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What did you do last weekend?

Section A 1. camp (1) vi 宿营;露营;扎营 go camping 去野营 camp out 野营 露营 (2) n.野营;帐篷;营地 summer camp 夏令营

winter camp 冬令营

2. by (1)by+地点名词 表方位,在…旁边 by the lake/river/tree/window/door by the side of the path.在路边 注:表从…旁经过,多与动词 go/walk/pass 等连用。 (2)by+时间名词 到…时(已发生某事),谓语多用完成时;最晚、不迟于…,在…之前 by now/then/this time/next Friday/the end of/three o`clock 等。 By the end of last year,another new gymnasium had been completed 到去年年底,又有一座新体育馆峻工了。 (3)by+名词 表方法、方式、手段等。 A. by+the+可数的时间、长度、重量等名词。按…计算,按…买(卖) by the pound/ton/yard/meter/dozen/bale/day/month 等。 B. by+表示时间、长度、重量等总称的不可数名词(名词前不加冠词)。按…计算,按…买(卖) by time/volume/length/weight/height/depth/width/area 等。 C. by+交通工具、交通方式名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数)。通过…,由…,乘… by train/rail/tube/taxi/bus/truck/bike/boat/plane;by land/road/sea/water/air 等。(on foot) D. by+抽象名词或具有抽象意义的普通名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数)靠…,通过…,由…所致 by skill/determination/practice/diligence/inference/chance/accident; by mail/letter/radio/fax/telephone/telegraph/hand/machine 等。 E.by+地点或工具等具体名词。表路线、途径,通过(某物、某地),取道… by a stone bridge/the back door/the freeway/country roads 等 F.by+动词 ing 通过…,靠…,凭… by waiting/practing/begging/working/imitating (4)by+数量词 A. 表升降、增减的程度。by one-fifth/20 percent/£3/two feet B. 表示距离和面积、体积中的尺寸及乘除法中的运算。 by 2cm/6 inches/four feet/nine yards/a hair`s breadth (5)by+身体部位名词或衣服名词。表示被抓住身体/衣物的某一部分,常与动词 catch/seize/take/hold/grab 等 连用 by the hair/hand/arm/nose/horns;by the collar/lape/sleeve 等。 The policeman caught the thief by the arm.警察抓住了小偷的胳膊。 The soldier grabbed the child by the collar.那个士兵揪住了孩子的衣领。 (6)by 的常见短语: by means of/by way of/by the way/one by one/step by step/side by side/shoulder by shoulder/by oneself/ by birth/by society/take…by surprise/learn…by heart/what do you mean by …/by my watch 3.last/next/this/that + 时间在句中做状语时,其前不用介词 4. 常用 do, does, did, don’t, doesn’t, didn’t 代替前文提到的动词。 (1) Who cleaned the room? Mike _____. A. was B. does C. is D. did (2) I don’t think he is so great, but my mother _______. (3) Peter visited his English teacher this morning, but Tony _______. A. isn’t B. wasn’t C. doesn’t D. didn’t (4) I like Sports News very much. _____.A. I like, too B. I do, too C. I don’t like, either D. I don’t, either (5) My father likes Sports News, but my mother _____.

