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2015高考英语分类专题15 社会生活、说理议论类

1.【2015·湖北卷】A ―I see you‘ve got a bit of water on your coat,‖ said the man at the petrol station. ―Is it raining out there?‖―No, it‘s pretty nice,‖ I replied, checking my sleeve. ―Oh, right. A pony(马驹) bit me earlier.‖ As it happened, the bite was virtually painless: more the kind of small bite you might get from a naughty child. The pony responsible was queuing up for some ice cream in the car park near Haytor, and perhaps thought I‘d jumped in ahead of him. The reason why the ponies here are naughty is that Haytor is a tourist-heavy area and tourists are constantly feeding the ponies foods, despite sighs asking them not to. By feeding the ponies, tourists increase the risk of them getting hit by a car, and make them harder to gather during the area‘s annual pony drift(迁移). The purpose of a pony drift is to gather them up so their health can be checked, the baby ones can be stooped from feeding on their mother‘s milk, and those who‘ve gone beyond their limited area can be returned to their correct area. Some of them are also later sold, in order to limit the number of ponies according to the rules set by Natural England. Three weeks ago, I witnessed a small near-disaster a few mils west of here. While walking , I noticed a pony roll over on his back. ―Hello!‖ I said to him, assuming he was just rolling for fun, but he was very still and, as I got closer, I saw him kicking his legs in the air and breathing heavily. I began to properly worry about him. Fortunately, I managed to get in touch with a Dartmoor‘s Livestock Protection officer and send her a photo. The officer immediately sent a local farmer out to check on the pony. The pony had actually been trapped between two rocks. The farmer freed him, and he began to run happily around again. Dartmoor has 1,000 or so ponies, who play a critical role in creating the diversity of species in this area. Many people are working hard to preserve these ponies, and trying to come up with plans to find a sustainable(可持续的) future for one of Dartmoor‘s most financially-troubled elements. 51.Why are tourists asked not to feed the ponies? A. To protect the tourists from being bitten B. To keep the ponies off the petrol station C. To avoid putting the ponies in danger

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D. To prevent the ponies from fighting 52.One of the purposes of the annual pony drift is ______________. A. to feed baby ponies on milk B. to control the number of ponies C. to expand the habitat for ponies D. to sell the ponies at a good price 53.What as the author‘s first reaction when he saw a pony roll on its back? A. He freed it from the trap B. He called a protection officer C. He worried about it very much D. He thought of it as being naughty 54.What does the author imply about the preservation of Dartmoor‘s ponies? A. It lacks people‘s involvement. B. It costs a large amount of money C. It will affect tourism in Dartmoor. D. It has caused an imbalance of species

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【考点定位】夹叙夹议文阅读 【名师点睛】夹叙夹议文是近几年高考经常涉及的一类文体,文章一方面叙述事情,另一方面又对事情加 以评论,此类文章一般先提出论点,然后以事例说明论点,最后得出结论,或者一边叙述事情经过,一边 对事情加以分析评论, 文章最后一段用一句概括性的话点明主题, 将叙述和议论有机地结合起来, 其中 “叙” 是“议”的基础,“议”是“叙”的渗透和延伸。考生要注意在通读全文的基础上弄清文章结构,阅读时 重点要放在议论部分,因为该部分表达了作者的观点或看法,是文章的精髓。理解了作者的观点和看法, 也就把握了全文的主要内容。本文难度不大,通过作者与小马的“亲密接触”介绍了英国达特穆尔荒原淘 气的矮种马,散发出浓浓的英伦风。 2.【2015·湖北卷】C
[来源:学*科*网]

