: The new influenza vaccine is useless at best and possibly dangerous. I would never use it on a patient. Dr. B: But three studies published in the Journal of Medical Associates have ra ted that vaccine as unusually effective. Dr. A: The studies must have been faulty because the vaccine is worthless. In which of the following is the reasoning most similar to that of Dr. A? (A) Three of my patients have been harmed by that vaccine during the past t hree weeks, so the vaccine is unsafe. (B) Jerrold Jersey recommends this milk, and I don’t trust Jerrold Jersey, so I won’t buy this milk. (C) Wingzz tennis balls perform best because they are far more effective than any other tennis balls. (D) I’m buying Vim Vitamins. Doctors recommend them more often than they recommend any other vitamins, so Vim Vitamins must be good. (E) Since University of Muldoon graduates score about 20 percent higher than average on the GMAT, Sheila Lee, a University of Muldoon graduate, will scor e about 20 percent higher than average when she takes the GMAT. 15. Bill: Smoke-detecting fire alarms can save lives. I believe that every apartment in this city should be required by law to be equipped with a smoke detector. Joe: I disagree with your proposal. Smoke detectors are just as important for safety in private houses as they are in apartment. From this exchange, it can be inferred that Joe has interpreted Bill’s statemen t to mean that (A) the city should be responsible for providing smoke detectors for apartmen ts (B) residences outside the city should not be equipped with smoke detectors

(C) only apartments should be equipped with smoke detectors (D) the risk of fire is not as great in private houses as it is in apartments (E) the rate of death by fire is unusually high in the city in question 16. In 1986, the city of Los Diablos had 20 days on which air pollution reache d unhealthful amounts and a smog alert was put into effect. In early 1987, ne w air pollution control measures were enacted, but the city had smog alerts o n 31 days that year and on 39 days the following year. In 1989, however, the number of smog alerts in Los Diablos dropped to sixteen. The main air pollut ants in Los Diablos are ozone and carbon monoxide, and since 1986 the levels of both have been monitored by gas spectrography. Which of the following statements, assuming that each is true, would be LEAS T helpful in explaining the air pollution levels in Los Diablos between 1986 an d 1989? (A) The 1987 air pollution control measures enacted in Los Diablos were put i nto effect in November of 1988. (B) In December of 1988 a new and far more accurate gas spectrometer was invented. (C) In February of 1989, the Pollution Control Board of Los Diablos revised th e scale used to determine the amount of air pollution considered unhealthful. (D) In 1988 the mayor of Los Diablos was found to have accepted large camp aign donations from local industries and to have exempted those same indust ries from air pollution control measures. (E) Excess ozone and carbon monoxide require a minimum of two years to br eak down naturally in the atmosphere above a given area. 17. In a marketing study, consumers were given two unlabeled cartons of lau ndry detergent. One carton was bright green and yellow; the other was drab brown and gray. After using the detergent in the two cartons for one month, 83 percent of the consumers in the study reported that the detergent in the b right green and yellow carton cleaned better. This study shows that packaging has a significant impact on consumers’ judgment of the effectiveness of a lau ndry detergent. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn in

the marketing study? (A) The detergent in the bright carton contained bleach crystals; the detergen t in the drab carton did not. (B) The detergents in the two cartons were the same. (C) The detergents in the two cartons were different, but they had both been laboratory tested. (D) The detergent in the drab carton was a popular name brand; the deterge nt in the bright carton was generic. (E) The detergent in the drab carton was generic; the detergent in the bright carton was a popular name brand. 18. Don’s, a chain of supermarkets, has entered into an agreement in which R ose Computers will sell Don’s an unlimited number of its least expensive PC’s at one-fourth the regular wholesale price. In return, Don’s has agreed to purc hase all of its scanners and other electronic information-processing equipment from Rose or from Omicron, Rose Computers’ parent company, for the next ten years. Don’s will offer a Rose PC free to any school that turns in Don’s register receipts totaling $100,000 within the next six months. The vice-president in charge of advertising for Don’s expects that the computer giveaway will obviate the need for a massive new advertising campaign for the next six months and that Don’s can make up the expenditures for the PC’s by writing them off its income taxes as charitable donations. The plans formulated by Don’s assume each of the following EXCEPT: (A) The prices that Rose or Omicron charges Don’s for information-processing equipment over the next ten years will be lower than those charged by other companies. (B) The tax laws will not be changed to exclude or lessen the value of charita ble donations as tax write-offs. (C) Schools will be sufficiently attracted by Don’s computer giveaway offer th at teachers will urge students to shop at Don’s. (D) Rose will be able to supply Don’s with a sufficient number of PC’s to meet the demand generated by schools that collect Don’s receipts totaling $100,00 0.

(E) The effect of the computer giveaway offer on Don’s business will be comp arable to that of a major advertising campaign. 19. Manufacturers of household appliances are still urging the public to purch ase food processors. The various manufacturers’ advertisements all point out that the prices of these appliances are now lower than ever and that each foo d processor comes with a lifetime service warranty. In addition, many manufa cturers offer sizable rebates to customers who purchase food processors withi n a given time period. With these incentives, the advertisements contend, pe ople can hardly afford not to purchase food processors. Which answer choice is a logically prior issue that the manufacturers’ advertis ements fail to address? (A) Whether the cost of repairs to the food processors over the years will canc el out the savings currently being offered (B) Whether potential customers have enough uses for food processors to jus tify purchasing them (C) Whether the heads of the companies manufacturing food processors own f ood processors themselves (D) Whether the food processors currently being advertised will be outdated within the next five years (E) Whether accessories and replacement parts will be readily available at ret ail outlets 20. Since the invention of digital readout, machine designers have rushed to r eplace conventional dials and gauges with digital units. Yet the digital gauge h as drawbacks in some situations. Since it presents an exact numeric value, it must be decoded and analyzed by a human operator; its meaning cannot be r ead in an instantaneous scanning. An analog dial or gauge can be marked wit h red to alert the operator when a value is entering a danger zone; a digital g auge cannot. And it is difficult to tell whether a digital readout is increasing or decreasing over time, while the up or down movement of a pointer on an ana log gauge can be quickly and easily observed. The author of the passage above would probably recommend the use of digita l gauge in cases when I. warning of a sudden rise or fall in value is needed

II. an operator must read and interpret several gauges within a few seconds III. a precise numeric value is essential (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III

答案: 1. A 6. D 11. E 16. B 2. C 7. D 12. B 17. B 3. E 8. E 13. A 18. A 4. A 9. D 14. C 19. B 5. D 10. C 15. C 20. B

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(5) 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. A mail order company recently had a big jump in clothing sales after hiring a copywriter and a graphic artist to give its clothing catalog a magazinelike format designed to appeal to a more upscale clientele. The company is now planning to launch a housewares catalog using the same concept. The company’s plan assumes that (A) other housewares catalogs with magazinelike formats do not already exist

(B) an upscale clientele would be interested in a housewares catalog (C) the same copywriter and graphic artist could be employed for both the clo thing and housewares catalogs (D) a magazinelike format requires a copywriter and a graphic artist (E) customers to whom the old clothing catalog appealed would continue to m ake purchases from catalogs with the new format 2. Civic Leader: The high cancer rate among our citizens is the result of hazardous material produced at your plant.Board of Directors: Our statistics show that rates of cancer are high throughout the valley in which the plant is situated because local wells that supply drinking water are polluted, not because of the plant. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the board’s claims? (A) The statistics do not differentiate between types of cancer. (B) Nearby communities have not changed the sources of their drinking water . (C) Cancer-causing chemicals used at the plant are discharged into a nearby river and find their way into local wells. (D) The plant both uses and produces chemicals that have been shown to cau se cancer. (E) Some of the pollutants cited by the board as contaminating the local wells

have been present in the wells for decades. 3. Economies in which a high percentage of resources are invested in research and development show greater growth in the long run than do those in which resources are channeled into consumption. Japanese workers spend a higher percentage of their income investing in research and development than do American workers.To grow as fast as Japan has in the past three decades, the United States must change the tax code in order to encourage savings and investment and discourage debt. Which of the following, if true, tends to weaken the argument? (A) Japanese research is more focused on consumers than is research by Ame rican firms. (B) Class mobility, highly valued in American culture, is encouraged by a grow ing rather than a stagnant economy. (C) Studies have shown that countries with high consumption rates prosper in the short run. (D) Proposed changes to the tax code could involve strict limits on the deduct ability of interest, and increased allowance for research. (E) Because a decreasing percentage of the United States is under 40, an age when savings are traditionally low, the savings rate will increase without cha nges to the tax code. 4. Television programming experts maintain that with each 1% increase in the prime-time ratings of a television station there is a 3.5% increase in the number of people who watch its evening news program. However, in the last ten years at Channel NTR, there was only one year of extremely high prime-time ratings and during that year, fewer people than ever watched Channel NTR’s evening news program. Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the statements above? (A) When a news program has good ratings, the channel as a whole will have good ratings. (B) The programming experts neglected to consider daytime news programs. (C) The year of high ratings at NTR was a result of two hit shows which were

subsequently canceled because of contractual problems. (D) The ten-year period in question is not representative of normal viewing p atterns. (E) Prime-time ratings are not the only factor affecting how many people watch an evening news program. 5. The people who are least likely to be audited by the Internal Revenue Service this year are those who have been audited since 1985 and who were found to have made no mistakes in filing their returns during that audit. Of the following people, who is MOST likely to be audited by the IRS? (A) A person who was audited in 1986 but was not found to have made any mistakes in filing his return. (B) A person who was audited in 1986 and whose lawyer corrected several mi stakes in the tax return prior to the filing deadline. (C) A person whose spouse was convicted of tax fraud in 1987, who was then audited and found to have made no mistakes. (D) A person who was last audited in 1984, and had no mistakes uncovered b y the IRS during that audit. (E) A person who was audited in each of the past five years, but was found to have made no mistakes in any of the filings. 6. James’s grade point average puts him in the top third of the graduating class of college A. Nestor is in the top tenth of the same class. Elizabeth had the same grade point average as Nestor. Nancy has a lower grade point average than Elizabeth. If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true? (A) James has a higher grade point average than Elizabeth. (B) James has a higher grade point average than Nancy. (C) Nestor has a higher grade point average than Nancy. (D) Elizabeth and Nancy both have a higher grade point average than James.