5. as (1) adv 表程度,同样地。在 as...as...,not as...as...结构中的第一个 as 是 adv,和/与...(不)一样 Jack is as tall as his father.杰克和他的父亲一样高。 He doesn't speak English as/so fluently as you.他的英语说得不如你流利。 (2) prep A. 如,像 They got united as one man.他们团结得像一个人一样。 B.充当,作为 As a writer,he was famous.作为作家,他是很有名的。 (3) conj 常用来连接主句和状语从句 A.引导时间状语从句,当...的时候,有随着...之意,与 while 意义相近,强调两个动作同时发生;或某事一发 生,另一事立即发生。 He shouted aloud as her ran along.他一边往前跑,一边高声地呼喊。 I was startled as he opened the door.他一开门,我吓了一跳。 B.as 作连词,相当于 when。 As a little boy (When he was a little boy)he began to learn to play piano.他小时候就开始学弹钢琴。 C. 引导原因状语从句,因为,由于,与 because 的用法相近。 I must stop writing now,as I have rather a lot of work to do.我必须停笔了,因为我还有许多工作要做。 D. 引导方式状语从句或比较状语从句,正如,(如)像 As in your country,we grow wheat in the north and rice in the south. 正如(像)你们国家一样,我们在北方种小麦,在南方种大米。(方式状语从句) When at Rome,do as Romans do.入乡随俗。(方式状语从句) E. 引导让步状语从句,虽然,尽管,这时从句常用倒装语序,即把从句中的表语、状语或动词原形放在 as 之前。 Strange as it may seem,it is true.尽管这事看上去很奇怪,但却是真的。 Try as he might,Tom could not get out of the difficulties.不管怎样努力,汤姆还是摆脱不了困境。 (4) as 作关系代词。 A.引导限制性定语从句,用在 such...as,the same...as,as...as 结构中,像...一样的人(或物),凡是...的人(或物) He wished to be such a man as Lei Feng was.他曾希望做一个像雷锋那样的人。 My hometown is no longer the same as it was.我的家乡再也不像过去一样了。 B.引导非限制性定语从句,用来指代它前面的整个句子(即先行句),这一点。这个分句可以位于句首、句 中或句末。 (5) as 的固定词组的用法 A.as soon as 一…就 引导时间状语从句。 B.as/so long as 只要 As/So long as you study hard,you'll make progress.只要你努力,你就会取得进步。 C. as if/though 常用来引导方式状语从句,好像,仿佛,如果从句中讲的是非真实情况,则用虚拟语气。 She loves the child as if/though he were her own.她爱这个孩子如同爱自己的孩子。 D. As if/though 也可用来引导表语从句,常用在 It appears/looks/seems...+as if/though 句型结构中。 It appears as if/though it is going to clear up.看起来天要晴了。 It seems as if/though he knew nothing about it.他好像对此事一无所知。 E.as to 关于,至于 There is no doubt as to his honesty.他的诚实是无可置疑的。 F.as much/many as 多达...,达到...之多 He can earn as much as 5000 dollars a month.他每月能挣 5000 美元。 G.so/as far as I know 就我所知 在句中作插入语 As/So far as I know,he will come here next Monday.据我所知,他将于下星期一到这里来。 H. as a result,as a result of 由于...的结果 I.as well 也,还 Come early,and bring your brother as well.早点来,把你的弟弟也带来。 J.so as to,so...as to 若跟动词原形,表示目的或结果。 He studied hard so as to pass the exam.他努力学习以便通过考试。(表示目的)