Hilversum is a medium-sized city between the major cities of Amsterdam and Utrecht in the Gooi area of North Holland, the Netherlands. Unlike most of the Netherlands, Hilversum is actually in a hilly area with the soil mostly consisting of sand. Once called the Garden of Amsterdam, it still attracts travelers to come over to cycle and walk through the surrounding forests. They visit it for a relaxing day off from the urban madness. For Dutch people, Hilversum is all about textile (纺织) and media industries, and modern architecture. In history, Hilversum was largely an agricultural area. Daily life was marked by farming, sheep raising and wool production. A railway link to Amsterdam in 1874 attracted rich traders from Amsterdam to Hilversum. They build themselves large villas (别墅) in the wooded surroundings of the town. One of the families moving in was the Brenninkmeijers, currently the wealthiest family of the Netherlands. They moved in after big success in the textile industry and aided a substantial textile industry in Hilversum. But the textile boom lasted only several decades. The last factory closed in the 1960s. The change to a media economy started in 1920, when the Nederlandse Seintoestedllen Fabriek (NSF) established a radio factory in Hiversum. Most radio stations called in the large villas in the leafy areas of the town. Television gave another push to the local economy. Hilversum became the media capital of the Netherlands, and Dutch televison stars moved into the leafy neighborhoods surrounding the town. In the early 1900s, modern architcts W.M. Dudok and J. Duiker placed hundreds of remarkable buildings in Hilversum. These modern architectural masterpieces (杰作) are so many that Hilversum almost feels like an open air museum. Dudok alone shaped most 20th century Hilversum and approximately 75 buildings in 1928-1931. It has wide international fame and is included in many architecture textbooks. The building has a remarkable shape and looks like a combination of ―blocks‖. Actually, one may start his journey of modern architecture by walking or
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biking the W.M. Dudok Architectural Route in Hilversum. 59.Hilversum is different from most of the Netherlands in that ______. A. it has a large population B. it is cut off from big cities C. it has many beautiful gardens D. it is in a hilly area with sandy soil 60.What was the greatest contribution of the Brenninkmeijers to Hilversum? A. Building a railway link to Amsterdam B. Helping its textile industry to develop C. Constructing large villas for the poor D. Assisting its agricultural industry 61.The beginning of the media industry in Hilversum was marked by the establishment of ______. A. a radio factory B. the medial capital C. a radio station D. a TV station 62.What is known about W.M. Dudok‘s Hilversum Town Hall? A. It consists of approximately 75 buildings B. It looks like an open air museum in the city C. It is a classic example in architecture textbooks D. It has shaped most of 20th century Hilvesum. 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇说明文。介绍了荷兰 Hilversum 这一地区的地貌特征、工业发展和现代建筑。 59. D 细节理解题。根据首段第二句“Unlike most of the Netherlands, Hilversum is actually a hilly area …”可 知 Hilversum 不同于荷兰其他地方之处在于它属于沙土丘陵地带。故选 D 项。 60.B 细节理解题。根据第二段倒数第三句“They moved in after big success in the textile industry and aided a substantial textile industry in Hilversum”可知 Brennikmeijers 为 Hilversum 的纺织业做出了巨大的贡献。故选 B 项。

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61.A 细节理解题。根据第三段首句“The change to a media economy started in 1920, … established a radio factory in Hilversum”可知 Hilversum 传媒业兴起的兴起是以一家无线电厂的建立为标志的。故选 A 项。 62.C 推理判断题。根据最后一段倒数第三、四句“His master piece… It has wide international fame and is included in many architecture textbooks”可知 W. M. Dudok‘s Hilversum Town Hall 是建筑教科书中的一个典 范。故选 C 项。 【考点定位】说明文阅读 【名师点睛】说明文用平实的语言客观地解释或探讨各种问题,如机器的制造过程、自然或社会现象产生 的原因、工程项目的规划或问题的解决方案等,介绍自然科学、社会科学领域的最新成果,社会经济发展 过程中出现的新生事物等。本文虽短短几段,却囊括了荷兰小镇 Hilversum 的前世今生,把一个不怎么出 名的小城栩栩如生地呈现在中国读者的眼前。 3.