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记录片美丽中国——Wild China(全集中英文解说词)

美丽中国(Wild China) 美丽中国( ) 第一集 龙之心 Heart of the Dragon 校正版
最后的隐世净土 The last hidden world 中国 China 数世纪来 旅人传诵着关于这片神奇土地 For centuries, travellers to China have told tales of magical landscapes 以及那些神奇生物的传说 and surprising creatures 中国文明是世界最古老的文明 Chinese civilization is the world's oldest 而如今是最宏博的 and today it's largest 那数十亿的人民 with well over a billion people 现存超过五十个民族 It's home to more than 50 distinct ethnic groups 以及各式各样贴近自然的 and a wide range of traditional life styles 传统生活方式 often inclose partnership with nature 我们都知道中国面对着着众多社会 环境问题 We know that China faces immense social and environmental problems 但这里也存在着令人窒息的美丽 but there is great beauty here too 中国有着世界最高峰 China is home to the world's highest mountains, 从无垠的炙热沙漠 vast deserts ranging from from searing hot 到麻木大脑的寒冷地带 to mind numbing cold 以及那蒸笼般的森林中 steaming forests 隐匿的各种珍稀生物 harboring rare creatures 天际下广阔无垠的草原 grassy plains beneath vast horizons 以及富饶的热带海洋 and rich tropical seas 现在 我们第一次有机会 Now, for the first time ever 深入探索这片伟大的土地 we can explore the whole of this great country 接触栖息于此的珍奇生物 meet some of the surprising and exotic creatures that live here 目睹中 国 这片 神奇 土地 上 and consider the relationship of the people and wildlife of China 人与野生世界的羁绊 to the remarkable landscaping which they live 这就是最原味的中国 This is wild China 仅以此献给我们多灾多难但美丽依旧的祖国 For our troubled but drop-dead beautiful motherland 我们的中国探索之旅始于南方的亚热带 Our exploration of China begins in the warm subtropical south 漓江的渔人和鱼鸟栖坐在竹筏上 On the Li River fishermen and birds perch on bamboo rafts 这个组合已延续千年之久 a partnership that goes back more than a thousand years 这景致已为世人所熟悉 This scenery is known throughout the world
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那是中国水墨永恒的主题 和旅人永远的胜地 中国南部是片有英国国土 九倍之大的广阔土地 这里 是山雨的国度 这里一年之中有 250 天在降雨 到处都是积水 在扬子江的涝原 黑尾鹬在泥泞中寻索着虫子

a recurring motif in Chinese paintings and a major tourist attraction The south of China is a vast area eight times larger than the UK It's a landscape of hills but also of water It rains here for up to 250 days a year and standing water is everywhere In a floodplain of the Yangtse River

black-tailed godwits probe the mud in search of worms 并非只有野生动物在这样的环境下茁壮成长 But it isn't just wildlife that thrive in this environment 沼泽般湿润肥沃的土地为作物家族最显著的成员提供了最理想的环境 the swampy ground provides ideal conditions for the remarkable member of the grass family 这就是稻米 rice 中国有着至少 8000 年的稻米种植史 The Chinese have been cultivating rice for at least 8 thousand years 他们改变了这块土地 It has transformed the landscape 对云南南部的农民而言 冬末是个繁忙的季节 Late winter in southern Yunnan is a busy time for local farmers 因为他们要为即将来临的春天整顿这片古老的稻田 as they prepare the age-old paddy field ready for the coming spring 元阳县的山坡以 2000M 之势 These hill slopes of Yuanyang county 斜插于红河谷地的河床 plunge nearly 2000m to the floor of the Red River Valley 包含了上千由原始刨掘工具所创造出的梯田 each contains literally thousands of stack terraces carved out by hand using basic digging tools 云南的梯田是中国最古老人类耕作痕迹中 Yunnan's rice terraces are among the oldest human structures in China 依旧被耕种使用的土地 still ploughed as they always have been 正如千百年来的习俗一样 by domesticated water buffaloes 源自云南河谷的家养水牛承担了耕作的重任 whose ancestors originated in these very valleys 这片人力开拓的土地是工业化前中国最惊奇宏伟的壮景 This man-made landscape is one of the most amazing engineering feats of preindustrial China 似乎这里的每一寸土地 It seems as if every square inch of land 都被打上了农耕的痕迹 has been pressed into cultivation 当薄暮降临 As evening approaches 另一场古老的仪式上演 an age-old ritual unfolds 现在是交配的季节 It's the mating season 雄禾田蛙们为了吸引异性而卖力高鸣 and male paddy frogs are competing for the attention of females
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但这并非总能为你吸引来关注的目光 But it dosen't always pay to draw too much attention to youself 中国池鹭是个饕餮掠食者 The Chinese Pond Heron is a crapulous predator 就算在耕作过的稻田中央 Even in the middle of a ploughed paddy field 也会上演喙与爪的血腥剧目 nature is red in beak and claw 或许这看上去像一场屠杀 This may look like a slaughter 但每只池鹭一次只能吞噬一只蛙 but as each heron can swallow only one frog at a time 此时剩余的多数派得以逃生并获得了明日再度高歌的机会 the vast majority will escape to croak another day 元阳县这样广泛种植水稻的 Terrace paddies like those of YunYang county are found across much of southern China 梯田横贯中国南部 This whole vast landscape is dominated by rice cultivation 苗族人在炎热的贵州发展了高度发达的水稻种植 In heated Guizhou province the Miao minority have developed a remarkable rice culture 苗族人把木屋建立在陡峭低产的山壁上 With every inch of fertile land given over to rice cultivation 用其余每寸丰饶的土地来种植水稻 the Miao build their wooden houses on the steepest and least productive hillsides 所有东西在中国农村都自有其用处 In Chinese rural life everything has a use 牛棚里的肥料在太阳下晒干用作煮饭的燃料 dried in the sun manure from the cowsheds would be used as cooking fuel 中午时分 宋家人正饱餐以米和蔬菜为主的中饭 It's midday and the Song family are tucking into a lunch of rice and vegetables 老祖父宋古永置身于天伦之乐外 Oblivious to the domestic chitchat 寻思着重要的事情 granddad Guyong Song has serious maters on his mind 春季是稻禾生长的伊始时节 Spring is a start of the rice growing season 庄稼的长势决定了来年宋家人的生计 the success of the crop will determin how well the family will eat next year 因而选择合适的时机进行耕作是至关重要的 so planting at the right time is critical 时机的选择取决于当年的天气情况 The ideal date depends on what the weather will do this year 而这些却是永难估料的 never easy to predict 但是身边就存在着贴心小帮手 But there is some surprising help at hand 宋家厅堂房梁上的是一对刚从冬季迁徙中归来的金腰燕 On the cielling of the Song's living room a pair of red-rumpedswallow newly arrive from their winter migration 他们正在为装潢新一年度的宅邸而忙碌 is busy fixing up last year's nest 在中国 动物们被赋予独特的象征意义并被细心呵护 In China animals are valued does much for their symbolic meaning as for many good they may do 苗族人笃信成双燕终身相伴不离不弃
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Miao people believe that swallow pairs remain faithful for life 因此他们的存在被视为 so their presence is a favor and a blessing 幸福生活与美满婚姻的象征 bringing happiness to a marriage and good luck to a home 如大多数苗人一样 宋家起居室的窗子可以眺望见成片的梯田 Like most Miao dwellings, the Song's living room windows look out over the paddy fields 从早春起 一扇窗子便为了方便燕子往返穿飞而敞开 From early spring, one of these windows is always left open to let the swallows come and go freely 古老爹知晓每年燕子归来的确切时间 Each year granddad Gu knows the exact day the swallows return 苗族人坚信这些鸟儿的归来预示着春季的来临 Miao people believe the birds arrival predicts the timing of a season ahead 然而今年 他们姗姗来迟 This year, they were late 因而古老爹和其他族中长老一致认为今年的插秧应当推迟 so Gu and the other community elders have agreed that rice planting should be delayed accordingly 当苗族人为了插秧而整备田地时 As the Miao prepare their fields for planting 燕子们或搜集修整巢穴用的泥巴 the swallows collect mud to repair their nests 或穿越新耕的稻田追逐昆虫 and chase after insects across the newly ploughed paddies 最终 经过了几周的准备 Finally, after weeks of preparation 这个预定种植的时刻来临了 the ordained time for planting has arrived 首先 秧苗必须从苗床上连根拔起 but first the seedlings must be uproot from the nursery beds 扎成捆移植到高处山地 and bundled up ready to be transported to their new paddy 那崭新的苗床上 higher up the hillside 宋家邻里乡亲全员出动帮助移植 All the Song's neighbors have turned out to help with the transplanting 这是一直来他们的集体协作方式 It's how the community has always worked 当然一旦时刻来临 宋家人也会做出相同行为来报恩 when the time comes, the Songs will return the favor 当农户们忙碌在田埂间时 While the farmers are busy in the fields 飞燕们则衔着修整巢穴的材料来来往往 the swallows fly back and forth with material for their nest 人多力量大 Many hands make light work 插秧的整个过程只持续了仅一个多小时 planting the new paddy takes a little more than an hour 当工作完成 农户们得以休息 Job done, the villagers can relax 至少在明天来临之前 at least until tomorrow 然而对这些筑巢的飞鸟而言 修筑家园的宏大工程 But for the nesting swallows, the work of raising a family 才刚刚开始 has only just begun
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新耕种的田地里 In the newly planted fields 白鹭在寻找食物 little egrets hunt for foods 稻田成了虫鱼蝌蚪的乐园 The rice paddy harbor tadpoles fish and insects 而白鹭正好以此哺育幼鸟 and egrets have chicks to feed 重庆自然保护区建立于 1996 年 This colony in Chongqing province is established in 1996 当成群的鸟儿安家在阳光村后方的小竹林 when a few dozen birds build nests in the bamboo grove behind YanGuang village 当地人将其视为幸运的使者 Believing they were assigned of luck 他们最初小心保护这些白鹭和他们的栖息地 local people initially protected the egrets and the colony grove 但当村长病重后他们的态度发生了转变 But their attitude change when the head of the village fell ill 当政府开始介入保护鸟群时 They blame the birds and were all set to destroy their nests 他们开始敌视鸟群并着手摧毁巢穴 when the local government stepped in to protect them 易弯曲的竹子或许并非安家的最佳场所 Bendy bamboo may not be the safest nesting place 但至少这些小家伙们不会成为捕食者的腹中餐 but at least these youngsters won't end up at someone's dinner 这些小家伙刚从母亲嘴里分得美食 These chicks have just had a meal delivered by their mom 对新生的小嘴着实是一大挑战 quite a challenge for litter beaks 介于他们的栖息地是受保护的 Providing their colonies are protected 像白鹭这样的候鸟是少数直接从发达的水稻种植中获益的鸟类 wading birds like egrets are among the few wild creatures which benefit directly from intensive rice cultivation 水稻生长需要大量的水 Growing rice needs lots of water 但即便是在多雨的南方 有些土地也面临缺水的危机 but even in the rainy south, there are landscapes where water is surprisingly scarce 相当于法国和西班牙国土加起来那么大 This vast area of southwest China 的中国西南的广阔土地 the size of France and Spain combined 因为宛如被干燥中空的谷地隔离开来的巨大蛋盒般 is famous for its clusters of conical hills 连绵的锥形山脉而闻名于世 like giant upturned egg carton seperated by dry empty valleys 这就是喀斯特地貌 This is the karst 石灰石地貌俨然成为南部中国的标志性特征 a limestone terrain which has become the defining image of southern China 喀斯特地貌通常以突起的裸岩状态分布 Karst landscapes are often studded with rocky outcrops 这迫使当地农民只得在破碎的小块土地上耕作 forcing local farmers to cultivate tiny fields 当地人是中国最贫穷的居民之一 The people who live here are among the poorest in China 在毗邻的云南省 In neighboring Yunnan province 遍布着石灰石 limestone rocks have taken over entirely
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这就是著名的石林 This is the famous Stone Forest 无数年侵蚀作用的产物 the product of countless years of erosion 造就了无数的狭道与巅峰 producing a maze of deep gullets and sharp-edged pinnacles 石灰石有一个独性 那就是能被雨水分解 Limestone has a strange property that is dissolves in rain water 在数千年的漫长光阴中 水的侵蚀深入到岩床的心脏地带 Over many thousands of years, water has corrode its way deep into the heart of the bedrock itself 这一自然奇观成为了著名的旅游景点 This natural wonder has a famous tourist spot 每年的访客数量多达 200 万人 receiving close to 2 million visitors each year 中国人特别喜好奇形怪状的岩石 The Chinese are fond of curiously shaped rocks 并以为嶙峋怪石冠上千奇百怪的名字为乐 and many have been given fanciful names 但没人来猜测这个块怪石的名字 No prices for guessing what this one is called 但百闻不如置身这片奇妙山地亲身一见 But there is more to this lands cape than meets the eye 在中 国 醒 目 的 喀 斯 特 地 貌 下 China has literally thousands of mysterious caverns 隐匿着无数的神秘洞穴 concealed beneath the visible landscape of the karst 这些隐秘世界大多不为世人所知 Much of this hidden world has never been seen by human eyes 而现在他们将被展现在世人眼前 And it's only just now being explored 奇险洞穴中再现了一场终极的探险 For a growing band of intrepid young Chinese explorers 主角是一群日渐成长 初生牛犊般的年轻探险家 caves represent the ultimate adventure 探索一个洞穴 犹如一场穿越时空的探险 Exploring a cave is like taking the journey through time 常年积水叮咚伴随着无止境般的旅途 a journey which endless raindrops would have followed over countless centuries 水滴潺潺落下 Fed by countless drips and trickles 地下河流深切入岩 the subterranean river carves ever deeper into the rock 石灰岩河床将洞穴的河道分割成千沟万壑 The cave river's course is channeled by the beds of limestone 石灰岩薄弱处被河水冲刷差距的陡坡处水量激增 A weakness in the rock can not allow the river to increase its gradient flowrate 为洞穴探险带来相当的挑战 providing a real challenge for the cave explorers 水流到达地下水位后便停止下流 The downward rushes halted when the water table is reached 这里缓缓流动的河流切割出一条圆形隧道 Here the slow flowing river carves tunnels with a more rounded profile 这静谧的世界是穴居鱼的家 This tranquil world is home to specialized cave fishes 比如无目金鲃 like the eye-less Golden Barb
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中国或许拥有地球上种类最为繁多的 China may have unique kinds of cave evolved fishes 洞穴进化鱼 than anywhere else on Earth 在地下水位线 Above the water table 远古洞穴溢满的河水中充斥着石笋和钟乳石 ancient caverns abandoned by the river slowly fill up with stalactites and stalagmites 含有沉积物的水流 St alactites form as trickling water deposites tiny quantities of rock 在千万年间“滴水成石” over hundreds or thousands of years 含有石灰质的水滴落石床形成石笋 Stalagmites grow up where lime laid and drips hit the cave floor 迄今为止被探索发掘的中国洞穴是中国大地上的九牛一毛 So far, only a fraction of China's caves have been thoroughly prospected 而被发掘的洞穴不断为我们展现地底奇观 and caves are constantly discovering new subterranean marvels 许多在后来被开发成了商业景点 many of which are subsequently developed into commercial show caves 探索者沿着洞穴河流出山谷的轨迹逃离了黑暗 Finally escaping the darkness 在远离出发地的河谷 the cave river and its human explorers emerge in a valley far from where their journey began 这场冒险拉上了帷幕 or now the adventure is over 源自洞穴河流 Rivers which issue from caves 为喀斯特地区提供了生命之泉 are the key to survival in the karst country 贵州的垂直峡谷 This vertical gorge in Guizhou province 成为了当地野生动物的密集焦点 is a focal point for the region's wildlife 这是世界上最珍稀的灵长类之一 This is one of the world's rarest primates 白颊黑叶猴 Francois's langur 在中国他们只残存于两个南部省份 In China, they survive in just two southern provinces 贵州与广西 Guizhou and Guangxi 多半栖息于崎岖的石灰岩地貌地带 always in ragged limestone terrains 正如大多数猴子一样 他们是社会性生物 Like most monkeys, they're social creatures 并且他们乐于耗费大把时间为彼此整理仪容 and spend a great deal of time grooming each other 叶猴是个不折不扣以嫩芽、嫩叶、水果为食的素食主义者 Langurs are essentially vegetarian with a diet of buds, fruits, and tender young leaves 叶猴宝宝裹着姜黄色的毛发出生 Babies are born with ginger fur 这些毛发随着生长逐渐从尾部开始变成黑色 which gradually turns black from the tail end 叶猴宝宝虎钳般的爪 Young infants have a vise-like grip 帮助他们附着在妈妈身上以保证安全 used for cling on to mom for dare life 随着年龄的增长 As they get older
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他们越发胆大,并开始常识更多刺激 they get bolder and take more risks 这些是经历诸多冒险后的幸存者 Those have survive spend a lot of time travelling 尽管经验丰富的成年叶猴深知 Yet experienced adults know exactly where to find seasonal food 到守备范围内不同区域的哪里去寻觅当季的食物 in different parts of their range 在如此陡峭的地带 In such steep terrain 旅途顺利包含了高超的攀爬技巧 travel involves a high level of climbing skill 这些猴子打会走路起就是卓越的攀岩专家 These monkeys are spectacularly good rock climbers from the time they learnt to walk 叶猴族群 In langur society 是母系社会 females rule the roost 并且是举家迁徙的领队人物 and take the lead when the family is on the move 峭壁一侧 One section of cliff 分泌的水是富含矿物质的 woops is a trickle of mineral-rich water 这对猴子们而言是不可抗拒的诱惑 which the monkeys seem to find irresistible 如今麻阳河自然保护区已鲜有危及猴宝宝的捕食者 These days there are few predators in the Mayanghe Reserve which might pose a risk to baby monkey 然而在过去的数个世纪 but in past centuries, this area of south China 中国南部的这个地区是豹子 巨蟒 甚至老虎的家 was home to leopards, pythons, and even tigers 为了在暗夜潜行者的利爪下存活 To survive dangerous night prowlers 叶猴们前往地底 the langurs went underground 用他们的高超的攀爬技巧爬到洞穴上方寻找庇护所 using their rock climbing skills to seek shelter in inaccessible caverns 夜视镜在近乎黑暗的坏境下记录下 Filmed in near darkness using a night vision camera 叶猴一家爬上了 the troop clambers along familiar ledges 被数代猴族磨蚀光润的石壁的情景 worn smooth by generations before them 当冬日寒冷来袭 During cold winter weather 猴子们则冒险潜入 the monkeys venture deeper underground 空气相对保持温暖的地下 where the air stays comparatively warm 旅途的终点 At last, journeys end, 高悬的庇护所使得最激进的捕食者都束手无策 a coated niche beyond the reach of even the most enterprising predator 并非只有猴子们在洞穴中寻找遮蔽 But it's not just monkeys that find shelter in caves 这些孩子们刚放学 These children are off to school 在中 国 农 村 每 天 早 上 都 意 味 着 一 段 In rural China, that may mean a long trek each morning 穿越一两个洞穴的艰苦跋涉 passing through a cave or two on the way 然而并非所有孩子都要徒步上学 But not all pupils have to walk to school 这些孩子是寄宿生 These children are boarders 当孩子们快要到达学校时 As the day pupils near journey's end 住宿生还在做早饭 the boarders are still making breakfast 校园内仿若被关掉了灯一般黑暗