(E) Nestor and James both have a higher grade point average than Nancy. 7. Whenever a major airplane accident occurs, there is a dramatic increase in the number of airplane mishaps reported, a phenomenon that may last for as long as a few months after the accident. Airline officials assert that the publicity given the gruesomeness of major airplane accidents focuses media attention on the airline industry and the increase in the number of reported accidents is caused by an increase in the number of news sources covering airline accident, not by an increase in the number of accidents. Which of the following, if true, would seriously weaken the assertions of the ai rline officials? (A) The publicity surrounding airline accidents is largely limited to the country in which the crash occurred. (B) Airline accidents tend to occur far more often during certain peak travel m onths. (C) News organizations do not have any guidelines to help them decide how s evere or how close an accident must be for it to receive coverage. (D) Airplane accidents receive coverage by news sources only when the news sources find it advantageous to do so. (E) Studies by government regulations show that the number of airplane fligh t miles remains relatively constant from month to month. Questions 8-9 are based on the following. Investing in real estate would be a profitable venture at this time. A survey in House magazine revealed that 85% of the magazine’s readers are planning t o buy a second home over the next few years. A study of the real estate indu stry, however, revealed that the current supply of homes could only provide f or 65% of that demand each year. 8. Which of the following, if true, reveals a weakness in the evidence cited above ? (A) Real estate is a highly labor-intensive business. (B) Home builders are not evenly distributed across the country.

(C) The number of people who want second homes has been increasing each year for the past ten years. (D) Readers of House magazine are more likely than most people to want sec ond homes. (E) House magazine includes articles about owning a second home as well as articles about building a second home. 9. Which of the following, if true, would undermine the validity of the investment advice in the paragraph above? (A) Some home owners are satisfied with only one home. (B) About half of the people who buy homes are investing in their first home. (C) About half of the people who buy homes have to take out a mortgage to d o so. (D) Only a quarter of the homes that are built are sold within the first two we eks. (E) Only a quarter of those who claim that they want a second home actually end up purchasing one. 10. Traffic safety experts predict that the installation of newly designed air bags in all cars in the United States would reduce the average number of fatalities per traffic accident by 30 percent. In order to save lives, the Department of Transportation (DOT) is considering requiring automobile manufacturers to install air bags of this design in all cars produced after 1998. Which of the following, if true, represents the strongest challenge to the DOT’ s proposal? (A) Air bags of the new design are more given to being inadvertently triggere d, an occurrence that can sometimes result in fatal traffic accidents. (B) The DOT is planning to require automobile manufacturers to produce thes e air bags according to very strict specifications. (C) After installing air bags in new cars, automobile manufacturers will experi ence an increase in sales. (D) The proposed air bag installation program will adversely affect the resale

of cars manufactured prior to 1998. (E) As production costs increase, the profits of many domestic automobile dea lers show a marked decrease. 11. A private bus company gained greater profits and provided bus service to the area at lower fares by running buses more frequently and stimulating greater ridership. Hoping to continue these financial trends, the company plans to replace all older buses with new, larger buses, including some double-decker buses,. The plan of the bus company as described above assumes all of the following EXCEPT (A) the demand for bus service in the company’s area of service will increase i n the future (B) increased efficiency and revenues will compensate for any new expenses t he company incurs (C) the new buses will be sufficiently reliable to ensure the company a net fin ancial gain once they are in place (D) driving the new buses will be no more difficult than driving the buses they are to replace (E) the larger, double-decker buses will not face obstacles such as height and weight restrictions in the bus company’s area of service 12. A newly discovered disease is thought to be caused by a certain bacterium. However, recently released data notes that the bacterium thrives in the presence of a certain virus, implying that it is actually the virus that causes the new disease. Which of the following pieces of evidence would most support the data’s impli cation? (A) In the absence of the virus, the disease has been observed to follow infect ion by the bacterium. (B) The virus has been shown to aid the growth of bacterium, a process which often leads to the onset of the disease. (C) The virus alone has been observed in many cases of the disease.

(D) In cases where the disease does not develop, infection by the bacterium i s usually preceded by infection by the virus. (E) Onset of the disease usually follows infection by both the virus and the ba cterium. 13. A sociologist recently studied two sets of teenagers. The members of one set spent 10 or more hours per week watching violent television programs, and the members of the other set spent 2 hours or less per week watching violent television programs. A significantly greater proportion of the teenagers in the former group exhibited aggressive behavior during the period of the study. The sociologists reasoned that the prolonged exposure to television violence caused the aggressive behavior. Which of the following, if true, of the teenagers in the study, provides the stro ngest challenge to the sociologist’s conclusion? (A) Some teenagers who watched more than 10 hours of violent television pr ogramming per week behaved less aggressively than others in the same grou p of teenagers. (B) Some teenagers who watched 2 hours of violent television programming p er week did not behave aggressively. (C) Some teenagers voluntarily stopped watching violent television programs after being victims of violence. (D) Some teenagers watched violent television programs alone, while others did so in groups. (E) Many of the teenagers in the first group exhibited aggressive behavior bef ore the study began. 14. Because of a recent drought in Florida during the orange-growing season, the price of oranges this season will be three times the usual price. This will drive up the cost of producing orange juice and thus push up the price of orange juice for the consumer. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) The recent drought was not as severe as scientists predicted. (B) States other than Florida also supply oranges to orange juice manufacture

rs. (C) Other ingredients are used in the production of orange juice. (D) Last year the price of oranges was actually lower than the average price o ver the past ten years. (E) The price of oranges will eventually be $0.48 per crate. Questions 15-16 are based on the following. Local phone companies have monopolies on phone service within their areas. Cable television can be transmitted via the wires that are already in place and owned by the phone companies. Cable television companies argue that if the telephone companies were to offer cable service, these telephone companies would have an unfair advantage, because their cable transmissions could be s ubsidized by the profits of their monopolies on phone service. 15. Which of the following, if true, would ease the cable companies’ fear of unfair competition? (A) In order to use existing telephone wire, telephone companies would need to modernize their operations, a process so expensive it would virtually wipe out all profit from their monopoly for the foreseeable future. (B) If a phone company were to offer cable service within a particular area, it would have a monopoly within that area. (C) The cost of television service, whether provided by cable or telephone co mpanies, scales; that is, the total cost of transmission rises only marginally a s more homes are added to the network. (D) Cable programming that offers more channels is already available through satellite dish, but the initial cost of the dish is extremely high. (E) Cable television will never be able to compete with the burgeoning video r ental industry, especially as more homes now have video cassette recorders t han ever did before. 16. On the basis of the information provided in the passage above, which of the following questions can be answered? (A) Are phone companies as efficient as cable companies in providing reliable and inexpensive service?

(B) If phone companies were allowed to provide cable service, would they wa nt to do so? (C) Do the cable companies believe that the local phone companies make a pr ofit on phone service? (D) Are local phone companies forbidden to offer cable service? (E) Is it expected that phone companies will have a monopoly on cable servic e? 17. In the past year, there has been a large drop in the number of new cars sold, due to harsh economic conditions in the marketplace and high taxes. At the same time, the average price paid for a new car has risen dramatically. Which of the following, if true, best explains the increase in the average price of a new car? (A) The price of used cars has climbed steadily over the past ten years. (B) There will be a tax reduction later in the year which is expected to aid mo derate and low income families. (C) The market for expensive car has been unaffected by the current economi c conditions. (D) Economic conditions are expected to get significantly worse before the en d of the year. (E) Low demand for trucks and vans has led to lower production in the factori es. 18. Critics of sales seminars run by outside consultants point out that since 1987, revenues of vacuum cleaner companies whose employees attended consultant-led seminars were lower than revenues of vacuum cleaner companies whose employees did not attend such seminars. The critics charge that for vacuum cleaner companies, the sales seminars are ill conceived and a waste of money. Which of the following, if true, is the most effective challenge to the critics of sales seminars? (A) Those vacuum cleaner companies whose sales were highest prior to 1987

are the only companies that did not send employees to the seminars. (B) Vacuum cleaner companies that have sent employees to sales seminars si nce 1987 experienced a greater drop in sales than they had prior to 1987. (C) The cost of vacuum cleaner sales seminars run by outside consultants has risen dramatically since 1987. (D) The poor design of vacuum cleaner sales seminars is not the only reason f or their ineffectiveness. (E) Since 1987, sales of vacuum cleaners have risen twenty percent. 19. Informed people generally assimilate information from several divergent sources before coming to an opinion. However, most popular news organizations view foreign affairs solely through the eyes of our State Department. In reporting the political crisis in foreign country B, news organizations must endeavor to find alternative sources of information. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the argument above? (A) To the degree that a news source gives an account of another country tha t mirrors that of our State Department, that reporting is suspect. (B) To protect their integrity, news media should avoid the influence of State Department releases in their coverage of foreign affairs. (C) Reporting that is not influenced by the State Department is usually more accurate than are other accounts. (D) The alternative sources of information mentioned in the passage would pr obably not share the same views as the State Department. (E) A report cannot be seen as influenced by the State Department if it accura tely depicts the events in a foreign country. 20. A light bulb company produces 2,000 light bulbs per week. The manager wants to ensure that standards of quality remain constant from week to week. The manager, therefore, claims that out of 2,000 light bulbs produced per week, 500 light bulbs are rejected. Of the following, the best criticism of the manager’s plan is that the plan assu mes that

(A) light bulb manufacturers cannot accept all light bulbs that produced (B) the overall quality of the light bulbs would not be improved if the total nu mber of light bulbs produced were reduced (C) each light bulb that is reviewed is worthy of being reviewed (D) it is difficult to judge the quality of a light bulb (E) the 1,500 light bulbs that are accepted will be of the same quality from w eek to week

参考答案: 1.B 6.C 11.D 16.C 2.C 7.B 12.C 17.C 3.E 8.D 13.E 18.A 4.E 9.E 14.B 19.D 5.D 10.A 15.A 20.E

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(6) 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. For over fifty years, the ocean-freight industry worked to make ocean freighters faster and to lower their fuel consumption. Despite considerable success, the economics of the industry grew worse, until the industry was almost dead. What was wrong was an incongruity between assumptions and realities. The real costs came, not from time spent at sea, but from time spent in port during loading and unloading.Which of the following actions would be most likely to lead to a solution of the problem faced by the ocean-freight industry, as it is analyzed in the passage? (A) Developing a ship’s engine that runs on a cheaper type of fuel than that tr aditionally used by ocean freighters (B) Developing a ship with accessible cargo compartments that can be mecha nically loaded and unloaded very rapidly (C) Developing a ship whose freight capacity relative to the ship’s total volum e is much larger than that of any existing ship (D) Implementing a system to ensure that ocean freighters are loaded to cap acity whenever they leave a port (E) Implementing a marketing plan that focuses on routes that are known to be least threatened by unfavorable weather, thus permitting rapid trips and r eliable arrival times 2. The increased concentration of salt in the bay, which is the result of recent drought and high temperatures, will cause many fish to die. Shrimp, however, can tolerate high salt levels; the shrimp industry will not, therefore, be hurt by the increased concentration of salt. Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken the argument above ? (A) Some fish will migrate to areas that have lower concentrations of salt. (B) Lack of rainfall for extended periods of time lowers the water level of bays . (C) The organisms on which young shrimp feed cannot survive in such salty w aters.

