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全国2019年高考英语真题分类汇编:专题17-阅读新题型(含答案解析)

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专题十七 阅读理解之阅读新题型
1.【2015·北京卷】第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分。共 10 分) 根据短文内容,从短文 后的七个选项中选出正确的填入空白处。选项中有两项为多余选项。
This Way to Dreamland Daydreaming means people think about something pleasant, especially when this makes them forget what they should be doing. Daydreamers have a bad reputation for being unaware of what’s happening around them. They can seem forgetful and clumsy._71__They annoy us because they seem to be ignoring us and missing the important things. But daydreamers are also responsible for some of the greatest ideas and achievements in human history. __72__ Can you imagine what kind of world we would have without such ideas and inventions? So how can you come up with brilliant daydreams and avoid falling over tree roots or otherwise looking like a fool? First, understand that some opportunities(机会) for daydreaming are better than others. Feeling safe and relaxed will help you to slip into daydreams.__73_ And if you want to improve your chances of having a creative idea while you’re daydreaming, try to do it while you are involved in another task—preferably something simple, like taking a shower or walking, or even making meaningless drawings. It’s also important to know how to avoid daydreams for those times when you really need to concentrate. “Mindfulness”, being focused, is a tool that some people use to avoid falling asleep.__74__ Finally, you never know what wonderful idea might strike while your mind has moved slowly away.____75_ Always remember that your best ideas might come when your head is actually in the clouds. A. Having interesting things to think about also helps. B. They stare off into space and wander by themselves. C. Without wandering minds, we wouldn’t have relatively, Coke or Post-it notes. D. At one time, daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses. E. It involves slow, steady breathing for self-control that helps people stay calm
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and attentive. F. Daydreams are often very simple and direct, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to understand. G. Therefore, it’s a good idea to keep a notebook or voice recorder nearby when you’re in the daydream zone. 【解析】
【考点定位】生活类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本文是七选五常考的建议类说明文,第 1、2 自然段为概念的提出及导入,第 3 段明确了下文的内容:如何在“白日做梦”中趋利避害。文章结构清晰,干扰选项较易排除, 整体难度不大,文章的主题“如何培养创新的想法”,除了理解整篇文章及选项外还要注意文 章中的副词,代词,逻辑连接词以及特殊概念名词的出现。文章结构清晰,可读性强,提示词 明显。因此,日常练习中要侧重以抓住文章结构及段落主旨为主,兼顾辨析选项,尤其是根据 核心词排除干扰项的做题技巧。学生需要遵循先易后难的原则,来提高正确率。 2.【2015·江苏】任务型阅读 (共 10 小题; 每小题 1 分, 满分 10 分)
请阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。 注意: 请将答案写在答题卡上相应题号的横线上。 每个空格只填一个单词。 People select news in expectation of a reward. This reward may be either of two kinds. One is related to what Freud calls the Pleasure Principle, the other to what he calls the Reality Principle. For want of better names, we shall call these two classes immediate reward and delayed reward. In general, the kind of news which may be expected to give immediate reward are news of crime and corruption, accidents and disasters, sports, social events, and human interest. Delayed reward may be expected from news of public affairs, economic matters, social problems, science, education, and health.
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News of the first kind pays its rewards at once. A reader can enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved. He can tremble wildly at an axe-murder, shake his head sympathetically and safely at a hurricane, identify himself with the winning team, laugh understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.
News of the second kind, however, pays its rewards later. It sometimes requires the reader to tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance — as, for example, when he reads of the threatening foreign situation, the mounting national debt, rising taxes, falling market, scarce housing, and cancer. It has a kind of “threat value.” It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared. When a reader selects delayed reward news, he pulls himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work. When he selects news of the other kind, he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.
For any individual, of course, the boundaries of these two classes are not stable. For example, a sociologist may read news of crime as a social problem, rather than for its immediate reward. A coach may read a sports story for its threat value: he may have to play that team next week. A politician may read an account of his latest successful public meeting, not for its delayed reward, but very much as his wife reads an account of a party. In any given story of corruption or disaster, a thoughtful reader may receive not only the immediate reward of indirect experience, but also the delayed reward of information and preparedness. Therefore, while the division of categories holds in general, an individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading to another, or divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.

Division of news stories
(72)▲of

What news stories do you read? ● People expect to get (71) ▲ from reading news. ● News stories are roughly divided into two classes. ● Some news will excite their readers instantly while
others won’t. ● News of immediate reward will seemingly take their

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the two classes
Unstable boundaries of the two classes

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readers to the very frightening scene without actual (73)▲ . ● Readers will associate themselves closely with what happens in the news stories and (74)▲similar feelings with those involved. ● News of delayed reward will make readers suffer,
or present a (75) ▲to them. ● News of delayed reward will induce the reader to
(76)▲for the reality while news of immediate reward will lead the reader to (77)▲from the reality. ● What readers expect from news stories are largely shaped by their (78) ▲. ● Serious readers will both get excited over what happens in some news stories and (79)▲ themselves to the reality. ● Thus, the division, on the whole, (80)▲on the reader.

