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新标准大学英语第三册 Language in use-Unit 1


Language in use word formation: compound words 1 Find more examples of each use of hyphens in the passage We are all dying . ? I’ve double- and triple-checked it. (compound verb) ? budding crypt-kickers (compound noun) ? a rear-view mirror (compound adjective) ? the once-a-year holiday to Florida or Spain (compound adjective) ? back-burner stuff (compound adjective) ? standing at the corner of the Co-op (compound noun) ? a sepia-coloured relative that no one can put a name to (compound adjective) 2 Rewrite the phrases using compound adjectives. 1 a party which is held late at night (a late-night party) 2 a library which is well stocked (a well-stocked library) 3 a professor who is world famous (a world-famous professor) 4 some advice which is well timed (some well-timed advice) 5 a population which is growing rapidly (a rapidly-growing population) 6 an economy which is based on free market (a free-market economy) 7 a boat trip which lasts for half an hour (a half-hour boat trip) It’s what / how ? that ? 3 Rewrite the sentences using It’s what / how ? that ? 1 What other people think of us is determined by how we behave. It’s how we behave that determines what other people think of us. 2 What sort of job we are going to end up doing is usually determined by our character. It’s what our character is that usually determines what sort of job we are going to end up doing. 3 What we do as a career isn’t always determined by the marks we get at university. It isn’t always what marks we get at university that determine what we do as a career. 4 How we react to life’s problems is often determined by our childhood experiences. It is often what we experienced in our childhood that determines how we react to life’s problems. 5 When we die is determined by our genetic clock, and the changes we make to it. It’s what our genetic clock is and what changes we make to it that determine when we die. It is / was not just that ? but ? 4 Rewrite the sentences using It is / was not just that ? but ? 1 Not only were the shops all closed for Thanksgiving, there was also no one in the streets. It wasn’t just that the shops were all closed for Thanksgiving, but there was no one in the streets. 2 Not only did she spend all her time at college going to parties, she also took the time to gain a first-class degree. It wasn’t just that she spent all her time at college going to parties, but she took the time to gain a first-class degree. 3 Not only were they not listening to what he said, it also seemed as if they weren’t at all interested. It wasn’t just that they weren’t listening to what he said, but it seemed as if they weren’t at all interested. 4 Not only was I upset, I also felt as if I was going to burst out crying. It wasn’t just that I was upset, but I felt as if I was going to burst out crying.

5 Not only was the Grim Reaper intended to frighten people, it was also a figure of fun. It wasn’t just that the Grim Reaper was intended to frighten people, but it was also a figure of fun. collocations 5 Read the explanations of the words. Answer the questions. 1 settle When you settle somewhere you go there to stay. (a) Where is dust likely to settle in a room? On the surfaces that aren’t used very often or aren’t cleaned. (b) If you settle an argument, is the conclusion satisfactory? Yes, it is, because the disagreement is solved and each party is satisfied with the outcome. (c) If you settle the bill, what is there left to pay? Nothing, because you have paid everything that is owed. (d) What do you do when you settle back to watch a film? We relax in a comfortable chair and enjoy it. 2 smooth This word can mean flat or soft, comfortable, easy or confident. (a) If the sea is smooth, are you likely to feel seasick? No, because the sea is calm. We will feel seasick if it is rough. (b) If a changeover from one government to the next is smooth, are there lots of problems? No, because the changeover has gone well, without difficulties. (c) Is it a good idea to trust a smooth talker? Not necessarily, because some people who talk confidently like that do so to trick you, like a confidence trickster or conman. 3 offer This word can refer to something you would like someone to take, something someone gives, or something that is for sale. (a) If you decline an offer, do you say “yes” or “no”? We say “no”, because we are refusing it. (b) If you offer an apology to someone for something you have done, what do you say? We should say, “I apologize” or “I’m sorry”. (c) Where are you likely to see special offer? In a shop, because the shop is offering a special price or reduction for something. (d) If someone has a lot to offer, what kind of person are they? They are intelligent, talented, gifted or creative and they will bring these kinds of qualities to their work. 4 bear If you bear something you carry or bring it. If you cannot bear something, you dislike it or cannot accept it. (a) If you bear something in mind, do you forget it? No, we will remember it and consider it for a particular occasion in future. (b) If you bear a resemblance to someone, in what way are you like them? We look similar in certain physical features. (c) Is there anything you can’t bear to think about? I can’t bear to think too much about some of the problems in the world, famine, war, poverty etc. In the modern world, why don’t we just solve them? 5 resistance This word can refer to the refusal to accept something new, the ability not to be harmed by something, or opposition to someone or something. (a) If there is resistance to an idea, do people accept it?