【2015·湖北卷】E Science has a lot of uses. It can uncover laws of nature, cure diseases, make bombs, and help bridges to stand up. Indeed science is so good at what it does that there‘s always a temptation(诱惑) to drag it into problems where it may not be helpful. David Brooks, author of The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character,and Achievement, appears to be the latest in a long line of writers who have failed to resist the temptation. Brooks gained fame for several books. His latest book The Social Animal, however, is more ambitious and serious than his earlier books. It is an attempt to deal with a set of weighty topics. The book focuses on big questions: What has science revealed about human nature? What are the sources of character? And why are some people happy and successful while others aren‘t? To answer these questions, Brooks surveys a wide range of disciplines(学科). Considering this, you might expect the book to be a dry recitation of facts. But Brooks has structured his book in an unorthodox(非常规的), and perhaps unfortunate, way. Instead of introducing scientific theories, he tells a story, within which he tries to make his points, perhaps in order to keep the reader‘s attention.So as Harold and Erica, the hero and heroine in his story, live through childhood, we hear about the science of child development and as they begin to date we hear about the theory of sexual attraction. Brooks carries this through to the death of one of his characters. On the whole,Brooks‘s story is acceptable if uninspired. As one would expect, his writing is mostly clear and, to b e fair, some chapters stand out above the rest. I enjoyed, for instance, the chapter in which Harold discovers how to think on his own. While Harold and Erica are certainly not strong or memorable characters, the more serious problems with The Social Animal lie elsewhere. These problems partly involve Brooks‘s attempt to
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translate his tale into science. 67.The author mentions the functions of science at the beginning of the passage to__________. A. illustrate where science can be applied B. demonstrate the value of Brooks‘s new book C. remind the reader of the importance of science D. explain why many writers use science in their works 68.According to the author, which of the following could be a strength of the book? A. Its strong basis. B. Its convincing points. C. Its clear writing. D. Its memorable characters. 69.What is the author‘s general attitude towards the book? A. Contradictory. B. Supportive. C . Cautious. D. Critical. 70.What is the author likely to write about after the last paragraph? A. Problems with the book. B. Brooks‘s life experience. C. Death of the characters. D. Brooks‘s translation skills. 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇议论文。文章先列举出科学的许多功能,接着指出科学有巨大的诱惑力,以致许多 作家抵挡不住这种诱惑,在文学作品中运用到科学。并以 Brooks 的新书 The social animal 为例,批判地分 析这本书的优势和不足。 67.D 写作用意题。首段第一、二句首先列举出科学的许多功能,接着指出科学有巨大的诱惑力,以致许多 作家抵挡不住这种诱惑,在文学作品中运用到科学。故选 D 项。 68.C 推理判断题。根据最后一段中―…, his writing is mostly clear and , to be fair, some chapters stand out above the rest. I enjoyed,… ‖可知作者认为写作思路清晰是这本书的一大优势。故选 C 项。
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69.D 观点态度题。最后一段中的链接词―while‖之前是这本书的优势,其后作者指出了其不足。因此作者对 这部书持批判的态度。故选 D 项。 70. A 篇章结构题。文章最后一段中链接词―while‖后面部分开始谈论这本书存在的问题。因此紧接着作者应 该还是在写这本的不足。故选 A 项。 【考点定位】议论文阅读 【名师点睛】议论说理类文章具有以下特点:1.一般按提出问题、分析问题、解决问题的方法写作。作者 一般从日常生活中的热点问题、社会上的重大问题、与读者息息相关的问题入手,即提出问题。然后,分 析利弊,举例说明,推理判断,即分析问题。最后,阐述观点,提出办法,即解决问题。2.以作者的观点 或情感为核心,对细节推理等方面进行考查。3.文章的主题一般是生活中的热点问题、重大问题或与生活 息息相关的问题等。考生应注意抓住作者提出的观点、给出的例证及最后得出的结论。同时,理清作为论 据的诸多事例和理由之间以及它们和观点/结论之间的内在联系,把握文章的结构。 4.【2015·北京卷】D Technological change is everywhere and affects every aspect of life, mostly for the better. However, social changes are brought about by new technology are often mistaken for a change in attitudes. An example at hand is the involvement of parents in the lives of their children who are attending college. Surveys (调查) on this topic suggests that parents today continue to be ―very‖ or ―somewhat‖ overly-protective even after their children move into college dormitories. The same surveys also indicate that the rate of parental involvement is greater today than it was a generation ago. This is usually interpreted as a sign that today‘s parents are trying to manage their children‘s lives past the point where this behavior is appropriate. However, greater parental involvement