【答案】 71.rewards/rewarded 72.Explanations 73.involvement 74.share
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75.threat 76.prepare 77.withdraw 78.profession(s)/intention 79.adapt 80.depends 【解析】 试题分析:文章结合弗洛伊德心理学理论,分析了不同人群对新闻报道的接受习惯和反应特征, 从新闻类别、读者反应、异类互渗等角度考察了考生在信息检索、内容归纳、语言结构等方面 的知识与能力。难度较 14 年有所下降,重点考查考察信息转换题,涉及词性和词义转换,学 生“有据可循”,归纳概括题比例明显下降。 71.信息查找题。根据“People select news in expectation of a reward. This reward may be either of two kinds.”可知此处填 rewards/rewarded“得到回报/被奖励”。 72.信息归纳题。文章二、三、四段是对“immediate reward(即时回报)”和“delayed reward(迟来的回报)”的解释。 73.信息转换题。根据第三段第二句“A reader can enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved.”可知此处填 involvement“参与”。 74.信息归纳题。根据第三段中“A reader can enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved. He can tremble wildly at an axe-murder … laugh understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.”可知读者会将自 己和新闻故事中发生的事紧紧联系在一起,和参与者有相似的感受。因此此处填 share“同样 有”。 75.信息查找题。根据第四段中“It sometimes requires the reader to tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance — as, for example, when he reads of the threatening foreign situation, … It has a kind of ‘threat value.’”可知此处填 threat“威胁” 。 76.信息转换题。根据第四段中“It is read so that the reader may be informed and prepared.”可知此处填 prepare,与后面的介词 for 搭配“为……做准备”。 77.信息查找题。根据第四段中“When he selects news of the other kind, he usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.” 此处填 withdraw “退出,离开”。 78.归纳概括题。根据最后一段中“For example, a sociologist may … A coach may …A
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politician may …”可知读者对新闻故事的期待很大程度上受他们职业的影响。此处填 profession(s)“职业”/intention“意图,动机”。 79.信息查找题。根据第四段中“When a reader selects delayed reward news, he pulls

himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt himself only by hard work.”可知此处填 adapt“使适应”。 80.归纳概括题。根据最后一段中“while the division of categories holds in general,

an individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading to another, or divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.”可知这一分类取 决于读者个体。此处填 depends,和后面的介词 on 搭配“取决于”。 【考点定位】任务型阅读。 【名师点睛】任务型阅读一般的解题思路可归纳为四步曲,即“审题”→“略读”→“边细读 边解题”→“复核”。“审题”,即看清题目及要求,做到有的放矢,心中有数。“略读”, 指的是快速阅读、掌握大意。了解阅读材料的文体,作者的观点和态度。“边细读边解题”, 指通过细读题目和文章中相关信息完成指定任务。考生应注意表格前的小标题,它通常是段落 和表格的主题句,有助于理解文章。理解表格设计,表格一般包括列标题和行标题,通过阅读 这些标题和表格里的内容,可迅速了解表格的结构和表格的设计原理,同时也可缩小信息范围, 确定考查内容。根据已填的内容来推断所填之词的形式,是单词或词组。填写答案时要注意与 已填部分的形式保持一致。同时要注意时态、语态、句式等。“复核”即检查核对初步完成的 所要求的任务。注意拼写是否正确以及大小写等。 3.【2015·广东】信息匹配(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 10 分) 请阅读下列应用文及相关信息,并按照要求匹配信息。请在答题卡上将对应题号的相应选项字 母涂黑。 首先阅读下列活动介绍:

A.

B.

A Night of Glamor and Intrigue at Shanghai Bund in 1930

To celebrate Asia heritage month, Trendy New York Picking Partners---NEW YORK
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is proud to present “Cheongsam Night out--A date Featuring adaptations from Chinese and

with Cheongsam beauties in Shanghai Bund 1930”. Western classic, including works from

May 16, 9:00 PM-May 17, 12:00 AM. EDT

Chinese Academy Award---winning composer

330 West 40th Street, New York. NY 10018

Tan Dun, the Beijing Guitar Duo teamed up

with Cuban guitar virtuoso Manuel Barrueco

(right) for a China West Concert at the New

York Historical Society on April 23.

C.

D.

Heroes of History: Legacy of My Chinese Family

Join us as actress Tina Chen recounts the

fascinating story of three generations of her mother’s family and their contributions to the history of China. Friday, May 8, 6:30PM--7:30PM China Institute 125 East 65th Street, New York, NY 10065

Great shorts---NEW YORK A photography exhibition held by HAN Media to celebrate its founding in New York City on April 24, featuring three emerging Chinese photographers; Yingxi Michael Shi, Haiyin Lin and Liming Guan, whose works

have appeared in publications such as

Vogue, ELLE, The New York Times and others.

E.

F.

Passing on the Kunqu Art: From Master to

Disciples

Forbidden delights---NEW YORK The first session of the China Institute in America short course Beijing: The City Through Its Kunqu Society, the classical Chinese
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Architecture opens on Wednesday. Nancy S. theater which combines singing, dancing and

Steinhardt discusses the Forbidden City and acting to literary works by masters of Ming

Beijing’s imperial architecture.

and Qing Dynasties, performing introduces

four signature plays of Kunqu Master Jiqing

Zhang to American audiences.