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In the school yard, someone seems to have switched the lights off 但这里其实并没有正规的操场 But this is no ordinary play ground 以及正规的学校 and no ordinary school 只不过是座 Its house 洞穴中的房屋而已 inside a cave 天然拱顶阻隔了雨水 A natural vault of rock keeps out the rain 为教室省去了屋顶 so there is no need for a roof on the classroom 中东洞穴学校由六个班级 Zhongdong cave school is made up of 6 classes 共 200 名学生组成 with a total of 200 children 如同这所学校般 这个洞穴住宅区 As well as a school, the cave houses 18 families 是 18 户人家和他们牲畜的聚居地 together with their livestock 这或许是世界上唯一在洞穴中饲养的牛了 This could be the only cave dwelling cows on Earth 放学后是游戏的时间 With school work over, it's play time at last 在中国南方 洞穴不仅用于遮蔽 In southern China, caves aren't just used for shelter 他们也能为当地人带来恩惠 they can be a source of revenue for the community 数代的人持续受到洞穴的恩泽 People have been visiting this cave for generations 洞穴地底覆盖了满满鸟粪 The cave floor is covered in guano 仅仅十分钟时间就能让农人满载而归 so plentiful that 10 minutes' work can fill these farmer's baskets 这是一种宝贵的天然肥料 This used as a valuable source of fertilizer 鸟粪的源头能听到河水上空的鸟鸣 A clue to the source of the guano can be heard above the noise of the river 噪音因为山洞而被放大 The sound originates high up in the roof of the cave 入口处聚满了雨燕 The entrance is full of swifts 他们是社交性动物 They are very sociable birds 约 200000 多的共享贵州南部的洞穴 more than 200,000 of them share this cave in southern Guizhou province 中国最大的雨燕栖息地 The biggest swift colony in China 如今 中国的家燕多数将巢穴建在建筑物的屋顶 These days, Chinese house swifts mostly nest in the roofs of buildings 但其实在房屋被发明出来之前 but rock crevasses like these were their original home 这样的岩缝才是他们原本安家的地方 long before houses were invented 尽管雨燕依靠洞穴遮蔽 Though the swifts depend on the cave for shelter 他们却必定在日落前归巢 they never stray further than the limits of daylight 因为他们的眼睛无法在黑夜中看清事物 as their eyes can't see in dark 然而洞穴深处 However, deep inside the cavern 是一群更适应地下 are the creatures are better equipped 隐秘生活的居民 for subterranean life 一群蝙蝠刚刚醒来 A colony of bats is just waking up
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他们运用超声波在黑夜中确定自己的方位 using ultrasonic squeaks to orientate themselves in the darkness 夜晚是狩猎时间 Night is the time to go hunting Rickett 鼠耳蝠是亚洲蝙蝠中唯一 Rickett's mouse-eared bat is the only bat in Asia which specializes in catching fishes 通过在水面依靠声波对涟漪的反射追踪游鱼的蝙蝠种 tracking them down from the sound reflection of ripples on the water surface 这种非凡的技巧仅在数年前被发现 This extraordinary behavior was only discovered in the last couple of years 现在首次被记录下来展示给世人 and has never been filmed before 如果说在黑暗中追捕游鱼是如此的不可思议 If catching fish in the dark is impressive 想象下倒挂状态下不用爪子吞食滑溜溜的米诺鱼是怎样的神奇场景 imagine eating a slippery minnow with no hands while hanging upside down 拂晓降临至桂林的喀斯特山地 Dawn, over the karst hills of Guilin 这些山地的嶙峋奇秀归功于 These remarkable hills owe their peculiar shapes 漓江那弱酸性的水质 to the mildly acid waters of the Li River 亿万年的侵蚀褪去了他们的本来面目 whose meandering course over eons of time has corrode away their basis 只剩下坚硬的河道残留下来 until only the rocky course remained 漓江是中国最清澈的河流之一 Li is one of the cleanest rivers in China 是捕鱼者和他们训练有素的鸬鹚最爱的捕获点 a favorite spot for fishermen with their trained cormorants 这帮七八十岁的男人全部姓黄 The men, all called Huang, come from the same village 他们来自同一个村落 now in their seventies and eighties 他们毕生都以捕鱼卫生 they've been fishermen all their lives 在释放鱼鸟之前 Before they release the birds 他们在鸟的脖子上松松的系一条套索 they tie a noose, loosely around the neck 以防止鸟儿私自将捕到的鱼吞进肚子里 to stop them swallowing any fish they may catch 伴随着即兴的舞蹈, 黄老汉鼓励着他的鸟儿们跳入水中 Chancing and dancing, the Huangs encourage their birds to take the plunge 在水下 Under water 鸬鹚的狩猎本能暴发 the cormorant's hunting instinct kicks in 他们化身为水下的游鱼追踪导弹 turning them into fish seeking missiles 一只鸬鹚小分队搭档合作齐心协力 Working together, 一早上便能收获颇丰 a good cormorant team can catch a couple of dozen decent-sized fish in a morning 鸟儿们被训练过只能带着鱼儿回到筏子 The birds return to the raft with their fish because they've been trained to do so 从出生的那一刻起 From the time it first hatched 鸬鹚们就开始被训练为忠仆 each of these cormorants has been reared to a life of obedience to its master 这些鸟儿是高效的奴隶 The birds are, in effect, slaves 但是它们并不是白痴 But they are not stupid 据说鸬鹚能够记住它们捕获的鱼的数目
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It's said the cormorants can key the tally of the fish they catch 至少能记住七条 at least up to seven 除非它们不时得到打赏 当然这不过是收回一点自己的劳动成果罢了 So unless they get a reward now and then,they simply withdraw their labor 渔 夫 理 所 当 然 得 把 最 好 的 鱼 留 给 自 己 The fishermen of course keep the best fish for themselves 鸬鹚则能享受剩余的部分 The cormorants get the leftover tiddlies 项圈摘除后 鸟儿们终于能享用它的战利品了 With its collar removed,the bird can at last swallow its prize 最美妙的莫过于得到额外的打赏 Best of all,when it isn't meant to have... 而如今 现代捕鱼技术的激烈竞争 These days,competition for modern fishing techniques 意味着使黄老汉已不能仅靠鸬鹚捕鱼这一传统的手段谋生了 means the Huangs can't make a living from traditional cormorant fishing alone 这一流传了 1300 多年的传统 And this 1300-year old tradition 如今只能成为取悦游客的表演 is now practiced mostly to entertain tourists 但在贵州省附近的草海湖上 But on Caohai lake in nearby Guizhou Province 一种与众不同的捕鱼业正在蓬勃发展 an even more unusual fishing industry is alive and well 庚钟胜正在去为夜间布网的路上 Geng Zhongsheng is on his way to set out his net for the night 老庚的怪网是一种一头扎起来的管状装置 Geng's net is a strange tubular contraption with a closed off end 上百渔夫依靠这个 More than a hundred fishermen make their living from the lake 水质富矿的高产湖泊为生 Its mineral-rich waters are highly productive 并在此布下天罗地网 and there are nets everywhere 第二天清早老耿和他的儿子回来收获他们猎物 The next morning, Geng returns with his son to collect his catch 乍看之下收获平平 At first sight, it looks disappointing 小鱼.虾米.和扭个不停的虫子 Tiny fishes, lots of shrimps, and some wriggling bugs 然而老耿看上去来并不那么消沉 Geng doesn't seem too down hearted 大鱼被保持存活 The larger fish are kept alive 这是唯一在酷暑下保鲜的办法 the only way they'll stay fresh in the heat 令人吃惊的是 一些虫子也被专门挑捡出来 Surprisingly, some of the bugs are also singled out for special treatment 它们是蜻蜓的幼虫 They are the young stage of dragonflies 以蠕虫和蝌蚪为食的掠食者 predators that feed on worms and tadpoles 这里是世界上蜻蜓卵收获最丰的地方 Nowhere else in the world are dragonfly nymphs harvested like this 回到家后 老耿把他的获物在屋顶上摊开晒干 Back home, Geng spreads his catch on the roof to dry
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在中国,但凡能吃的东西都不会被浪费 It's being in China, nothing edible would be wasted 在遥远的南方有这样一种说法 There is a saying in the far south “长腿的唯桌子不吃 "We will eat anything with legs, except a table; 长翅膀的独飞机不啃” and anything with wings, except a plane." 几个钟头后 这些晒干了的昆虫便会被带到市场上卖掉 Within a few hours, the dried insects are ready to be backed up and taken to market 其中蜻蜓蛹能卖到最好的价格 Its the dragonfly nymphs that fetch the best price 幸运的是 草海的蜻蜓资源非常丰富且高速再生 Fortunately, Caohai's dragonflies are abundant and fast breeding 所以老耿和其他的渔民远不会危及它们的数量 so Geng and his fellow fishermen have so far had little impact on their numbers 但绝非所有野生动物都这样生机勃勃 But not all wildlife is so resilient 这所上海附近的佛庙 This buddhist temple near Shanghai 有一段与之相关的传奇故事 has an extraordinary story attached to it In May 2007 2007 年 5 月 一支狂野中国摄制组在这所寺庙的鱼塘里 A Wild China camera team filmed this peculiar Swinhoe's turtle 拍摄到了这只罕见的斑龟 in the temple's fishpond 据寺庙的和尚所说 这只龟在明朝期间被赐予寺庙 According to the monks, this turtle had been given to the temple during the Ming dynasty 至今已有 400 余年历史了 over 400 years ago 它被认为是地球上最老的动物 It was thought to be the oldest animal on Earth 软壳龟被很多从中国人视为神赐的馈赠 Soft shell turtles are considerd a god-made delicacy by many Chinese 在被记录下的时候 and when it was filmed 它已是中国仅存的三只斑龟之一 this was one of just three Swinhoe's Turtles left alive in China 他的同胞们 The rest of its kind 被当作食物剿杀殆尽 having been rounded up and eaten 悲痛人心的是在拍摄后的短短几周后 Sadly, just a few weeks after filming 这只远古的生物与世长辞了 this ancient creature died 他的其他同类现在被散养在不同动物园保护着 The remaining individuals of its species are currently kept in seperate zoos 据测算现在斑龟在自然界中已经灭绝了 and Swinhoe's Turtle is now reckoned extinct in the wild 事实上 中国 25 种淡水龟中 In fact, most of the 25 types of fresh water turtles in China 多数都已然濒危 are now vanishingly rare 杜绝物种灭绝的唯一途径 The answer to extinction 就是加以保护 is protection 这里有贯穿中国南方的不断壮大的自然保护区网络
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And there is now a growing network of nature reserves through southern China 其中 张家界天子山那由沙石构成的高耸的 Of these, the Tianzi Mountain Reserve at Zangjiajie is perhaps the most visited by Chinese nature lovers 塔状反重力地貌最受中国自然爱好者的青睐 who come to marvel at the gravity-defying landscape of soaring sand stone pinnacles 蜿蜒在张家界的山峰间清澈见底的溪流 Winding between Zhangjiajie's peaks 居住着一种中国最奇怪的生物 crystal clear mountain streams are home to what is perhaps China's strangest creature 这种奇异的动物 This bizarre animal 属于蝾螈的一种 is a type of newt 中国大鲵 the Chinese Giant Salamander 在中国 它被称之为娃娃鱼 In China, it is known as the baby fish 这名称源自当他悲伤时发出的类似婴儿哭泣的声音 because when distressed, it makes a sound like a crying infant 成年体长 1~1.5 米 It grows up to a meter and a half long 这使它成为世界上最大的两栖类动物 making it the world's largest amphibian 在自然条件下 一只大鲵可以活到十岁 Under natural conditions, a Giant Salamander may live decades 但是和很多其他中国动物一样 But like so many Chinese animals 它被视为美味佳肴 it is considered delicious to eat 尽管被列为国家级保护动物 Despite being classed as protected species 大鲵仍然被当作食物非法买卖 giant salamanders are still illegally sold for food 现在娃娃鱼已经非常稀有 and the baby fish is now rare 在自然界濒临灭绝了 and endangered in the wild 幸运的是在像张家界这样的一些地方 Fortunately in a few areas like Zhangjiajie, 大鲵在政府的严格保护下得以幸存 Giang Salamanders still survive under strict official protection 张家界的河流向东北注入 The rivers of Zhangjiajie flow northeast into the Yangtse floodplain 以鱼米之乡文明的长江平原 known as the land of fish and rice 在安徽省一个湖泊的小岛上 On an island in a lake in Anhui province 一只小龙蠢蠢欲动 a dragon is stirring 这里是中国最大最稀有爬行动物的古老家园 This is the ancestral home of China's largest and rarest reptile 一种传说中的神秘生物 A creature of mystery and legend 龙卵是非常珍贵的 Dragon eggs are greatly prized 这些孩子们需要快点孵化出来 these babies need to hatch out quick 看起来有人正在进行搜寻 It would seem someone is on their trail 对一只无助的爬行类幼仔来说 For a helpless baby reptile 囚禁在令人窒息的蛋壳的坚韧隔膜里 imprisoned in a leathery membrane inside a choky shell 在孵化过程中 a process of hatching 需要拼尽全力挣扎 is a titanic struggle
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时间在不断流逝 And time is running out 小鳄鱼需要耗费 2 个小时才能将脑袋伸出蛋壳 It's taken 2 hours for the little dragon to get its head out of this egg 现在是拼尽全力 It needs to gather its strength now 进行最后奋力一击的时刻 a final massive push 最终获得自由 Free at last 扬子幼鳄出于本能的向巢的表面爬去 the baby Chinese alligators instinctively head upwards toward the surface of the nest 迎接全新的世界 and a …… side world 但造访者并不是它们的同类 But the visitors are not what they seem 佘淑珍和她的儿子就住在附近 Sheshuzhen and her son live nearby 她已经照顾当地的扬子鳄 20 多年了 She has been caring for her local alligators for over 20 years 所以当这些蛋快要孵化的时候她有一个不错的主意 so she had fair idea when the eggs will likely to hatch 回到家里 她建了一个用网围起来 Back home, she's built a pond, 以隔离捕食者的水塘 surrounded by netting to keep out predators 在接下来的六个月内加以保护 where her charges will spend the next 6 months 直到 他 们 长 得 足 够 自 立 until they are big enough to fend for themselves 过去的 20 年里 For the past twenty years 靠着像这样小规模的保护措施中国 150 只野生扬子鳄免遭灭绝 small scale conservation projects like this are all that have kept China's 150 wild alligators from extinction 就在饲养鳄鱼村落的正南方 Just south of the alligator country 黎明破晓之光照耀出一幅不同的画卷 dawn breaks over a very different landscape 黄山那海拔 1800 米的 The 1800 meter high granite peaks 花岗岩巅峰 of the Huangshan 又称为黄之山 or yellow mountain 对中国人而言 To the Chinese 黄山松象征着自然蓬勃的生命力与不屈的精神 Huangshan's pines are peak mines,the strength, and resilience of nature 其中一些树据说已超过千岁 Some of these trees are thought to be over a thousand years old 在这花岗岩巅峰下 Bellow the granite peaks 陡峭峡谷的森林中隐藏着令人惊讶的居 steep forest in the valleys shelter surprising inhabitants 黄山猕猴 Huangshan macaques 隶属中国西部西藏短尾猴家族中稀有的分支 rare descendents of the Tibetan macaques of western China 自得其乐的生活在这政府保护的山谷中 are unique to these mountain valleys where they enjoy strict official protection
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在树梢度过了早上之后 After a morning spent in the treetops 猴群转移到了山谷的阴凉处 the troop is heading for the shade of the valley 这是它们躲避酷暑的绝佳契机 a chance for the grownups escape the heat 他们甚至还在溪流中寻觅零食 and maybe pickup a lanch snack from the stream 正如多数猴子社会一样 As in most monkey societies 相互梳理毛发是社交的重要一环 social contact involves a lot of grooming 梳理毛发对成年猴子非常有益 Grooming is all very well for grownups 但是年轻的小猕猴总爱尽情挥霍精力 But young macaques have energy to burn 所谓猴性难改 Like so much monkey business 起初不过是顽皮的混战 what starts off is a bit of playful rough-andtumble 随后就会暴走失控 soon begin to get out of hand 然而猴王早就看穿了一切 The alpha male has seen it all before 他全然一副眼不见心不烦的样子 he's not in the least bothered 然而却有人虎视眈眈的关注着一切 but someone or something is watching with a less than friendly interest 五步蛇是拥有死亡之吻的暗杀者 The Chinese Moccasin is ambush predator with a deadly bite 这是中国最大最恐怖的剧毒蛇之一 This is one of China's largest and most feared venomous snakes 但是猴子们已经与这种危险的毒蛇共存了数千年 But the mondkeys have lived alongside these dangerous serpent for thousands of years 每当发现由这种斑点的蛇时它们就用这种特殊的叫声来相互警告 They use this, specific alarm call, to warn each other whenever a snake is spotted 一旦警报响起 毒蛇的袭击便对猴子丧失了威胁 Once its cover is blown, the bite proposes no threat to the monkeys 他们转移至安全的树梢 now safe in the treetops 一切归于平静 And life soon returens to normal 夏末的中国南部 By later summer, the rice fields of southern China 是一片璀璨的金色稻海 have turn to gold 如今是丰收的季节 The time has come to bring in the harvest 如今现代高产人工田占据了中国的大片土地 Nowadays, modern high yield strains are grown throughout much of the rice lands 受化学肥料的滋养 Boosted by chemical fertilizers 并用联合收割机进行大规模收割 and reaped by combine harvesters 这里是世界上最大的水稻种植区 This is the great rice bowl of China 占据世界水稻产量的四分之一 producing a quarter of the world's rice 被机器轰鸣惊扰的虫子 Insects, stirred up by the noisy machines, 马上成为了一群红尾燕的腹中餐 are snapped up by gangs of red-rumped swallows 包括新生儿—— including this year's youngsters 数周前刚刚羽翼丰满的新燕 who have fledged several weeks ago 这也许是它们在动身渡冬到来前最后的聚餐了 This could be their last feast before they head for the winter 机械农具最适宜在山谷低地的平坦处工作
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Mechanized farming works best in the flat bottom valleys of the lowland 在南 面 浙江 省 连 绵 起 伏 的 丘 陵 地 带 To the south, in the terraced hills in Zhejiang province 人们坚持这一种古老而又简单的生活方式 an older and simpler lifestyle persists 现在是清晨 7 点 It's 7 in the morning 龙现村最成功的商人 and Longxian's most successful business man 出门工作 is off to work 在金黄梯田环绕的小村落 In the golden terraces surrounding the village 饱满 的 稻 穗 正 待 收 获 the ears of rice are plump and right for harvesting 然而今天稻子却不是老杨心中首位 But today, rice isn't upon the most in Mr Yang's mind 他有更重要的事要做 He has bigger fish to fry 在山谷地带丰割已然开始 Further at valley, the harvest has already began 老杨的田地也临近丰收 Yang's fields are ripe too 但收割却尚未完成 but they haven't been drained yet 这是因为稻米并非他最主要的作物 That's because for him, rice is not the main crop 他带上山坡的篮子泄露了老杨营生的秘密 The baskets he's carried up the hillside give a clue to Yang's business 在他开工前 But before he starts work 他先需要释放些水出来 he needs to let some water out of the system 谜底随着水位的下降 As the water level drops 而水落石出 the mystery is revealed 金鲤 golden carp 龙现人在很久前便沿用稻鱼共生至今 Longxian villages discoverd the benefits of transferring wild caught carp into their paddy fields long ago 这一传统延续了七百多年之久 The tradition has been going on here for at least 700 years 当禾田里的水位下降 As the water level in the paddy drops 竹阀门阻止了金鲤的潜逃 bamboo gate stop the fish's escaping 这一神奇的生态养殖方式 The beauty of this farming method 同时同地丰获了两大农产 is that it delivers two crops from the same field at the same time 鱼 与米 fish and rice 如此充满智慧的生态养殖 Smart ecology like this 即便今时今日也在为中国农副产品的 is what enables China to be largely self-sufficient in food 自给自足奠定着基础 even today 回到村庄后 Back in the village 老杨进入自己的熏房 Yang has his own smoke house
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为贩售而准备他的鱼 where he preserves his fish ready for market 龙现鲤有着柔软的鳞 Longxian carp have unusually soft scales 和美妙的味道 and a very delicate flavor 这或许拜当地水质所赐 perhaps as a result of the local water 此时此刻的熏房外 Meanwhile, outside the smoke house 古灵精怪的小家伙们蠢蠢欲动 there is something fishy going on 为了庆祝丰收 To mark the harvest 村民举行了一场盛会 the village is staging a party 龙现小学的孩子们 Children from Longxian school 为了此刻的盛会准备了数周 have spent weeks preparing for their big moment 全村上下在这天前来捧场 Everyone from the community is here to support them 水稻种植循环体系完美无缺 The rice growing cycle is complete 十一月 By November 中国北方日渐寒冷 northern China is becoming distinctly chilly 而南方则相对温暖和煦 but the south is still relatively warm and welcoming 飞鸟掠过鄱阳湖广阔的湖面 Accross the vast expanse of Poyang lake 聚集在一起 the birds are gathering 苔原天鹅从遥远的北西伯利亚迁徙至此 Tundra swans are long-distance migrant from northern Siberia 对中国人而言 他们象征着至高无上的自然美 To the Chinese, they symbolize the essence of natural beauty 鄱阳湖自然保护区为超过 100 个种类 The Poyang Lake Nature Reserve offers winter refuge to more than a quarter of a million birds 25 万之多鸟类的提供天然栖息地 for than 100 species 成为中国南方最令人叹为观止的自然盛景 creating one of southern China's finest wildlife experiences 最后抵达此地的是跨越千山万水 The last birds to arrive at Poyang 艰难跋涉至此的鸟群 are those which have made the longest journey to get here 他们来自西伯利亚北极海岸 All the way from the arctic coast of Siberia 西伯利亚鹤在中国被成为白鹤 The Siberian Crane, known in China, the White Crane 被视作吉祥的象征 is seen as a symbol of good luck 每年这些濒临灭绝的鸟儿们 Each year, almost the entire world population of these critically endangered birds 都要为了在鄱阳湖过寒假 make a 9000km round trip 而跋涉 9000 公里的往返旅行 to spend the winter at Poyang 和白鹤一样 Like the white cranes 中国南部众多独特生物不得不面对人类开发利用自然 many of southern China's unique animals face pressure from exploitation and competition with people 所带来的环境与资源压力 over space and resources 然而这些生命力旺盛的野生动物 But if China is leaving proof of anything 证明了中国正在采取行动 it is that wildlife is surprisingly resilient 通过适当的措施 Given the right help