(D) Increased water temperature often causes shrimp to multiply more quickl y. (E) Shrimp are more abundant in areas of the bay that are sparsely populated by fish. 3. Currently people in the United States eat, on the average, 1,431 pounds of food per year, 35 pounds more than in 1980. This increase is, at least in part, because people between the ages of 15 and 64 have accounted for an increasing share of the population. Which of the following can be properly inferred from the passage above? (A) More than half of the current population of the United States is between t he ages of 15 and 64. (B) The population has risen since 1980. (C) Children below the age of 15 require, on the average, more food than do people over the age of 64. (D) Before 1980 children below the age of 15 outnumbered people between t he ages of 15 and 64. (E) Individuals between the ages of 15 and 64 consume, on the average, mor e food than do those younger or older. 4. Each increase of 1 percent in real disposable personal income per capita will increase the share of the electorate for an incumbent by about 2.2 percentage points, other things being equal. Since 1952 there has been a decline in real disposable income during only one presidential election year. The incumbent lost that election. Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above? (A) When an incumbent runs for office, he or she is likely to win. (B) Political parties should take care to put forth a candidate who seems pros perous. (C) Presidential candidates should put their greatest efforts into improving the ir public image.

(D) Because a presidential campaign requires the expenditure of large amoun ts of money, it frequently impoverishes a candidate and his or her supporters. (E) The outcome of a presidential election is substantially affected by factors other than the ideological positions of the candidates. 5. According to an independent computer-industry analyst, the new Regent microcomputer is of high quality, is fast, and costs less than any currently existing competing model. It is reasonable to conclude, therefore, as the manufacturer’s prospectus does, that the Regent will quickly establish itself as a fast-selling, low-priced alternative to currently available microcomputers. Which of the following, if true, would LEAST weaken the argument above? (A) Many retailers already carry one or more low-priced microcomputer models and are disinclined to carry another. (B) Several faster and lower-priced models of microcomputers will soon be introduced by other computer manufacturers. (C) The Regent Corporation’s microcomputer can be used in conjunction with higher-priced microcomputers manufactured by other companies. (D) Most of those individuals and companies that could be expected to make up the potential market for the Regent microcomputer have already filled thei r microcomputer needs. (E) The independent computer-industry analyst whose assessment was incorporated in the prospectus has used measures of quality that are not universally accepted by the computer-buying public. 6. Which of the following is the most logical completion of the passage below?Ma ny companies have been pushing for a three-week extension of daylight saving time, which would mean that the sun would continue to set an hour later during the fall months. The owners of a chain of convenience stores, for example, expect to gain $15 million a year in additional sales, mostly from people who tend to______ (A) stay away from these stores after dark (B) stay outdoors during the fall months

(C) spend more money in the fall (D) spend less money in the fall (E) shop at these stores when they are pressed for time 7. Recent evidence appears to contradict earlier findings that suggested that those who are physically fit cope better with stressful real-life events. Of a group of healthy women, those randomly assigned to a ten-week program of aerobic exercises performed no better in laboratory tests simulating stressful situations than did the subgroup assigned to a program without exercise.Which of the following, if true, provides evidence for determining whether physical fitness makes one react better to stress? (A) Superior reaction to laboratory stress situations was found to be more pre valent among women than among men. (B) Healthy men, after training six months in weight lifting, encountered fewe r potentially stressful situations in the subsequent six months. (C) Subjects following a regimen during which they perfected their skills in a variety of relaxation techniques found that their lives seemed calmer after the y began the regimen. (D) College students with previous high levels of stressful life events showed a markedly reduced reaction to such events after training in aerobics for six months. (E) Subjects with a high level of self-esteem more often engaged in physical-f itness regimens than did a control group of subjects with average levels of self-esteem. Questions 8-9 are based on the following. Now is an excellent time to invest in the catering business. A survey conducte d by Weddings magazine found that 70 percent of the magazine’s readers wa nt a catered wedding reception. An analysis of the catering industry, however, shows that the current number of caterers can serve only 55 percent of the weddings likely to occur each year. 8. Which of the following, if true, reveals a weakness in the evidence cited above ?

(A) Catering is a highly labor-intensive business. (B) Caterers are not evenly distributed across the country. (C) The number of weddings with catered receptions has been growing each y ear for the past five years. (D) Readers of Weddings magazine are more likely than most people to want a catered reception. (E) Weddings magazine includes both articles about catered receptions and ar ticles about preparing food oneself for one’s wedding reception. 9. Which of the following, if true, would undermine the validity of the investment advice in the paragraph above? (A) The average wedding reception involves between 50 and 100 guests. (B) Approximately a quarter of all weddings take place without a reception. (C) Approximately a quarter of all weddings and their associated receptions ar e paid for by the couples themselves. (D) Only half of all catered wedding receptions include sit-down meals. (E) Only half of those who say they want a catered wedding reception actually have one. 10. The Commerce Department recently put limits on machine-tool imports from two countries whose exports of machine tools into the United States have been substantial. As a result of these restrictions, analysts predict that domestic sales of machine tools manufactured in the United States are bound to rise considerably, starting in the very near future. Which of the following, if true, would be most likely to cause the analysts’ pre diction to be inaccurate? (A) A new tax bill that, if passed, would discourage investment in capital equi pment such as machine tools is being studied and debated seriously in the Un ited States Congress. (B) United States companies’ orders for metal-cutting machines, which account for 75 percent of sales by the machine-tool industry, rose faster than orders for other types of machine tools during the past year.

(C) Worldwide orders for machine tools made in the United States dropped by more than 10 percent during the past year. (D) Substantial inventories of foreign-made machine tools were stockpiled in the United States during the past year. (E) Companies in the industrial sectors of many countries showed a significan tly expanded demand for machine tools during the past year. 11.The cities with the densest population have the highest ratio of police officers to citizens. Such cities also have the lowest rates of property crime without contact between perpetrator and victim. Thus maintaining a high ratio of police officers to citizens can serve as an effective deterrent to at least certain kinds of property crime. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) The quality of training that police receive varies from city to city. (B) High population density itself makes it difficult to commit a property crime that involves no contact between perpetrator and victim. (C) Many nonviolent crimes in large cities are drug-related. (D) A majority of the perpetrators of property crimes in densely populated citi es are not apprehended by the police. (E) Property crimes without contact between perpetrator and victim represent only a small proportion of overall crime. 12. Approximately two hundred brands of personal computers are being manufactured, but we currently limit our inventory to only the eight most popular brands. We plan to increase greatly the number of computers we sell by expanding our inventory to include the ten best-selling brands. Which of the following, if true, points out a major weakness of the plan above ? (A) The capabilities of three most popular personal computers add to be appr oximately equivalent, with no brand having consistent superiority in all respec ts. (B) The seven most popular brands of personal computers account for almost

all computers sold. (C) As the users of personal computers become more sophisticated, they are more willing to buy less well-known brands of computers. (D) Less popular brands of computers often provide less profit to the retailer because prices must be discounted to attract customers. (E) The leading brand of personal computer has been losing sales to less popu lar brands that offer similar capabilities for less money. 13. Of those person who became teachers in 1968 and who later left the profession, 30 percent today earn salaries above $35,000 a year: of those who became teachers in 1968 and have remained in the profession, only 15 percent today earn salaries above $35,000 a year. These figures indicate how underpaid teachers are today. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions about th e persons for whom statistics are cited? (A) At least one-third of the group of persons who have remained in teaching would today be earning more than $35,000 a year if they had left teaching. (B) The group of persons who left teaching and the group who did not are co mparable in terms of factors that determine how much people outside the tea ching profession are paid. (C) Most of those persons who left teaching did so entirely because of the low salaries teachers earn. (D) As a group, those persons who have remained in teaching are abler and more dedicated than the group of persons who left teaching. (E) The group of persons who left teaching and who today earn more than $3 5,000 a year were more capable teachers than the group who remained in th e profession. 14. Some analysts maintain that an embargo by country Litora on the export of a strategic metal to country Zenda, if imposed, would drive up the price of the metal in Zenda at least tenfold. They note that few other countries export the metal and that, with an embargo, Zenda might have to depend on as-yet-unexploited domestic sources of the metal. Which of the following, if true, constitutes the most serious objection to the a

nalysis above? (A) Litora’s economy depends heavily on foreign currency earned by the expo rt of the strategic metal to other countries. (B) There are foreign-policy steps that Zenda could take to appease Litora and avoid being subjected to an embargo on the metal. (C) Geologists believe that additional deposits of the metal could possibly be f ound within the territory of Litora. (D) Only a small proportion of Zenda’s import expenditures is devoted to the i mport of the metal from Litora. (E) In case of an embargo, Zenda could buy the metal indirectly from Litora o n the world market at a less than one-third increase in cost. 15. The government should stop permitting tobacco companies to subtract advertising expenses from their revenues in calculating taxable income. Tobacco companies would then have to pay more taxes. As a consequence, they would raise the prices of their products and this price increase would raise the prices of their products and this price increase would discourage tobacco use. Which of the following is an additional premise required by the argument abo ve? (A) Tobacco companies would not offset the payment of extra taxes by reduci ng costs in other areas. (B) Tobacco companies would not continue to advertise if they were forced to pay higher taxes. (C) People would not continue to buy tobacco products if these products were no longer advertised. (D) The money the government would gain as a result of the increase in toba cco companies’ taxable income would be used to educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use. (E) The increase in taxes paid by tobacco companies would be equal to the ad ditional income generated by raising prices. 16. Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline

management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident. Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above? (A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents. (B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents. (C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel si gnificantly safer. (D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of fu ture accidents. (E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they a re retrained. Questions 17-18 are based on the following. Professor A: We must make a strong moral statement against Country X’s poli cies. Only total divestment—the sale of all stock in companies that have factories or business offices in X—can do this. Therefore, the university should divest totally. Professor B: Our aim should be to encourage X to change its policies. Partial d ivestment is the best way to achieve this aim. Therefore, the university shoul d sell its stock only in companies that either sell goods to X’s government, or do the majority of their business in X, or treat their workers in X unfairly. 17. Professor A’s and Professor B’s arguments differ in which of the following ways? (A) They state the same goal but propose different ways of achieving it. (B) They state different goals but propose the same way of achieving them. (C) They state different goals and propose different ways of achieving them. (D) They disagree about whether the university should sell any stock at all. (E) They disagree about whether X’s policies are objectionable.

