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非谓语动词 一、非谓语动词种类及句法功能 (一)概述: 在英语中, 不作句子谓语, 而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词, 叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词有动词不定式 (the Infinitive);动名词(the Gerund);现在分词(the Present Participle);过去分词(the Past Participle)。 1、非谓语动词与谓语动词的相同点有: 1)如果是及物动词都可与宾语连用,例如: They built a garden. 2)都可以被状语修饰: The suit fits him very well. The suit used to fit him very well. 3)都有主动与被动, “体”式(一般式;进行式;完成式)的变化。例如: He was punished by his parents.(谓语动词被动语态) He avoided being punished by his parents.(动名词的被动式) We have written the composition.(谓语动词的完成时) Having written the composition, we handed it in.(现在分词的完成式) 4)都可以有逻辑主语 They started the work at once.(谓语动词的逻辑主语) The boss ordered them to start the work.(动词不定式的逻辑主语) We are League members.(谓语动词的主语) We being League member, the work was well done.(现在分词的逻辑主语) 2、非谓语动词与谓语动词的不同点有: 1)非谓语动词可以有名词作用(如动词不定式和动名词),在句中做主语、宾语、表语。 2)非谓语动词可以有形容词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。 3)非谓语动词可以有副词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中作状语。 (二)非谓语动词的句法功能: 句子成分 非谓语 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 二、非谓语动词用法: (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1、不定式的形式: 主 一般式 进行式 完成式 动 被 动 主语 ? ? 表语 ? ? ? ? 宾语 ? ? 补语 ? (极少) ? ? 定语 ? ? ? ? ? ? 状语 ? 同位语 ? ? They suggested building a garden.

to write to be writing to have written

to be written / to have been written I’m

否定式:not + (to) do 1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,

glad to meet you. We plan to pay a visit.

He seems to know a lot. He wants to be an artist. The teacher ordered the work to be done.

The patient asked to be operated on at once. 2、不定式的句法功能: 1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure.

动词不定式短语作主语时,常用形式主语 it 作形式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 2)作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. 3)作宾语: 常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在 宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. 4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema. 有些动词如 make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have 等与不带有 to 的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要 加 to, 如: I saw him cross the road. 5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: A)动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. The child has nothing to worry about. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. Have you got anything to sent? B)说明所修饰名词的内容: 6)作状语: A)表目的:

He appears to have caught a cold.

He was seen to cross the road.

This is the best way to work out this problem. Have you got anything to be sent? We have made a plan to finish the work. He is the first to get here.



He worked day and night to get the money. wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right: To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed. right: To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. B)表结果: He arrived late to find the train gone.

She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.


常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. C)表原因: They were very sad to hear the news. D)表程度: It’s too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. 7)作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don’t like the way he talked. 8)不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to. 9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略 to。 He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. (二)动名词: 动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。 1、动名词的形式: 语 态 式 一般式 完成式 否定式:not + 动名词 1)一般式: Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 2)被动式: He came to the party without being invited. 他未被邀请就来到了晚会。 3)完成式: We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。 4)完成被动式: He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 5)否定式:not + 动名词 I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。 6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词 He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。 His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。 2、动名词的句法功能: 1)作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。 Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 It’s no use quarrelling. 争吵是没用的。 2)作表语: In the ant city, the queen’s job is laying eggs.

主动语态 doing having done

被动语态 being done having been done

3)作宾语: They haven’t finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。 We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。 注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语, 如上面两个例句。 此外, 动名词作宾语时, 若跟有宾语补足语, 则常用形式宾语 it,例如: We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk (冒险) , appreciate (感激) , be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent?(from),keep ?from,stop?(from),protect?from,set about, be engaged in, spend? (in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like 4)作定语: He can’t walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。 Is there a swimming pool in your school. 你们学校有游泳池吗? 5)作同位语: The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。 His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. (三)现在分词: 现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。 1、现在分词的形式: 现在 分词 一般式 完成式 及 主动语态 writing having written 物 动 词 write 被动语态 being written having been written 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone

否定式:not + 现在分词 1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成式表示 的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如: They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。 Having done his homework, he played basket-ball. 做完作业,他开始打兰球。 2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动词之前 的被动的动作。 The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。 Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 2、现在分词的句法功能: 1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前,如果是分词短语做定语放在名 词后。 In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed, the man speaking 可改为 the man who is speaking. 2)现在分词作表语:

The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。 be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于 be + doing 表示进行的动作 是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现在分词构成系表结构。 3)作宾语补足语: 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语: see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗? He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 4)现在分词作状语: A)作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。 B)作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。 C)作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。 D)作条件状语: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。 E)作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。 F)作目的状语: He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。 G)作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。 H)与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head. 我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。 All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. Time permitting, we’ll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。 有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 H)作独立成分: Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。 (四)过去分词: 过去分词只有一种形式: 规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。 不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求, 要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能: 1、过去分词作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。 Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。 注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相 当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 2、过去分词作表语:

The window is broken. 窗户破了。 The were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 注意 be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别: The window is broken.(系表) boiled water(开水) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 3、过去分词作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 4、过去分词作状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents. 受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因) Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间) Given more time, I’ll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件) Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 虽然被告之危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步) Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。 5、过去分词与逻辑主语构成独立主格: All books returned at the end of the term, the library assistant was satisfied. The field ploughed, he began to spread seed. 地耕好了,他开始撒种子。 非谓语动词用法对比 知识要点: 一、不定式与动名词做主语: 1、动名词做主语往往表示普通的、一般的行为,不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。例如: Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. (1)It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do (2)It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave) of sb. to do. 3、常用动名词做主语的句型有: It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s worth while doing. 二、不定式、动名词、分词做表语: 1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 2、动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释,这时主语与表语位置可以互换,动名词常用于口语中。 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。 3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;进行时表示正在进行的动作。

The window was broken by the boy.(被动) fallen leaves(落叶) the risen sun(升起的太阳)



It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing.

The task of this class is practising the idioms. (现在分词做表语) With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. (现在进行时) 4、 常用作表语的现在分词有: interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following 等。 现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。 5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所承受的动作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.(过去分词做表语) The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.(被动语态) He is well educated.(过去分词做表语) He has been educated in this college for three years.(被动语态) 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有: used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。 6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同: interest(使?感兴趣),surprise(使?吃惊),frighten(使?害怕),excite(使?兴奋),tire(使?疲劳), please(使?满意),puzzle(使?迷惑不解),satisfy(使?满意),amuse(使?娱乐),disappoint(使?失 望),inspire(使?欢欣鼓舞),worry(使?忧虑) 它们的现在分词常修饰物,表示“令人…”,过去分词常修饰人,表示人的状态(包括某人的 look、voice 等)。例如: Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。 三、不定式与动名词做宾语: 1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。 2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent?(from), keep?from, stop?(from), protect?from, set about, be engaged in, spend?(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on 等。 3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同,不定式表示谓语动词之后的 动作,而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 having done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.(他忘了叫我发信。) I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里,记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加你的生日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地帮助别人。

They are very tired. 他们很疲劳

After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice.

4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.(或用:needs to be repaired)这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。 四、不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语: 1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。(注意 hope 后不跟不定式做宾 补。) 2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式,这些动词有:see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have 等。例如: We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。 注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲,而做“制造、有”解时,跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。 3、 下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补: see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find 等。用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补,要看分词与宾语的关系。例: We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候,听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。 五、非谓语动词做定语: 1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定动作。 He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。 2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别: 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途;现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖(动名词做定语,意为 a stick for walking) a sleeping car 卧铺车厢(动名词做定语,意为 a car for sleeping) the rising sun 正在升起的太阳(现在分词做定语,意为 the sun which was rising) the changing world 变化中的世界(现在分词做定语,意为 the world which is changing) 3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别:过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作,现在分词做定语表示主动 或进行的动作。如: a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息(意同 a piece of news which disappointed us) in the following years 在后来的几年中(意同 in the years that followed) a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士(意同 a woman who is dressed well) a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车(意同 a car which was parked at the gate) 六、不定式与分词做状语: 1、不定式做状语,只表示目的、结果或原因:

He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中,发现钱被盗了。(结果状语) To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。(目的状语) All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步,我们都很吃惊。(原因状语) 2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式: Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看,这座城市很美。(条件状语) Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时,他发现父亲生气了。(时间状语) Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了,但他们继续工作。(让步状语) Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻子,那个小男孩哭了。(原因状语) He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴里,尝了尝,笑了,看起来挺高兴。(伴随状语)


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