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即便是最珍稀的生物也能获得救赎 even the rarest creatures can return from the brink 只要我们展现意志 If we show the will 大自然 会为我们找到出路 nature will find the way. 美丽中国(Wild China)第二集 香格里拉 Shangri-La 翻腾的云海之下 Beneath billowing clouds, 在中国 西 南遥 远的 云南 省 in China's far southwestern Yunnan province, 有一个神秘而又充满传奇的地方 lies a place of mystery and legend. 这儿有着世界上最久远的雨林以及奔腾的河流 Of mighty rivers and some of the oldest jungles in the world. 藏匿于此的河谷养育了奇异而又独特的动物 Here, hidden valleys nurture strange and unique creatures, 同时也孕育了多彩的民族风情 and colourful tribal cultures. 雨林在远离热带的北部地区是罕见的 Jungles are rarely found this far north of the tropics. 可是 为什么却得以在此茁壮成长 So, why do they thrive here? 为何整个中国崎岖不平的山地里 却蕴藏着富饶多姿的自然财富 And how has this rugged landscape come to harbour the greatest natural wealth in all China? 在中国西南部的一个偏远的角落里 In the remote southwest corner of China, 即将举行一场庆典 a celebration is about to take place. 傣族人为他们一年中最重要的节日收集水 Dai people collect water for the most important festival of their year. 傣族人也称自己为水之民 The Dai call themselves the people of the water. 云南的河谷地带 是他们的两千多年来繁衍生息的故里 Yunnan's river valleys have been their home for over 2,000 years. 把河水带到寺庙 By bringing the river water to the temple, 敬俸傣族人最神圣的两件事物—— they honour the two things holiest to them 佛教和他们的家园 Buddhism and their home. 傣族人感恩养育了傣族文化的河流以及肥沃的土地 The Dai give thanks for the rivers and fertile lands which have nurtured their culture. 或许这看上去只是为了打上一场大水仗的借口 Though to some it might seem just an excuse for the biggest water fight of all time. 随着小镇的发展以及现代化 傣族人的生活正发生着改变 Dai lives are changing as towns get bigger and modernize 泼水节依旧是众所周知的 著名的傣族节日 but the Water Splashing Festival is still celebrated by all. 河流穿越了傣族人生活与习俗的心脏地带 The rivers which lie at the heart of Dai life and culture 发源于西藏遥远的山脉之中 flow from the distant mountains of Tibet, 河水向南流经了宏伟的平行峡谷中的云南中部
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southward through central Yunnan in great parallel gorges. 傣族人现在居住在与越南以及老挝接壤的热带地区 The Dai now live in the borders of tropical Vietnam and Laos, 他们的传说讲述了先辈是怎样来到这儿的 but their legends tell of how their ancestors came here 从寒冷而又遥远的北方山区顺流而下 by following the rivers from mountain lands in the cold far north. 头枕着遥远的喜马拉雅山脉东部的末端 Lying at the far eastern end of the Himalayas, 横断山脉构成了滇北的边界并与西藏相交 the Hengduan mountains form Yunnan's northern border with Tibet. 卡瓦格博峰是横断山脉之上的王冠 也是圣洁朝圣者旅途的一站 Kawakarpo, crown of the Hengduan range, is a site of holy pilgrimage. 然而 她那令人敬畏的顶点至今未被征服 Yet, its formidable peak remains unconquered. 云南的山不但遥远而且崎岖 Yunnan's mountains are remote, rugged and inaccessible. 这里空气稀薄而且气温能骤降至零下四十度 Here the air is thin and temperatures can drop below minus 40 degrees. 这里是地球上独一无二的动物 This is home to an animal that's found nowhere else on Earth. 又称扁鼻黑金丝猴即传说中的雪猴 滇金丝猴的家园 The Yunnan snub-nosed monkey. 只有在极少数与世隔绝的山林中 才能看到它们的踪影 It's found only in these few isolated mountain forests. 在如此高海拔的地区 难以寻觅其它灵长类动物的踪迹 No other primate lives at such high altitudes. 这些是真正的专家 but these are true specialists. 这些出没在远古深山中的原住民 有着一些通灵的传说 These ancient mountain dwellers have inspired legends. 当地的傈僳族人就把它们当作自己的祖先 Local Lisu people consider them their ancestors, 并把它们称为:“山中野老” calling them "the wild men of the mountains". 在大雪之中即使是这些专家也不能够进食 During heavy snowfalls, even these specialists cannot feed. 对滇金丝猴来说似乎又来到了一个新奇的地方 It seems a strange place for a monkey. 在另一场雪到了之前 滇金丝猴抓紧时间寻找食物 Between snows, the monkeys waste no time in their search for food. 在高海拔地区 只有少数水果与嫩叶可供食用 At this altitude, there are few fruits or tender leaves to eat. 百分之九十的日常饮食由 不常见的成捆精细干有机物组成 90% of their diet is made up of the fine dry wisps of a curious organism. 其中一半是真菌 另外一半是植物地衣 Half fungus, half plant - it's lichen. 提起猴子人们通常联想到的是低地雨林 How have monkeys, normally associated with lowland jungle, 缘何他们选择在偏远的山地繁衍生息呢 come to live such a remote mountain existence? 它们并非这些孤耸的高峰上唯一醒目的生命
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This is not the only remarkable animal found within these isolated high peaks. 一只中国小熊猫 A Chinese red panda. 这位沉默寡言的隐士 将自己生命的大部分置于树的顶端 Solitary and quiet, it spends much of its time in the tree tops. 抛开它的名字 Despite its name, 让小熊猫与大熊猫扯上亲戚关系 是一件非常勉强的事情 the red panda is only a very distant relative of the giant panda. 它在血缘上更接近臭鼬 (小熊猫有时在中文中也称火狐 英文中亦有 FireFox 既是对其的 直接译名列在熊科或浣熊科是多年来一直被争论的问题最近经过基因分析 认为与美洲大 的浣熊亲缘关系最接近 应该单独列为小熊科) It's actually more closely related to a skunk. 但他却和大熊猫有着共同的口味嗜好 ——竹子 But it does share the giant panda's taste for bamboo. 中国西南部的小熊猫因其醒目的面部花纹而著称 Southwest China's red pandas are known for their very strong facial markings 这些特征将他们与其它在喜马拉雅地区 发现的火狐物种区分开来 which distinguish them from red pandas found anywhere else in the Himalayas. 如同猴类一般 它们被隔离在了高远的山林之中 Like the monkeys, they were isolated in these high forests 山体在巨大的造山运动中 被挨个完全抬起 when the mountains quite literally rose beneath them 近年来的地质学历史已经证明了这一点 in the greatest mountain-building event in recent geological history. 在过去 3000 万年间 Over the last 30 million years, 印度次大陆持续向北挤压欧亚大陆 the Indian subcontinent has been pushing northwards into Eurasia. 印度与西藏的交界处 On the border between India and Tibet 巨大的岩石被推挤至海平面以上 8000 米处之高 the rocks have been raised eight kilometres above sea level, 造就了世界最高大宏伟的山脉 ——喜马拉雅山 creating the world's highest mountain range, the Himalayas. 对东部来说 But to the east, 岩石被皱褶进了南北走向的 绵延陡峭的山脊 the rocks have buckled into a series of steep north-south ridges, 同时也切进了云南的心脏地带 cutting down through the heart of Yunnan, 形成了平行的横断山脉 the parallel mountains of the Hengduan Shan. 这些天然屏障守护着隔绝在云南 These natural barriers serve to isolate Yunnan's plants and animals 各自毗邻的河谷中的动植物 in each adjacent valley. 雪峰与斜坡间的巨大的温差 While the huge temperature range between the snowy peaks 所创造的足够的优厚条件 and the warmer slopes below 使得这儿生命彰显无限生机 provides a vast array of conditions for life to thrive. 春的岁月 Through spring,
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横断山脉的斜坡上 上演了中国最为壮绝的自然景致 the Hengduan slopes stage one of China's greatest natural spectacles. 此处的森林拥有世界上最多样化的植被及物种 The forests here are among the most diverse botanical areas in the world. 这里生长着超过 18000 种植物 Over 18,000 plant species grow here, 其中约 3000 种植物是这儿特有的 of which 3,000 are found nowhere else. 直到一个多世纪前 这里还是个未为人知的世外桃源 Until little more than a century ago, this place was unknown outside China. 然而有关这个神奇隐秘的东方世界的传言 But then news reached the West 却不胫而走 传至西方 of a mysterious, hidden world of the orient. 隐匿在群山中 遗落人间的最后天堂 ——香格里拉 Hidden among the mountains, a lost Shangri-la paradise. 当时西方上流社会盛行园艺 Western high society, in the grip of a gardening craze, 渴望获得遥远国度的稀有物种 was eager for exotic species from faraway places. 这也造就了新物种的探险家 This gave rise to a new breed of celebrity adventurers, 无畏的植物探索家 世称 “植物猎人 ” intrepid botanist-explorers known as "the Plant Hunters". 云南成为了他们的圣杯 (Holy Grail 是 Jesus 在最后的晚宴上使用的餐具 据称有不可思议 的神奇力量) Yunnan became their Holy Grail. 其中最出名的便是 Joseph Rock 真人版的 Indiana Jones(电影 "迷失方舟的侵入者" 中的 英雄) The most famous was Joseph Rock, a real life Indiana Jones. 胶片出色的记录了他与随行人员的一系列 Remarkable film footage captured his entourage on a series of expeditions, 深入云南腹地的探险远征 as they pushed into the deepest corners of Yunnan. 他发现了千姿百态的植物 In glorious colour he recorded the plant life he found 并将其记录于特制的玻璃质感光片上 on special photographic glass plates. 通过将成千上万的标本送回西方 Sending thousands of specimens back to the West, 植物猎人永远的改变了世界园艺 the Plant Hunters changed the gardens of the world forever. Rock 的成功源自其不懈的努力 Rock's success was born of a massive effort. 为了找到他的香格里拉 For, to find his Shangri-la, 他翻越了无尽连绵的山脉 not only had he to traverse endless mountain ranges, 征服了世界上最深的峡谷 but some of the deepest gorges in the world. 怒江之名意为愤怒的河流 The Nujiang is called The Angry River. 绵延三百公里的急流如同那些巍峨群山 This 300-kilometre stretch of raging rapids 成为了保护野生生命的天然屏障 is as much a barrier to life as are the mountains above. 惊涛拍岸 WAVES CRASH 植物猎人并非第一个到这里旅行的人 But the plant hunters weren't the first people to travel here.
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怒江之上 Along the Nujiang, 有二十多座溜索桥供当地人飞越激流 less than 30 rope crossings allow locals passage across the torrents. 小村落依山而居 Tiny hamlets cling to the slopes. 今天是赶集的日子 This morning, it's market day, 一大早 人们就从山谷的四处集中 drawing people from up and down the valley. 猪叫声 PIG OINKS 山羊咩咩的叫 GOAT BLEATS 当地人使用这种简易吊索穿越河流 Hanging from simple rope slings, 已有数百年的历史 people have been using the crossings for many hundreds of years. 在如此狭窄陡峭的山谷中 In such narrow, precipitous gorges 这种简易的交通方式显得尤为便捷 it's by far the easiest way to get around. 虽然成功抵达彼岸 前方崎岖的山路依旧艰辛 Once across, the steep sides mean it's still a hike. 抵达 集 市 前 还 需 要 数 小 时 的 艰 苦 跋 涉 Many trek for hours by foot before they get to the market. 超过十二个以上的族群 居住在这片宽阔的河谷之中 The immense valley is home to over a dozen ethnic groups. 怒族人仅存于此 Some, like the Nu people, are found only here. 不同族群的山民们在集市上相聚 The markets bring the mountain tribes together. 为了继续他的征途 To continue his expeditions, Rock 与他的探险队必须设法越过云南的激流 Rock had to get his entire entourage across the giant Yunnan rivers. 他定制了用森林藤蔓特制的结实绳索来完成运载 He commissioned especially thick ropes made from forest rattan 并记录下了整个全程 and filmed the entire event. 他们用牦牛油润滑了吊索 40 个人和 15 头骡子开始渡河 With yak butter to smooth the ride, 40 men and 15 mules made the journey. 但并非每次都成功抵达了彼岸 Not all made it across. 在怒江河谷遥远的彼岸 On the far side of the great Nujiang gorge, 植物猎人们有了惊人的发现 the Plant Hunters made a remarkable discovery. 尽管远离热带 Far from the tropics, 他们却似乎进入了一片热气腾腾的热带丛林 they seemed to be entering a steamy, vibrant tropical jungle, 这就是高黎贡山的森林 the forest of Gaoligongshan. 这里的植物群落与众不同 The flora here is unlike anywhere else in the world. 类似亚热带高山植物物种的巨大外形 Next to subtropical species, alpine plants grow in giant form. 高达 30 多米的杜鹃花向着苍穹昂首怒放 Crowning the canopy, rhododendrons, up to 30 metres high. 四五月间 它们将苍翠的山林染成一片嫣红
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In April and May, their flowers turn the forests ruby red, 吸引了唯此独有的鸟类 attracting bird species found only here. 空气中丰富的水份供养的寄生植物 增加了枝条的负载 Constant moisture in the air means that the branches are laden with flowering epiphytes, 这些山谷中特有的小太阳鸟 精心护卫着杜鹃花的枝条 fiercely guarded by tiny sunbirds, unique to these valleys. 蜂雀是花蜜的掠食者 远古以来就一直生活在热带地区 Nectar feeders, these are the humming birds of the Old World tropics. 高黎贡山的森林是中国部分珍稀动物的家园 The forests of Gaoligongshan are home to some of China's rarest wildlife. 这是一只雌性红腹角雉 This is a female Temminck's Tragopan. 她有着一位绚丽夺目的雄性追求者 She has a colourful male admirer. 它希望用奇特的躲猫猫游戏来向雌性求爱 He's hoping to woo her with his peculiar peekaboo display 但她却不想轻易将芳心托付 but she's not about to be rushed. 它多彩的盘状肉髯比羽毛能更好的反射光线 (skin wattle 肉髯 此系指颈部皮肤上的附属 物) His colourful skin wattle reflects more light than feathers do. 对雌性来说简直就是黑暗中的霓虹灯 To her, this is like a neon sign. 是行动的时候了 Seeing his chance, the male makes his move. 高黎贡山的森林总是保持着湿润的气候 Constant moisture in the Gaoligongshan forests 这意味着这里终年都出产水果 means that throughout the year there are always fruits on the trees. 如此丰盛的水果吸引了各式各样原本 Such abundance of food encourages a high diversity of fruit eaters 仅存于热带地区的“水果派”们 more commonly found in the tropics. 大黑松鼠原本只生活在原始雨林中 The black giant squirrel is found only in undisturbed rainforest. 体长近一米的大黑松鼠 是世界上体型最大的松鼠之一 At close to a metre in length, it's one of the world's largest squirrels. 神奇之处在于这些森林远离热带却依旧繁茂 The mystery is that these forests are growing well outside the tropics. 要是公正的说 雨林及其间的动物本不该存在于此 By rights, none of this jungle, or its animals, should be here. 这是短尾猕猴 These are bear macaques. 他们 通 常 只 生 活 在 热 带 亚 热 带 的 丛 林 中 They're found only in tropical and sub-tropical jungle. 之所以能够在这片方圆千米的袖珍家园生息 With a tiny home range of just a few square kilometres, 靠的是全年丰足的水果供给 they depend on the abundant fruit 这种得天独厚的饮食条件 足以媲美热带雨林 that only true rainforests can provide all year round.
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对欧洲的植物猎人而言 To the European plant hunters, 北方的雨林简直是奇幻美妙的失落世界 these northern rainforests must have seemed a fantastic and mysterious lost world. 然而 当他们来到这里 却发现了构造美丽的古石道 Yet, when they came here, they would have found beautifully constructed ancient stone pathways 拜此所赐 森林探索得以进行 on which the forest could be explored. 蜿蜒向西深入山地 Winding westwards into the hills, 曾一度是亚洲地区的要道 these were once some of the most important highways in Asia, 西南部的茶马古道(即为西南丝绸之路) the southwestern tea and silk road. 茶马古道源于古代西南边疆的茶马互市 兴于唐宋盛于明清 Built thousands of years ago, 西南茶马古道越过中国的边境迎来了 远自罗马的商人与旅者 the southwestern tea and silk road gave access to the world beyond China's borders, 将这片古老土地与世界相连 carrying tradesmen and travellers from as far away as Rome. 这条路上曾燃烧过连绵的战火 Wars were fought over access to this tiny path, 也是出入当时中国的唯一咽喉要道 the only sure route in or out of China, 必须要保证全年畅通无阻 that was guaranteed to be clear of snow all year round. 那么 是什么造就了高黎贡山独特的气候 So, what causes Gaoligongshan's strange and remarkable climate? 五月后旬阵风来临 In late May, gusts of wind arrive, 带来 了 解 开 高 黎 贡 山 气 候 之 谜 的 钥 匙 bringing with them the key to Gaoligongshan's mystery. 热风富含水分 The winds are hot and saturated with water. 它们完全来自于印度洋 They come all the way from the Indian Ocean. 受云南独特地形的影响 Channelled by Yunnan's unique geography, 热带季风带来了充沛的雨量 they bring with them the moisture of the tropical monsoon. 形成于千百万年前的巨大河谷 The giant river valleys, created millions of years ago, 如同巨大的漏斗一般 act like immense funnels. 这些峡谷深邃狭长 The gorges are so deep and narrow, 引 导 湿 热 气 流 径 直 流 向 滇 北 that the moist warm air is driven right up into the north of Yunnan. 然后就是降雨 暴泄的狂流 The result is rain, in torrents! 近四个月的持续雷雨滋润着茂盛的植物 Four months of daily rainstorms sustain luxuriant vegetation. 季风的来临 The arrival of the monsoon 唤醒了森林中最喜好潮湿的居民 awakens one of the forest's most extraordinary moisture-loving inhabitants. 类鳄蝾螈是此处发现的 最为不凡的两栖动物之一 The crocodile newt is one of the most unusual of the many amphibian species found here.
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当雨季来临 它们开始求偶繁衍 As the rains arrive, they emerge to mate. 据说鳄蝾会为其潜在的伴侣留下气味线索 The newts are said to leave an odour trail that potential mates can follow. 类鳄蝾螈得名于它背上嶙峋的凸起 The crocodile newt gets its name from the bumps along its back. 这是它们的天然防御 These are its defence. 一旦被潜在的肉食者捕获 If grabbed by a potential predator, 肋骨的顶部的隆起物中便会 挤压出致命的毒素 the tips of its ribs squeeze a deadly poison from the bumps. 暴雨唤醒了另外一种森林生物 The deluge wakes another forest inhabitant. 它那勃发向上的朝气令人叹为观止 This one is particularly astounding in its vigour! 它一天能够生长一米 It can grow up to a metre a day, 使其迅速傲视四周 fast overtaking the other plants around it. 长得愈发高挺 长势愈发猛烈 The taller it grows, the faster its growth rate, 数日间便拔地而起 凌驾于灌木丛之上 so that in a matter of days it towers above the undergrowth, 并且持续向着天际进发 and continues reaching for the sky. 对于出身草根的它而言 干得还不赖 Not bad for what is essentially a grass. 它就是竹子 It's bamboo. 时机成熟 Given the chance, 竹子将造就出支配整个地域的庞大竹林 bamboo will create immense forests, dominating entire areas. 竹林的踪迹遍及整个中国的西南部 Bamboo forests occur across southwest China, 一路向东直至上海都能看到它的身影 all the way to Shanghai. 或许世界上最高耸挺拔的竹子 But probably the highest diversity of bamboos in the world 却悠然生长在云南的山谷之中 is found on the hills and valleys of Yunnan. 尽管外表坚硬 竹子的腹中却空无一物 Though incredibly strong, bamboos have hollow stems, 为一切能够寻径而入的生命 创造了天然完美的庇护所 a perfect shelter for any creatures which can find a way in. 这是甲虫开凿的一个入口 This entrance hole was made by a beetle 但却为完全不同的生物做了嫁衣 but it's being used by a very different animal. 竹节蝙蝠 A bamboo bat. 它是世界上最小的哺乳动物 体型和大黄蜂差不多一样大 The size of a bumblebee, it's one of the tiniest mammals in the world. 整个聚居地内里多达 25 只竹节蝙蝠 The entire colony, up to 25 bats, 挤在比一个茶杯的空间还要狭小的竹节里 fits into a single section of bamboo stem, smaller than a tea cup. 这简直就是挤油渣 It's quite a squeeze! 竹节内一半的空间属于竹蝠宝宝 Half the colony are babies. 尽管只有一周大而已 他们的体型却长得和妈妈一般大小了 Though barely a week old, they are already almost as big as their mums.