18. Which of the following, if true, would be evidence that the university would not be harmed economically if it followed Professor A’s recommendation. (A) Very few of the companies in which the university owns stocks sell goods to X’s government. (B) Most companies that have factories or business offices in X and in which t he university owns stock actually do little of their business in X. (C) Some companies that have factories or business offices in X and in which the university owns stock have instituted fair treatment policies for their work ers in X at very little additional cost to the companies. (D) The expected financial return to the university from stocks that the univer sity could own under a policy of total divestment is approximately the same a s the expected financial return from the same as the expected financial. (E) If the university sold large blocks of stock under a policy of total divestme nt, the prices of the stocks of the companies whose stocks were sold would pr obably decrease somewhat. 19. In an effort to go beyond resumes as tools in its search for executives, one leading company has resorted to interviewing the top candidates for a position all together in a single group. This technique is supposed to afford a direct comparison of the candidates with respect to some personal qualities that cannot be gleaned from a resume. Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the value of th e simultaneous interview technique? (A) Resumes do sometimes allow reliable inferences to be made about a candi date’s personal qualities. (B) The simultaneous interview could become cumbersome if there were a gr eat many candidates for a position. (C) The more perceptive the interviewer, the more revealing the simultaneous interview is apt to be. (D) There are certain personal qualities that only an extended simultaneous in terview can bring out. (E) The simultaneous interview distorts each candidate’s response style by in

ducing stresses unlike any an executive position induces. 20. The Asian American History Association receives approximately 1,000 proposals each year from individuals who wish to present papers at its annual meeting. The association’s officers would like to ensure constant standards of quality in the presentations from year to year. The officers have therefore decided to accept for presentation each year only the best 300 papers selected on the basis of the quality of the proposals submitted. Of the following, the best criticism of the officers’ plan is that the plan assume s that (A) Professional associations cannot accept all papers submitted for presentati on at their annual meetings. (B) The total number of proposals submitted to the association will remain at approximately 1,000 in future years. (C) Each proposal submitted to the association deserves to be considered a se rious candidate for presentation. (D) It is difficult to judge the quality of a paper on the basis of the proposal al one. (E) The best 300 papers submitted to the association for presentation will be of the same quality from year to year.

答案: 1. B 2. C 3. E 4. E 5. C 6. A 7. D 8. D 9. E 10. D 11. B 12. B 13. B 14. E 15. A 16. D 17. C 18. D 19. E 20. E

013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(7) 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. Two groups of laboratory mice were injected with cancerous cells. One group’s cages were rotated in a disorienting manner. Two-thirds of these mice developed cancers. One-tenth of the mice in stationary cages developed cancers. The researchers concluded that stress enhances the development of cancer in laboratory mice. The researchers’ conclusion logically depends on which of the following assum ptions? (A) Rotating the cages in disorienting manner produced stress in the mice in t hose cages. (B) The injections given to the two groups of mice were not of equal strength.

(C) Injecting the mice with cancerous cells caused stress in the mice. (D) Even without the injections the mice in the rotated cages would have dev eloped cancers. (E) Even the rotation of cages in a manner that is not disorienting is likely to produce stress in mice in those cages. 2. In 1846 about 80 percent of the towns in New York State banned the sale of alcoholic beverages. A recent article about the bans concludes that mid-nineteenth-century supporters of the temperance movement were not residents of remote rural areas, as has often been asserted; rather, they were concentrated in centers of economic opportunity. Which of the following, if true, best supports the conclusion reached in the art icle? (A) After 1846 the temperance movement grew rapidly and it flourished until the turn of the century. (B) Support for the ban on alcohol was strongest in New York towns where th e economy was based on new, growing industries. (C) Many young New York State farmers supported the ban on alcohol.

(D) The most adamant opponents of the ban included several affluent factory and mill owners. (E) In New York City, which was a commercial center in 1846, the sale of alco holic beverages was not banned. 3. In 1984 Exco, which sells it s products only through mail-order catalogs, began distributing its catalog to people who had never purchased Exco’s products, while it continued to distribute the catalog to previous customers. Total dollar sales increased in 1984, but Exco’s profits that year were smaller than in 1983. Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of Exco’s s maller profits in 1984, as compared to 1983? (A) There was a two percent increase in 1984 in the sales tax that consumers had to pay on all purchases from the catalog. (B) A greater number of catalogs were sent to previous customers than to pe ople who never purchased products from Exco. (C) In 1984 Exco’s product-manufacturing costs increased by a smaller amount than the products’ selling prices increased. (D) Customers who never previously purchased products from Exco purchase d, on the average, fewer products in 1984 than did previous customers. (E) The increase between 1983 and 1984 in the cost of mailing the catalogs w as greater than the increase in sales from 1983 to 1984. 4. People living in the undeveloped wilderness area want jobs, and commercial development of the area will create jobs. But if the new commercial development plan is carried out, the wilderness will suffer. Thus the board considering the area’s future must choose between the preservation of the wilderness and the wishes of the local people. The answer to which of the following questions would be LEAST relevant to ev aluating whether the board indeed faces the choice the author says it faces? (A) Could commercial development be carried out under an alternative plan w ithout damaging the wilderness? (B) Would commercial development of the wilderness area significantly benefi t people living elsewhere?

(C) Would the jobs created by the new development plan be filled by the local people? (D) Do local people support or oppose commercial development of the wildern ess area? (E) Can job be provided without commercial development of the wilderness ar ea? Questions 5-6 are based on the following. The lobbyists argued that because there is no statistical evidence that breathi ng other people’s tobacco smoke increases the incidence of heart disease or l ung cancer in healthy nonsmokers, legislation banning smoking in workplaces cannot be justified on health grounds. 5. The argument reported above would be most seriously weakened if it were true that ___________. (A) Breathing smoke-filled air increase the incidence of headaches and coughs in healthy nonsmokers. (B) Most nonsmokers dislike the odor of smoke-filled air. (C) Smoke-filled air is a major source of the dirt that damages computers and other sensitive equipment. (D) Most workers would prefer to have smoking banned in workplaces. (E) Legislation banning smoking in workplaces decreases friction between sm oking and nonsmoking workers and is easy to enforce. 6. Of the following, which is the best criticism of the argument reported above ? (A) It ignores causes of lung cancer other than smoking. (B) It neglects the damaging effects of smoke-filled air on nonsmokers who are not healthy. (C) It fails to mention the roles played by diet, exercise, and heredity in the d evelopment of heart disease.

(D) It does not consider the possibility that nonsmokers who breathe smoke-f illed air at work may become more concerned about their health. (E) It does not acknowledge that nonsmokers, even those who breathe smok e-filled air at work, are in general healthier than smokers. 7. Which of the following best completes the passage below?When a project is fa iling and should be terminated, plan to bring in a new manager. New manage rs are more likely to terminate the project than are the original managers bec ause______ (A) the project may have failed for reasons that the original manager could n ot have foreseen (B) organizations tend to reward managers who can overcome problems (C) managerial decisions to terminate a project should depend on the likeliho od of the project’s eventual success (D) the original managers were not necessarily able to overcome problems ca used by external events over which they had no control (E) the new managers have no need to justify the earlier decision to maintain the project 8. State X’s income-averaging law allows a portion of one’s income to be taxed at lower rate than the rate based on one’s total taxable income. To use income averaging, the taxpayer must have earned taxable income for a particular year that exceeds 140 percent of his or her average taxable income for the previous three years. People using income averaging owe less tax for that year than they would without income averaging. Which of the following individuals would be most seriously affected if income averaging were not permitted in computing the taxes owed for current year? (A) Individuals whose income has steadily decreased for the past three years (B) Individuals whose income increased by 50 percent four years ago and has remained the same since then (C) Individuals whose income has doubled this year after remaining about the same for five years

(D) Individuals who had no income this year, but did in each of the previous t hree years (E) Individuals who are retired and whose income has remained about the sa me for the past ten years 9. According to a recent study, fifteen corporations in the United States that follow a credo of social responsibility are also very profitable. Because of their credos, these fifteen corporations give generously to charity, follow stringent environmental-protection policies, and have vigorous affirmative-action programs. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above? (A) Following a credo of social responsibility helps to make a corporation very profitable. (B) It is possible for a corporation that follows a credo of social responsibility t o be very profitable. (C) A corporation that gives generously to charity must be doing so because o f its credo of social responsibility. (D) Corporations that are very profitable tend to give generously to charity. (E) Corporations that have vigorous affirmative-action programs also tend to follow stringent environmental-protection policies. 10. A year after the start an experiment to decrease crime in two high-crime subway stations by the installation of closed-circuit televisions, the experiment is being discontinued, city officials say the program has led to an increase in crime, citing the fact that following the installation, both stations showed increases in the number of crimes reported. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the claim of the city of ficials that the program has led to an increase in crime? (A) The two subway stations had been chosen on the basis subway stations w as higher than that of other high-crime subway stations not equipped with clo sed-circuit-television. (B) The rate of increase in crimes reported for two subway stations was highe r than that of other high-crime subway stations not equipped with closed-circ uit television.