Sunday, April 19, 2:00PM, EST

Miller Theatre at Columbia University

2960 Broadway, New York, NY 10027

请根据以下人物介绍选择他们可能参加的活动: 46. Edward Leonardo Norton, connoisseur of Chinese and Japanese antiques. He has a strong interest in classical Chinese literary works. He even starts going to evening classes to learn classical Chinese at Columbia University. 47. Daphne Sui-yuan Tan, former director of National Association of Photographers. After reading some history books on how the first group of Chinese immigrants survived in America of the 19th century, she has become keen on her own family history and that of others. 48. Sharon Collins, pop singer and amateur photographer. Her marriage with a serious music critic has drawn her to his world, so she is now crazy about classical music and will not miss any chance to attend a concert with her husband. 49. Michelle Higgins, eminent photographer and columnist for quite a few internationally-known travel magazines. Recently, she has shown great interest in photo exhibits which feature young artists with Islamic or Chinese background. 50. Caroline Hugo, famous writer and influential movie critic. Last year her fantasy story which involved the mysterious Forbidden City received critical acclaim. Now she is conceiving a romance that has Shanghai of the 1930s as the setting. 【解析】 试题分析: 46. F 根据 Edward Leonardo Norton 对于中国的古典文学作品感兴趣,并且去上夜校来学习 古典汉语。选项 F 叙述的是 Kunqu Society 是中国古典的戏院,把唱歌、跳舞和中国文学作品 联系起来。这正符合 Edward Leonardo Norton 的要求,故选 F。
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47. C 根据 Daphne Sui-yuan Tan 对于自己的以及其他人的家族历史感兴趣。选项 C 叙述的是 legacy of my Chinese Family,关于家族的历史,这正符合 Daphne Sui-yuan Tan 的要求, 故选 C。 48. B 根据 Sharon Collins 是一名歌手和业余摄影师,她对于古典音乐非常感兴趣,她不错 过参加音乐会的任何机会。选项 B 叙述的是 Picking partners 将在 4 月 23 日召开音乐会,这 正符合 Edward Leonardo Norton 的要求,故选 B。 49. D 根据 Michelle Higgins 对于摄影展非常感兴趣。选项 D 叙述的是一次摄影展在 4 月 24 日在纽约举行,这正符合 Edward Leonardo Norton 的要求,故选 D。 50. E 根据 Caroline Hugo 写过关于紫禁城一个故事,选项 E 叙述的是 Forbidden Delights 要讨论关于紫禁城的城市。 【考点定位】信息匹配。 【名师点睛】本题介绍了这 5 个人有不同的爱好和需求,广告栏中介绍不同的活动情况及各自 的联系方式,为不同的人找到他们可能需要参加的活动,此题主要考查学生的语篇理解的能力, 以及查读所需信息的能力。 4.【2015·陕西】第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 10 分) 根据短文内容,从下框的 A~F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该选 项涂黑。选项中有一项为多余项。 A. The mistaken belief B. The need for tolerance C. Unpunctuality at dinners D. Punctuality and confidence E. Self-discipline and punctuality F. Avoid anxiety by being punctual 61. A
There is the belief that, if you arrive at an appointment late, you will be considered important. This is a mistaken view. Being unpunctual, we are not respectful of others ; we are interfering (扰乱)with another man's time. We must realise that keeping appointments or being punctual is a contract that is silently agreed and we are expected to respect this contract. It is only natural that we lose faith, trust and confidence in a person who is tardy(延迟的). 62. E
To be punctual one has to have self-discipline(自律), and the lack of it affects others. A school boy or girl is unpunctual because he or she does not have the necessary human virtue of self-discipline. It is also a mark of disrespect for
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a system or an institution. Unpunctual people seldom realise that their habit cause problems to others. A salesman who is not punctual may not make a sale if he arrives late for an appointment. If one is late for a job interview, it is not likely that he will get the job. 63. F
Being punctual, we can avoid anxiety. Imagine the anxiety if you do not want to be considered unpunctual. You will be anxious if you set out for a dinner late. The person who sets out late might be careless in driving. He will ignore traffic rules. A traffic jam, flat tyres, etc. can delay him further. Happy and calm is the man who takes all these possibilities into consideration and arrives at the appointment either early or on time. 64. C
Many of those who attend dinners are notorious (声名狼藉的)for unpunctuality. They ignore the appointed time and leave their homes only after the fixed time. They are indifferent to the inconvenience caused to others. If the self-centred guest arrives late, the nine others at the table set for ten will have to wait. The host is put in an unpleasant situation and this man seldom thinks of the inconvenience caused to all -the waiters, the management staff, etc. It is necessary for us to think of others and be considerate to them. 65 B
However, we cannot always be intolerant (无法容忍的) of tardiness, for ordinary living requires some tolerance. There can be a busy executive who fights to keep to his schedule. Such a person may be forgiven if he is late, but not those who are deliberately late to create impression.
In modern society, punctuality is a necessary virtue. It is a recognition of the importance of other people. 【解析】 试题分析:文章介绍的是人际交往中守时和自律的重要性,并介绍如何做到守时和自律。 61.考查段落大意:根据这段的句子: There is the belief that, if you arrive at an appointment late, you will be considered important. This is a mistaken view.可知这 段的大意是:错误的观念,所以选 A. 62.考查段落大意:根据这段的句子: To be punctual one has to have selfdiscipline(自律), and the lack of it affects others.可知这段的大意是:自律和守时, 所以选 E。 63.考查段落大意:根据这段的句子: Being punctual, we can avoid anxiety. Imagine
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the anxiety if you do not want to be considered unpunctual.可知这段的大意是:避免 守时造成的焦虑,所以选 F。 64.考查段落大意:根据这段的句子: Many of those who attend dinners are notorious (声名狼藉的)for unpunctuality.可知这段的大意是:就餐时不守时,所以选 C。 65.考查段落大意:根据这段的句子: However, we cannot always be intolerant (无法容 忍的) of tardiness, for ordinary living requires some tolerance.可知这段的大意是: 需要容忍,所以选 B。 【考点定位】考查信息匹配 【名师点睛】这题考查信息匹配题是考查每个段落大意,要确定每个段落的大意首先要仔细阅 读文章每个段落,特别注意每段的首句和尾句,最好划出题干中的定位词,和选项中的句子进 行对比这样可以更准确的抓住段落大意。 5.【2015·天津】阅读表达(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 10 分)
阅读短文,并按照题目要求用英语回答问题。 Six days a week, up and down the red hills of northeast Georgia, my grandfather brought the mail to the folks there. At age 68, he retired from the post office, but he never stopped serving the community. On his 80th birthday, I sent him a letter, noting the things we all should be thankful for — good health, good friends and good outcomes. By most measurements he was a happy man. Then I suggested it was time for him to slow down. At long last, in a comfortable home, with a generous pension, he should learn to take things easy. “Thank you for your nice words,” he wrote in his letter back, “and I know what you meant, but slowing down scares me. Life isn’t having it made; it’s getting it made.” “The finest and happiest years of our lives were not when all the debts were paid, and all difficult experiences had passed, and we had settled into a comfortable home. No. I go back years ago, when we lived in a three-room house, when we got up before daylight and worked till after dark to make ends meet. I rarely had more than four hours of sleep. But what I still can’t figure out is why I never got tired, never felt better in my life. I guess the answer is, we were fighting for survival, protecting and providing for those we loved. What matters are not the great moments, but the partial victories, the waiting, and