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喂养这帮疯长的小家伙实在是件苦差事 Feeding such a fast-growing brood is hard work. 蝙蝠母亲们只在每晚薄暮降临后外出寻觅食物 The mums leave to hunt just after dusk each night. 小家伙们被留下来看家 Back in the roost, the young are left on their own. 翅膀上独特的肉趾帮助他们攀爬竹壁 Special pads on their wings help them to grip on the bamboo walls 绝大多数时候 most of the time. 小竹蝠们在剩下的空间里用伸展腰肢整理翅膀 The young bats use the extra space to prepare for a life on the wing 为日后的飞行早做准备 by preening and stretching. 就像罐头里的沙丁鱼挤得满满的 将成为容易被蛇攻击的目标 Packed in like sardines, they would make an easy target for a snake. 但是蛇却没有收获的机会 But the snake has no chance of getting in. 入口的宽度比铅笔还要细 The entrance is thinner than the width of a pencil. 当蝙蝠妈妈回来时 When the mothers return, 穿过狭窄的入口 必须要依靠它们与众不同的扁平颅骨 they can push through the narow entrance only because of their unusually flattened skulls. 同样还是需要用力才能挤进去 But it's still a squeeze. 另一个深林的原住民 在竹子的采集与使用方面独辟蹊径 Bamboos are exploited in a very different way by another forest dweller. 新鲜的竹笋是重要的深林作物 Fresh bamboo shoots are an important forest crop. 哈尼族有一个聚居地叫哀牢 Ai Lao Xiang is of the Hani tribe, 坐落于今西双版纳州勐海县的勐宋乡 from the mountain village of Mengsong. 他采集的嫩竹笋将会被烤成一道美味的菜肴 Roasted, the tender shoots he gathers will make a tasty dish. 哈尼族不仅从树林中采集竹子 也种植各个品种竹子以供不同的用途 The Hani have many uses for the different bamboos they grow and find in the forest around. 尽管竹子足够柔韧以至于可以用来穿戴 Though flexible enough to be woven, 但竹子却拥有比钢还要好的抗张强度 bamboo has a higher tensile strength than steel. 嫩竹子富含水分 Succulent when young, 成材的竹子制成的桌子坚固耐用 in maturity it's tough and durable, ideal for making a table 用竹子做成的水烟筒甚至可以用上一辈子 and strong enough for a pipe to last a lifetime. 中国西南部的人民 The people of southwest China 找到了很多种方法来利用这种用途异常广泛的植物 have found an extraordinary number of ways to exploit this most versatile of plants. 他们正使用方言谈话 THEY SPEAK IN NATIVE LANGUAGE 竹子非凡成功中的一部分原因是 Part of bamboo's phenomenal success 因为它足够坚硬以至于只有很少的动物能够食用 is that it's so tough that few animals can tackle it. 看 竹子确实正在遭到攻击 Yet, bamboo does come under attack. 一只竹鼬 A bamboo rat. 吃的差不多全是竹子 Feeding almost exclusively on bamboo, 它们一辈子都生活在树林之下的地道之中 they live their entire lives in tunnels beneath the forest. 细小的竹子很容易被拖进坑道中
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The thinner species of bamboo are easy to attack and pull below. 她拥有极其出色的嗅觉 She has a fantastic sense of smell 能够透过土壤嗅到新鲜的生长物 and can sniff out the fresh growth through the soil. 竹子的根一直往地下延伸 Bamboo spreads along underground stems. 非常有利于竹鼬顺根找到新鲜的竹枝 By following these, new shoots are found. 一旦竹枝被发现 Once a shoot is detected, 竹鼬咬断之后把竹枝拖回到她的地洞里 she snips it free and drags it down into her burrow. 这只雌性竹鼬拥有着一个家庭 This female has a family. 小竹鼬出世才只有几个星期 At just a few weeks old, 小竹 鼬 已 经 能 够 应 付 最 硬 的 竹 枝 了 the youngsters can already tackle the hardest bamboo stems 它们是如此的渴望咬上几口 and are eager to try. 竹子坚硬的名声是如此的显赫 Bamboo's tough reputation is such, 另一个食竹高手被认为是中国的“攻坚专家” that another bamboo specialist was known by the Chinese as, "The Iron Eating Animal". 大熊猫以其独特的日常饮食而闻名于世 The giant panda is famous for its exclusive diet. 大熊猫被认为在几百万年前 起源于中国的西南部 Giant pandas are thought to have originated in southwest China, millions of years ago, 大熊猫现在已经在云南绝迹 but they are no longer found in Yunnan. 近年来,恐怖的结果降临到了大熊猫钟爱的食物上 Recently, their specialised diet has had dire consequences. 竹子有着难以预测的生命周期 Bamboo has a bizarre life cycle, 不常见的花季,有时在百年之内竹子才会开一次花 flowering infrequently, sometimes only once every hundred years or so. 一旦竹子的花季来临,就会影响到可观数量的竹子 But when flowering does occur, it's on a massive scale, 所有的植株都将追随死神的召唤 and it's followed by the death of all of the plants. 有时,整片竹林都可能随之消亡 Sometimes an entire bamboo forest may die. 在没有受到干扰的栖息地中 熊猫往往只是迁移到另外一片区域而已 In undisturbed habitat, pandas simply move to another area 未受开花影响的不同品种的竹子依旧生机勃勃 where a different bamboo species grows. 人类的活动已经破坏了熊猫生存区域的连续性 But as human activity has fragmented their forest home, 大熊猫所面临的生存环境日益窘迫 pandas find it increasingly hard to find large enough areas in which to survive. 野生大熊猫现在仅存活于中国中部的森林里 Wild pandas are now found only in the forests of Central China, 远离东部 far to the east. 在隐秘的云南南部热带的小型低地丛林里 But in the hidden pockets of lowland jungle in Yunnan's tropical south, 居住着中国最神秘的野生动物之一 live one of China's best-kept wildlife secrets. 深沉的咆哮 DEEP BELLOW 亚洲野象 The wild Asian elephant. 亚洲野象的一次迁徙 可以走到中国北方的北京那么远
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Elephants once roamed across China as far north as Beijing. 但是它们仅仅存活于云南的隐秘的山谷之中 But it's only in the hidden valleys of Yunnan that they have survived. 大象是森林的建筑师 Elephants are the architects of the forest. 竹子和草是大象最喜爱的食物 Bamboos and grasses are their favourite food 吃一些盘旋的藤蔓植物树苗以及树叶也无所谓 but saplings, tree leaves and twisted lianas are all taken, with little care. 当它们穿越森林 As they move through the forest, 大象开辟出了小块的林中空地 为森林中的地面带来了阳光 the elephants open up clearings, bringing light to the forest floor. 这对它们的家园有着较大的影响 This has a major impact on their home. 富足的森林正为那些偶尔经历改变所熟知 The richest forests are now known to be those which from time to time experience change. 基诺族对于森林的知识博学得让人难以置信 The Jinou people are incredibly knowledgeable about their forests 他们声称能够利用在这儿找到的大多数植物 and claim to have uses for most of the plants that they find there. 所有的植物都被基诺族人命名 They have names for them all, 那些吃起来应该不错 有的植物甚至还有很高的药用价值 those good for eating and some which even have strong medicinal qualities. 通过在这儿劳动 基诺族人扮演了一个与大象相似的角色 By working here, the Jinou play a similar role to the elephants, 开发森林 拓展空间 带来了阳光与多样化 opening up the forest, bringing space, light and diversity. 生长迅速的绿色植物有很强的竞争优势 Green, fast growing species are encouraged. 这儿的昆虫资源也极其富足 Insects are in high abundance here, 以昆虫为食的动物也不少 together with the animals that feed on them. 基诺族人掌握的关于森林的知识 使他们能够找到植物之外的 Knowledge of the forest enables the Jinou to find not just plants, 其它美味可口的森林食品 but other tasty forest food too. 丛林地蟹在这儿很常见 它们以充足的废叶为食 Forest crabs are common here, feeding on the abundant leaf litter. 晚餐又多了一道美味可口的菜肴 This will be a tasty addition to the evening meal. 流经云南南部的山谷 Flowing through Yunnan's southern valleys, 怒江的水量正是充沛的时候 the once angry rivers are now swollen, 缓慢流动河水有些温暖 their waters slow and warm. 这些富饶的低地河谷是傣族人的家园 These fertile lowland valleys are the home of the Dai. 水之民 The "People of the Water"
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山环水抱沿河而居 live along streams which originate in the surrounding hills. 每一个家庭都拥有一个菜园子 Each family keeps a kitchen garden 仿 照 森 林 环 境 中 的 多 层 结 构 modelled on the multi-layered structure of the surrounding forests, 傣族人对森林满怀敬重 which the Dai hold sacred. 套种不同的作物能够显著提高产量 The gardens are made more productive by inter-planting different crops. 高大向阳的作物为阴地植物提供了遮阳伞 Tall, sun-loving species give shelter to plants which thrive in the shade. 作为伙伴,大家都得以茁壮成长 As companions, the plants grow better. 云南的森林里有十二种 以上不同品种的野生香蕉 Yunnan's forests are home to more than a dozen wild banana species 多数 傣 族 人 的 菜 园 里 的 香 蕉 都 长 势 良 好 and banana crops grow well in most Dai gardens. 尽管富含花蜜的硕大香蕉树花一天只绽放两个小时 The huge banana flowers are rich in nectar for only two hours a day, 却足以吸引周围森林中的昆虫前来采吸 大黄蜂当然也不甘落后 but it's enough to attract a range of forest insects, including hornets. 用它们剃刀般锋利的下颚骨 With their razor sharp mandibles, 很容易就能够采集到花蜜 they find it easy to rob the flowers of their nectar. 捕食者大黄蜂也是肉食动物 But hornets are predators too. 它们捕食其它的昆虫并带回蜂巢 They hunt other insects and carry them back to their nest. 一个理想的目标 An ideal target, 但是这只蚱蜢并非免费的盘中餐 but this grasshopper is no easy meal. 也许要为之付出一定的代价 There may be a price to pay. 傣族猎人 Po 与 Xue Ming 利用猎人的本能 The Dai men, Po and Xue Ming, take advantage of a hunter's instincts. 被大黄蜂蛰伤是一件很痛苦的事情 A hornet sting is agony. 现在大黄蜂的心思都在蚱蜢身上 But for now it's distracted, intent on cutting away 咬下一块足够小的蚱蜢肉以便带回蜂巢 a piece of grasshopper small enough to carry back home. 成功了 Success! 白色的羽毛几乎没有迟滞黄蜂的飞行速度 The white feather hardly slows the hornet, 然而,更重要的是 and, more importantly, 白色羽毛能够为猎人导航 it can be seen. 猎人的狩猎现在开始了 Now the hunter is the hunted.
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只要 Po 与 Xue Ming 能够跟上 So long as Po and Xue Ming can keep up! 回到蜂巢后,其它的大黄蜂 Back at the nest, the other hornets 立即把羽毛咬碎 immediately begin to cut the feather free. 但是为时已晚 蜂巢的位置已经暴露 But it's too late. The nest's location has been betrayed. 森林动物与当地人之间的关系 The relationship between the forest animals and the people who live here 几乎就没有和睦的时候 was never one of harmony. 傣族与其他的族群认为森林是神圣不可侵犯的 Yet the fact that the Dai and other ethnic groups considered these forests to be sacred, 并且能够为他们的生存提够保障 has ensured their survival 现在很多森林通过自然保护区的形式 被特别地保护起来 and now many have been given extra protection as nature reserves. 身心的劳累终于获得了回报 Ingenuity and hard work pays off at last. 傣族人很喜欢食用这种多脂的幼虫 The fattened larvae are considered a delicacy by the Dai. 尽管 这 些 森 林 历 尽 了 沧 桑 巨 变 Although these forests have experienced a great deal of change, 但它们依旧是一些远古的 令人难以置信的关系的主人 they are still host to some ancient and incredible relationships. 差不多六十厘米高 Almost 60 centimetres high, 这是滇南魔芋的巨大花冠 this is the immense flower of the Elephant yam. 当地人称之为丛林女巫 Locals call it the "Witch of the Forest". 夜幕降临繁星满天 丛林女巫开始释放她的魔力 As the stars rise, the witch begins to cast her spell. 森林中的气温下降了 花儿却开始升温了 The forest temperature drops, but the flower starts to heat up. 热成像摄影机显示出了花的温度 A heat sensitive camera reveals the flower's temperature 温度令人难以置信的升高了十摄氏度 rising by an incredible ten degrees Celsius. 在这个时候,腐肉有毒的臭气弥散在整个森林 At the same time, a noxious stench of rotting flesh fills the forest air. 随着花朵热量的增加 臭气阵阵袭来 As the flower's heat increases, a cloud of odour rises up. 难闻的味道四处飘散 The foul perfume carries far and wide. 它并非没有注意到 It doesn't go unnoticed. 腐尸甲虫登场了 Carrion beetles arrive on the scene. 甲虫来到这儿寻找一顿温暖的腐肉圣宴 The beetles come in search of a feast of warm decaying flesh, 但是甲虫上当了 but they've been tricked.
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滑溜的花壁使甲虫摔倒 Slippery sides ensure they tumble 直接跌进了巨花的中央 straight into the centre of the monster flower. 这儿的空间不足以让甲虫展开它的翅膀 There's not enough room to spread their wings 像蜡一般光滑的花壁注定甲虫无处可逃 and the waxy walls ensure that there's no escape. 花儿挽留甲虫做客期间 并不会有任何凶险的事情发生 But there's nothing sinister in the flower's agenda. 甲虫将会在不知情的情况下成为花的助手 The beetles will be its unwitting helpers. 天色破晓 Dawn arrives, 花朵困住了它的俘虏一整天 but the flower remains unchanged, holding its captives through the day. 次日的夜色洒向了大地 丛林女巫再次释放它的热情 As the second night falls, the witch stirs again. 一会儿,花朵珍贵的金色花粉 In a matter of minutes, the flower's precious golden pollen 从雄蕊中挣扎而出并下坠 squeezes from the stamens and begins to fall, 阵阵洒落在被俘获的甲虫身上 showering onto the captive beetles below. 现在,囚徒终于被释放 Now, at last, the prisoners are free to go. 花壁的质地变得粗糙起来 The flower's wall changes texture, becoming rough 提供了理想的逃离天梯 to provide the ideal escape ladder. 满载花粉奔向自由 Loaded with their pollen parcels, they can now climb to freedom, 正好其它的丛林女巫即将绽放 just as other forest witches are beginning to open. 无法抗拒的味道引诱甲虫再次造访 Seduced by the irresistible perfume, the beetles are sure to pay a visit, 保证了授粉得以施行 so ensuring pollination, 也因此保证了这种硕大的 发出难闻气味的花得以传宗接代 and another generation of incredibly big, smelly flowers. 晨曦乍现 森林之鸟在树荫地下宣告它们的领地 As dawn arrives, forest birds claim their territories in the canopy. 鸟鸣声 BIRDSONG 这儿有一种声音在其中显得格外突兀 But there's one call which stands out among the rest 森林交响乐的艺术大师 virtuoso of the forest symphony. 奇异的声音响起 STRANGE CALL RINGS OUT 是一只长臂猿 It's a gibbon. 起伏的叫声持续不断 UNDULATING CALL CONTINUES 在云南中南部偏远的山脉之中 Living on a remote mountain range in south central Yunnan 居住着中国的珍稀动物 野生长臂猿群 is one of the few remaining wild gibbon populations in China. 无量山里的黑冠长臂猿 The black-crested gibbons of Wuliangshan. 他们活动范围局限在这些山林之中 They are confined to these forest mountains, 如此偏远而又陡峭的环境 以至于少有猎人光顾 so remote and steep that few hunters ever come here.
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对它们的社会结构来说 无量山的长臂猿是如此的与众不同 The Wuliangshan gibbons are unsual for their social structure. 大多数长臂猿生活在一个小家族之中 Most gibbons live in small family groups 由交 配 的 双 方 和 他 们 的 后 代 所 组 成 consisting of a mating pair and their offspring. 但是这些长臂猿也过着群居的生活 But these gibbons exist in troops. 一只雄性长臂猿能够与 两只到三只的雌性交配 One male can have two or sometimes three females 而且这些雌性都能怀胎生子 and all of these can have young. 通常这些小长臂猿都生活在族群之中 Often even the juveniles stay in the community. 幼崽的吱吱声 BABY SQUEAKS 惊鸿一瞥 这只小长臂猿也许刚出生了一天 Rarely glimpsed, this baby may be only a day old. 如果安全度过了婴儿期 它将拥有一个充满希望的未来 If it survives infancy, then it has a promising future 与它组织严密的家庭共同生活在 宛如世外桃源的山谷中 in these few valleys with its close-knit family. 长臂猿的叫声响起 GIBBON CALLS RING OUT 长臂猿的歌声曾经 激发了中国的古代诗人的灵感 Gibbon song once inspired the ancient poets of China, 它们壮美的歌声回荡在崇山峻岭之间 谱写了“两岸猿声啼不住”的辉煌篇章 their glorious calls echoing far across the hills. 可是现在 云南的森林异常的宁静 But now, new, strangely quiet forests have come to Yunnan. 这些树能够出产一种重要而又珍贵的作物 These trees are here to produce an important and valuable crop. 当树皮被刮开便流出了丰沛的粘液 When the tree bark is scored, it yields copious sticky sap, 没有任何动物能够以这种 又苦又粘的液体为食 so bitter and tacky that nothing can feed on it. 这是树木面对攻击时的自我保护 It's the tree's natural defence against attack. 它每天都被采集 It's collected daily, 一碗又一碗 bowl by bowl. 液体将被熬制成为一种非常重要的材料 It will be boiled and processed into one of the most important materials 橡胶 对发展中国家来说尤为关键 to a fast developing nation - rubber. 中国的橡胶林种植面积在五十年代时急速扩张 The expansion of the rubber forests began in the '50s when China, 美国侵略朝鲜期间对当时的中国 实行了全面的经济封锁和橡胶禁运 under a world rubber embargo, 中国对这种战略原料的需求 必须自给自足 had to become self-sufficient in this vital product. 北京当局把目光转向了 橡胶树唯一能够快速成材的地方 Beijing turned to the only place where rubber could
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grow, 位于热带地区的云南南部 the tropical south of Yunnan. 高效快捷的行动开始了 With efficiency and speed, 一些世间最丰茂的森林被摧毁并焚烧殆尽 some of the world's richest forests were torn up and burned. 取而代之的是成片的的橡胶林 Replaced with mile upon mile of rubber plantation. 橡胶种植者的问题也接踵而至 But there was a problem for the rubber growers. 尽管云南独特的天然林 While Yunnan's unique natural forests 能够在延伸到北部的山坡上茁壮成长 can survive on the valley slopes which stretch to the north... 可是一场严峻的霜冻就能毁灭这片娇弱的橡胶林 ..just one severe frost will kill off these delicate rubber trees. 云南的地形为种植范围划定了天然界限 So Yunnan's terrain puts a limit on how far the plantations can spread, 阻碍了向北种植的计划 halting at least their northwards advance. 云南的丛林所面临的压力正逐渐加大 The jungles of Yunnan are increasingly under pressure. 汽车喇叭嘟嘟响 HORN BEEPS 新建的公路纵横交错在残存的树林间 New roads criss-cross the tiny remnant forests, 以满足商业工业以及旅游业 对基础设施的需求 the infrastructure needed for trade, industry and, increasingly, tourism. 这是两个截然不同的世界的交汇之处 It's a meeting of two very different worlds. 象鸣 ELEPHANT TRUMPETS 大象还能在中国存活简直就是个奇迹 That elephants still exist in China is remarkable 考虑到那巨大的压力 considering the immense pressures 那世界上最多的人口所带来的压力 in the world's most highly populated country. 约 250 头野生大象依旧居住在此 The 250 or so wild elephants which still live here 并受到严密的保护 are now strictly protected. 每年都有小象诞生在稀疏的象群中 And each year young are born to the small herds. 倘若问大象打算在中国的何处安居 If elephants were to survive anywhere in China, 那必定非云南莫属 it could only have been here, in Yunnan. 山脉引导着季风带着湿热气流径直流向滇北 The same mountains which guide the monsoon rains north 这不仅使得 Joseph Rock 的旅程充满了艰难 and which made Joseph Rock's journeys so treacherous, 也保护了云南的森林和这儿的野生动物 also guarded Yunnan's forests and its wildlife. 象吼声 ELEPHANTS GRUNT AND TRUMPET 此时此刻 群山依旧满目苍翠 For the moment, the mountains are still carpeted in a rich green, 简单的颜色掩盖了她的美丽与富饶 deceptive in its simplicity. 也许云南是苍穹之下 中国最宝贵的自然财富 Below the canopy lies perhaps China's richest natural treasure. 雅致而又独特的 Delicate and unique,
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人类难以割舍的自然情怀都汇聚在这 a complex world of intricate relationships 美丽的彩云之南 between animals, plants and people, beneath the clouds. 美丽中国(Wild China)第三集 西藏 Tibet 西藏高原的陆地面积约占中国领土的四分之一 The Tibetan plateau is a quarter of China. 其中的大部分极度偏远荒无人烟 Much of it is extremely remote and inhospitable. 南部边界贯穿了世界上最高的山脉 Its southern border runs through the world's highest mountain range, 望而生畏的喜马拉雅山 the formidable Himalayas. 中部是暴露在风中的寒冷荒地 Its central part is a windswept and freezing 其面积与西欧相似 wilderness the size of Western Europe. 难以置信这个具有挑战性的地方竟然是野生动物的家园 But this challenging place is home to incredible wildlife. 这里的大型生物比中国其它任何地方还要多 There are more large creatures here than anywhere else in China. 西藏加入到新中国这个大家庭五十多年来 Tibet has been a province of China for more than 50 years, 有着 1000 多年悠久历史的的藏传佛教 yet it has a unique character, 依旧保持着她独特的风貌 shaped by over 1,000 years of Tibetan Buddhism. 这个鲜为人知的散发着古老气息的宗教 This obscure and archaic-looking religion 孕育了这个世界上最开明的文化 has produced one of the most enlightened cultures on Earth. 在这里人们与自然界 Here,people have a long tradition of co-existing peacefully 和谐相处的悠久传统 with the creatures and landscape around them, 促进了对脆弱自然环境的保护 a relationship which has helped to protect their fragile environment. 在这个节目中我们将展示这块承载着古老文化的厚重土地 In this programme we will discover why this harsh land with its ancient 对我们的地球来说是多么的重要 culture is vitally important for much of our planet. 初冬 It's the beginning of winter, 高高的青藏高原之上 high up on the Tibetan plateau. 气温会骤降到零下 40 摄氏度 The temperature will soon drop to minus 40 Celsius. 在这里生命中只剩下唯一的念头 ——求存 Out here,life is reduced to a single imperative survival. 对于这只盘羊——世界上最大的羊而言 For the argali,the world's largest sheep, 这就意味着寻找几簇草丛 it means searching for a few tufts of grass. 从山顶到更低一些的地方 Descending from the hilltops to lower altitudes, 盘羊为了安全而团结在一起 the argali band together for safety. 如果顺利的话 在这里能找到足够的食物 Hopefully, down here,they'll be able to find enough food 以帮助它们熬过残冬 to last them through the rest of the winter. 尽 管 冬 的 大 地 是 如 此 的 贫 瘠 与 荒 凉 Although this winter landscape looks barren and forbidden, 西藏偏远的草地却养活着种类多的令人吃惊的生物
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Tibet's remote grasslands support a surprising variety of creatures. 尽管每年的这个时候难以寻觅它们的踪迹 Though at this time of year, they can be hard to track down. 相 比 之 下 西 藏 的 首 府 拉 萨 却 熙 攘 异 常 By comparison,Tibet's capital,Lhasa,is a hive of activity. 拉萨是众多朝圣者的聚集地 Lhasa is a focus for large numbers of pilgrims 他们每天在市内的庙宇相聚 who congregate at the city's temples each day. 西藏供养着超过 250 万的人口 Tibet is home to over 2.5 million people, 其中大部分都是虔诚的信徒 most of whom are deeply religious. 尽管西藏的佛教徒倾心于精致复杂的庙宇、雕塑以及画像 Though Tibetan Buddhist worship centres on elaborate temples,statues and images, 他们的信仰却和西藏的野生环境密切地交织在一起 its beliefs are intimately linked with the wild landscapes of Tibet. 这种关系起源于 The starting point for that relationship is the mountain range 蜿蜒在西藏南部边界的山脉 that runs along Tibet's southern border. 喜马拉雅山脉的长度超过了 3000 千米 Over 3,000 kilometres long, 是中国真正意义上的长城 the Himalayas are China's real Great Wall. 有上百个山峰的海拔超过了 7000 米 其中十三个的海拔超过了 8000 米 With hundreds of peaks over 7,000 metres and 13 peaks 是地球上最高的山峰 higher than 8,000 metres,they are the highest mountains on Earth. 西藏地区有 3 万 5 千个以上的冰川 The Tibetan region contains over 35,000 glaciers 覆盖了超过 10 万平方千米的土地 that cover over 100,000 square kilometres. 组成了除去极地之外的最大的冰区 They comprise the largest area of ice outside the polar regions, 接近世界冰区总面积的六分之一 and nearly a sixth of the world's total. 冰川是这个地区大部分水流的源头 These glaciers are the source of most of the water in the region. 青藏高原上镶嵌着众多冰冷的湖泊 And the Tibetan plateau is studded with glacial lakes. 坐 落 在 西 藏 遥 远 西 部 海 拔 4500 米 处 的 玛 旁 雍 错 湖 At over 4,500 metres up,Lake Manasarovar 是世界上海拔最高的淡水湖 in the far west of Tibet,is the highest freshwater lake in the world. 晚春时节 寒冷的湖水吸引了很多繁衍的鸟儿 In late spring,the chilly lake waters are a magnet for breeding birds. 这只冠毛 给它同伴衔来了杂草以此示爱 The crested grebe woos his mate with offerings of weed for her nest. 最终爱巢为它们圆房做好了准备 Finally the honeymoon suite is ready for
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action. 除了 这里还有世界上飞的最高的鸟 The grebes are joined by the highest flying birds in the world. 斑头鹤在喜马拉雅山的南面过冬 Having spent the winter south of the Himalayas, 每年春天都要冒险飞越巅峰 bar-headed geese make the hazardous mountain crossing each spring 到高原的湖泊繁衍生息 to breed on the plateau's lakes. 为了安全它们在一起筑巢 The geese nest together for safety. 但如此多的小鸟同时孵出也就意味着找到亲生父母是一个很棘手的问题 But so many chicks hatching at the same time means that it can be tricky finding your parents. 幸运的是一旦到了水里 Fortunately,once down at the water's edge, 就能够找到足够的食物 there's enough food for all of them. 凭借着高山冰川 Fed by the mountain glaciers, 青藏高原甚至形成了自己的内陆湖 the Tibetan plateau even has its own inland sea. 青海湖 This is Qinghai Lake, 中国最大的内陆湖 China's largest. 经过百万年的蒸发 矿物质浓缩了在湖中 Millions of years of evaporation have concentrated the minerals in the lake, 使水变得咸了 turning the water salty. 湖中丰富的鱼资源吸引了成千上万的鸬鹚 Rich in fish,its waters attract thousands of cormorants. 西藏的湖泊不仅是野生动物的家园 But it's not just wildlife that values Tibet's lakes and seas. 其间 的 水 也 使 得 人 类 的 生 命 得 以 延 续 Their life-giving waters are also important to people. 西藏的宗教是佛教与曾经在此地广为流传的 Tibetan religion is a unique mix of Buddhism and much older 古老 萨 满 教 的 独 特 的 混 合 体 Shamanic beliefs that were once widespread throughout the region. 这种混合信仰构成了他们与自然独特关系的基础 This hybrid religion forms the basis of an extraordinary relationship with nature. 在萨满教义中这片土地被赋予了魔力 In Shamanic belief,the land is imbued with magical properties 使之能够帮助与精神世界进行交流 which aid communication with the spirit world. 在这里动物的头骨被装饰起来 岩石也刻上了神圣的曼特拉(传统的颂歌) Here animal skulls are decorated,and rocks are carved with sacred mantras, 人们认为那些音节拥有精神的力量 groups of syllables that are considered to have spiritual power. 人们相信诵读这些曼特拉能够产生魔音 The reciting of the mantras is believed to create a magical sound 在宇宙中回响 that reverberates through the universe.