(C) The percentage of all crimes committed at the two subway stations that w ere reported rose as a result of increased instances of observations of crime o n the closed-circuit televisions. (D) The year in which the experiment was conducted was a year in which the total number of crimes reported in the city fell (E) Closed-circuit televisions installed in shops and stores throughout the city have proved to be useful in the prevention of shoplifting and burglaries. 11. A government agency that reimburses its clients for bills they have paid for medical care has had this year’s budget cut. To save money without cutting reimbursements or otherwise harming clients financially, it plans to delay reimbursements to clients for forty days, thereby earning $180 million per year in interest on the reimbursement money. Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of the agency’s plan? (A) Hospitals and physicians typically hold patients responsible for the ultimat e payment of their bills. (B) The agency cannot save money by cutting staff because it is already unde rstaffed. (C) Some clients borrow money to pay their medical bills; they will pay forty extra days of interest on these loans. (D) Some clients pay their medical bills immediately, but they often take mor e than forty days to file with the agency for reimbursement. (E) The agency’s budget was cut by more than $180 million last year. Questions 12-13 are based on the following. Record companies defend their substitution of laser-read compact discs (CD’s) for the much less expensive traditional long-playing vinyl records in their catalogs by claiming that the audio market is ruled by consumer demand for ever-improved sound reproduction rather than by record manufacturers’ profit-motivated marketing decisions. But this claim cannot be true, because if it were true, then digital audiotape, which produces even better sound than CD’s, would be commercially available from these same record companies, but it is not.

12. Which of the following, if true, best explains how the record companies’ claim about the nature of the audio reproduction market could be true and digital audiotape nevertheless be unavailable for the commercial market? (A) Most consumers prefer audiotape to long-playing records or CD’s because of the tape’s durability and compactness. (B) Prototypes of digital audiotape have been used to make master tapes of s ome performances in recording studios. (C) The manufacturing technology that underlies the commercial production o f CD’s requires equipment very similar to that needed for commercial producti on of digital audiotape. (D) Record companies have not yet solved several quality-control problems that have beset attempts to produce digital audiotape in commercial quantities. (E) CD’s are more expensive than long-playing vinyl records by about the same ratio as digital audiotape cassettes would be more expensive than conventional cassettes. 13. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument against the record companies’ claim? (A) When CD’s were first introduced in the audio-reproduction market, prices were high and selection was poor. (B) Record companies are reluctant to attempt commercial production of digit al audiotape until profits from the sales of CD’s have enabled them to recover their investments in compact-disc manufacturing technology. (C) Some CD’s have been so much in demand that consumers have experienc ed long delays in obtaining copies. (D) Because CD’s work according to principles very different from those that govern conventional recordings, commercial production of CD’s requires new kinds of manufacturing technology. (E) Any valid comparison of CD audio reproductions to digital audiotape repro ductions must be based on identical performances played back on the highest quality disc or tape player. 14. The president of a consulting firm analyzed the decisions made about marketing by her clients and concluded that the decisions were correct only

about half of the time. The conclusion above depends on the presupposition that (A) companies can be successful even when about half of the decisions they make about marketing prove to be wrong (B) companies hiring her consulting firm make no more incorrect marketing d ecisions than do companies in general (C) executives consistently making correct marketing decisions rarely enlist th e aid of a consulting firm (D) marketing decision are just as likely to be correct as they are to be incorr ect (E) it is possible to classify a marketing decision properly as being either right or wrong 15. It is true that unionized women earn, on average, more than a third more than nonunionized women do. But the unionized women work in industries where wages happen to be high, their nonunionized counterparts in these industries earn about as much as they do. Therefore unionization does not raise women’s wages. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? (A) Besides wage increases, unions bargain for benefits such as medical insur ance and workplace safety. (B) The most highly paid women are in executive positions, which are not uni onized. (C) Wages in many industries vary from one part of the country to another, r egardless of whether workers are unionized or not. (D) Nonunionized women in an industry often receive income increases as a r esult of increases won by unions representing women who work for other em ployers in the same industry. (E) The unionization of women who work for one employer in a given industry frequently prompts the unionization of women who work for other employers in the same industry.

16. A violin constructed to have improved sound would sound different from the best-sounding existing violins.To professional violinists, a violin that sounds different from the best-sounding existing violins sounds less like a violin and therefore worse than the best-sounding existing violins.Professional violinists are the only accepted judges of the sound quality of violins. Would be the best supported by those statements? (A) Only amateur violinists should be asked to judge the sound quality of new ly constructed violins. (B) Professional violinists supervise the construction of violins. (C) The best-sounding existing violins have been in existence fro several cent uries. (D) It is currently impossible to construct a violin that the only accepted judg es will evaluate as having improved sound (E) It is possible to construct a violin that sounds better than the best-soundi ng existing violins to everyone but professional violinists. 17. The fact that several of the largest senior citizens’ organizations are constituted almost exclusively of middle-class elderly people has led critics to question the seriousness of those organizations’ commitment to speaking out on behalf of the needs of economically disadvantaged elderly people. Which of the following generalizations, if true, would help to substantiate the criticism implicit in the statement above? (A) The ideology of an organization tends reflect the traditional political climat e of its locale. (B) The needs of disadvantaged elderly people differ in some ways from those of other disadvantaged groups within contemporary society. (C) Organized groups are better able to publicize their problems and seek red ress than individuals acting alone. (D) Middle-class elderly people are more likely to join organizations than are economically disadvantaged elderly people (E) People usually join organizations whose purpose is to further the economi c, political, or social interests of their members.

18. Corporate Officer: Last year was an unusually poor one for our chemical division, which has traditionally contributed about 60 percent of the corporation’s profits. It is therefore encouraging that there is the following evidence that the pharmaceutical division is growing stronger: it contributed 45 percent of the corporation’s profits, up from 20 percent the previous year. On the basis of the facts stated, which of the following is the best critique of t he evidence presented above? (A) The increase in the pharmaceutical division’s contribution to corporation p rofits could have resulted largely from the introduction of single, important ne w product. (B) In multidivisional corporations that have pharmaceutical divisions, over ha lf of the corporation’s profits usually come from the pharmaceuticals. (C) The percentage of the corporation’s profits attributable to the pharmaceut ical division could have increased even if that division’s performance had not i mproved. (D) The information cited does not make it possible to determine whether the 20 percent share of profits cited was itself an improvement over the year bef ore. (E) The information cited does not make it possible to compare the performan ce of the chemical and pharmaceutical divisions in of the percent of total profi ts attributable to each. 19. Identical twins tend to have similar personalities; if environment outweighs heredity in personality development, twins raised together should presumably have more similar personalities than those raised apart. A recent study of identical twins in both situations measured 11 key traits through a questionnaire, and concluded that 7 of the 11 are primarily products of heredity. Which of the following, if established, would cast the most doubt on the study ’s results? (A) Fewer than half of the pairs of twins studied were raised separately. (B) The ages of all of the twins studied fell within a 10-year range. (C) Some of the traits that the study attributed to heredity developed in the s

eparately raised twins because those pairs all grew up in similar families. (D) Although over half the traits measured were determined to be linked to h eredity, the nature of those traits varied widely (E) The 11 traits that were measured constitute a representative sample of la rger, generally accepted pool of key personality traits. 20. When people predict that certain result will not take place unless a certain action is taken, they believe that they have learned that the prediction is correct when the action is taken and the result occurs. On reflection, however, it often becomes clear that the result admits of more than one interpretation. Which of the following, if true, best supports the claims above? (A) Judging the success of an action requires specifying the goal of the action.

(B) Judging which action to take after a prediction is made requires knowing a bout other actions that have been successful in similar past situations. (C) Learning whether a certain predictive strategy is good requires knowing t he result using that strategy through several trials. (D) Distinguishing a correct prediction and effective action from an incorrect p rediction and ineffective action is often impossible. (E) Making a successful prediction requires knowing the facts about the conte xt of that prediction.

参考答案: 1. A 6. B 11. C 16. D 2. B 7. E 12. D 17. E 3. E 8. C 13. B 18. C 4. B 9. B 14. E 19. C 5. A 10. C 15. D 20. D

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(8) 1. Nearly one in three subscribers to Financial Forecaster is a millionaire, and over half are in top management. Shouldn’t you subscribe to Financial Foreca ster now?A reader who is neither a millionaire nor in top management would be most likely to act in accordance with the advertisement’s suggestion if he or she drew which of the following questionable conclusions invited by the adv ertisement? (A) Among finance-related periodicals. Financial Forecaster provides the most detailed financial information. (B) Top managers cannot do their jobs properly without reading Financial For ecaster. (C) The advertisement is placed where those who will be likely to read it are millionaires. (D) The subscribers mentioned were helped to become millionaires or join top management by reading Financial Forecaster. (E) Only those who will in fact become millionaires, or at least top managers, will read the advertisement. Questions 2-3 are based on the following. Contrary to the charges made by some of its opponents, the provisions of the new deficit-reduction law for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget are justified. Opponents should remember that the New Deal pulled this country out of great economic troubles even though some of its programs were later found to be unconstitutional. 2. The author’s method of attacking the charges of certain opponents of the n ew deficit-reduction law is to (A) attack the character of the opponents rather than their claim (B) imply an analogy between the law and some New Deal programs (C) point out that the opponents’ claims imply a dilemma (D) show that the opponents’ reasoning leads to an absurd conclusion (E) show that the New Deal also called for indiscriminate cuts in the federal b

udget 3. The opponents could effectively defend their position against the author’s s trategy by pointing out that (A) the expertise of those opposing the law is outstanding (B) the lack of justification for the new law does not imply that those who dre w it up were either inept or immoral (C) the practical application of the new law will not entail indiscriminate budg et cuts (D) economic troubles present at the time of the New Deal were equal in seve rity to those that have led to the present law (E) the fact that certain flawed programs or laws have improved the economy does not prove that every such program can do so 4. In Millington, a city of 50,000 people, Mercedes Pedrosa, a realtor, calculat ed that a family with Millington’s median family income, $28,000 a year, coul d afford to buy Millington’s median-priced $77,000 house. This calculation was based on an 11.2 percent mortgage interest rate and on the realtor’s assumption that a family could only afford to pay up to 25 percent of its income for housing. Which of the following corrections of a figure appearing in the passage above, if it were the only correction that needed to be made, would yield a new calc ulation showing that even incomes below the median family income would en able families in Millington to afford Millington’s median-priced house? (A) Millington’s total population was 45,000 people. (B) Millington’s median annual family income was $27,000. (C) Millington’s median-priced house cost $80,000. (D) The rate at which people in Millington had to pay mortgage interest was o nly 10 percent. (E) Families in Millington could only afford to pay up to 22 percent of their an nual income for housing. 5. Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players ar

e more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn b y the psychological researchers? (A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive duri ng the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers. (B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at th e start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness. (C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey pl ayers had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimm ers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors. (D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who pa rticipated in both contact and noncontact sports (E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at bas eball games than occur at hockey or football games. 6. Ross: The profitability of Company X, restored to private ownership five ye ars ago, is clear evidence that businesses will always fare better under private than under public ownership. Julia: Wrong. A close look at the records shows that X has been profitable sin ce the appointment of a first-class manager, which happened while X was still in the pubic sector. Which of the following best describes the weak point in Ross’s claim on which Julia’s response focuses? (A) The evidence Ross cites comes from only a single observed case, that of C ompany X. (B) The profitability of Company X might be only temporary. (C) Ross’s statement leaves open the possibility that the cause he cites came after the effect he attributes to it.