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even the defeats. It’s the journey, not the arrival, that counts.” The letter ended with a personal request: “Boy, on my next birthday, just
tell me to wake up and get going, because I will have one less year to do things — and there are ten million things waiting to be done.”
Christina Rossetti, an English poet, once said: “Does the road wind uphill all the way? Yes, to the very end.” Today, at 96, my grandfather is still on that long road, climbing. 56. What was the author’s grandfather before he retired? (no more than 5 words) 57. What did the author advise his grandfather to do in his letter? (no more than 10 words) 58. What is the grandfather’s view on life according to his letter back? (no more than 10 words) 59. How do you understand the underlined sentence in the last paragraph? (no more than 10 words) 60. Do you agree with the grandfather’s view on life? Give reasons in your own words, (no more than 20 words) 【答案】 56. He was a postman. Or: He worked in a post-office. 57. He advised him to slow down (and take things easy). / He advised he/his grandfather (should) slow down. 58. The process is more important than the result. Or: A man should not slow down however old he is. Or: Life isn't having it made; it's getting it made. / It's the journey, not the arrival that counts. 59. My/His/The grandfather is still busy doing meaningful things. Or: The grandfather is still living an active life. Or: The grandfather is still involved in whatever he can do. 60. Yes. One should always be full of passion in his life no matter how old he is. Or: People should make full use of their time to do something meaningful No. It is more sensible for people to slow down and enjoy an easy life in their old age. Or: Slowing down contributes to better health and longer life for people in old
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age. 【解析】 试题分析:作者的爷爷曾经是名邮寄员,然而退休之后一直忙于做一些有意义的事情。作者写 信给爷爷让他多休息休息,但爷爷回信说他任然坚持他的忙碌的生活。 56. 细节归纳题。根据文章第一段 At age 68, he retired from the post office 可以归纳 出答案,注意字数的限制。 57. 细节归纳题。根据文章第二段 Then I suggested it was time for him to slow down. 可知作者在信中建议他爷爷放慢速度。特别注意动词 advise 的用法。 58. 细节归纳题。根据文章第四段 It’s the journey, not the arrival, that counts 等内 容可以归纳出答案。 59. 句意猜测题。根据上文的内容可以推测出,他爷爷仍然在忙于做有意义的事情。 60. 开放题。首先要回答同意不同意他爷爷的生活观,并且陈述自己的理由。 【考点定位】阅读表达。 【名师点睛】本文是一篇记叙文。整体文章易懂,但题目设置灵活,总体难度中等。考生不但 要从文章中找出答案,还要根据问题的设置归纳出相应的答案。书写答案的时候,考生要注意 语法结构的正确以及字数的限制。 6.【2015·浙江】第二节:下面文章中有 5 个段落需要添加首句(第 61-65 题)。请从以下选项 (A, B, C, D, E 和 F)中选出适合各段落的首句,并在答题纸上将相应选项的标号涂黑。选项中有一项是 多余选项。 A. Come in with something to say. B. Prepare general comments. C. Bring materials with you. D. Don’t make them wait. E. Have no fear. F. Go it alone.
One of the best things you can do any time in the semester is go see the professor. So hoof on over to an office hour and have some one-on-one face time with someone who’ll help you master the material and improve your grade, to boot. But how should you have this conversation with the professor? Here are five insider tips about how to make that office hour really count: 61. No need to get all bent out of shape about going to see the professor. The
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professor would actually like to see you and answer your questions. Believe it or not, he or she is on your side and is eager to see you do well. And besides, he or she has seen many students stupider than you, so nothing you’re gong to ask will set the record for stupidity. 62. Even though you might feel more comfortable going with a friend or partner, the office hour will go better if it’s just you and the professor. You’ll get in more questions, the discussion will be tailored to what you need most help on, and two-party communication is almost always more productive than committee work. You friend can wait outside for the discussion. 63. If you can’t make the official office hours, most professors are willing to make individual, appointments to help you out. If you’re lucky enough to land such an accommodation, though, be sure you’re 100 percent on time. There’s nothing that ticks off a professor more than making him-or herself available for a custom office hour only to find that you don’t care enough to come on time. And besides, the professor might leave after ten minutes, which would make your trip a total loss. 64. If you’re meeting with the professor to go over a paper or test, or to ask questions about a particular lecture or reading, make sure you bring that paper or test, or your lecture notes or a copy of the article. The professor doesn’t remember the comments he or she wrote on your individual piece of work—though he or she will be able to recall them after just a brief glance at your work. And if you have your lecture notes or the article in hand, you and the professor will be able to examine specific points that are confusing to you, rather than just talking in a general way about the contents. 65. Office hours almost always go better if you bring a few specific questions to the meeting. It’s almost never good to start a meeting with general comments such as:“I didn’t understand what you said about [main topic of the course]”or“I couldn’t understand any of your lectures last week.”Much better is to come in with two or three conversation-starters, about a specific concept, point, or problem you didn’t understand. Keep in mind that in a fifteen-minute office hour (which is how long these things usually last), two or three questions are usually the most you’ll have time to discuss.
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【解析】 试题分析:文章给出了几个建议如何约见教授并开展对话以及一些注意事项 61. E 根据后面所说的一些内容可以得出答案,比如 all bent out of shape 大发雷霆,理 解上下文不难得出之所以不敢去问是因为害怕,教授会问你说 stupid 愚蠢,因为 he or she has seen many students stupider than you(教授见过比你更蠢的学生都有)。 62. F 根据“go better if it’s just you and the professor.最好是只有你和教授两个人” 和“You friend can wait outside for the discussion 你的朋友最好在外面等”说明你应 该是独自一个人去的 Go it alone. 63. D 根据使用的几个词“on time”和 leave after ten minutes, 可以知道这个意思是 Don’t make them wait.不能让教授等待,应该是准时,因为教授不会久等。 64. C 根据第二行 make sure you bring that paper or test, or your lecture notes or a copy of the article.确信带纸或者是试卷,说明你去之前应该是 Bring materials with you.带一些材料。 65. A 根据第四行 Much better is to come in with two or three conversation-starters, about a specific concept, point, or problem you didn’t understand.最好是带两个或 3 个观点、概念或者不明白的地方开始对话”, 也就是准备几个要说的东西。此题容易错选 B 选项,而且文章中也的确提到了这个字眼“general comments”, 但是要注意前面所使用的一 个词 never 绝不” It’s almost never good to start a meeting with general comments”。
【考点定位】语篇段落题 【名师点睛】要求考生根据篇章内容和脉络,选出每段的首句,考查学生概括主题和查找主题 句的能力。 这种题目的难度不大,需要正确理解后面所说的内容,因为首句是高度概括的句子。当然也要 注意所使用的一些表达否定的词语比如说 but, never,seldom,hardly 等。 7.【2015·安徽】任务型读写(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分)
阅读下面短文,根据所读内容在表格中的空白处填入恰当的单词。注意:每个空格只填一个 单词。 Put a group of strangers in a room together, and they'll probably start a conversation. "Hot today, isn't it?"one might say. "You said it." another replies. Why do we talk so much about the weather? When we meet new people, we don't begin by telling them our life story. We start with small talk, a polite conversation about something like traffic or weather.
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Research suggests that small talk can build new friendships. When we begin