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大地被分别代表了金木水火土五种元素的 The landscape is decorated with multi-coloured flags which 多彩的经幡装饰着 represent the five elements - fire,wood,earth,water and iron. 经幡上印着祷文用以净化空气 安抚神灵 The flags are printed with prayers to purify the air and pacify the gods, 而风会把这些祈祷带向天堂 and the wind blows the prayers to heaven. 印着祷文的经幡所装裱的番杆经常会被换上新的经幡 The poles on which the prayer flags are mounted are regularly replenished with fresh flags. 而旧的经幡很是珍贵 那些最接近番杆顶部的 The old flags are treasured. Those nearest the top of the pole 经幡更是象征着吉祥如意 所以经幡的争夺可能会很激烈 are the most auspicious,so competition for these can get fierce! 番杆顶部的金顶 The golden dome,which is mounted right at the top of the prayer pole, 是所有物体当中最神圣的 is the most sacred object of all. 至少 一旦它被降下来之后是这样。 Or it will be,once it's retrieved. 古老的萨满教把魔法的力量归功于这片土地. The old Shamanic beliefs of Tibet ascribed magical powers to the landscape. 但这里还有的更多可以感知的力量 But there's a far more tangible source of power here 却和魔法没有一丁点关系 which owes nothing at all to magic. 散布于高原上的是滚烫的温泉 Strewn across the plateau are boiling thermal springs, 这是在这里有百万年历史的 the evidence of mighty natural forces 浑厚的自然力量存在的证据 which have been at work over millions of years. 在地下深处巨大的亚洲板块和 Deep below the surface,the vast continental plates 印度板块互相冲击 of Asia and India are crashing into each other. 地 下 的 混 乱 状 态 使 大 量 含 硫 的 蒸 汽 喷 薄 而 出 The turmoil below erupts in clouds of sulphurous steam. 由滚烫的矿物泉来孕育生命听起来并不太可能 It seems unlikely that scalding mineral springs should support life. 但确实有种不寻常的生物因之而繁衍兴旺 But one unlikely creature thrives here precisely because of them. 这种温泉蛇是西藏所特有的 The hot spring snake is unique to Tibet 人们把它在高原艰苦环境存活下来的原因 and is believed to have survived the inhospitable conditions up 主要归功于这里的天然地热 on the plateau principally thanks to this natural central heating. 这些冷血的蛇在由温泉形成的溪流中游弋 These cold-blooded snakes hang out in streams and rivers which are fed 在温泉中它们无忧无虑的生活着 by the hot springs,where they enjoy a surprisingly productive lifestyle. 滑进温暖的水中耐心地等待 脑袋在水面上下疾动静等鱼儿上钩 Slipping into the warm water,they wait patiently,bobbing their heads on the look-out for
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fish. 正由于与形成喜马拉雅山的火山的不寻常关系 Thanks to its unlikely relationship with the volcanic forces which built the Himalayas, 温泉蛇才得以生存在 the hot spring snake is able to survive. 海拔 4500 米的地方 at altitudes up to 4,500 metres, 这使它成为了世界上过着最奢侈的生活的蛇 making it the highest-living snake in the world. 亚洲和印度板块之间的缓慢运动 The slow-motion crash between Asia and India 已经持续了 3 千万年之久。 has been going on for 30 million years. 喜马拉雅山脉就是这两个大陆板块撞击后的结果 The Himalayas are the crumple-zone created by these two colliding landmasses, 它是一个山峦和山谷的迷宫 a bewildering maze of mountains and valleys, 也是各种难以捉摸的野生动物的家园 home to elusive wild creatures. 在这个多岩的恶劣环境中 In this rugged and unforgiving terrain, 散落着各种碎石和冰冷的河流 littered with fractured rock and ice cold rivers, 极 微 小 的 失 误 也 可 能 导 致 致 命 的 后 果 the slightest miscalculation may have fatal consequences. 雪豹是世界上居住的海拔最高的猫科动物 The snow leopard is the world's highest-living big cat. 但这里还有一种更小的食肉动物 它居住在海拔更高的地方 But there's another,smaller predator that ranges even higher, 几乎是在世界之巅 almost to the roof of the world. 在令人目眩的海拔 8848 米的高度看 At a mind-numbing 8,848 metres high, 珠穆朗玛峰是地球上最危险的地方之一 Everest is one of the most hostile places for life on Earth. 数百人在试图征服它的尝试中死于非命 Hundreds of people have died trying to conquer it. 但当攀登者们第一次完成登山之路的四分之三的之时 But when climbers first reached the ice fields three quarters of the way 有种生物早已在这方面打败了他们。 up the mountain,something had already beaten them to it. 这种跳蜘蛛是地球上海拔最高的永久居住民 This jumping spider is the highest permanent resident on the planet. 在珠穆朗玛峰的冰川之中 Totally at home amongst the glaciers of Everest, 它在斜坡上四处搜索靠风飞行的猎物 比如弹尾虫。 it scours the slopes for wind-borne prey such as springtails. 中国人把这种小而凶猛的猎食者成为“飞虎” Chinese call this fierce little hunter the "fly tiger". 跳蜘蛛在世界各地都有分布 Jumping spiders are found all over the world. 他们的八对眼睛中有一对很大 Their eight eyes include an oversized central pair, 像双筒望远镜一样四处搜寻潜在的目标 which act like powerful binoculars to spot potential victims. 他们利用水压使腿像活塞一样 They use hydraulic pressure to work their legs like pistons, 可以弹跳到 30 倍于他们体长的高度 catapulting up to 30 times their own body length. 这是在山地中行走的理想方法 The ideal way to get around in rocky terrain. 但像其他的登山者一样 他们也总是先确认哪里是“安全线”
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But like all mountaineers,they always secure a safety line first. 一个弹尾虫正盯着碎石屑 A springtail grazes on detritus, 对这个耍杂技般的掠夺者的潜行跟踪浑然不觉 unaware that it's being stalked by such an acrobatic predator. 藏民们把珠穆朗玛峰称为“Qomolangma(珠穆朗玛)” The Tibetans call Everest "Qomolangma", 意为“大地之母” meaning "mother of the world". 这象征着他们对山的热爱 而不管山看起来多么的冷酷无情 It's a mark of their affection for the mountain,however brutal it may appear. 从高山一直到广阔的平原都充满危险 Venture further from the mountains and out onto the open plateau, 在这里活下去并不容易 and life doesn't appear to get any easier. 风在大地上急速穿过 High winds scour the landscape 气温也可以从酷热难当骤降到冰冷入骨 and temperaturescan drop from baking to freezing in moments. 这里是羌塘或叫北部草原 This is the Chang Tang or Northern Grassland. 它远离人烟 被称为“世界第三极” It's so remote that it's been called the Third Pole. 这里海拔超过 5000 米 It's about 5,000 metres above sea level, 远远超出了人们会有高原反应的高度 way above the point at which altitude sickness starts to affect humans. 在这个高度下 大部 分人都要不停地喘气 At this height,most people are gasping for breath. 但缺少氧气却对这种生物没多大影响 But lack of oxygen hasn't cramped this creature's style. 长角羚或叫藏羚羊已经到了冬季的发情期 Chiru,or Tibetan antelope,have arrived for the winter rut. 在这样耗能的稀薄空气当中 雄性还必须经常地围着成群的雌性跑 In the energy-sapping thin air,the males must try to control groups of females 以使她们在自己的控制之下。 by constantly rounding them up and corralling them. 但是藏羚羊也有优势 But the chiru have an advantage. 他们的红血球数量是我们的两倍 Their red blood cell count is twice as high as ours, 即使在如此高的纬度 也足以为他们的 sufficient to supply their muscles with oxygen 肌肉输送氧气 even at this extreme altitude. 然而 想要控制住这么一大群家眷并不容易 Nevertheless,it's hard work keeping his harem in check, 甚至有时雄性的生活会更加艰难。 and the male's life is about to get even harder. 另一只雄性垂涎于它的家眷们 Another male is gearing up to steal his females. 除非逼不得已雄性一般不会冒险用它们剑一样锋利的角搏斗。 With their rapier-like horns,the males won't risk fighting unless they really have to. 但如果双方都不退让 大战就不可避免。 But if neither backs down,conflict is inevitable. 有时甚至不死不休 Some of these fights end in death. 在雄性抵抗的时候 雌性就在一旁看着。 While the males fence,the females look on. 虚弱受伤的失败者很容易成为在荒原上游弋的 Injured and weakened by the battle,the loser will be an easy target
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食肉动物和食腐动物的目标 for the predators and scavengers that patrol the wilderness. 在这里生存不容许有任何失误 Out here there's little room for mistakes. 从高空俯视着广袤无垠的高原 With a clear view of the endless plateau below, 秃鹫们不会放过任何一个机会 vultures are quick to spot any opportunity. 一头死牦牛吸引了一群秃鹫前来 A dead yak has drawn a crowd. 秃鹫的就餐礼仪并不好 Vultures aren't famous for their table manners. 但在这里秃鹫们却表现的很好 因为广阔的西藏荒原有足够多的大型生物 The vultures do well here,as the vast Tibetan wilderness is home to many large creatures. 居住在西藏高原偏远角落的野牦牛群居的数量甚至可能达到 200 只 Living in herds of up to 200 in the remoter corners of the Tibetan plateau, 他们走过遥远的距离来到高山上的冻土地带寻觅食物 wild yaks travel large distances,grazing on the alpine tundra. 依靠着山口和河流 牦牛在这里强大而安全 Strong and secure over mountain passes and rivers, 它们于这个海拔的环境是如此地连为一体 The yak is in its element at altitude 以至于如果他们到达海拔 3000 米以下 身体就会变得虚弱。 so much so that it gets sick if it goes below 3,000 metres. 牦牛身高 2 米 体重超过 800 千克 Standing two metres tall at the shoulder and weighing more 不仅自身强大还很好斗 than 800 kilos,the wild yak is both formidable and aggressive. 但若没有这种看起来吓人的生物 人类就不可能在这里生存。 But without this fearsome creature it's unlikely that humans would have survived up here. 一旦被驯服 牦牛会让人惊异万分 Once domesticated,the yak is an amazing animal, 它为藏民提供运输 providing the Tibetans with transport, 食物做衣物和帐篷的毛还有可以做燃料的粪便 and manure for fuel. 牦牛很受如此器重以至于 It's held in such high regard 人们用它的皮来装饰神圣的经幡番杆 that its fur is even used to decorate the sacred prayer flag poles, 它的脂肪也被用作敬奉神的贡品 and yak butter is used as an offering to the gods. 牦牛甚至还帮助藏民找到了地上的宝藏 The yak has even led the Tibetans to buried treasure. 夏季可以看见有的人贴在草地上 In summer,people can be seen scouring the grassland, 全神贯注地四处搜索 bent over in deep concentration. 这是世界上最奇特的收割方式了 This is the world's weirdest harvest. 藏民们首先发现了这种被称为“牙扎梗布(藏语:冬虫夏草)”的 Tibetans first investigated this strange root-like organism, 奇怪的根状生物体 known locally as "yartsa gunbu", 原因就在于看到了牦牛们在吃完它之后精力充沛 when their yaks appeared to have more energy after grazing on it. 关于它的神奇的特性的传言逐渐传播开来 Rumours of its amazing properties gradually
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spread. 到了今天 冬虫夏草已经进入了地下黑市 and today the yartsa gunbu is a passport into a shady,underground world. 有时一天一人就可以挖掘 40 个左右 It's possible to dig up 40 of them in a day, 而这些收入则可能占采集者年收入的一半 the proceeds from which may provide half the collector's annual income. 冬虫夏草被用作传统药物已经上千年 Yartsa gunbu has been used as a traditional remedy for thousands of years, 但仅限于非常富有的人群 though only by the very wealthy. 它被用来交换茶叶和丝绸 It has been bartered for tea and silk, 可以换回超过本身四倍重量的银子 and is worth more than four times its weight in silver. 这项贸易是如此的暴利使得它的交易地点和信息都被谨慎地保护起来 So lucrative is this trade,that sites and information are jealously guarded. 在附 近 的 集 市 上 冬 虫 夏 草 被 清 理 干 净 At the nearby market,the yartsa gunbu are cleaned, 这使得它的本来面目显露了出来 and their true nature becomes clear. 冬 虫 夏 草 被 翻 译 为 “ 冬 天 的 虫 子 夏 天 的 草 ” The yartsa gunbu translates as "summer grass,winter worm". 冬虫是一种毛虫 The winter worm is a caterpillar. 它以草根为食 It eats roots of grasses 为自己变身成蛾做准备。 in preparation for its transformation into a moth. 但有些冬虫却从没有机会变成蛾 But some winter worms never make it as moths. 而在夏季一个奇怪的植物 Instead,a strange growth erupts from their body, 在冬虫的体内生长发育直至破土而出 appearing above ground in summer. 这就是“夏草” This is the "summer grass", 一种被称为虫草的真菌 是它的孢子侵入了毛虫体内 a fungus called Cordyceps,whose spores have infected the caterpillar, 并将毛虫的身体作为它们的宿主 using its body as their host. 现代科学实验证明含有冬虫夏草的物质可以 Modern scientific tests have shown that substances contained 降低血压并能使呼吸更顺畅 in Cordyceps lower blood pressure and make it easier to breathe. 所以 近 些 年 来 收 获 这 种 自 然 资 源 So in recent years,harvesting this natural treasure 已经成为有巨大利益的生意 has grown into a huge and profitable business. Yarsa gunbu 不仅在拉萨的百货公司里畅销 Yartsa gunbu sells for big money in the top department stores of Lhasa, and there is a growing market outside of Tibet. 尽管西藏日新月异地发展 Although Tibet is modernising fast, 它的精神文化依旧根深蒂固 it retains a deeply spiritual culture. 即使在今天 神秘西藏大峡谷的回响仍然在呼唤着祈祷的人们 Even today,Tibetan valleys resound to distinctive and extraordinary calls to prayer. 西藏的号角或许是世界上最笨重的乐器 The Tibetan horn may be the world's most
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unwieldy instrument, 但是它的音色独特 but its sound is unique. 每天早晨 喇嘛们聚集在一起练习吹奏 Every morning,the nuns assemble for practice. 开始空气很凉 但她们很快就暖和起来。 The air is chilly,but they soon warm up. 喇嘛们是组成社会的一部分 Monks and nuns comprise a substantial portion of society, 他们自控也独立 Largely self-contained and isolated. 热情 CHANTING 修道院的深处是推动藏文化的精神动力 Deep within the monastery is the spiritual engine that drives much of Tibetan culture. 佛教徒相信生命轮回 Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of rebirth 他们相信人们今生的所作所为能影响来生 in which the actions of this life will impact on the next. 佛教的目标就是通过达到一种“悟”的自由的境界 The goal of Buddhism is to escape from this earthly cycle of pain 来摆脱俗世的灾难和痛苦 and suffering by achieving a state of freedom called enlightenment. 这种教化的领路人或精神上的老师叫做喇嘛 The enlightened guides,or spiritual teachers,are called lamas. 摆脱生死轮回追求教化的想法 The possibility of escaping the cycle of life and death 驱使着人们一心向善 and the promise of enlightenment encourages people to perform activities that benefit all beings. M.ETA.LLIC TINK.LING M.ETA.LLIC TINK.LING 由于相信万物都有灵魂 所以他们认为环境生物和 This belief assigns as much importance to the environment and its creatures as it does to humans, 人类都是平等的 since every living creature is believed to have a soul. 一千多年以来 在西藏这偏僻的地方 In the remote lands of Tibet, for over 1,000 years 这个观念为野生动植物带来了 this concept has been translated into practical benefits for wildlife, 实实在在的好处 and it starts literally on their doorstep. 僧庙的佛教徒有一些神圣的地方 Buddhist monasteries have sacred sites, 在那 里 猎 杀 动 物 是 犯 忌 讳 的 areas where taboos are placed on the hunting and killing of animals. 一些动物已经被驯服 喇嘛们都可以用手喂它们 Some creatures have become so tame that the nuns are able to hand-feed them, 比如西藏野鸡 Iike these Tibetan-eared pheasants. 由于喇嘛伸出援手 那些稀有的鸟们可以活过最寒冷的冬天。 Thanks to hand-outs from the nuns,these rare birds can survive the worst of the winter. 在这个极度严寒的地方 资源匮乏的人们 In this extreme place, people with few resources 随时准备同需要帮助的生灵分享食物 are prepared to share them with their needy fellow42

creatures. 西藏就是一个自然资源保护很好的例子 The Tibetan example is a model for conservation. 对野生动植物的尊重已经从寺庙延伸到了更广阔的社会中 This respect for wildlife extends beyond the monasteries and into the wider community. 西藏最 神 圣的 一种 动物 是黑 颈鹤 One of Tibet's most sacred creatures is the black-necked crane. 夏季它们在高原上繁衍生息 In summer they live and breed out on the plateau, 但是在冬天它们聚集在农田里。 but in winter they congregate on farmland. 世界上 70%的黑颈鹤都在这里 70% of the world's population can be found here. 尽管科学家最近才发现这种生物 The species was only recently identified by scientists, 但是西藏人认识它们已经有几百年了 but it has been known to Tibetans for hundreds of years. 在 17 世纪西藏的达赖喇嘛写到 In the 17th century,Tibet's supreme lama wrote, “天空中洁白的仙鹤请将你的双翅借我我不往远处去飞 "Crane,lend me your wings,I go no farther than Lithang county. 只到理塘就回” "And thence,return again. " 西藏人相信他在预言他的转世 Tibetans believed he was predicting the site of his own reincarnation 在适当的时候 可以找到他的继承者 and in due course his successor was found, 当然他的继承者一定是在理塘生活 sure enough,living in Lithang county. 即使在今天 黑颈鹤落在村庄附近的农田时 Even today,black-necked cranes are treated with reverence and 农民都会尊敬地欢迎它们的到来 are welcomed by farmers as they land in the fields around the villages. 它们正在举行他们精心准备的祭天仪式 Here they perform their elaborate sky pointing rituals. 庄重的祭天仪式结束后 After the dignified business of parading, 他们开始搜寻剩下的大麦 they begin to forage for leftover barley. 由猪来帮助破开泥土 helped by the pigs which break up the soil. 农民们很乐意让那些神圣的鸟停在它们的田里 The farmers are happy to have these sacred birds on their fields. 在村落里宗教是生活的全部 Within the village,religion is an integral part of life. 每一个祈福者的转经轮都刻上了祷文 Each prayer wheel is inscribed with mantras. 旋转转经轮和背诵祷文有同样的作用 Spinning them has much the same effect as reciting the prayers. 可能佛陀会为他们的教化给人们带来的这么多快乐而欣慰吧 Perhaps the Buddha would have enjoyed the thought that his teachings could provide so much fun! 佛教徒对自然的尊重也表现在实际行动中 Buddhist respect for nature may find expression in practical ways too. 这只鸟一个翅膀受伤了 This bird has a broken wing 然后在村民的护理下康复了 and has been nursed back to health by the villagers. 这种善举在这里很普遍 他们相信今生帮助其他生灵 Such kind acts are common where people believe that helping other beings, 动物或者人都会在来生得到回报 animals or people in this life may bring rewards in the next. 这种尊重保护生灵的文化在西藏传播开来
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The culture of veneration and protection extends right across Tibet, 从而使这种独特脆弱的生态环境得到了维持 helping to preserve a unique yet fragile ecosystem. 雷声隆隆 THUNDER RUM.BLE 在草原微妙的生态系统中有一种小生物生活在草原微妙的生态链的底端 Out on the plateau there's a small creature that's at the root of much of the grasslands' delicate ecology. 尽管夏天有暴风雪 鼠兔一种家兔和野兔的同类 Despite summer snowstorms,the pika,a relative of rabbits and hares, 仍然在不停地吃草并储存起来 is perpetually eating and gathering grass, 还给家人刨洞 and digging burrows for its family. 鼠兔不停地挖洞使空气进入土壤 The pika's constant excavations aerate the soil, 帮助植物生长得更好 which helps the plants to grow. 在短暂的夏天耐寒的草铺满了大地 野花也装饰了大地。 In the short summer,the landscape is carpeted with hardy grasses and decorated with endemic flowers. 在这样原始的环境下 In such a frugal environment, 鼠兔的活动有益于保持食物链的完整 the pika's farming helps to kickstart the food chain. 鼠兔肉很可口但是鼠兔数量太少了 But the pika itself is a very tasty morsel. 它现在的数量勉强能够维持 Its presence has enabled an uneasy relationship to develop 高 原 上 的 两 大 肉 食 动 物 ... between two of the plateau's most opportunistic predators... ...狐狸和熊 ..the fox and the bear. 西藏的棕熊灰熊的一种近亲 The Tibetan brown bear,a close relative of the grizzly, 试图把鼠兔从洞里挖出来 tries to dig the pikas out of their burrows. 即使棕熊很难从冻得坚硬的土地里挖出鼠兔来 Even hard-frozen soil presents little obstacle to a determined bear. 狡猾 的 藏 狐 可 绝 不 放 过 任 何 可 能 的 机 会 The wily Tibetan fox is quick to spot any opportunity. 要说真正聪明的狡猾的狐狸绝对可以胜任 True to form,the crafty fox claims the prize. 由于动物难以捕获并且有世代相传的禁止猎杀的传统 A combination of inaccessibility,and ancient traditions which forbid hunting, 这使得即使在今天 means that in some parts of the plateau, 在高原的一些地方 野生动物都相对没有被打扰 wild animals have remained relatively undisturbed,even today. 但是在那些汽车可以到达的地方 But in those areas which are within reach of motor vehicles, 那些传统的保护已经渐渐被打破 these historical safeguards have been undermined. 这种变化从藏羚羊的身上得到了体现 This change is illustrated in the fortunes of the chiru. 一个世纪以来 上百万的藏羚羊在高原上迁徙 A century ago,millions migrated across the plateau. 不幸的是被称为“沙图什”或者 Unfortunately for the chiru,its fur,known as "shahtoosh", or "king of wools",is highly prized. “羊毛之王”的藏羚羊的毛皮被认为有很高的价值 近几十年以来 偷猎者冒险深入荒原 In recent decades,poachers have been able to