does not necessarily indicate that parents are failing to let go of their ―adult‖ children. In the context (背景) of this discussion, it seems valuable to first find out the cause of change in the case of parents‘ involvement with their grown children. If parents of earlier generations had wanted to be in touch with their college-age children frequently, would this have been possible? Probably not. O n the other hand, does the possibility of frequent communication today mean that the urge to do so wasn‘t present a generation ago? Many studies show that older parents - today‘s grandparents - would have called their children more often if the means and cost of doing so had not been a barrier. Furthermore, studies show that finances are the most frequent subject of communication between parents and their college children. The fact that college students are financially dependent on their parents is nothing new; nor are
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requests for more money to be sent from home. This phenomenon is neither good nor bad; it is a fact of college life, today and in the past. Thanks to the advanced technology, we live in an age of bettered communication. This has many implications well beyondthe role that parents seem to play in the lives of their children who have left for college. But it is useful to bear in mind that all such changes come from the technology and not some imagined desire by parents to keep their children under their wings. 67. The surveys inform us of ______. A. the development of technology B. the changes of adult children‘s behavior C. the parents‘ over-protection of their college children D. the means and expenses of students‘ communication 68. The writer believes that ______. A. parents today are more protective than those in the past B. the disadvantages of new technology outweigh itsadvantages C. technology explains greater parental involvement with theirchildren D. parents‘ changed attitudes lead to college children‘s delayedindependence 69. What is the best title for the passage? A. Technology or Attitude B. Dependence or Independence C. Family Influence or Social Changes D. College Management or Communication Advancement 70. W hich of the following shows the development of ideas in this passage?

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【解析】 试题分析:以父母对于上大学的成年子女过度保护的问题为例,提出了科技带来的一些改变容易被误认为 态度的改变的论点。 67.C 细节理解题。 答案在第二段第二句话, parents today continues to be ―very‖ or ―somewhat‖ overly-protective even after their children move into college dormitories‖调查显示现在的父母在孩子上大学之后仍然非常或者某 种程度上地过度保护子女。故选 C。 68.C 观点态度题。第三段作者提出调查的结果并不能理解为现在的家长对孩子不放手,接下来的两段作者 论述了出现这种结果的真正原因是科技的发展使得交流手段更丰富,成本更低廉。见第四段最后一句―Many studies show that older parents—today‘s grandparents—would have called their children more often if the means and cost of doing so had not been a barrier。最后一段更是再次强调了这种观点。故选 C。 69.A 主旨大意题。由第一段第二句话得出。这种科技的改变容易被误认为态度的改变。第 2-5 段讨论到底 是科技还是态度的改变。第 6 段再次明确表示是科技的改变。故选 A。学科网 70.B 文章结构题。文章第一段是 introduction,第二段是第一个论点,指出父母在子女生活中参与度提高的 现象。第三段是第二个论点(关键词 However),指出通过调查并不能推断出父母未能对子女放手,分论点一 是科技的进步导致父母对子女生活更多的参与, 分论点二(关键词 Furthermore)是子女经济不独立导致父母对 子女生活的过多参与。最后一段总结。故选 B。

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【考点定位】议论文类阅读 【名师点睛】 要想读懂议论文、理解作者的写作意图,关键在于是否能够把握议论文的三要素。首先,论 点是作者对所论述事件的基本看法和立场,找准论点有助于把握文章的整体方向和理解文章主题的深层内 涵;理清论据材料的内容能够帮助读者更深层次地理解论点的含义;论据是作者组织、运用论据的手法。 5.【2015·北京】D Freedom and Responsibility Freedom‘s challenge in the Digital Age is a serious topic. We are facing today a strange new world and we are all wondering what we are going to do with it. Some 2,500 years ago Greece discovered freedom. Before that there was no freedom. There were great civilizations, splendid empires, but no freedom anywhere. Egypt and Babylon were both powerful man ruling over helpless masses. In Greece, in Athens (雅典), a little city in a little country, there were no helpless masses. And Athenians willingly obeyed the written laws which they themselves passed, and the unwritten, which