conversations with new people, we want to feel comfortable, and so do they. We use

small talk to find common interests. Once we have a common interest, a friendship

can begin.

Small talk even helps people get hired. In order to impress at a job interview,

you need to bond with the interviewer right away. Proper small talk can make that

first impression get you the job.

So, how can you make small talk lead to a new friendship or job? First off, find

common ground. Select something around you that you share with the other person. Next, keep the conversation going. Compliment (赞美) the other person to make

himor her feel comfortable, and ask questions to show interest. Third, keep eye contact (接触). When you look people in the eye, they feel you

appreciate what they are saying. It makes you appear honest and builds trust.

Naturally, shy people might not have enough confidence to start up conversations

with strangers. Talking to someone you don't know is not the easiest thing to do!

Some experts say with more practice, small talk does get easier.

Some people avoid small talk because they dislike discussing things like traffic

or weather. For them, they are just too small. However, when you think about it,

small talk is anything but small. In fact, it is actually a very big deal!

Title

Small Talk: A Big (76)____

Introducti We are likely to make small talk when we (77)____ meet

on people.

(78)____

? Small talk can help people form (79)____ friendships. ?Small talk can also help people get a (80)____.

?Find some topics (81)____ with the other person.

?Keep the talk going by making compliments and (82)____

Advice questions. ?Keep eye contact in conversation to build

(83)____.

?(84)____ more in order to make small talk easier.

Conclusion 【答案】

Small talk really (85)____ a lot to us.