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venture 捕杀了成千上万头藏羚羊 deep into the wilderness,killing thousands of chiru. 但是情况正在逐步好转 However,the situation is improving. 反偷猎法已经生效 所以每年夏天 Anti-poaching laws are now actively enforced so every summer, 母藏羚羊可以相对安全地带领羊群到繁衍的地方 female chiru can head to the birthing grounds in relative safety. 在高原上 新出生的藏羚羊容易受到肉食动物的攻击 Out on the plateau,new-born chiru are vulnerable to predators, 所以母藏羚羊必须把他们藏起来保护它们 so the mothers must try to hide and protect them. 藏羚羊最近遇到的最大的问题就是青藏铁路的修建 The most recent problem faced by the chiru is the new Tibet-Qinghai 正好阻断了它们经常迁徙的路 railway,which cuts right through their traditional migration routes. 青藏铁路蜿蜒 2000 多公里 经过世界上最高的地带 Running nearly 2,000 kilometres through some of the highest 它的修建是震惊世界的壮举 terrain on Earth,the railway is an astonishing technical feat. 评论它对野生动物的影响还为时过早 It's too early to see its effect on the wildlife, 但工 程 师 们 已 经 设 计 了 高 架 桥 来 让 but the engineers have made efforts to incorporate underpasses 野生动物能安全地穿过铁路 where wildlife can cross the line in safety. 由于现代世界对西藏与日俱增的影响 As the modern world increasingly impacts on Tibet, 西藏的传统文化正面临影响 its traditions could be in danger of being eroded. 但是正是由于这个地方的偏僻 But thanks to the sheer scale of this remote region, 这里才有许多荒原至今仍保留着未被人类开垦的自然状态 there are still many wild places that have so far remained largely intact. 最少被探索的地域在西藏偏远的东南部 The least explored area of all is found in Tibet's far south east. 西藏最长的雅鲁藏布江 Here the Yarlung River,Tibet's longest, 在喜马拉雅山脉中留下了深深的印痕 has carved through the Himalayas, 使得从印度吹来的季风和云可以从中穿过 allowing monsoon clouds from India to pass through. 这里是西藏最神秘的角落 This is Tibet's most secret corner. 根据传说雅鲁藏布江大峡谷 According to legend,the Yarlung gorge 在十 八 世 纪 奇 迹 般 地 消 失 了 was rendered magically invisible in the eighth century 只有那些具有高尚品德和聪明才智的人才能看到 and can only be seen by those who have attained sufficient spiritual knowledge and wisdom. 这个神秘的地方离最近的路有两天的路程 At two days' walk from the nearest road, 直到 20 世纪 90 年代才被世人发现 this hidden region wasn't explored by outsiders until the 1990s. 多亏了季风的帮助 Thanks to the annual monsoon, 才使这个地方苍翠繁茂 the whole landscape is covered in lush forest. 峡谷之大让人心惊胆战 The scale of the gorge is breathtaking. 雅鲁藏布江从山峦间穿过 形成了世界最深的峡谷
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As the Yarlung River cuts through the mountains,it's created the world's 比美 国 大 峡 谷 深 三 倍 多 deepest gorge,three times deeper than America's Grand Canyon. 这个广袤神秘的地方为研究西藏 对其他地方的重要性提供了极其重要的线索 This vast and mysterious place provides a vital clue to Tibet's importance for the rest of the world. 多亏了高原的存在 The monsoon which sustains this lush and fertile valley 才有了为绿色富饶峡谷带来活力的季风 owes its very existence to the Tibetan plateau. 高原像一个巨大的加热板 春夏温暖 Like a giant hotplate,the plateau heats up in the spring and summer. 气压的变化引来了南面印度洋的温热潮湿的空气 The change in air pressure draws in warm moist air from the Indian Ocean in the south. 幸亏这样从印度到缅甸的十亿多人 Thanks to this, over a billion people from India to Burma 都得益于季风带来的季风雨 benefit from the monsoon rain that this wind brings with it. 西藏就是保持整个次大陆肥沃的动力 Tibet is the engine that drives the fertility of a whole subcontinent. 但是西藏在地区生态方面扮演着更重要的角色 But Tibet has an even greater role in the ecology of the region. 这个角色的线索可以追溯到古藏文化的传说当中 Clues to this function are found in a legend that pre-dates even the ancient Tibetan culture 而这个传说至今还吸引着来自全世界的朝圣者 and which still draws pilgrims from all over the world. 世界上一些的宗教相信一座神话中的山是伊甸园般的存在 Several world religions believe in a mythical mountain that's equivalent to the Garden of Eden. 它的顶部有四个面 排成罗盘的四个方向 Its peak has four faces,aligned to the points of the compass, 从它的顶部有四条河流向世界的的四方 and from its summit four rivers are said to flow to the four quarters of the world. 由于这里的生命之泉 Thanks to its life-giving waters, 这座山被称为“世界屋脊” this mountain is known as the "axis of the world. " 在西藏最偏僻的区域之一 有一个地方应验了这个传说 In one of the remotest areas of Tibet,there's a place where this legend takes physical form. 这就是伽拉萨山 That place is Mount Kailash. 机缘巧合的是伽拉萨山同 By an uncanny coincidence,Mount Kailash perfectly matches the legend 世界屋脊神话中的描述非常吻合 of the mythical axis of the world. 它的四个面大体向罗盘的四个方向 Its four faces are roughly aligned to the compass, 还有四条主河从丘陵地带奔流 and four major rivers flow from its foothills. 他们是亚洲最重要的四条河 These are some of the most significant rivers in Asia. 雅鲁藏布江、 形成了印度的布拉马普特拉河、 Yarlung,which becomes India's Brahmaputra, The 印度 河 和 流 经 巴 基 斯 坦 的 萨 特 累 季 河 the Indus and Sutlej,which flow to
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Pakistan, 以及恒河的主要支流——卡那丽河 and the Karnali,a major feeder for the Ganges. 由于连接着神话般的高山 Thanks to its connection with the mythical mountain, 卡伊 拉 什 山 令 人 感 到 神 圣 而 从 未 被 攀 登 过 Kailash is so sacred that it has never been climbed. 它是朝圣者在西藏最重要的朝圣点 It's Tibet's most important pilgrimage site. 对于西藏人来说 朝圣之旅是从无知到被教化的过程 For Tibetans,pilgrimage is a journey from ignorance to enlightenment. 环行圣山的朝圣者认为这样做可以消除一生的罪孽 A pilgrimage around the sacred mountain is believed to wipe out 获得一个更好的来生 the sins of a lifetime,increasing the chance of a better rebirth. 大多数朝圣者把朝圣的时间安排在最重要的藏历节日之时 Most pilgrims time their visit for the most important festival in the Tibetan calendar. 一千多年以来 他们聚集在卡伊拉什山脚 For over 1,000 years they have gathered at the foot of Kailash 来庆祝萨嘎达瓦节 感谢佛陀的教化 for the Saga Dawa festival to celebrate Buddha's enlightenment. 当新装饰的圣坛上升起 25 米高的旗子时 The festival climaxes with the raising of the newly dressed altar, 节日达到了高潮 a 25-metre flagpole. 藏族僧侣的音乐、祷文和祝福 The full entourage of Tibetan monks make the most of the occasion, 贯穿了节日的始终 with music,prayers,and blessings. 他们准备了上百条新的祷告的旗子等着放到旗杆上面 Hundreds of fresh prayer flags are prepared and added to the pole. 大喇嘛神圣的哈达给活动画上了句号 The head lama's sacred scarf adds the final touch to the proceedings. 但是卡伊拉什山的重要意义并不仅限于佛教徒 But the significance of Mount Kailash isn't confined to Buddhists alone. 有其他信仰的人也都冒险来到这个遥远的地方 Other faiths venture to this remote place, 许多人是从比喜马拉雅山还远的地方过来的 many from far beyond the Himalayas. 像是想要抢佛教徒的风头似的 印度教徒来了 Threatening to upstage the Buddhists,the Hindus arrive, 把他们自己的色彩和音乐加入其中 adding their own mix of colour and music. 在适当地表达一下敬意之后 When suitable respect has been paid, 是时候竖立新装饰的旗杆了 it's time for the newly dressed prayer pole to be raised. 旗杆必须笔直 The pole must end up straight 否则就是对西藏坏的征兆 or it will be a bad omen for Tibet.
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旗杆终于弄好了 新的祷文也可以被风送到天堂了 At last the pole stands true and the new prayers can be blown to the heavens. 在这一点上 西藏山水的力量和许多文化的信仰汇集到了一起 Around this point,the power of the Tibetan landscape and the beliefs of many cultures converge. 更多祷文写在了叫做“风马旗”的纸上 被吹到了空中 More prayers, written on pieces of paper called "wind horses",are thrown into the air and flutter 向上直到卡伊拉什顶峰 具有不同信仰的人都认为那里居住他们的神 upwards towards the peak of Kailash,where the gods of the different faiths are believed to reside. 在世界屋脊这里有世所罕见的和谐 Here at the axis of the world,is a rare vision of harmony. 对一些人来说 这里只有一个重要的终极目标 For a few,there is one final but essential task to perform. 佛教徒相信有轮回 认为在卡伊拉什山 Buddhists believe in the concept of rebirth,and at Kailash 从今生到来世的路上 the journey from one life to the next 都有古代神秘仪式的印迹 is marked with an ancient but outlandish ritual. 西藏人认为没有必要保存或埋葬他们的尸体 Tibetans believe there's no need to keep or bury the bodies of their dead, 因为死亡的人已经在其他地方获得了新生 since a departed life will already have kindled a new one elsewhere. 藏语中的埋葬的意思是“施舍喂鸟” The word for burial in Tibetan means "giving offerings to the birds", 这种行为和他们怜悯一切生灵的观念是一致 an act of generosity in line with the concept of compassion for all beings. 佛教徒相信行善有益于他们的教化 By doing good deeds,Buddhists believe that they can contribute to the process of enlightenment. 所以在卡伊拉什天葬能获得更好的未来 So a sky burial at Kailash contributes to a brighter future. 或许世界屋脊由关于山的神话和河流构成 There may be legends of mythical mountains and rivers that form the "axis of the world". 但是青藏高原本身 还有它的山峦、冰川、河流 But the Tibetan plateau itself,with its mountains,glaciers,and rivers, 作为季风的推动者 and as the engine that drives the monsoon, 是名副其实的世界屋脊 lays fair claim to being the real axis of the world. 除了是印度和巴基斯坦的源头 Apart from feeding the rivers of India and Pakistan, 西藏的冰川还是更多主要河流的源头 Tibet's glaciers are the source of even more great rivers. 越南的湄公河、缅甸的怒江雅鲁藏布江和黄河 Vietnam's Mekong,Burma's Salween and the Yangtze and the Yellow, 都流经中国 both of which flow into China. 每年充足的水从青藏高原流出 Each year,enough water flows from the Tibetan plateau
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注入了黄河--中华文明的母亲河 to fill the entire Yellow River,the mother river of Chinese civilisation. 现如今仅中国就有 3 亿人依靠 Today in China alone,300 million people depend on water 从青藏高原的流下的水生活 from the Tibetan plateau. 由于对亚洲气候和水资源体系的深远影响 With its profound effect on Asia's weather and water systems, 青藏高原养活了差不多一半的世界人口 the Tibetan plateau helps to sustain almost half the world's population. 至少在现在就是这样 For the moment,at least. 在接近珠穆朗玛峰峰顶的地方 Close to the summit of Mount Everest, 冰层曾经覆盖过大部分的地域 a forest of ice once covered much of the area. 但是现在由于气候的变化 But now,thanks to climate change, 大部分冰层消失了 much of it has gone. 在接下来的 30 年里 Within the next 30 years 预计西藏 80%的冰川将会消失 it's predicted that 80% of the Tibetan glaciers could disappear. 从许多方面来说 In many ways, 西藏 脆 弱 的 环 境 是 世 界 生 态 的 晴 雨 表 Tibet's fragile environment is the barometer of our world. 它今天发生了什么 What happens to it today, 迟早会影响到所有人 in time,will affect us all.

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美丽中国(Wild China)第四集 万里长城的塞外风光 Beyond the Great Wall 长城始建于中国汉代 The Great Wall of China was built by the Han Chinese 为了抵御来自北方的游牧民族而建 to keep out the nomadic tribes from the north 当时把这些游牧民族称为戎狄 They called these people barbarians 并且认为他们的土地贫瘠且 and their lands were considered barren 不适宜人类生息 and uninhabitable 中国的北方确实是一个笼罩在严酷寒冬之中的 Northern China is indeed a harsh place 艰辛之地 of terrible winters 无情的夏天 ferocious summers 严酷的沙漠 harsh deserts 但是这块多彩多姿的土地 But it is far from lifeless 却充满了勃勃生机 With colorful places 有着令人惊讶生物 surprising creatures 奇风异俗的人民 amazing people 以及独特的景致 and strange landscapes 旅途越发深入 景致越发精彩 The further we travel, the more extreme it becomes 长城以北的人民与野生生命 So how do people and wildlife cope 是如何应对艰苦的自然环境和种种生存挑战 with hardships and challenges of life beyond the Wall 仅以此献给我们多灾多难但美丽依旧的祖国 For our troubled but drop-dead beautiful motherland 长城是中国古代 The northern limits of ancient China 北部的边界 were defined by the Great Wall 自东蜿蜒向西约 5000 公里 which meanders for nearly 5000km from east to west 当时定居于中原地带的汉族人 The settled Han people of the Chinese heartland 常常被被来自于北方的 were invaded many times by warlike tribes 游牧部落所侵略 from the north 长城的修建保护了汉族人免于 The Great Wall was built to protect the Han Chinese 遭受侵略 from invasion 为了展现勇猛豪迈的北方壮士 To meet those fearsome northerners 以及这块土地上的野生生命 and the wild creatures who share their world 我们必须离开庇护所 we must leave the shelter of the Wall 深入探索未知的世界 and travel into the unknown 中国的东北部在历史上被称为满洲 Northeast China was known historically as Manchuria 她的上游河段与巴黎位于同一纬度 Its upper reaches are on the same latitude as Paris 但是到了冬季 这儿却是—— but in winter, it is one of the coldest 地球上最冷最不利于生存的地方 most hostile places on the planet 刺骨的寒风定期从西伯利亚袭来 Bitter winds from Siberia
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并将气温降至零下四十度 四季常绿的茂密森林覆盖了这片土地 lands 难以穿越的大峡谷增添本来就 difficult 崎岖不平的地形的复杂度 从一条冰封的河流开始了我们的旅途 蛇行于中国的最东北角与 corner 西伯利亚之间 中国人叫她 黑龙江 居住在这儿的人 并非勇猛豪迈的北方壮士 他们在严冬中奔忙求存 conditions 并以创造性的方式 去应对所面临的挑战 黑龙江是 中国最小的族群 赫哲人的家园 不只是自行车 与这个冰雪覆盖的世界不相称 遗弃在一边的渔船和渔网 离敞开的水面还有很长一段距离 在一米深的冰盖下面 游弋着不计其数的鱼儿 其中包括足以养活 一个赫哲家庭一星期的 500 磅重的鲟鱼 但是他们怎样捕捉到猎物呢 首先他们必须在冰面上凿穿一个 够得着下面水面的洞 然后他们需要在冰面下 布置渔网 这是一个真正的挑战 第二个洞已经凿好了 距离第一个洞 20 米远 同时将一个重物系在线上丢进去 然后用一个长竹竿钩住线 string 把网送到冰下安置的地点 过些日子 来检查渔网 这些日子以来 几乎没有人能捕到一条稀有的大鲟鱼

regularly bring temperatures of 40° below 0 Dense forests of evergreen trees cover these and a rugged terrain is made even more by impenetrable ravines We start our journey on a frozen river snaking between China's northeastern most and Siberia The Chinese call it the "Black Dragon River" The people who live here aren't exactly fearsome warriors They are too busy coping with the harsh winter and they respond to the challenge in some creative ways The Black Dragon river is home to one of the smallest ethnic groups in China the Hezhe people It's not just bicycles that seem out of place in this icy world Fishing boats and nets lie abandoned a long way from open water Underneather a meter of solid ice swim a huge variety of fish including 500-pound sturgeon enough to feed a family of Hezhe for weeks But how can they catch their quarries First they must chisel a hole through the ice to reach the water below Then they need to set their fishing net under the ice a real challenge A second hole is made 20 meters away from the first and a weighted string is dropped in Then a long bamboo pole is used to hook the and pull the net into position beneath the ice After a few days the nets are checked These days, almost nobody catches a rare giant sturgeon
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黑龙江就像是很多其他的河流一样 The Black Dragon river has been overfished 已经被捕捞过度 like so many others 但即使是捕到这样小的鱼 But even these smaller fish 也是一件可喜可贺的事情 are a welcome catch 几秒钟内鱼就被冻僵了 Frozen with in seconds 这些鱼在保证新鲜的情况下 the fish are guaranteed to stay fresh 被摇摆的自行车带回家 for the wobbly cycle right home 位于黑龙江南面的森林 The forests that lie south of the Black Dragon river 被冰雪覆盖超过半年了 are bound up in snow for more than half the year 死一般的寂静 It's deathly silent 这里大多数动物都已经冬眠 Most of the animals here are either hibernating 或因寒冬得到来迁徙到南边去了 or have migrated south for the winter 但是这里有一个例外 But there is an exception 野猪漫步在东北的森林里 Wild boars roam the forests of the northeast 正如赫哲人一样 Like the Hezhe people 野猪们发现在在冬天觅食是非常困难的事情 the boars find it difficult to gather food in winter 在严寒的环境里 Staying close together may help them to keep warm 靠近点儿能让他们暖和点儿 in the extreme cold 还有一个群居的理由 But there is another reason for group living 就是更能留意着周围的危险 more ears to listen out for danger 东北虎也住在这些森林里 Siberian tigers also live in these forests 但是现在 But these days 只算关在笼子里的 only in captivity 整个中国的东北虎 There may be less than a dozen 可能也不足十二只了 wild Siberian tigers left in China 尽管繁育中心有许多东北虎 though there are many more in breeding centers 这个横道河子围场 This enclosure of Hengdaohezi 从 1986 年开始繁育虎 started breeding tigers in 1986 为中国药材市场 to supply bones and body parts 提供虎骨和虎其他部分 for the Chinese medicine market 中国在 20 世纪 90 年代禁止老虎身体部位的交易 Trade in tiger parts was banned in China in the 1990s 所以现在的繁育中心 and the breeding center 成了旅游景点 is now just a tourist attraction 东北的森林一直延伸到中国 俄国 以及内蒙古交界 The forests of northeast stretch to where the chinese, Russian and Mongolian borders meet 这是大批的动物在迁徙 Here, a surprising herd of animals is on the move 几百年前 The reindeer were introduced to china hundreds of years ago 驯鹿被来自西伯利亚的鄂温克人 by the nomadic Ewenki people 传入了中国 who came here from Siberia 四月的下旬 It's late April 这位妇女正在召唤驯鹿 and the women are calling int heir reindeer 这些驯鹿是半野驯鹿 which are semi-wild
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它们在森林里度过了整个冬天 and have spent all winter away in the forest. 人鹿的关系很特别 This a very special relationship 每头驯鹿都有自己的名字 Each reindeer has its own name 许多驯鹿是由这位妇女一手养大的 and many were hand-reared by these women 分开几个月后他们又聚在一起了 finally reunited after months apart 他们将一起生活到秋天 They will now remain together until autumn 这位鄂温克妇女急切地查看动物们的情况 The Owenke women are anxious to check the condition of their animals 看看哪头驯鹿怀孕了 and to see which of the reindeer might be pregnant 81 岁的 Malia Suel 81-year old, Malia Suel 在寒冷的北方始终过着游牧生活 is one of only 30 Owenke people still living their nomadic life 过这种生活的鄂温克人只有 30 个了 in these cold northern lands. 几乎她所有的族人 Almost all her fellow Owenke 放弃了森林生活 have given up the forest life. 搬进了现代城市的钢筋水泥房子里 to settle in concrete houses in modern cities . 现在放牧驯鹿的人像东北虎那样少了 The reindeer herders are now almost as rare as wild Siberian tigers 这一家将喜添新丁了 There is about to be a new addition to the family. 这位妇女像接生婆一样 The women act as midwives to the new born calves 照料刚出生的鹿仔度过新生 helping to nurture them through their first precious minutes of life. 但是它们周围的世界日新月异 But the world around them is changing fast. 他们可能是能承受这种生活的最后一代了 This could be the last generation this ancient partnership will endure. 这或 许就是长城北 边的部落民族 This is hardly the image of the dangerous tribal people 生活的缩影 that the Great Wall was built to keep at bay. 顺着中国和北朝鲜的边境 Along China's border with North Korea 有这一地区最著名的山 is this region's most famous moutain 长白山 Changbaishan 长白山意思是“长白” Its name means ever white 它环抱着世界上最高的火山湖 and it harvest the world's higheat volcanic lake 尽管在五月中旬这里仍然白雪皑皑 Even in mid May there is still ice everywhere 这里也有季节变化的征兆 but there are signs that the seasons are changing 从南边吹来的暖风 Warmer winds arrive from the south 在几个星期的时间里 and within a few short weeks 就使长白山发生了变化 Changbai Mountain is transformed. 水再度自山坡流下 Water begins to flow down the mountainside once more 润泽了大地 replenishing the landscape. 六月来了 It's June 昆 虫 们 准 备 享 用 取 之 不 尽 的 花 and insects emerge to take advantage of the abundance of flowers. 候鸟迁徙到了温暖的环境里 The warm weather sees the arrival of migrant birds 在南方过冬的野翁鸟 Stonechats that have spent the winter in the south of China 回到这里哺育幼鸟 return here to raise their chicks