No, not easily. They refuse to accept the idea maybe because it’s just a bad idea, or they may change their mind if they understand it better. (b) If the soldiers met with resistance, what happened? The soldiers met opposition from those they were fighting against. (c) Is there a way to build up your resistance to cold? Yes, we can keep ourselves as healthy as possible with a good diet and getting enough exercise so that we are less likely to catch a cold, or if we do get one, we won’t suffer so badly. 6 Translate the paragraphs into Chinese. 1 We all sensed we were coming to the end of our stay here, that we would never get a chance like this again, and we became determined not to waste it. Most important of course were the final exams in April and May in the following year. No one wanted the humiliation of finishing last in class, so the peer group pressure to work hard was strong. Libraries which were once empty after five o’clock in the afternoon were standing room only until the early hours of the morning, and guys wore the bags under their eyes and their pale, sleepy faces with pride, like medals proving their diligence. (? and guys wore the bags under their eyes and their pale, sleepy faces with pride … 这句的动词 wear 后面带两个宾语,中文找不到能带这两个宾语的动词,故处理成 四个中文短句;翻译 like medals proving their diligence 时,采用“增词法”增加“这些”来 概括前面所描写的“眼袋”“脸色苍白”“睡眼惺忪”等,使译文含义更加清晰流畅。) , , 我们都觉得在校时间不多了, 以后再也不会有这样的学习机会了, 所以都下定决心不再虚度 光阴。当然,下一年四五月份的期末考试最为重要。我们谁都不想考全班倒数第一,那也太 丢人了, 因此同学们之间的竞争压力特别大。 以前每天下午五点以后, 图书馆就空无一人了, 现在却要等到天快亮时才会有空座,小伙子们熬夜熬出了眼袋,他们脸色苍白,睡眼惺忪, 却很自豪,好像这些都是表彰他们勤奋好学的奖章。 2 Tomorrow? It’s all a lie; there isn’t a tomorrow. There’s only a promissory note that we are often not in a position to cash. It doesn’t even exist. When you wake up in the morning it’ll be today again and all the same rules will apply. Tomorrow is just another version of now, an empty field that will remain so unless we start planting some seeds. Your time, which is ticking away as we speak (at about 60 seconds a minute chronologically; a bit faster if you don’t invest your time wisely), will be gone and you’ll have nothing to show for it but regret and a rear-view mirror full of “could haves”, “should haves” and “would haves”. (? 本段的难点在于对一些词的理解与翻 译,如 an empty field that will remain so, chronologically, invest your time wisely, have nothing to show for it but 等等。“could haves”, “should haves”, “would haves” 是表达与事实相反的条 件句,指自己没有做,但有可能或应该做的事情。) 明天行吗?明天只是个谎言;根本就没有什么明天,只有一张我们常常无法兑现的期票。明 天甚至压根儿就不存在。你早上醒来时又是另一个今天了,同样的规则又可以全部套用。明 天只是现在的另一种说法,是一块空地,除非我们开始在那里播种,否则它永远都是空地。 你的时间会流逝(时间就在我们说话的当下嘀嗒嘀塔地走着,每分钟顺时针走 60 秒,如果 你不能很好地利用它,它会走得更快些) ,而你没有取得任何成就来证明它的存在,唯独留 下遗憾,留下一面后视镜,上面写满了“本可以做”“本应该做”“本来会做”的事情。 、 、 7 Translate the paragraphs into English. 1 对于是否应该在大学期间详细规划自己的未来, 学生们意见不一。 有的人认为对未来应该 有一个明确的目标和详细的计划, 为日后可能遇到的挑战做好充分的准备; 有的人则认为不 用过多考虑未来,因为未来难以预料。(map out; brace oneself for; uncertainty) Students differ about whether they should have their future mapped out when they are still at

university. Some think they should have a definite goal and detailed plan, so as to brace themselves for any challenges, whereas some others think they don’t have to think much about the future, because future is full of uncertainties. 2 经过仔细检查,这位科学家得知自己患了绝症。虽然知道自己将不久于人世,他并没有抱 怨命运的不公, 而是准备好好利用剩下的日子, 争取加速推进由他和同事们共同发起的那个 研究项目,以提前结项。(tick away; make the best of; have a shot at) After a very careful check-up, the scientist was told he had got a fatal disease. Although he knew that his life was ticking away, instead of complaining about the fate, the scientist decided to make the best of the remaining days, and speed up the research project he and his colleagues initiated, and have a shot at completing it ahead of schedule.


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