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专题20 完形填空之议论文和说明文类-三年高考(2016-2018)英语试题分项版解析(解析版)

2018 年高考题(无) 2017 年高考题(无) 2016 年高考题 【2016· 上海】Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work. In any case, despite so much evidence to the 53 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe, , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be 54 without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers. 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, imposed from Different cultures have different ways of particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western 57 . Some companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot. A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without 59 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing: 61 60 with the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has delegation mean new forms of management control to 63 62 been the case. Empowerment and that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less. Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet 65 of the team members in terms of work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them. 51. A. desire 52. A. contrary