must be obeyed if free men live together. They must show each other kindness and pity and the many qualities without which life would be very painful unless one chose to live alone in the desert.The Athenians never thought that a man was free if he could do what he wanted. A man was free if he was self-controlled. To make yourself obey what you approved was freedom. They were saved from looking at their lives as their own private affair. Each one felt responsible for the welfare of Athens, not because it was forced on him from the outside, but because the city was his pride and his safety. The essential belief of the first free government in the world was liberty for all men who could control themselves and would take responsibility for the state. But discovering freedom is not like discovering computers. It cannot be discovered once for all. If people do not prize it, and work for it, it will go. Constant watch is its price. Athens changed. It was a change that took place without being noticed though it was of the extreme importance, a spiritual change which affected the whole state. It had been the Athenian‘ s pride and joy to give to their city. That they could get material benefits from her never entered their minds. There had to be a complete change of attitude before they could look at the city as an employer who paid her citizens for doing her work. Now instead of men giving to the state, the state was to give to them. What the people wanted was a government which would provide a comfortable life for them; and with this as the primary object, ideas of freedom and self-reliance and responsibility were neglected to the point of disappearing. Athens was more and more looked on as a cooperative business possessed of great wealth in which all citizens had
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tyrannies, one very

a right to share. Athens reached the point when the freedom she really wanted was freedom from responsibility. There could be only one result. If men insisted on being free from the burden of self-dependence and responsibility for the common good, they would cease to be free. Responsibility is the price every man must pay for freedom. It is to be had on no other terms. Athens, the Athens of Ancient Greece, refused responsibility; she reached the end of freedom and was never to have it again. But, “the excellent becomes the permanent‖, Aristotle said. Athens lost freedom forever, but freedom was not lost forever for the world. A great American, James Madison, referred to: “The capacity (能力) of mankind for self-government.‖ No doubt he had not an idea that he was speaking Greek. Athens was not in the farthest background of his mind, but once man has a great and good idea, it is never completely lost. The Digital Age cannot destroy it. Somehow in this or that man‘s thought such an idea lives though unconsidered by the world of action. One can never be sure that it is not on the point of breaking out into action only sure that it will do so sometime. 65. What does the underlined word “tyrannies‖ in Paragraph 2 refer to? A. Countries where their people need help. C. Splendid empires where people enjoy freedom. 66.People believing in freedom are those who________ . A. regard their life as their own business C. behave within the laws and value systems 67.What change in attitude took place in Athens? A. The Athenians refused to take their responsibility. B. The Athenians no longer took pride in the city. C. The Athenians benefited spiritually from the government. D. The Athenians looked on the government as a business. 68.What does the sentence “There could be only one result.‖ in Paragraph 5 mean? A. Athens would continue to be free. B. Athens would cease to have freedom. C. Freedom would come from responsibility. D. Freedom would stop Athens from self-dependence.
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B. Powerful states with higher civilization. D. Governments ruled with absolute power.