76. Deal

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77. first 78. Advantages/Benefits 79. new 80. job/position/post 81. shared 82. asking/rasing 83. trust 84. Practice/Practise 85. matters/means 【解析】 试题分析:文章主要讲的是简短对话的重要性。素不相识的人通常以讨论交通状况或天气来开 始他们的交谈。做题时注意联系上下文提取有效信息,并注意是否需要进行词形转换。 76. Deal 根据最后一段“In fact, it is actually a very big deal!”可知,事实上,简 短对话非常重要,a big deal 是固定短语。 77. first 根据“Put a group of strangers in a room together...”可知,陌生人见面可 能会开始简短的聊天,由此可知,他们是首次见面。 78. Advantages/Benefits 根据第三段可知,简短的谈话可以帮助人们建立友谊,帮助人们找 到工作,说明这里说的是好处或优点。 79. new 根据第三段“Research suggests that small talk can build new friendships.” 可知答案。 80. job/position/post 根据第四段“Proper small talk can make that first impression get you the job.”可知答案。 81. shared 根据第五段“Select something around you that you share with the other person.”可知答案,这里用过去分词作后置定语。 82. asking/rasing 根据第六段“and ask questions to show interest”可知,通过提问问 题来表示自己感兴趣,by 后跟动名词。 83. trust 根据第七段“It makes you appear honest and builds trust.”可知,眼神接触 能使人显得真诚,并在双方之间建立起信任。 84. Practice/Practise 根据倒数第二段“Some experts say with more practice, small talk does get easier.”可知,简短对话经过多加练习之后就会变得容易。 85. matters/means 根据最后一段“small talk is anything but small. In fact, it is actually a very big deal!”可知,简短对话不容小觑,事实上,简短对话很重要。matter
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重要,相当于 count。mean a lot to sb 对某人来说意义重大。 【考点定位】社会类短文阅读 【名师点睛】做任务型阅读,考生需要先浏览表格的结构,对空白处所填词的词性、词形有一 个初步的认识,接着需要从文中寻找相关信息,必要时还需要进行词形转换,还要考虑固定搭 配、固定句型。最后一个空需要考生进行推理和总结,有一定的难度。 8.【2015·湖南】Section A (10 marks)
Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in the numbered blanks by using the information from the passage
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Not all print dictionaries are the same, as you will notice when you select one. To make a wise selection, you should know how to distinguish among three kinds of print dictionaries: pocket, desk, and unabridged. You should also know the copyright date of your dictionary, and check is special features.
A pocket dictionary is small. Generally, it contains no more than 75000 entries, making it hardly to carry to class and efficient to use. However, a pocket dictionary doesn't contain enough entries to be adequate for college reference homework. In addition, the information about each word in a pocket dictionary is generally limited. A desk dictionary is medium sized, generally containing over 100,000 entries as well as extra features. For college work, you should own a current desk dictionary. An unabridged dictionary is a complete dictionary. Abridged dictionaries, such as pocket and desk dictionaries, are shortened. Because unabridged dictionaries contain nearly all English words, they are large and heavy. They are often used by schools and libraries.
If the copyright date of your current dictionary shows that it was published five or more years ago, consider investing in a more recent edition. English is a dynamic language that admits new words and recognizes changes in meaning, spelling, and usage of familiar words. This is reflected in an up-to-date dictionary. In selecting a dictionary, check the features it offers besides vocabulary definitions. Many editions contain signs, symbols and foreign words. Some also contain CD-ROMs and access to special online features.
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【答案】

71.Select

72.inadequate

73.word information

74.desk dictionary

75.extra features

76.large and heavy

77.schools and libraries

78.admitting new words

79.cheek

80.access to

【解析】

试题分析:本文讲述了三种字典的类型,旨在告诉读者如何根据需要去选择字典。

71.Select; 本文讲述了三种字典的类型,旨在告诉读者如何根据需要去选择字典。故填

Select. 72.inadequate;根据第二段中的第三句话:However, a pocket dictionary doesn’t

contain enough entries to be adequate for college reference homework.可知作者认为

口袋字典不能用来作为写家庭作业的参考。不能够胜任:

inadequate

for…。故填

inadequate

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73.word information;根据第二段的第四句话:the information about each word in a pocket dictionary is generally limited 可知口袋字典里每个单词的意思是有限的。故填

word information

74.desk

dictionary;根据题目中的第二个方框里给出的信息可知作者写完 pocket

dictionary 后接着写第二种字典:desk dictionary。故填 desk dictionary

75.extra features;根据第二段中的第五句话:A desk dictionary is medium-sized,

generally containing over 170,000 entries as well as extra features.可知中等体积是

desk dictionary 的外特点。故填 extra features

76.large and heavy; 根据第二段中的倒数第二句话:because unabridged dictionaries

contain nearly all English words, they are large and heavy;故填 large and heavy

77.schools and libraries;根据第二段的最后一句话:They are often used by schools

and libraries. 可知 unabridged dictionaries 适用于学校和图书馆。故填 schools and

librarie 78.admitting new words;根据第三段的第二句话:可知英语是一种动态的语言,所以字典也 应该及时地更新,允许心的单词加入。故填 admitting new words 79.check;根据第四段的第一句话:In selecting a dictionary ,check the features it offers besides vocabulary definitions.可知题目中最后一个方框里的三条信息所讲的是选 择字典时要检查词汇意外的特点,故填 check 80.access to;根据全篇章的最后一句话:Some also contain CD-ROMS and access to special online features.可知,故填 access to 【考点定位】生活类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】要求考生根据篇章内容和所给题目,进行快速阅读,锁定关键词。考查学生分清 条理和查找关键词的能力。这种题目的难度不大,需要根据正确理解文章所说的内容,确定关 键句子,找出关键词。有时也需要因为所填内容的限制,将关键词变形,例如 78 题,原文给 出的是 admits new words,因为要跟 reflecting English as a dynamic language 和 recognizing changes in meaning, 保持一致,故 admits 要变成 admitting。 9.【2015·湖南】Section B (10 mark.)

Directions: Read the following passage. Answer the questions according to the information given in the passage.
Walk Out of the Comfort Zone and Try New Things For most high school students, free periods are useless. From what I have seen, few do homework, instead many are on their phones and talking, making it

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impossible for those who actually want to do work to complete any. As a senior

next year, I think extra periods should be used to take optional subjects.

Our school offers many classes. Now is the time to experiment in different

fields of study. We will never know if we are interested or talented in a subject if we don't try it.

In my 8th grade, I was told that I had to take an art class as a graduation

requirement; so in the 9th grade I took Studio and Art. One of the projects was to build a clay pot, but I built mine incorrectly, so it broke in the kiln (窑). I

found out that I have no artistic ability at all, and now I know for sure that I

do not want to be an artist. However, the class was one of my favorites that year.

I was able to try new activities and test my ability. Walk out of our comfort zone and try new things! College is when we should

focus on a specific major, but high school is when we have to figure it out.