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周围有丰富的昆虫作为食物 With so many insects around 野翁鸟可能要生好几窝小鸟呢 the stonechats may have several broods 从长白山向西 Heading west from Changbai Mountain 森林逐渐变成了起伏的草原 the forests give way to rolling grasslands 长城一直延伸到远方 The Great Wall stretches off into the distance 被看做 是 内蒙 古大 草原 的南 界 defining the southern limits of the vast Mongolian steppe 长城北面是广阔的草原 North of the Wall are huge areas of grassland 我们路途中有一个地方很重要 but one place on our journey is particularly significant 高草丛中 In the tall grass 赤狐正在哺育幼狐 a family of red foxes is raising its cubs 现在,它们享有这片草原 Today, they have this meadow pretty much to themselves 但事情并不总是这样的 But it wasn't always the case 八百年前 Eight centuries ago 这里应该有丰富的居民 this palce would've been teeming with people 现在 这 些 距 离 北 京 不 远 的 废 墟 Now these ruins in a field the short distance from Beijing 都曾是中国上都 are all that remains of the great city of Xanadu 大城市上都的遗迹 once the summer capital of China 在这些残垣断壁之中 Within these walls 据说蒙古首领 it is said that the leader of the Mongolians 伟大的可汗忽必烈曾经欢迎马可波罗来到中国 the mighty Kubla Khan welcomed Marco Polo to China 蒙古骑士建立了历史上最大的帝国 Mongolian warriors established the greatest empire in history 一直延伸到欧洲的边界 stretching to the borders of Europe 由于害怕这个骁勇善战的部落 Feared of this worrior tribe is the main reason 汉人修建了长城 the Han Chinese built the Great Wall 蒙古人与马的亲密关系 The cornerstone of the Mongolian supremacy 是其制霸的基石 was their relationship with horses 这是他们在战争中获胜的原因 This is what brought them such success in war 蒙古骑兵在夜晚旅行 The Mongolian riders travelled at night 由于不顾惜马匹 and rode with spare horses 他们可以长距离涉敌并能比敌人更迅速地撤退 so they could move huge distances strike and then retreat quicker than their opponents 蒙古文化的中心是赛马 At the heart of the Mongolian culture is horse racing 每个七月举行一年一度的那达慕大会 The annual Nadam Festival held each July 这是一个让蒙古年轻人展示马术的机会 is a chance for young Mongolians to show off their horsemanship 据说蒙古人都出生在马鞍上 It's said that Mongolian people are born in the saddle 甚至连孩子都是造诣深厚的骑手 Even as children,they are consummate riders 马术不仅是古代蒙古战士 Horsemanship was the core of the Mongolian success 成功的核心 as warriores in the past 也是如今游牧生活的必备技能 and is central to their lives as nomads today
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在巴音布鲁克草原 In a area of grassland know as Bayanbulak 游牧家族开始集合 families of nomadic Mongolians are gathering 巴音布鲁克的意为“富有的源头” The name, Bayanbulak, means rich headwaters 他们来到这里搭建临时住所 and they come here to set up temporary homes 为了在丰茂的夏季牧场放牧牲口 to graze their lifetock on the lush summer pastures 为了给牲口寻找新鲜的牧草 The search for fresh fodder for their animals 他们四处游牧 keeps them on the go 搬家如此的方便 and being able to move home so easily 是个实实在在的优势 with a real-life vantage 蒙古家庭仅需要几分钟 It takes only a few minuts for the Monolian family 就能搭起他们的蒙古包 to set up their yurts . 但是蒙古人们并没有独占这块土地 But Mongolians don't have this place all to themselves. 丰富的资源同样吸引来不计其数的鸟类 The rich resources also attracked a huge variety of birds, 蓑羽鹤 Demoiselle Cranes 涉水鸟类和水禽 wading birds and waterfowl 被从亚洲各个角落吸引迁徙到这里的 migrate here from all over Asia 河流和湿地 drawn to rivers and wetlands 在附近的山脉的冰雪融水中觅食 fed by glacial melt water from nearby mountains 这个地方在中国被称为 This place is known in China 天鹅湖 as Swan Lake 这是世界上最重要的大天鹅繁殖地 It's the world's most important breeding site for whooperswans 当然也毋庸置疑的成为了蚊子的繁殖地 and arguably mosquitos as well. 天鹅湖的草场为在这里 The pastures at Swan Lake provide endless amount of lush grass 做巢的鸟儿和在这里觅食的牲口 for birds to nest in 提供了近乎无尽的丰茂青草 and for lifestock to eat 似乎每个人都丰衣足食 It would seem that's plenty for everybody 但有时候为保舒适也需要保持距离 but occasionally they can't get too close for comfort 800 年前 800 years ago 当时的蒙古人被认为是世界上最凶悍的民族 the Mongolians were the most feared people on Earth 但是他们也有着感性的一面 but they have a spiritual side as well 天鹅湖里的鸟儿们 The birds of Swan Lake 过着无忧无虑的生活 have little cause to worry 因为蒙古人保护天鹅 The Mongolians protect the swans, 崇敬他们 and venerate them, 称其为——神之使者 calling them birds of God 随着环境变得越发干燥 The Great Wall's journey through northern China continues westward 我们长城之旅途经中国北部 by setting a landscape that becomes increasingly parched 继续向西延伸 Our journey has brought us halfway across northern China 草原变得炎热 and the grasslands are becoming hot
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干燥 dry 荒凉 and desolate 荒地上游荡的生物使这里看来更像非洲而非亚洲 Wandering these wastes are creatures that look more African than Asian 这些是鹅喉羚 These are Goitred Gazelles 纤细 skittish 而易受惊吓 and easily startled 当受到威胁时 它们会像狂奔的马一样快 When threatened by danger, 但是在这样酷热的环境下 But in this intense heat 它们享受着平静 they favor a gentler pace 这里几乎没有积水 There is little standing water here 但是羚羊有一种非同寻常的能力 but the gazelles have remarkable ability 从干草中提取水分 to extract moisture from dry grass 然而为了找到足够的食物 although finding enough worth eating 它们不停的移动着 keeps them constantly on the move 即使在这里 在沙漠里 Even out here, in the semi-deserts 长城仍然进行着它的长征 the wall continues its long march 这段长城由土凝筑而成 Here it's made of a little more than compacted earth 但是因为几乎没有降水 But with hardly any rain falling 数个世纪后的它仍然未遭多少侵蚀 it suffered very little erosion over the centuries 为了修建它成百上千的人付出了宝贵的生命 Hundreds of thousands of people lost their lives building it 但看起来它仍然不足以信任 Yet it seems hard to believe 以至于有人觉得这些遥远的废墟需要防护 that anyone felt that these distant wastelands needed protecting 但是长城仍然有一个终结的惊奇 But the Wall still has one final surprise 这就是嘉峪关 This is Jiayuguan 这沙漠里强大的碉堡 the mighty fortress in the desert 600 年前建于明朝 Built in the Ming dynasty over 600 years ago 传说中这座城堡的建造 legend says that the construction of the fortress 是具有非常严密的计划的 was so meticulousily planned 以至于专门制作的 100,000 块砖中 that 100,000 bricks were specially made 只有一块被弃置不用 and only one brick was left unused 这座城堡标志着中国长城的结束 This fortress marks the end of the Great Wall of China 世界上最伟大的人造障碍 the greatest man-made barrier on Earth 但是在这之前 坐落 着一个更为可怕的障碍 But ahead, lies an even more formidable barrier 一个巨大的向西方伸展的沙漠无人地带 a vast no man's land of deserts that stretch westward 延伸到亚洲中部边缘 to the borders of central Asia 嘉峪关的城堡被认为是 Jiayuguan fortress was considered 中国文明最后的前哨 to be the last outpost of Chinese civilization 从这一点往更远处 坐落着绝对的荒漠 Beyond this point, lays utter desolation
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中国最大的沙漠——塔克拉玛干 坐落于此 China's largest desert, the Taklamakan lies out here 它的名字被翻译成 Its name has been translated as 有去无回 you go in, and you never come out 这是一个酷热的地方 This is a place of intense heat 烈风吹舞着狂沙 abrasive wind blown sand 完全与生命作对 Totally hostile to life 虽然有足够勇敢的人们为之冒生命危险 Yet, there was a route through the desert 但至今仍然没有穿过沙漠的明确路线 for those brave enough to risk their lives for it 人们为沙漠的恐惧所诱惑 People were lured into the horrors of the deserts 是因为中国有一个如此强大的 because the Chinese had a secret so powerful 以至于可以改变历史历程的秘密 that it changed the course of history 那个秘密的答案埋藏在遥远的过去 The key to that secret lies in the distant past 传说 Legend has it 在 5000 年前 at around 5000 years ago 一位公主在她的花园中漫步 a princess was walking in her garden 突然有样不寻常的东西掉进茶杯中 when something unusual fell into her teacup 一种神奇的纤维从中抽了出来 A magical thread was extracted 它比黄金或珠宝更加贵重 and it became more prized than gold or jade 这种纤维 就是丝 The thread, was silk 这些渺小虫子孕育了无数 Incredibly, such a beautiful substance and all the history behind it 美丽丝线和引人入胜的传奇故事 come from a humble little insect 它就是蚕 the silkworm 蚕蛾每次产下数百个卵 Silk moths lay several hundred eggs 而孵化后的小蚁蚕 and the tiny caterpillars that emerge 只以桑叶为食 eat nothing but mulberry leaves 在长达五十天的暴饮暴食之后 After 50 days of gluttony 他们增重至幼虫体重的一万倍 they've grown 10 thousand times heavier 然而这个时期 But this stage 丝腺占了体重的四分之一 25 percent of their body mass is made up of silk glands 在转化成蛾的过程中 In the process of turning into adult moths 他们从一条丝开始吐丝成茧 they spin a cocoon from a single strand of silk 丝长甚至超过千米 which can be over a thousand meters long 丝质纤维因其超凡韧性和艳丽色泽 It was the legendary strength and brightness of silk fibers 而广受欢迎 that made it so sought-after 5000 多年来 For over 5000 years, 人们在纤莹的丝线上编织出巨大的财富 people built great fortunes and mighty kingdoms 和强大的帝国 on these delicate threads. 古代商人在沙漠中留下的行商路线 And the desert routes those antient traders took 成就“丝绸之路”的伟大传说 became the fabled Silk Road 从生 丝 中 缫 丝 的 原 理 自 发 现 伊 始 The principle of extracting raw silk hasn't changed 就一直未变 since it's discovered 将收获的茧倒入沸水中 Harvested cocoons are droped into boiling water 使细长的丝茧散释开来 which unravels the long filaments 然后将之收集起来纺成生丝线 These are then gathered and spun into raw silk
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thread 在这里——古丝绸之路上的和田 Here at Hotan, on the ancient Silk Road 纺丝仍然是札札机杼响 唧唧复唧唧 silk weaving is still a cottage industry 的传统作坊式手工业 dumbly old-fashioned way on wooden looms 古代丝绸之路的商人面临的最大问题 For the ancient Silk Road traders 是怎样将贵重的丝绸 越过嘉峪关 穿过沙漠 the problem was still how to get the valuable silk from the fortress at Jiayuguan 运到中 亚 甚至 更远 的集 市上 through the deserts to markets of central Asia and beyond 这些沿丝绸之路向西的商旅 Those early travellers heading west on the Silk Road 穿越世间最艰险贫瘠的土地 were setting off on the worst voyage imaginable 踏上了难以想象的艰辛旅途 through some of the most terrible places on Earth 始于世界沙丘之巅的 Starting with the world's tallest sand dunes 烈风自西狂卷而来 strong winds whipping in from the west 使沙丘变得更高 load the sand into ever higher dunes 千年的光阴 Over millennia 孕育了无数的巨大沙丘 mega-dunes build up 和众多高耸的沙墙 walls of sands soaring to over 500m tall 骆驼是唯一适应这些巨大沙丘的驮畜 camels are the only beasts of burden that tackle these monstrous dunes 他们脚掌很宽 向外张开后可防止陷入流沙之中 Their feet are wide and splay outwards to stop them sinking in loose sand 聚沙成丘的烈风 The wind that whips the sand into dunes 塑造 了 中 国 西 部 沙 漠 千 奇 百 怪 的 地 貌 has created other bizarre shapes in China's western deserts 这种神秘莫测的巨型结构 Mysterious giant structures 被称为雅丹风蚀地貌 known as yardangs 它由飞沙雕刻而成 were sculpted by flying sand 风还会给沙漠中的商旅带来其他危险 The wind brought other hazards to travellers in these deserts 马可·波罗写到 Marco Polo wrote 有时迷途的商旅会听到远离正途处传来 sometimes the stray travelers will hear the tramp and hum 宛如 大 型 马 队 般 嘈 杂 的 行 旅 声 of a great cavalcade of people away from the real line of march 并误以为是他们的同伴 and taking this to be their own company 而跟随着声音的踪迹前去寻找 they will follow the sound 当破晓降临 他们会发现一切不过是个骗局 And when day breaks they find that a cheat has been put on them 自己仍深陷困境 and that they are in an ill plight 至今为止 To this day 没有人知道缘何沙漠中的小片沙地会
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no one knows what causes the sands in some parts of the desert 意外下陷 to sink 无怪乎商旅们称此地为 No wonder travellers call this place 神怒 fury of God 与死海 and sea of death 但最严重的问题莫过于水源匮乏 But the most severe problem was lack of water 这个地方如此干涸的原因 The reason this place is so intensely dry 从卫星上得以一目了然 can best be appreciated from a satellite view 中国的沙漠是地球上最为远离海洋的地方 China's deserts are the farthest place on Earth from any ocean 水的缺乏造就了塔克拉玛干沙漠 This lack of water is what created the Taklamakan 这片几乎与德国等大的区域是世界上最大的流沙沙漠 an area the size of Germany covered in sand dunes through which the Silk Road traversed 这里遍布沙丘 丝绸之路贯穿其中 This is the world's largest shifting sand desert 大多数生物在此难以存活 Most living would die here 但骆 驼 却 对 适 应 沙 漠 环 境 得 天 独 厚 but the camel is uniquely equipped for desert survival 它的鼻子可在吸入时加湿 Its nose humidifies the dry desert air as it breathe in 呼出时除湿 then dehumidifies it in the way out 锁住珍贵水分 conserving precious water 浓密的驼毛在夜间可以保暖 The camel's thick fur keeps it warm at night 在白天可以反射阳光 while reflecting sunlight by day 它的身体在增温 6°以内 And its body temperature can rise by 6 degree Celsius 不会出汗 before it even begins to sweat 靠着这些调节 他们可以不喝水前行数日 With these adaptationsthey can go for days without drinking 穿越沙漠对于驼队而言 For the camel trains travel through the desert 就是从一个生命的绿洲走向下一个 is about moving between one life-saving oasis and the next 当他们终于到达水源地 When they finally do reach a drinking hole 骆驼能在 10 分钟内喝掉 60 公升水 camels can drink up to 60 liters of water in ten minutes 没有了绿洲 塔克拉玛干沙漠便丧失了生命的可能 Without oasis life in the Taklamakan “穿越”一词也只会成为遥不可及的字眼 couldn't existand travel would be impossible 沙漠之中 无人永生 But nothing is permanent in the desert 伴随着极端气候下流沙的是 The shifting sands on the extreme climate mean 珍贵的水源随时消失的可能性 that these precious water sources can disappear 正如艾丁湖 This is exactly what happened in the Aydingkol Lake 这个湖床是世界第二最低地 The lake bed is the second lowest place on Earth 海拔-154 米 at 154 meters below sea level 这里是中国最热的地方 It's the hottest place in China
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有记录的空气温度最高达 50 摄氏度 with air temperatures recorded as high as 50 degree Celsius 地表温度高达 80 摄氏度 and ground temperatures up to 80 degrees 然而艾丁湖不远处就有一个令人称奇地方 Yet not far from Aydingkol is a surprise 一个沙漠中繁荣的人类聚居地 a thriving human settlement in the desert 吐鲁番绿洲 This is Turpan Oasis 它以品质出众的特产而驰名中国 And it's famous in China for an unexpected product 这就是葡萄 grapes 为何如此需水的植物却能在沙漠中 But how on Earth can a water-hungry crop grow in such abundance 获得丰收 in a desert? 秘密就在地下 The secret lies below ground 一种被称为坎儿井的地下水渠网 A subterranean network of canals known as karez 引导着水源在吐鲁番街道之间流动 is used to channel water around Turpan streets 并将之引入美丽的庭院当中 and into raving yards 但水从何而来 But where does the water come from? 线索就掩埋在荒漠之中 The clue lies on the desert floor 在这些标志着地下水路的洞穴所连成的线上 in these lines of holes which mark the course of the subterranean water ways 两千多年前 Over 2 millennia ago 当地人挖掘了长达 3000 多千米的 local people carved more than 3000km of 地下水渠 these canals beneath the desert 将水从远处的山上引来 diverting water from the distant mountains 在地下引水 Channeling the flow underground 可以减少水在沙漠酷热下的蒸发量 means that less water is lost to evaporation in the desert heat 八月是收获葡萄的季节 In August the grapes are harvested 这神的恩赐是如此的引人注目 This rich bounty has not go unnoticed 引得在吐鲁番葱郁葡萄园中逍遥生活的动物垂涎欲滴 In the lush vineyards of Turpan one animal misses thriving 红尾巴沙鼠是种抗旱而强韧的沙漠生命 Red-tailed gerbils are hardy desert creatures 但他们从未如同在吐鲁番般生活的逍遥自在 But those in Turpan have never had it so good 葡萄摘下后 Once the grapes have been picked 一部分会在集市上卖掉 some are sold in the market 但绝大部分被挂在荫房中风干 but most are hung up to dry in the special drying houses 任何啮齿动物都无法抗拒这种诱惑 This place is far too tempting for any rodent to resist 红尾巴沙鼠是个攀爬好手 Red-tailed gerbils are excellent climbers 但面对免费 But why bother 的馈赠还有谁会 when there is plenty of bounty lying around on the ground 迟疑放过呢 unguarded 吐鲁番的野生生物和人不是在单方面 Rather than suffering the extreme environment in which they live 承受着自然的严苛和暴虐 The wild life and people of Turban 而是以新方式面对北地恶劣的自然环境 have found innovative ways to cope with conditions beyond the Wall
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但并非所有聚居地都像吐鲁番一样富饶 But not all desert communities world as resourceful as Turpan 这里和中国西部边境之间 Between here and China's western borders 有许多宏伟城市的遗迹 lie the ruins of many great cities 他们曾经拥有自己的辉煌时代 In their day they were vibrant thriving palces 但到了第五世纪 But in the fifth century 丝绸之路逐渐萧条没落 the Silk Road fortunes took a turn for the worse 又是一个有关公主的故事 Once again, a princess was involved 她将蚕偷偷地带出中国 She smuggled silkworm eggs out of china 丝绸不再是一个秘密 The secret of silk was a secret no more 中国对此暴利贸易的垄断被强制终止 And China's stranglehold on this lucrative trade was over 马可波罗 13 世纪踏上丝绸之路之时 Even when Marco Polo passed along the Silk Road in the 13th century 许多城市就已然消失了 many of these cities had been dead 500 多年 for over 500 years 丝绸之路上最负盛名的城市却挣扎着生存了下来 But the Silk Road's most famous city managed to survive 在沙漠尽头的山峦脚下 Where the desert ends beneath vast mountain ranges 中国与中亚五国毗邻之地 China's westernmost point is only a stone's throw from the borders of five central Asian countries 这里就是中西交汇的喀什 This is Kashgar where east meets west 丝绸之路止于这个至今仍然进行丝绸贸易的地方 The silk that travelled along the Silk Road ended up here where it is still traded today 喀什以露天集市闻名 Kashgar is famous for selling everything under the sun 当地的周末集市 The local Sunday market 是亚洲地区最大最丰富的市集之一 is one of Asia's largest and most exuberant gatherings 但是环顾四周 But looking around the market 你会怀疑自己是否真的置身中国 it's hard to believe you are actually in China 喀什地区是个少数民族大熔炉 Kashgar is a melting pot of non-Chinese ethnic people 维吾尔 塔吉克 吉尔吉斯 乌兹别克以及其他民族汇聚此地 Uyghurs, Tajiks, Kirghiz, Uzbeks and many others 我们深入中国北地 Here, our journey heads northwards 原始地区的旅程开始了 into one of China's wildest places 离开了喀什和丝绸之路 Leaving Kashgar and the Silk Road behind 我们一路来到天山 we travel into the Tianshan 或称天国之山 or heavenly mountains. 这座伟岸的山脉坐落于 This great mountain range defines the border 中国最西北省区 between China's most northwestern province 与塔吉克斯坦和吉尔吉斯斯坦的边境交汇处 and neighboring Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan 他 的 宏 伟 顶 峰 几 乎 逼 近 喜 马 拉 雅 山 巅 峰 Its majestic peaks are nearly as high as the Himalayas 形成了一座天然长城 Forming a natural great wall 尽管常年冰雪覆盖 For much of the year it's bound up in ice 但她的冰川融水却为常绿森林的成长提供了丰足的水源