(D) No mention is made of companies that are partly government owned and partly privately owned. (E) No exact figures are given for the current profits of Company X. 7. Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the dev elopment of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently resul ts in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the infor mation above? (A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manuf acturers. (B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by th e creation of more manufacturing jobs. (C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new produc ts and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws. (D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic reces sion. (E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for ma ny manufacturers. 8. Which of the following best completes the passage below?At large amusem ent parks, live shows are used very deliberately to influence crowd movement s. Lunchtime performances relieve the pressure on a park’s restaurants. Eveni ng performances have a rather different purpose: to encourage visitors to sta y for supper. Behind this surface divergence in immediate purpose there is th e unified underlying goal of______ (A) keeping the lines at the various rides short by drawing off part of the crow d (B) enhancing revenue by attracting people who come only for the live shows and then leave the park (C) avoiding as far as possible traffic jams caused by visitors entering or leavi ng the park

(D) encouraging as many people as possible to come to the park in order to e at at the restaurants (E) utilizing the restaurants at optimal levels for as much of the day as possib le 9. James weighs more than Kelly. Luis weighs more than Mark. Mark weighs less than Ned. Kelly and Ned are exactly the same weight. If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true? (A) Luis weighs more than Ned. (B) Luis weighs more than James. (C) Kelly weighs less than Luis. (D) James weighs more than Mark. (E) Kelly weighs less than Mark. Questions 10-11 are based on the following. Partly because of bad weather, but also partly because some major pepper gr owers have switched to high-priced cocoa, world production of pepper has been running well below worldwide sales for three years. Pepper is consequently in relatively short supply. The price of pepper has soared in response: it now equals that of cocoa. 10. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? (A) Pepper is a profitable crop only if it is grown on a large scale. (B) World consumption of pepper has been unusually high for three years. (C) World production of pepper will return to previous levels once normal wea ther returns.

(D) Surplus stocks of pepper have been reduced in the past three years. (E) The profits that the growers of pepper have made in the past three years have been unprecedented. 11. Some observers have concluded that the rise in the price of pepper mean s that the switch by some growers from pepper to cocoa left those growers no better off than if none of them had switched; this conclusion, however, is un warranted because it can be inferred to be likely that (A) those growers could not have foreseen how high the price of pepper woul d go (B) the initial cost involved in switching from pepper to cocoa is substantial (C) supplies of pepper would not be as low as they are if those growers had n ot switched crops (D) cocoa crops are as susceptible to being reduced by bad weather as are pe pper crops (E) as more growers turn to growing cocoa, cocoa supplies will increase and t he price of cocoa will fall precipitously 12. Using computer techniques, researchers analyze layers of paint that lie bu ried beneath the surface layers of old paintings. They claim, for example, that additional mountainous scenery once appeared in Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona L isa, which was later painted over. Skeptics reply to these claims, however, th at X-ray examinations of the Mona Lisa do not show hidden mountains. Which of the following, if true, would tend most to weaken the force of the sk eptics’ objections? (A) There is no written or anecdotal record that Leonardo da Vinci ever painte d over major areas of his Mona Lisa. (B) Painters of da Vinci’s time commonly created images of mountainous scen ery in the backgrounds of portraits like the Mona Lisa. (C) No one knows for certain what parts of the Mona Lisa may have been pain ted by da Vinci’s assistants rather than by da Vinci himself. (D) Infrared photography of the Mona Lisa has revealed no trace of hidden m ountainous scenery.

(E) Analysis relying on X-rays only has the capacity to detect lead-based white pigments in layers of paint beneath a painting’s surface layers. 13. While Governor Verdant has been in office, the state’s budget has increas ed by an average of 6 percent each year. While the previous governor was in office, the state’s budget increased by an average of 11.5 percent each year. Obviously, the austere budgets during Governor Verdant’s term have caused t he slowdown in the growth in state spending. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion dr awn above? (A) The rate of inflation in the state averaged 10 percent each year during the previous governor’s term in office and 3 percent each year during Verdant’s t erm. (B) Both federal and state income tax rates have been lowered considerably d uring Verdant’s term in office. (C) In each year of Verdant’s term in office, the state’s budget has shown so me increase in spending over the previous year. (D) During Verdant’s term in office, the state has either discontinued or begu n to charge private citizens for numerous services that the state offered free t o citizens during the previous governor’s term. (E) During the previous governor’s term in office, the state introduced several so-called “austerity” budgets intended to reduce the growth in state spending . 14. Federal agricultural programs aimed at benefiting one group whose livelih ood depends on farming often end up harming another such group. Which of the following statements provides support for the claim above? I. An effort to help feed-grain producers resulted in higher prices for their crops, but the higher prices decreased the profits of livestock producers. II. In order to reduce crop surpluses and increase prices, growers of certain cr ops were paid to leave a portion of their land idle, but the reduction was not a chieved because improvements in efficiency resulted in higher production on t he land in use.

III. Many farm workers were put out of work when a program meant to raise the price of grain provided grain growers with an incentive to reduce producti on by giving them surplus grain from government reserves. (A) I, but not II and not III (B) II, but not I and not III (C) I and III, but not II (D) II and III, but not I (E) I, II and III 15. Technological education is worsening. People between eighteen and twent y-four, who are just emerging from their formal education, are more likely to be technologically illiterate than somewhat older adults. And yet, issues for pu blic referenda will increasingly involve aspects of technology. Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above? (A) If all young people are to make informed decisions on public referenda, m any of them must learn more about technology. (B) Thorough studies of technological issues and innovations should be made a required part of the public and private school curriculum. (C) It should be suggested that prospective voters attend applied science cou rses in order to acquire a minimal competency in technical matters. (D) If young people are not to be overly influenced by famous technocrats, th ey must increase their knowledge of pure science. (E) On public referenda issues, young people tend to confuse real or probable technologies with impossible ideals. 16. In a political system with only two major parties, the entrance of a third-p arty candidate into an election race damages the chances of only one of the two major candidates. The third-party candidate always attracts some of the voters who might otherwise have voted for one of the two major candidates, but not voters who support the other candidate. Since a third-party candidacy affects the two major candidates unequally, for reasons neither of them has any control over, the practice is unfair and should not be allowed.

If the factual information in the passage above is true, which of the following can be most reliably inferred from it? (A) If the political platform of the third party is a compromise position betwee n that of the two major parties, the third party will draw its voters equally fro m the two major parties. (B) If, before the emergence of a third party, voters were divided equally bet ween the two major parties, neither of the major parties is likely to capture m uch more than one-half of the vote. (C) A third-party candidate will not capture the votes of new voters who have never voted for candidates of either of the two major parties. (D) The political stance of a third party will be more radical than that of either of the two major parties. (E) The founders of a third party are likely to be a coalition consisting of form er leaders of the two major parties. 17. Companies considering new cost-cutting manufacturing processes often compare the projected results of making the investment against the alternative of not making the investment with costs, selling prices, and share of market remaining constant. Which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility, constitute s the most serious disadvantage for companies of using the method above for evaluating the financial benefit of new manufacturing processes? (A) The costs of materials required by the new process might not be known w ith certainty. (B) In several years interest rates might go down, reducing the interest costs of borrowing money to pay for the investment. (C) Some cost-cutting processes might require such expensive investments that there would be no net gain for many years, until the investment was paid for by savings in the manufacturing process. (D) Competitors that do invest in a new process might reduce their selling pri ces and thus take market share away from companies that do not. (E) The period of year chosen for averaging out the cost of the investment mi

ght be somewhat longer or shorter, thus affecting the result. 18. There are far fewer children available for adoption than there are people who want to adopt. Two million couples are currently waiting to adopt, but in 1982, the last year for which figures exist, there were only some 50,000 adop tions. Which of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the author’s clai m that there are far fewer children available for adoption than there are peopl e who want to adopt? (A) The number of couples waiting to adopt has increased significantly in the l ast decade. (B) The number of adoptions in the current year is greater than the number o f adoptions in any preceding year. (C) The number of adoptions in a year is approximately equal to the number of children available for adoption in that period. (D) People who seek to adopt children often go through a long process of inte rviews and investigation by adoption agencies (E) People who seek to adopt children generally make very good parents. Questions 19-20 are based on the following. Archaeologists seeking the location of a legendary siege and destruction of a city are excavating in several possible places, including a middle and a lower l ayer of a large mound. The bottom of the middle layer contains some pieces o f pottery of type 3, known to be from a later period than the time of the destr uction of the city, but the lower layer does not. 19. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the evidence abov e? (A) The lower layer contains the remains of the city where the siege took plac e. (B) The legend confuses stories from two different historical periods. (C) The middle layer does not represent the period of the siege. (D) The siege lasted for a long time before the city was destroyed.

(E) The pottery of type 3 was imported to the city by traders. 20. The force of the evidence cited above is most seriously weakened if which of the following is true? (A) Gerbils, small animals long native to the area, dig large burrows into whic h objects can fall when the burrows collapse. (B) Pottery of types 1 and 2, found in the lower level, was used in the cities fr om which, according to the legend, the besieging forces came. (C) Several pieces of stone from a lower-layer wall have been found incorporated into the remains of a building in the middle layer. (D) Both the middle and the lower layer show evidence of large-scale destruction of habitations by fire. (E) Bronze ax heads of a type used at the time of the siege were found in the lower level of excavation.