B. seek gains as their primary object D. treat others with kindness and pity

69.Why does the author refer to Aristotle and Madison? A. The author is hopeful about freedom. B. The author is cautious about self-government. C. The author is skeptical of Greek civilization. D. The author is proud of man‘s capacity. 70. What is the author ‘s understanding of freedom? A. Freedom can be more popular in the digital age. B. Freedom may come to an end in the digital age. C. Freedom should have priority over responsibility. D. Freedom needs to be guaranteed by responsibility. 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇历史文化类说明文。文章讲述了自由的起源、演变和它在古代文化下的形态和缺陷, 以及数字化世界给自由带来的挑战。 65. D 词义猜测题。根据划线词所在句子后半句“one very powerful man ruling over helpless masses”可知 tyrannies 是指拥有绝对统治权的政府。故选 D 项。 66.C 细节理解题。根据第三段内容可知,雅典人之所以能自由地生活在一起,是因为他们能够自愿在法律 规定和价值体系下下从事一起活动。故选 C 项。 67.A 细节理解题。根据第四段内容可知,雅典人后来态度发生了改变,因为他们开始认为政府应该为他们 的劳动付费,给他们提供舒适的生活,而个人的自律和责任意识变得淡薄。故选 A 项。 68. B 句意理解题。根据第五段第三句“If men insisted on being free from the burden of self-dependence and responsibility for the common good, they would cease to be free”可知唯一的结果就是雅典人不再享有自由。故 选 B 项。 69.A 细节理解题。根据最后一段第二句“Athens lost freedom forever, but freedom was not lost forever for the world.”及“Athens was not in the farthest background of his mind, but once man has a great and good idea, it is never completely lost. The Digital Age cannot destroy it.”可知作者并没有因此而失去信心,相反对自由充满了 希望。故选 A 项。 70.D 观点态度题。作者通过雅典人对自由态度变化的对比,得出自由需要责任的保证这一结论,故选 D 项。 【考点定位】历史文化类说明文阅读 【名师点睛】 英语阅读属于跨文化交际活动,除语言因素外,它还受到中西文化差异的影响。考生既要扎实
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书本知识,也要广泛阅读,不断提高自己的知识广度,有意识地多了解文化背景知识,多关注社会热点, 这样才能做到游刃有余。 6.【2015·广东】B When I was nine years old, I loved to go fishing with my dad. But the only thing that wasn‘t very fun about it was that he could catch many fish while I couldn‘t catch anything. I usually got pretty upset and kept asking him why. He always answered, ―Son, if you want to catch a fish, you have to think like a fish‖, I remember being even more upset then because, ―I‘m not a fish!‖ I didn‘t know how to think like a fish. Besides, I reasoned, how could what I think influence what a fish does? As I got a little older I began to understand what my dad really meant. So, I read some books on fish. And I even joined the local fishing club and started attending the monthly meetings. I learned that a fish is a cold-blooded animal and therefore is very sensitive to water temperature. That is why fish prefer shallow water to deep water because the former is warmer. Besides, water is usually warmer in direct sunlight than in the shade. Yet, fish don‘t have any eyelids(眼皮) and the sun huts their eyes… The more I understood fish, the more I became effective at finding and catching them.. When I grew up and entered the business world, I remember hearing my first boss say, ―We all need to think like sales people.‖ But it didn‘t completely make sense. My dad never once said, ―If you want to catch a fish you need to think like a fisherman.‖ What he said was, ―You need to think like a fish.‖ Years later, with great efforts to promote long-term services to people much older and richer than me, I gradually learned what we all need is to think more like customers. It is not an easy job. I will show you how in the following chapters. 31. Why was the author upset in fishing trips when he was nine? A. He could not catch a fish. B. His father was not patient with him. C. His father did not teach him fishing. D. He could not influence a fish as his father did. 32. What did the author‘s father really mean? A. To read about fish. B. To learn fishing by oneself. C. To understand what fish think. D. To study fishing in many ways.