Half of all college students change their major at some point. By doing that

hundreds of dollars are wasted on classes that they would have never needed to

take. So use our extra periods to find out what we want to do in college. The

classes we choose can impact us in future. Taking optional subjects will enrich

our mind. It will also show colleges we are diverse students. 81. How should we use our extra periods in the author's opinion?

(No more than 9 words)

(2

marks)

__________________________________________________________________________________

_______

82. Why does the author think we should experiment in different fields of study?

(No more than 17 words) (2 marks)

__________________________________________________________________________________

_______

83. Why did the clay pot show the author's lack of artistic ability?

(No more than 10 words)

(3 marks)

__________________________________________________________________________________

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_______ 84.According to the author, how will taking optional subjects impact up in the future? (No more than 13 words)
(3 marks) __________________________________________________________________________________ _______ 【答案】 81.We should use them to take optional subjects. 82.We will never know if we are interested or talented in a subject without trying it. 83.It was built incorrectly and broke in the kiln. 84.It will enrich our mind and show colleges we are diverse students.
【考点定位】人生哲理类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】这种有关人生类的哲理性短文,夹叙夹议,一定程度上相当于记叙文。首先一定 要理清作者的思路,根据作者的思路搞清楚他想表达自己一个什么样的思想以及他从自己的经
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历或叙事当中的体会是什么。比如第三段中的句子:One of the projects was to build a clay pot, but I built mine incorrectly, so it broke in the kiln (窑). I found out that I have no artistic ability at all, and now I know for sure that I do not want to be an artist.可知作者本来是想做一个艺术家,但通过烧窑做黏土锅这件事发现自己并不 适合当艺术家。以此来鼓励作者根据自己的兴趣做一些尝试,成功失败都不重要,在年轻时丰 富自己的经历和大脑才是首要事情。 10.【2015·新课标全国 II】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。 选项中有两项为多余选项。
Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs. 36 , buy the best-fitting running shoes you can find. No one can say which brand will work best for you or feel best on your feet, so you have to rely on your experience and on the feel of each pair as you shop. When you have found shoes that seem right, walk in them for a few days to double-check the fit. 37 . As always, you should stretch(伸展) at least ten minutes before each run to prevent injuries.
During the first week, do not think about distance, but run five minutes longer each day. 38 , it is wise to take a day off to rest. But during the next week, set a goal of at least a mile and a half per run. 39 . After two weeks, start timing yourself. 40 . Depending on the kind of race you plan to enter, you can set up a timetable for the remaining weeks before the race. A. After six days B. For a good marathon runner C. Before you begin your training D. With each day, increase the distance by a half mile E. If they still feel good, you can begin running in them F. Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training G. Now you are ready out a goal of improving distance and time 【答案】 36.C 37. E 38.A 39. D 40. G
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【解析】 试题分析:本文是以如何锻炼马拉松为话题,提到从长期的角度说应该做到精心准备,循序渐 进。这样才能达到锻炼的目的。 36. C 考查对上下文的理解。上文提到跑马拉松,下文说买一双合脚的鞋子。所以这里应该是 Before you begin your training 训练前的准备工作。故选 C。 37. E 考查对上下文的理解。上文提到:穿着鞋走走路以确保合适,下文提到跑。所以这里应 该说 If they still feel good, you can begin running in them 如果穿着的感觉很好,就 可以跑了。故选 E。 38. A 考查对上下文的理解。上文提到练习的第一周怎么做,下文提到第二周,所以这里应该 是 After six days,练习一周后稍做休息,一周是 6 天,故选 A。 39. D 考查对上下文的理解。这里在讨论逐渐加长跑步的距离,每天增加一定的距离才合理, 故选 D With each day, increase the distance by a half mile。 40. G 考查对上下文的理解。最后是提速。在规定的距离内如何训练自己跑得快。这样才能参 加比赛。故选 G Now you are ready out a goal of improving distance and time。 【考点定位】生活类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】本文是给体育锻炼提建议。这是七选五短文常考的类型。这类题的思路清楚,考 生容易把握文章的结构,为填充缺失的信息打下好的基础。本题的首句是关键的理解点。下文 都围绕这句展开。所以填对的根据在于正确理解全文和摸清文章的脉络。 11.【2015·新课标全国 I】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项, 选项中有两项为多余选项。
Building Trust in a Relationship Again Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences, 36 .Trust is a risk. But you can’t be successful when there’s a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake. Unfortunately, we’ve all been victims of betrayal. Whether we’ve been stolen from, lied to , misled, or cheated on, there are different levels of losing trust. Sometimes people simply can’t trust anymore, 37. It’s understandable, but if you’re willing to build trust in a relationship again, we have some steps you can take to get you there. ? 38 having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well-being. ? 39 If you’ve been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance. But
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there’s a difference between being a victim and living with a “victim mentality”. At some point in all of our lives, we’ll have our trust tested or violated.
? You didn’t lose “everything”. Once trust is lost, what is left? Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life. 40 instead, it’s a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness.
A. Learn to really trust yourself. B. It is putting confidence in someone. C. Stop regarding yourself as the victim. D. Remember that you can expect the best in return. E. They’ve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to let it happen again. F. This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future
relationships. G. Seeing the positive side of things doesn’t mean you’re ignoring what
happened. 【答案】 36. B 37. E 38. A 39. C 40. G 【解析】 试题分析:文章主要讲述了人们一旦失去了信任,如何再次建立信任。 36. B 根据前一句 Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences 信 任是我们从以往经历中获得的学习行为。选项 B 中的 it 代指上文刚出现的 trust。故选 B。 37. E 根据前句 Sometimes people simply can’t trust anymore.可知他们受到严重的伤害 且不能忍受再次发生。可知选 E。 38. A 根据后句 having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well-being.可知此段主 要讲述要学会信任自己。可知选 A。