参考答案: 1. D 6. C 11. C 16. B 2. B 7. E 12. E 17. D 3. E 8. E 13. A 18. C 4. D 9. D 14. C 19. C 5. A 10. D 15. A 20. A

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(9) 1.After the national speed limit of 55 miles per hour was imposed in 1974, th e number of deaths per mile driven on a highway fell abruptly as a result. Sin ce then, however, the average speed of vehicles on highways has risen, but t he number of deaths per mile driven on a highway has continued to fall. Whic h of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements abo ve? (A) The speed limit alone is probably not responsible for the continued reducti on in highway deaths in the years after 1974. (B) People have been driving less since 1974. (C) Driver-education courses have been more effective since 1974 in teaching drivers to drive safely. (D) In recent years highway patrols have been less effective in catching drive rs who speed. (E) The change in the speed limit cannot be responsible for the abrupt decline in highway deaths in 1974. 2. Neighboring landholders: Air pollution from the giant aluminum refinery that has been built next to our land is killing our plants.Company spokesperson: The refinery is not to blame, since our study shows that the damage is due to insects and fungi.Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn by the company spokesperson? (A) The study did not measure the quantity of pollutants emitted into the surr ounding air by the aluminum refinery. (B) The neighboring landholders have made no change in the way they take c are of their plants. (C) Air pollution from the refinery has changed the chemical balance in the pl ants’ environment, allowing the harmful insects and fungi to thrive. (D) Pollutants that are invisible and odorless are emitted into the surrounding air by the refinery. (E) The various species of insects and fungi mentioned in the study have been occasionally found in the locality during the past hundred years.

3. Sales taxes tend to be regressive, affecting poor people more severely than wealthy people. When all purchases of consumer goods are taxed at a fixed percentage of the purchase price, poor people pay a larger proportion of their income in sales taxes than wealthy people do.It can be correctly inferred on the basis of the statements above that which of the following is true? (A) Poor people constitute a larger proportion of the taxpaying population tha n wealthy people do. (B) Poor people spend a larger proportion of their income on purchases of con sumer goods than wealthy people do. (C) Wealthy people pay, on average, a larger amount of sales taxes than poor people do. (D) The total amount spent by all poor people on purchases of consumer goo ds exceeds the total amount spent by all wealthy people on consumer goods. (E) The average purchase price of consumer goods bought by wealthy people is higher than that of consumer goods bought by poor people. 4. Reviewing historical data, medical researchers in California found that counties with the largest number of television sets per capita have had the lowest incidence of a serious brain disease, mosquito-borne encephalitis. The researchers have concluded that people in these counties stay indoors more and thus avoid exposure to the disease.The researchers’ conclusion would be most strengthened if which of the following were true? (A) Programs designed to control the size of disease-bearing mosquito populations have not affected the incidence of mosquito borne encephalitis. (B) The occupations of county residents affect their risk of exposure to mosqu ito-borne encephalitis more than does television-watching. (C) The incidence of mosquito-borne encephalitis in counties with the largest number of television sets per capita is likely to decrease even further. (D) The more time people in a county spend outdoors, the greater their awar eness of the dangers of mosquito-borne encephalitis. (E) The more television sets there are per capita in a county, the more time t he average county resident spends watching television. 5. The city’s public transportation system should be removed from the

jurisdiction of the municipal government, which finds it politically impossible either to raise fares or to institute cost-saving reductions in service. If public transportation were handled by a private firm, profits would be vigorously pursued, thereby eliminating the necessity for covering operating costs with government funds.The statements above best support the conclusion that (A) the private firms that would handle public transportation would have expe rience in the transportation industry (B) political considerations would not prevent private firms from ensuring that revenues cover operating costs (C) private firms would receive government funding if it were needed to cover operating costs (D) the public would approve the cost-cutting actions taken by the private fir m (E) the municipal government would not be resigned to accumulating merely enough income to cover costs 6. To entice customers away from competitors, Red Label supermarkets have begun offering discounts on home appliances to customers who spend $50 or more on any shopping trip to Red Label. Red Label executives claim that the discount program has been a huge success, since cash register receipts of $50 or more are up thirty percent since the beginning of the program.Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the claim of the Red Label executives? (A) Most people who switched to Red Label after the program began spend m ore than $50 each time they shop at Red Label. (B) Most people whose average grocery bill is less than $50 would not be pers uaded to spend more by any discount program. (C) Most people who received discounts on home appliances through Red Lab el’s program will shop at Red Label after the program ends. (D) Since the beginning of the discount program, most of the people who spe nd $50 or more at Red Label are people who have never before shopped ther e and whose average grocery bill has always been higher than $50. (E) Almost all of the people who have begun spending $50 or more at Red La bel since the discount program began are longtime customers who have incre

ased the average amount of their shopping bills by making fewer trips. 7. Throughout the 1950’s, there were increases in the numbers of dead birds found in agricultural areas after pesticide sprayings. Pesticide manufacturers claimed that the publicity given to bird deaths stimulated volunteers to look for dead birds, and that the increase in numbers reported was attributable to the increase in the number of people looking.Which of the following statements, if true, would help to refute the claim of the pesticide manufacturers? (A) The publicity given to bird deaths was largely regional and never reached national proportions. (B) Pesticide sprayings were timed to coincide with various phases of the life cycles of the insects they destroyed. (C) No provision was made to ensure that a dead bird would not be reported by more than one observer. (D) Initial increases in bird deaths had been noticed by agricultural workers lo ng before any publicity had been given to the matter. (E) Dead birds of the same species as those found in agricultural areas had b een found along coastal areas where no farming took place. 8. Teenagers are often priced out of the labor market by the government-mandated minimum-wage level because employers cannot afford to pay that much for extra help. Therefore, if Congress institutes a subminimum wage, a new lower legal wage for teenagers, the teenage unemployment rate, which has been rising since 1960, will no longer increase.Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above? (A) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen when the minimum wage has risen. (B) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen even when the mini mum wage remained constant. (C) Employers often hire extra help during holiday and warm weather seasons . (D) The teenage unemployment rate rose more quickly in the 1970’s than it d id in the 1960’s. (E) The teenage unemployment rate has occasionally declined in the years sin

ce 1960. 9. Which of the following best completes the passage below?The computer ind ustry’s estimate that it loses millions of dollars when users illegally copy progr ams without paying for them is greatly exaggerated. Most of the illegal copyin g is done by people with no serious interest in the programs. Thus, the loss to the industry is much smaller than estimated because______ (A) many users who illegally copy programs never find any use for them (B) most of the illegally copied programs would not be purchased even if purc hasing them were the only way to obtain them (C) even if the computer industry received all the revenue it claims to be losin g, it would still be experiencing financial difficulties (D) the total market value of all illegal copies is low in comparison to the total revenue of the computer industry (E) the number of programs that are frequently copied illegally is low in comp arison to the number of programs available for sale 10. This year the New Hampshire Division of Company X set a new record for annual sales by that division. This record is especially surprising since the New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market and the lowest sales of any of Company X’s divisions.Which of the following identifies a flaw in the logical coherence of the statement above? (A) If overall sales for Company X were sharply reduced, the New Hampshire Division’s new sales record is irrelevant to the company’s prosperity. (B) Since the division is competing against its own record, the comparison of i ts sales record with that of other divisions is irrelevant. (C) If this is the first year that the New Hampshire Division has been last in s ales among Company X’s divisions, the new record is not surprising at all. (D) If overall sales for Company X were greater than usual, it is not surprising that the New Hampshire Division was last in sales. (E) Since the New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market, it is not surprising that it had the lowest sales. 11. Statement of a United States copper mining company: Import quotas

should be imposed on the less expensive copper mined outside the country to maintain the price of copper in this country; otherwise, our companies will not be able to stay in business.Response of a United States copper wire manufacturer: United States wire and cable manufacturers purchase about 70 percent of the copper mined in the United States. If the copper prices we pay are not at the international level, our sales will drop, and then the demand for United States copper will go down.If the factual information presented by both companies is accurate, the best assessment of the logical relationship between the two arguments is that the wire manufacturer’s argument (A) is self-serving and irrelevant to the proposal of the mining company (B) is circular, presupposing what it seeks to prove about the proposal of the mining company (C) shows that the proposal of the mining company would have a negative eff ect on the mining company’s own business (D) fails to give a reason why the proposal of the mining company should not be put into effect to alleviate the concern of the mining company for staying i n business (E) establishes that even the mining company’s business will prosper if the mi ning company’s proposal is rejected 12. Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.Which of the following further observations would best support the new report’s suggestion? (A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z. (B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z. (C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z. (D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X. (E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y. 13. Mr. Primm: If hospitals were private enterprises, dependent on profits for their survival, there would be no teaching hospitals, because of the intrinsically high cost of running such hospitals.Ms. Nakai: I disagree. The medical challenges provided by teaching hospitals attract the very best physicians. This,

in turn, enables those hospitals to concentrate on nonroutine cases.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Ms. Nakai’s attempt to refute Mr. Primm’s claim? (A) Doctors at teaching hospitals command high salaries. (B) Sophisticated, nonroutine medical care commands a high price. (C) Existing teaching hospitals derive some revenue from public subsidies. (D) The patient mortality rate at teaching hospitals is high. (E) The modern trend among physicians is to become highly specialized. 14. A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true? (A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. (B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car. (C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured. (D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. (E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involv e any serious injury. 15. Six months or so after getting a video recorder, many early buyers apparently lost interest in obtaining videos to watch on it. The trade of businesses selling and renting videos is still buoyant, because the number of homes with video recorders is still growing. But clearly, once the market for video recorders is saturated, businesses distributing videos face hard times.Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion above?

(A) The market for video recorders would not be considered saturated until th ere was one in 80 percent of homes. (B) Among the items handled by video distributors are many films specifically produced as video features. (C) Few of the early buyers of video recorders raised any complaints about pe rformance aspects of the new product. (D) The early buyers of a novel product are always people who are quick to a cquire novelties, but also often as quick to tire of them. (E) In a shrinking market, competition always intensifies and marginal busine sses fail. 16. Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the prices per copy of their publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers benefit economically from advertising.Consumer: But who pays for the advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines? We consumers do, because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products.Which of the following best describes how the consumer counters the advertiser’s argument? (A) By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of the a dvertiser’s conclusion (B) By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which th e advertiser’s conclusion is based (C) By offering an interpretation of the advertiser’s opening statement that, if accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it (D) By pointing out that the advertiser’s point of view is biased (E) By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic 17. Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead to happier, better-adjusted families.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

(A) An employee’s high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor a djustment for his or her family. (B) People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside th e home have higher stress levels than those who do not. (C) The goal of a national family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.