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But the glacial melt water allows evergreen forests to grow 与南部沙漠遥相呼应 a far cry from the desert south of here 这些山脉成为了深入 These mountains are the gateway 中国 最神奇居民及 其家乡的大门 to some of China's most surprising people and places 在丘陵山谷地带 In the upland valleys 一户哈萨克族人正在高山草甸上进行 a family of Kazakhs has been grazing their livestock all summer 进行家畜的夏季放牧 on the lush <u>alpine meadows 到了秋天 It's autumn 冬雪在短短几周内便会封锁山路 in a few weeks' time, winter snows will seal the mountain passes 因此哈萨克人决定 So the Kazakhs have decided 在还来得及的情况下 尽早收拾行李踏上旅程 to break camp and move while they still can 离开高山草甸 Turning their backs on the mountain pastures 前方等待他们的是数周一成不变 乏味烂熟的旅行线路 they have many long weeks of travel ahead of them along well worn trails 目的地和天山丰茂的牧场 The destination could hardly be more different 并没有太大区别 from the heavenly mountain's lush pastures 这条路径通往中国最原始神秘的土地 These paths head into one of China's wildest and least known places 这里是准格尔盆地 This is the Zhunge'er Basin 神额外的馈赠 an added land 他坐落于世界最北沙漠---戈壁 that lies at the westernmost edge of the great Gobi desert 边际的最西方 the most northerly desert in the world 准格尔是个充满惊奇的地方 the Zhunge'er is a place of surprises 这片奇异的土地被成为五彩山 This bizarre landscape is called the 尽管鲜有生物生存于此 and though very little lives here now 霸王龙的祖先却 the ancestors of Tyrannosaurus rex 曾经在这里的山脉间游荡 once roamed these hills 他们的化石仅在 2006 年被发掘 Their fossils only discovered in 2006 但实际上准格尔并非真正的了无生机 But the Zhunge'er is not entirely lifeless 黑暗中的一只罗波夫斯基仓鼠正蠢蠢欲动搜索食物 In the darkness a little Roborovski's Hamster emerges to search for food 他们是世界上体积最小的仓鼠 They're the world's smallest hamsters 仅仅和一只乒乓球一般大小 the size of a ping-pong ball 他们以十只左右组成家庭 and they live in family groups around ten 与哈萨克人不同 仓鼠不靠迁徙来躲避严冬 Unlike the Kazakhs hamsters cut migrate to avoid the severity of winter 他们不得不为了艰难时刻而储备食物
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They have to prepare for difficult times by storing up provisions 以在地下度过这个寒冷季节 to spend the season underground 任何一个养过仓鼠的宠物爱好者 Anyone who has kept a pet hamster 都知道他是怎样一只活泼好动的小家伙 knows what an energetic little creature it can be 仅仅一个夜晚的功夫 In a single night 一只仓鼠能跑相当于人类马拉松竞赛四倍的路程 a hamster may cover the equivalent of four human marathons 不停歇的四处搜集粮食带引发了一个问题 but foraging far and wide creates a problem 那就是怎样将货物尽数带回巢穴 how to carry the harvest back to its nest 这里仓鼠那著名的柔软颊囊发挥了他们的作用 Here the hamster's famous flexible cheek pouches come into play 他们将颊囊塞得满满 把收集的食物带回巢穴 They can be stuffed full of seeds for carrying back to the burrow 仓鼠家族在地下有专门的食物储藏室来放置大量储备 Underground the family has special food chambers to store the bounty 这些储备能支撑他们 The supply will have to last them 度过贫寒的漫长冬季 trough the lean and cold times ahead 冬季将至 Winter is on its way 数周之内 Within a few short weeks 五彩山便被西伯利亚寒风带来的 the five colored hills are blanketed in snow 降雪所覆盖 driven by icy winds from Siberia 虽然和威尼斯有着相同的纬度 Despite being at the same latitude as Venice 亚洲北部的沙漠却没有近海的升温作业 Asia's northern deserts have no nearby sea to warm them 并承受着彻骨的寒冷冬季 and so suffer bitterly cold winters 当来年春天冰雪融化时 When it melts next spring 雪水将为草甸和其他植被提供生长所需的水分 the snow will provide moisture for grasses and other plants to grow 正如长城境外的大多数地方 Like almost everywhere beyond the wall 严酷的自然环境趋势人们和野生生物 the harsh conditions force people and wildlife 不停寻索以维持生存 to keep moving to find enough to survive 哈萨克人已经到达了天山山脉 The Kazakhs have arrived from the Tianshan Mountains 以准格尔盆地的贫乏植被饲养他们的家畜 to graze their animals on the meagar pickings in the Zhunge'er 然而哈萨克人并不独享这片土地 But the Kazakhs don't have this place all to themselves. 他们的冬季迁徙路线使其 Their winter migration routes take them passed 绕过了沙漠中央的篱笆围栏 the fence enclosure in the desert. 篱笆这端的马 The horses on this side of the fence 是不同于蒙古人和哈萨克人家畜的存在 arent domestic animals like those belonging to the Mongolians and Kazakhs 他们是残存世间最后的野生马 These are the last wild horses on Earth
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无数野马一路向西迁往欧洲 Millions of them once screeched all the way to Europe 然而现在他们只剩下寥寥数百匹 but now they barely number in the hundreds 为冬天而 For part of the winter 这些野马被隔离开 the wild horses are quarantined 以防止其与哈萨克家马交配 to stop their mating with the Kazakh's horses 如此一来 这一珍稀物种的血缘得以保持纯净 That way, the gene pool of the rare wild animals can be kept pure 然而 这里却存在一个大问题 There is a big problem, however 家畜与野生马为了共同的食物而竞争 The live stock and the wild horses compete for the same food 许多哈萨克家庭及他们的牲口 Many Kazakhs families and their flocks 在冬季穿越此地 will pass through here over the winter 当这些野马最终被从畜栏释放 By the time the wild horses can be released from the pen 多数好饲料已被啃噬殆尽 Much of the best forage will be gone 在这块原本就贫瘠的土地上 When there are so little to go around 事态很快就发展到严峻的地步 it doesn't take much for the situation to turn critical 即便在中国最人烟稀少的土地上 Even in the least inhabited parts of China 野生动物和人类也为了生存而陷入对峙 wildlife and people come into conflict in the struggle to survive 即便在这块不毛之地 Yet in this barren landscape 也固存着人与野生动物的非凡羁绊 a remarkable association between people and wildlife persists 这项传统回溯到约 6000 年前 A tradition harking back almost 6000 years Eighty-two year old Reya carries on a tradition 82 岁高龄的热亚继承了 这一使得哈萨克人文明全国的传统习俗 that has made the Kazakhs famous throughout China 他生命中的每个冬天 Every winter for most of his life 热亚都带着一只金雕去打猎 Reya has gone hunting with a golden eagle 这只雕约莫五岁左右 This eagle is around 5 years old 他在还是只雏鸟的时候被从野外带回 it was taken from the wild as a chick 并由热亚抚育长大 and raised by Reya 他被训练为每次飞行后回到热亚身边 who trained it to return to him after each flight 在放飞这只鸟儿前 He will keep this bird for a total of ten seasons 热亚整整驯养了他两年半 before setting it free 狐狸曾经是金雕猎人最爱的猎物 Foxes were once the favorite quarry for the eagle hunters 然而这些日子他们几乎一无所获 These days they almost never catch anything 正如中国的许多地方 As in many parts of China 野生动物较之过去已经鲜有生迹 wildlife is far scarcer here than it used to be 当热亚最终释放了这只金雕 When Reya finally releases this eagle 那将会是他狩猎时光的终点 it will be the end of its hunting days 中国许多游牧民族的年轻一代 Many of the younger generation of China's nomads 放弃了他们的传统 迁入现代都市生活 are moving to modern cities on leaving their traditions behind 他们的生活不在被季节变化所制约 Their lives no longer ruled by the changing of the seasons
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回溯到东北地区的往昔冬日 Back in the northeast in mid winter 长城依旧支配着这块土地 the Great Wall still dominates the landscape 最初建立以防范外敌入侵 Originally built to keep out dangerous warriors 如今成为了世界奇观 today it's a little more than a curiosity 先祖筑建了长城的汉族人 The Han Chinese whose ancestors built the Wall 现在大多聚居在如哈尔滨之类 now live in great cities like Harbin 的极北城市 far to the north. 每年 哈尔滨的艺术家们 Each year the artists of Harbin 都为了一场特殊的冬季盛会而做准备 get ready for a special winter celebration 从临近河道中取来的巨大冰块 Giant blocks of ice from nearby rivers 正被施予一场不可思议的改造 undergo a magical transfermation 中国各地的旅客们齐聚哈尔滨 Tourists flock to Harbin from all over China 来观赏这些壮美的冰雕艺术品 to see the spectacular carvings 一座冰雪之城拔地而起 and the ice city that has sprung up all around 10000 名工匠辛苦劳作了整整 18 天 It takes 10 000 people 18 days 来建造这冰与雪的奇幻王国 to construct this icy wonderland 她在白天已足令人眼前一亮 It's impressive enough by day 然而这座梦幻岛的神奇之处 but the magic of this place only becomes apparent 在日落时方为突显 once the sun goes down 中国北方虽然是粗犷严酷 Northern China can be a harsh place 但是这里也存在着惊人的美 but also a place of great beauty 哈尔滨冰雪节展现了 The Harbin Ice Festival shows 长城建造后的人民生活态度的变化 how attitudes have changed since the Great Wall was built 北越长城的土地不再仅仅是令人胆寒的粗犷严苛 No longer are the extremes of life beyond the Wall merely to be feared 他的丰美壮丽也值得人们赞叹与折服 Now it is possible to celebrate them,too

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美丽中国(Wild China)第五集 熊猫之地 Land of the Panda 双语对照文本字幕 北有长城的庇护 Protected by the Great Wall in the north 南得长江黄河的滋润灌溉 and fed by the Yellow and Yangtse rivers 中国东部的心脏地带 China's eastern heartland 成为了五千年中华文明 is the center of a flourishing civilization 繁荣发展的核心 which spends more than 5 000 years 对外来者而言 To outsiders 这是一块神秘的土地 this is a mysterious land 夺目的人造建筑屹立在这里 It contains dazzling man-made structures 这儿也是中国最稀有最具魅力的 and it's home to some of China's rarest 动物之家 and most charismatic creatures 居住在这块土地上的 The people who live here 汉族人 the Han Chinese 是世界上人口最多的民族 comprise the largest ethnic group in the world 他们的语言 and their language 普通话 Mandarin 是 世 界 上 最 古 老 以 及 使 用 最 广 泛 的 语 言 is the world's oldest and most widely spoken language 在过去的五十年 In the last 50 years 中国已经取得了长足的发展 China has seen massive development 同时也带来了诸多环境问题 bringing many environmental problems 中国人 but the relationship of the Chinese 与自然环境间的关系 to their environment and its creatures 是如此的深刻 is in fact deep 复杂与非凡 complex, and extraordinary 在这期节目中 In this program 我们将探寻这种古老的关系以及 we'll look for clues to this ancient relationship 以及他对中国未来的意义 and what it means for the future of China 我们的旅程将从中国的心脏启航 Our journey starts at the very heart of China 北京 Beijing 中国的首都是一座巨大的城市 China's capital is a vast metropolis 供养着 1500 万人口 home to 15 million people 这座熙熙攘攘的现代都市似乎 This bustling modern city seems an unlikely place 与传统信仰和习俗无缘 for traditional beliefs and customs 在现代的浮华外表之下 but beneath the contemporary veneer 依稀可以窥探到远古中国的身影 it's possible to see glimpses of a far older China 每一个早晨 Every morning 人们汇聚到紫禁城附近的公园里 people head to the parks around the Forbidden City 延续一种保持了数个世纪的传统 to continue a custom which is centuries old 许多中国人把鸟儿当作自己的伙伴 Many Chinese keep birds as companions 尤其 喜欢一种来自 中国南方的画 眉鸟 specifically a type of laughing thrush from southern China
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养鸟的人知道把鸟关在笼子里 But they know that cooped up indoors 鸟儿也许会变得消沉 birds may become depressed 因此他们试图让鸟儿们也高兴起来 so they try to brighten their day 通过让鸟儿们聚会的这种方式 by meeting other birds 北京 的 中 心 上 演 了 出 人 意 料 的 一 幕 This surprising scene in the heart of modern Beijing 从中可以发掘到远古中国心灵的渴望 is a clue to China's oldest spiritual ambition 那就是——人与自然的和谐共存 the harmonious coexistence of man and nature 但是在 1950 年前 But from the 1950s onwards 这种古老的信仰被残酷的践踏 this ancient belief was to be severely challenged 外国的侵略势力对中国持续了近一个世纪的粗暴干涉 After a century of humiliation and intervention 并使中国蒙辱 by foreign powers 毛泽东追求重塑中国的尊严 chairman Mao sought to rebuild China's dignity 毛主席坚信自力更生 Mao believed strongly in self-reliance 依靠丰富的自然资源来达成这一目标 achieve through using all of nature's resources 毛主席 首 先关 心的 是中 国人 的吃 饭 问 题 Mao's first concern was to feed the Chinese people 将尽可能多的土地 by turning as much land as possible 转化为耕地 over to grain production 清除了非谷类作物 destroying non-cereal crops 并将成行的果树连根拔起 and uprooting fruit trees in the process 一场歼灭麻雀的战役导致了恰恰相反的结果 A campaign to eliminate crop-raiding sparrows backfired 捕食昆虫的鸟竟然也成为了攻击对象 when insect-eating birds were also targeted 病虫害在所难免 causing an increase in insect pests 自力更生大炼钢铁的结果 Efforts to make China self-reliant in steel 导致了百分之十的森林被砍伐 resulted in 10% of the country's forests being felled 在熔炉中焚烧殆尽 to feed the furnaces 除四害 大炼钢铁对中国的环境造成了巨大的影响 This had a profound impact on China's environment 其中有些影响一直持续至今 with effects in some cases lasting until the present day 毛主席关于农村的政策 Mao's policy towards the countryside 一言以蔽之: has been described in the phrase "人定胜天" "man must conquer nature" 完全有别于古老观念中所述的 quite different from the ancient concept 人与自然和谐相处 of harmonious co-existence with nature 由于现代中国与外部世界的交流更加频繁 As modern China engages with the outside world 这种观点似乎占据了主导地位 which of this attitude seems likely to prevail 为了找到答案 To find the answers 我们的旅途将深入到中国的心脏地带 we'll travel to far reaches of the heartland 去了解一下哪儿的传统文化以及独特的生物
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to see how its traditional cultures and unique creatures 在今天的处境 are faring today 北京一直以来都依赖着中国的北部平原 Beijing has always depended on the North China Plain 这块肥沃土地接近英国国土面积的两倍 a rich farm land twice the size of the UK 北部平原的肥沃起源于更远的 The fertility of this plain derives from further west 西部的黄土高原 from the Loess Plateau 黄土高原的富矿土壤 The mineral-rich soil of the Loess plateau 难以置信的富饶 is incredibly fertile 人们已经在这儿生活了数千年 People have lived here for thousands of years 在软土中抠建而成了他们的住所 hollowing their homes out of the soft soil 窑洞也许缺乏北京一样的魅力 The caves might lack glamour of Beijing 对这儿的人们来说却是生活的一部分 but people can survive here 不但温暖而且安全 warm, secure, but best of all 最好的是能够吃得饱 well fed 作为耕作了数个世纪的结果 As a result of centuries of farming 大地被刻下了深深的印迹 the landscape has become scarred 密布着数千条被水冲蚀而成的沟渠 with thousands of water-worn gullies 但是这种壮观的冲蚀结果 But this spectacular erosion 却带来了一个意想不到的好处 has had an unexpected benefit 席卷沟渠的水流 The streams which drain the gullies 夹杂着肥沃的黄色土壤 carry the fertile yellow soil 流进了黄土高原的一条较大的河流里 into the plateau's major river 汉族人把这条河称为 known to the Han people 中华文明的母亲河 as the mother of Chinese civilization 这就是——黄河 This is the Yellow River 每一年 Each year 黄河 夹 带 着 数 十 亿 吨 的 泥 沙 the Yellow River carries billions of tons of sediment 从黄土高原奔流而下 from the Loess plateau 往东流向中国心脏地带的耕地 eastwards to the crop fields of the Chinese heartland 历史上桀骜不驯的黄河 Historically, the Chinese relationship with the river 曾多次泛滥 has been uneasy 泥沙大量积聚在河床上 Sediment, building up on the riverbed 导致了黄河周期性的溃堤 has caused the Yellow River to burst its bank periodically 释放了毁灭性的洪水 unleashing devastating floods 无情地吞没了数百万计的生命 resulting in millions of deaths 但却被水渠和堤坝所驯服 But when tamed with dykes and channels 黄河的丰饶孕育了一方水土 the river's bounty is legendary 即使如今 Even today 中国半数的小麦 half of China's wheat 来自黄河流域的漫滩 comes from the Yellow River floodplain
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千百年来 富含沉积物的黄河 For thousands of years, the sediment-rich Yellow River 支撑了中国心脏地区的繁荣 has underpined the prosperity of the Chinese heartland 但日益增长的生活与生产需求 But increased demand for water by people and industry 使得黄河水量骤减 面临干涸的危机 now threaten to run the river dry 黄河河滩肥力的源头—— And the source of its fertility 黄土高原却依旧沉浸在危机之中 the Loess Plateau is also under threat 因耕作而日益 Loosened by cultivation 疏松的表土在不断流失 its soft soil is blowing away 中国北部平原忍受着沙尘暴的侵袭 The North China Plain is choked with dust storms 沙尘暴甚至逼近北京 that even loom over Beijing 以至于 So much so 中国政府不得不 that the Chinese government 将提高城市空气质量视为 has made improving the city's air quality a priority 举办奥运会前的整顿重头 in the run up to the Beijing Olympics 中国中部地区的生命支持系统问题重重 Heartland China's life-support system is in trouble 然而在一些地区 yet, in a few places 依旧存留着最后的处女地 it's still possible to find landscapes that appear to have remained untouched 在中国北方平原的南部边界 At the southern edge of the North China Plain 坐落着秦岭 lie the Qinling Mountains At 1500km long 1500 公里的蜿蜒崎岖 宛如横穿中国的脊梁 they run like a backbone through the middle of China 深山中隐藏着 Deep within the mountains 偏僻幽寂的山谷与森林 is a maze of remote valleys and forests 这里是那些神奇生命的乐土 home to strange and wonderful creatures 这些金丝猴 These are Golden Snub-nosed Monkeys 是中国的特色物种 a species unique to China 他们通常“但闻其声不见其影” Seldom seen, they are frequently heard 那 独 特 的 婴 啼 般 的 叫 声 和 出 众 的 外 表 Their strange child-like calls and extraordinary appearance 成就了当地人有关 may have inspired the local tales 深山雪人的传说 of yeti-like wild man of the mountain 冬天气温降至-10°C As winter temperatures drop to -10°C 他们浓密的毛发起到了保暖的作用 their dense fur keeps them warm 互相修理毛发不仅有助于保持 Mutual grooming not only keeps that precious fur 宝贵毛发的良好状态 in good condition 同时有助于增进成员间的关系 but also helps to reinforce bonds within the troop 在夏天,猴子成群活动 In summer, the monkeys go around in huge bands 但是在每年的艰苦时期 but at this lean time of the year 它们分裂成了更小的队伍搜寻食物 they split up into smaller foraging parties 隆冬时期 In the dead of winter 猴子们被迫在石头中搜寻食物 the monkeys are forced to rummage around the rocks 只能找到很少的地衣和苔藓 for a few meager morsels of lichen and moss 随着猴子居住地方周围的世界 As the world surrounding their mountain home
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充满城镇和农田的时候 has filled up with towns and croplands 西藏扁鼻猴的居住地 the snub-nosed monkeys' habitat 发生了显著的变化 has changed dramatically 现在,只剩下一万只猴子了 Today, there are just 10 000 left in existence 对于住在秦岭的人来说 To the people who live in the Qinling mountain 森林和野生动物是能被利用的资源 the forest and its wildlife are a resource to be used 这些资源是人们生活的保障 the basis of their livelihood 那些人和更神秘的居民 These people share the forest 分享森林资源 with an even more illusive inhabitant 它们可能是中国最著名的动物 It's probably China's most famous animal 但是很少人看到过它们 but very few have ever seen it 与猴子不同的是 Unlike the monkeys 这种生物有很独特的食性 this cerature has a very specific diet 竹子 bamboo 这是野生大熊满 It's a wild Giant Panda 由于对声音敏感 Secret and sensitive to noise 大熊猫经常离开 the giant panda is often gone 以免有任何东西靠近它 before anyone going get close to it 中国人认识熊猫已经很久了 The panda has long been known in China 两千多年前的字典上边就提到过熊猫 It was mentioned in dictionaries more than 2000 years ago 据说御花园还曾经养过熊猫 and the imperial garden is said to have housed one 在茂密的竹林里 In the dense bamboo of the forest 熊猫很少见到同类 one panda rarely sees another 所以,它们通过特殊的气味联系 Instead, they communicate by subtle scent signals 熊猫身长 1.5 米,体重 135 千克 At 1.5m long and 135 kilos, the giant panda 熊猫属于熊科 is a member of the bear family 但是那是这种分类方法 But its bear-like digest system 是按照食肉方法分的,不是按吃韧性纤维分的 is built for eating meat, not this tough fibrous stuff 更糟的是 And to make matters worse 竹叶冻住了 the bamboo leaves are frozen solid 但是熊猫发明了一个巧妙的方法 But the panda has devised a cunning way 来把冰弄掉 of breaking the ice off 它用鼻子把冰蹭掉 It rubs the bamboo over its snout 不像其他熊类 Unlike other bears 熊猫不能通过冬眠 the panda can't fatten itself up and hibernate 来度过冬天 through the winter 竹子的能量很低 Bamboo is so low in energy 熊猫不得不把大量时间放在吃上 that the panda must spend most of the day e

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