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39. C 根据后句 If you’ve been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance.可 知此段主要讲述不要认为自己是受害者。故选 C。 40. G 根据前一句 Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life 和后 一句 instead, it’s a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness.可知既要看到事情的积极面,也不要忽视所发生的事情。 故选 G。 【考点定位】议论类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本篇阅读填空题延续了一贯的总分式结构,难度总体适中。第 36 题主要考查顺 承上文,第 37 题考查前面句的因果关系,第 38、39 题考查总分关系,第 40 题考查转折关系。 考生解题时一定首先理解文章大意,然后在做题时分析前后句之间的关系,最后要将所选的答 案带回原文当中阅读,最终才能选择正确答案。
12.【2015·上海】Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.
Youth sport has the potential to accomplish three important objectives in children’s development. First, sport programs can provide youth with opportunities to be physically active, which can lead to improved physical health. Second, youth sport programs have long been considered important to youth’s psychosocial development, providing opportunities to learn important life skills such as cooperation, discipline, leadership, and self-control. Third, youth sport programs are critical for the learning of motor skills; these motor skills serve as a foundation for future national sport stars and recreational adult sport participants. When coachers develop activities for youth practices and when sport organizations design youth-sport programs, they must consider the implication of deliberate play and deliberate practice.
Research from Telama (2006) states that regular participation in deliberate play or deliberate practice activities during childhood and youth (ages nine to eighteen) increases the likelihood of participation in sports during adulthood by six times for both males and females. C?té (2002) defines deliberate play activities in sport as those designed to maximize enjoyment. These activities are regulated by flexible rules adapted from standardized sport rules and are set up by the children or by an involved adult. Children typically change rules to find a
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point where their game is similar to the actual sport but still allows for play at their level. For example, children may change soccer and basketball rules to suit their needs and environment (e.g. in the street. on a playing field or in someone’s backyard). When involved in deliberate play activities, children are less concerned with the outcome of their outcome of their behavior. (whether they win or lose) than with the behavior. (having fun).
On the other hand, Ericsson (1993) suggests that the most effective learning occurs through involvement in highly structured activities defined as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice activities require effort, produce no immediate rewards, and are motivated by the goal of improving performance rather than the goal of enjoyment. When individuals are involved in deliberate play, they experiment with different combinations of behaviors, but not necessarily in the most effective way to improve performance. In contrast, when individuals are involved in deliberate practice, they exhibit behavior. focused on improving performance by the most effective means available. For example, the backhand skills in tennis could be learned and improved over time by playing matches or by creating fun practice situations. However, players could more effectively improve their backhand performance by practicing drills that might be considered less enjoyable. Although drills are used in most effective means available practice might not be the most enjoyable, they might be the most relevant to improving performance.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS) 78. Besides the learning of motor skills, what are the other two important objectives of youth sport? 79. If children participate in deliberate play or deliberate practice activities, they are more likely to________________. 80. In deliberate play activities, what do children do to maximize enjoyment? 81. In contrast to deliberate play, deliberate practice is aimed at____________.
【答案】 78. Improved physical health and psychosocial development 79. participate in sports during adulthood
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80. They change rules to suit their needs and their environment 81. improving performance 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇说明文,讲述青年运动有可能在孩子的发展中完成三个重要目标。强身健 体、心理发展和运动技能。 78. Improved physical health and psychosocial development 细节题,根据文章第一段 “First, sport programs can provide youth with opportunities to be physically active, which can lead to improved physical health. Second, youth sport programs have long been considered important to youth’s psychosocial development, providing opportunities to learn important life skills such as cooperation, discipline, leadership, and self-control.首先,运动项目可以为年轻人提供机会锻炼,从 而导致改善身体健康。第二,青年运动项目一直被认为是重要的青少年的心理发展,提供机会学 习重要的生活技能,如合作、纪律,领导,和自我控制。”对这个的内容进行高度概括,所以可以 知道答案是 Improved physical health and psychosocial development 改善身体健康和心理 发展。 79. participate in sports during adulthood 细节题,根据“Research from Telama (2006) states that regular participation in deliberate play or deliberate practice activities during childhood and youth (ages nine to eighteen)increases the likelihood of participation in sports during adulthood by six times for both males and females.Telama(2006) 的研究指出,在儿童和青少年(年龄在 9 到 18)时,定期参 与故意玩或刻意练习活动,不管是男性还是女性,在成年时增加参与运动的可能性六达倍多。 ”缩短答案字数为 participate in sports during adulthood 在成年参加体育运动。 80. They change rules to suit their needs and their environment 根据“For example, children may change soccer and basketball rules to suit their needs and environment 例如,孩子可能会改变足球和篮球规则以适应他们的需求和环境”,可以知道答案 是 They change rules to suit their needs and their environment 他们改变规则以适应他 们的需求和他们的环境。 81. improving performance 根据文章最后一句话“Although drills are used in most effective means available practice might not be the most enjoyable, they might be the most relevant to improving performance.虽然演习中使用可用的最有效的手段也许不 是最有趣的练习,它们可能是最相关的改善表现。”可以知道答案是 improving performance 改善表现。
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【考点定位】 说明文 【名师点睛】这种用最短的单词填空的题目有一定难度,要求首先要对文章能够整体把握,知 道答案在哪里面去找,然后对答案区域的内容进行压缩,用最少的单词或短语表达出来。其实 这种最少的单词短语,主要是找最关键的词,对于那一些修饰的成分比如说从句定语(形容词) 、状语(副词)直接去掉就好了,最终找到答案就是名词、动词或代词。
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