H. as……as AS +adj(原级)+AS AS +adv(原级)+AS as soon as 一……就 as soon as possible 尽可能快地 as early as possible 尽可能早的 as carefully as you can 尽可能认真地 as careful as you can 尽可能认真的 6. 感叹句 (1)what 引导的感叹句 what 修饰 n 或名词短语 A.What+a(an)+adj+单数可数名词+主语+谓语! What an apple this is! What a fine day it is! B.What+adj+可数名词复数或不可数名词+主语+谓语! What kind women they are! What nice music it is! (2)由 How 引导的感叹句 how 用来修饰 adj、adv 或 v How+adj(adv)+主语+谓语! How hard the worker are working! How clever the girl is! How quickly the boy is writing! 注意:当 how 修饰动词时,动词不跟着感叹词提到主语之前。 How the runner runs! (3)what 与 how 引导的感叹句,一般情况下可以相互转换,转换后意义不变。 What an interesting story it is!==How interesting the story is! What a beautiful bulding it is!==How beautiful the building is! (4)在口语中,感叹句的主语和谓语常常省略。 What a nice present!(省略 it is) How disappointed!(省略 she is 或其它可作本句主、谓的词语) 7. be tired of 对....厌烦 Section B 1. fly v 飞行,飞;飞逝 flew flewn fly a kite/kites 2. a swimming pool=a pool for swimming 动名词做定语表示用途或功能 sitting room 起居室=living room reading room 阅览室 waiting room 候车室 3. ago before (1)ago adv 不能单独使用 时间段 + ago,表示从说话时刻算起的若干时间以前,常用一般过去时 He met her three days ago. 他三天前碰到过她。 (2)时间段 + before,表示从过去某时起若干时间以前,与过去完成时连用 He said he had met her three days before. 他说他三天前碰到过她。 (3)before 可单独使用,且与一般过去时或现在完成时连用,表示不明确的以前。 (4)before prep+时间点 谓语可用将来时 现在时 (5) before prep 表位置 在…前面 He sits before me. (6) before prep 表顺序 在…之前 比...先 Spring comes before summer. (7)before conj 引导时间状语从句,在…之前 主句将来时,从句现在时 He will be back before five o’clock. 他会在五点钟以前回来。 I’ll ring you up before I leave home. 我离家以前将给你打电话。 4. each other=one another 相互,彼此 5. next morning 明天早上 以现在为起点的第二天早上 the next morning 第二天早上 以过去或将来某一时间为起点的第二天早上 可用于过去和将来时 6. surprised adj. 感到惊讶的 surprising adj. 令人惊讶的 surprise n 惊讶 惊奇 in surprise (1) be surprised at + n./ pron./v-ing 对……感到惊讶 We’re surprised at the news. 听到这个消息,我们非常诧异。 (2) be surprised to do sth.

We’re surprised to hear the news. 听到这个消息,我们非常诧异。 (3) be surprised + that 从句 I’m surprised that he didn’t pass the exam 我对他没通过考试感到很惊讶。 7. scare v 使恐惧、害怕 The terrible movie scared me. scared adj 人很恐惧、害怕 I'm scared. scary adj 某物吓人的,物使人恐惧、害怕的 The movie is scary scaring adj 某物吓人的 scaring 比 scary 正式 8. shout to sb 表示与距离某人较远,为了人对方听清楚而大声说话,不带感情因素 shout at sb 表示因生气非善意得对某人大喊大叫,带有感情色彩 9 let sb do sth 让某人做某事 let’s do sth 让我们做某事 let sb not do sth=don’t let sb do sth 不让某人做某事 10.jump v 跳跃 jump into 跳入 jump off 跳离 jump over 跳过 jump out of 跳出 high jump 跳高 long jump 跳远 11. up and down 上下地 12. wake+n up= wake up +n wake+pron up 把某人弄醒 wake up 弄醒 醒来 13.去爬山 go to the mountains 爬山 climb the mountains 去购物 go shopping 去看电影 go to the movies 看电影 see a movie = watch a movie 去散步 go for a walk 散步 take a walk 阅读 do some reading 去图书馆 go to the library 去城市图书馆 go to the city library 14.一般过去时态 (1)用法 ①过去某个时间发生的动作 His mother made a cake yesterday. ②过去某个时间存在的状态 Jim was 12 years old. ③过去经常或反复发生的动作 He often went to swim when he was a child. (2).与一般过去时连用的时间状语常见的有:yesterday, last night, in 1990, once, two days ago, the day before yesterday , the other day 几天前 (3). 四个基本句型 谓语动词是 be 谓语动词是 do 肯定句 He was in the room yesterday. They watched TV yesterday. 否定句 He was not in the room yesterday. They didn’t watch TV yesterday. 一般疑问句 Was he in the room yesterday? Did they watch TV yesterday? 回答 Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t. Yes, they did. No, they didn’t. 特殊疑问句 Where was he yesterday? What did they do yesterday? (4). 动词的过去式和过去分词 的规则变化 ①一般在动词词尾加 ed want →wanted ②以 e 结尾的动词,只加 d live →lived ③以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,改 y 为 i,再加 ed study →studied ④以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这一辅音字母,再加 ed stop →stopped (5)不规则动词过去式 am,is--was, are--were, do--did, see--saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, fly-flew, draw-drew, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, drink-drank, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat

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