(D) Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation requiri ng employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-spo nsored day care. (E) Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well adjusted. 18. Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the program’s existence than they were at the program’s start. Obviously, any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs.Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above EXCEPT: (A) The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful. (B) The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither p articipated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark mac hine operators who participated in Quality Circles. (C) While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine oper ators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction: incr eased productivity and decreased absenteeism. (D) Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Cir cles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in Q uality Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increase d. (E) The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that, when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their wo

rk situations. Questions 19-20 are based on the following. Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Althoug h the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all pr ospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANBcontaminated blood. 19. The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions? (A) Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, car ry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed. (B) Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, de velop the disease themselves at any point. (C) The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests f or NANB hepatitis is an underestimate. (D) The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donor s than it is in the population at large. (E) The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood at the average frequency for all donors. 20. Which of the following inferences about the consequences of instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above? (A) The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10 perc ent. (B) Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to bec ome less frequent. (C) The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongl y. (D) The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down. (E) The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent .

参考答案: 1.A 6.E 11.C 16.A 2.C 7.D 12.A 17.A 3.B 8.B 13.B 18.E 4.E 9.B 14.A 19.A 5.B 10.B 15.D 20.D

2013 年 GMAT 逻辑推理模拟训练(10) 1.Child’s World, a chain of toy stores, has relied on a “supermarket concept” of computerized inventory control and customer self-service to eliminate the category of sales clerks from its force of employees. It now plans to employ the same concept in selling children’s clothes.The plan of Child’s World assumes that (A) supermarkets will not also be selling children’s clothes in the same manne r (B) personal service by sales personnel is not required for selling children’s cl othes successfully (C) the same kind of computers will be used in inventory control for both clot hes and toys at Child’s World (D) a self-service plan cannot be employed without computerized inventory c ontrol (E) sales clerks are the only employees of Child’s World who could be assigne d tasks related to inventory control 2. Continuous indoor fluorescent light benefits the health of hamsters with inherited heart disease. A group of them exposed to continuous fluorescent light survived twenty-five percent longer than a similar group exposed instead to equal periods of indoor fluorescent light and of darkness.The method of the research described above is most likely to be applicable in addressing which of the following questions? (A) Can industrial workers who need to see their work do so better by sunligh t or by fluorescent light? (B) Can hospital lighting be improved to promote the recovery of patients? (C) How do deep-sea fish survive in total darkness? (D) What are the inherited illnesses to which hamsters are subject? (E) Are there plants that require specific periods of darkness in order to bloo m? 3. Millions of identical copies of a plant can be produced using new tissue-culture

and cloning techniques.If plant propagation by such methods in laboratories proves economical, each of the following, if true, represents a benefit of the new techniques to farmers EXCEPT: (A) The techniques allow the development of superior strains to take place m ore rapidly, requiring fewer generations of plants grown to maturity. (B) It is less difficult to care for plants that will grow at rates that do not vary widely. (C) Plant diseases and pests, once they take hold, spread more rapidly amon g genetically uniform plants than among those with genetic variations. (D) Mechanical harvesting of crops is less difficult if plants are more uniform i n size. (E) Special genetic traits can more easily be introduced into plant strains with the use of the new techniques. 4. Which of the following best completes the passage below?Sales campaigns ai med at the faltering personal computer market have strongly emphasized eas e of use, called user-friendliness. This emphasis is oddly premature and irrelevant in the eyes of most potential buyers, who are trying to address the logically prior issue of whether______ (A) user-friendliness also implies that owners can service their own computer s (B) personal computers cost more the more user-friendly they are (C) currently available models are user-friendly enough to suit them (D) the people promoting personal computers use them in their own homes (E) they have enough sensible uses for a personal computer to justify the exp ense of buying one 5. A weapons-smuggling incident recently took place in country Y. We all know that Y is a closed society. So Y’s government must have known about the weapons. Which of the following is an assumption that would make the conclusion abov e logically correct?

(A) If a government knows about a particular weapons-smuggling incident, it must have intended to use the weapons for its own purposes. (B) If a government claims that it knew nothing about a particular weapons-s muggling incident, it must have known everything about it. (C) If a government does not permit weapons to enter a country, it is a close d society. (D) If a country is a closed society, its government has a large contingent of a rmed guards patrolling its borders. (E) If a country is a closed society, its government has knowledge about ever ything that occurs in the country. 6. Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will not reduce the number of young people who smoke. They know that cigarettes exist and they know how to get them. They do not need the advertisements to supply that information. The above argument would be most weakened if which of the following were t rue? (A) Seeing or hearing an advertisement for a product tends to increase peopl e’s desire for that product. (B) Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will cause an increas e in advertisements in places where cigarettes are sold. (C) Advertisements in the mass media have been an exceedingly large part of the expenditures of the tobacco companies. (D) Those who oppose cigarette use have advertised against it in the mass m edia ever since cigarettes were found to be harmful. (E) Older people tend to be less influenced by mass-media advertisements than younger people tend to be. 7. People tend to estimate the likelihood of an event’s occurrence according to its salience; that is, according to how strongly and how often it comes to their attention.By placement and headlines, newspapers emphasize stories about local crime over stories about crime elsewhere and about many other major events.

It can be concluded on the basis of the statements above that, if they are tru e, which of the following is most probably also true? (A) The language used in newspaper headlines about local crime is inflammat ory and fails to respect the rights of suspects. (B) The coverage of international events in newspapers is neglected in favor o f the coverage of local events. (C) Readers of local news in newspapers tend to overestimate the amount of crime in their own localities relative to the amount of crime in other places. (D) None of the events concerning other people that are reported in newspap ers is so salient in people’s minds as their own personal experiences. (E) The press is the news medium that focuses people’s attention most strong ly on local crimes. 8. By analyzing the garbage of a large number of average-sized households, a group of modern urban anthropologists has found that a household discards less food the more standardized—made up of canned and prepackaged foods—its diet is. The more standardized a household’s diet is, however, the greater the quantities of fresh produce the household throws away. Which of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? (A) An increasing number of households rely on a highly standardized diet. (B) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the more nonfood waste the h ousehold discards. (C) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the smaller is the proportion o f fresh produce in the household’s food waste. (D) The less standardized a household’s diet is, the more canned and prepack aged foods the household discards as waste (E) The more fresh produce a household buys, the more fresh produce it thro ws away. Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men;

these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupi ed by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-do minated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop. 9. The argument above is based on ___________ (A) another argument that contains circular reasoning (B) an attempt to refute a generalization by means of an exceptional case (C) an analogy between the past and the future (D) an appeal to popular beliefs and values (E) an attack on the character of the opposition 10. Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above? (A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped. (B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase. (C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in rec ent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable. (D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it wil l be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women. (E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in th e past. 11. An electric-power company gained greater profits and provided electricity to consumers at lower rates per unit of electricity by building larger-capacity more efficient plants and by stimulating greater use of electricity within its area. To continue these financial trends, the company planned to replace an old plant by a plant with triple the capacity of its largest plant.

The company’s plan as described above assumed each of the following EXCEP T: (A) Demand for electricity within the company’s area of service would increas e in the future. (B) Expenses would not rise beyond the level that could be compensated for b y efficiency or volume of operation, or both. (C) The planned plant would be sufficiently reliable in service to contribute a net financial benefit to the company as a whole. (D) Safety measures to be instituted for the new plant would be the same as those for the plant it would replace. (E) The tripling of capacity would not result in insuperable technological obsta cles to efficiency. Questions 12-13 are based on the following. Meteorologists say that if only they could design an accurate mathematical m odel of the atmosphere with all its complexities, they could forecast the weath er with real precision. But this is an idle boast, immune to any evaluation, for any inadequate weather forecast would obviously be blamed on imperfections in the model. 12. Which of the following, if true, could best be used as a basis for arguing against the author’s position that the meteorologists’ claim cannot be evaluated? (A) Certain unusual configurations of data can serve as the basis for precise w eather forecasts even though the exact causal mechanisms are not understoo d. (B) Most significant gains in the accuracy of the relevant mathematical model s are accompanied by clear gains in the precision of weather forecasts. (C) Mathematical models of the meteorological aftermath of such catastrophic events as volcanic eruptions are beginning to be constructed. (D) Modern weather forecasts for as much as a full day ahead are broadly cor rect about 80 percent of the time. (E) Meteorologists readily concede that the accurate mathematical model they

are talking about is not now in their power to construct. 13. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the meteorologists’ boast, aside from the doubt expressed in the passage above? (A) The amount of energy that the Earth receives from the Sun is monitored c losely and is known not to be constant. (B) Volcanic eruptions, the combustion of fossil fuels, and several other proce sses that also cannot be quantified with any accuracy are known to have a sig nificant and continuing impact on the constitution of the atmosphere. (C) As current models of the atmosphere are improved, even small increment s in complexity will mean large increases in the number of computers require d for the representation of the models. (D) Frequent and accurate data about the atmosphere collected at a large nu mber of points both on and above the ground are a prerequisite for the constr uction of a good model of the atmosphere. (E) With existing models of the atmosphere, large scale weather patterns can be predicted with greater accuracy than can relatively local weather patterns. 14. Of the countries that were the world’s twenty largest exporters in 1953, four had the same share of total world exports in 1984 as in 1953. Theses countries can therefore serve as models for those countries that wish to keep their share of the global export trade stable over the years. Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the suitability of those four countries as models in the sense described? (A) Many countries wish to increase their share of world export trade, not just keep it stable. (B) Many countries are less concerned with exports alone than with he balanc e between exports and imports. (C) With respect to the mix of products each exports, the four countries are v ery different from each other. (D) Of the four countries, two had a much larger, and two had a much smalle r, share of total world exports in 1970 than in 1984. (E) The exports of the four countries range from 15 percent to 75 percent of t

he total national output. Questions 15-16 are based on the following. In the United States, the Postal Service has a monopoly on first-class mail, but much of what is sent first class could be transmitted electronically. Electronic transmittal operators argue that if the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have an unfair advantage, since its electronic transmission service could be subsidized from the profits of the monopoly. 15. Which of the following, if each is true, would allay the electronic transmittal operators’ fears of unfair competition? (A) If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it could not ma ke a profit on first-class mail. (B) If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have a monopoly on that kind of service. (C) Much of the material that is now sent by first-class mail could be delivered much faster by special package couriers, but is not sent that way because of cost. (D) There is no economy of scale in electronic transmission—that is, the cost per transaction does not go down

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