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33. According to the author, fish are most likely to be found _________. A. in deep water on sunny days B. in deep water on cloudy days C. in shallow water under sunlight D. in shallow water under waterside trees. 34. After entering the business world, the author found _________. A. it easy to think like a customer B. his father‘s fishing advice inspiring C. his first boss‘s sales ideas reasonable D. it difficult to sell services to poor people 35. This passage most likely comes from _________. A. a fishing guide B. a popular sales book C. a novel on childhood D. a millionaire‘s biography 【解析】 试题分析:本文叙述了作者通过以父亲教授他钓鱼时,要像鱼一样思考,学会钓鱼的道理,告诉大家从事 商业销售时要像消费者一样去思考。 31. A 细节理解题。根据第一段的 But that wasn‘t very fun about it was that he could catch many fish while I couldn‘t catch anything. I usually got pretty upset. 可知作者感到难过,是因为他捉不到一条鱼。故选 A。

32. D 推理判断题。 根据 The more I understood fish, the more I became effective at finding and catching them. “我 越了解鱼,我越能有效的找到鱼,抓住鱼”可知此处父亲的意思是要我了解钓鱼的方法,故选 D。 33. D 推理判断题。根据 That is why fish prefer shallow water to deep water 可知鱼喜欢在浅水里,不喜欢在深 水里, 故排除 AB 两项。 根据 water is usually warmer in direct sunlight than in the shade. Yet, fish don‘t have any eyelids(眼皮)and the sun hurts their eyes.可知鱼喜欢呆在阴凉处,不喜欢呆在阳光直射的地方,故排除 C 项。D 项水边树下的浅水处,是鱼喜欢呆的地方,故此处更有可能发现鱼。故选 D。 34. B 推理判断题。 根据 I gradually learned what we all need is to think more like customers“我逐渐了解我们需 要像消费者一样去思考”这与父亲的“You need to think like a fish”相似,因此这是父亲的话给他的启发。 故选 B。
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35. B 推理判断题。根据 It is not an easy job. I will show you how in the following chapters“这不是一份轻松的 工作,我将在下面几章里向你们展示如何去做”,故推断这是在教授大家如何去销售的书。故选 B。 【考点定位】故事类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】本文设计的问题主要是推理判断题。通过贯穿全文的―You need to think like a fish‖通过讲述了 钓鱼的方法,介绍了销售的技巧。充分考查了学生的语篇理解能力以及上下文的语境理解能力。第 35 题, 具有引出下文的作用,也充分暗示了本文的主题。 7.【2015·广东】D It was once common to regard Britain as a society with class distinction. Each class had unique characteristics. In recent years, many writers have begun to speak the 'decline of class' and 'classless society' in Britain. And in modern day consumer society everyone is considered to be middle class. But pronouncing the death of class is too early. A recent wide-ranging society of public opinion found 90 percent of people still placing themselves in particular class; 73 percent agreed that class was still a vital part of British society; and 52 percent thought there were still sharp class differences. Thus, class may not be culturally and politically obvious, yet it remains an important part of British society. Britain seems to have a love of stratification. One unchanging aspect of a British person's class position is accent. The words a person speaks tell her or his class. A study of British accents during 1970s found that a voice sounding like a BBC newsreader was viewed as the most attractive voice, Most people said this accent sounded 'educated' and 'soft'. The accents placed at the bottom in this study, on the other hand, were regional(地区的)city accents. These accents were seen as 'common' and 'ugly'. However, a similar study of British accents in the US turned these results upside down and placed some regional accents as the most attractive and BBC English as the least. This suggests that British attitudes towards accent have deep roots and are based on class prejudice. In recent years, however, young upper middle-class people in London, have begun to adopt some regional accents, in order to hide their class origins. This is an indication of class becoming unnoticed. However, the 1995 pop song 'Common People' puts forward the view that though a middle-class person may 'want to live like common people' they can never appreciate the reality of a working-class life. 41. A recent study of public opinion shows that in modern Britain ________. A. it is time to end class distinction B. most people belong to middle class
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C. it is easy to recognize a person‘s class D. people regard themselves socially different 42. The word stratification in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ________. A. variety B. most people belong to middle class C. authority D. qualification 43. The study in the US showed that BBC English was regarded as _________. A. regional B. educated C. prejudiced D. unattractive 44. British attitudes towards accent _________. A. have a long tradition B. are based on regional status C. are shared by the Americans D. have changed in recent years 45. What is the main idea of the passage? A. The middle class is expanding B. A person‘s accent reflects his class C. Class is a key part of British society D. Each class has unique characteristics. 【解析】 试题分析:这篇短文给我们讲述了在英国社会中,阶级划分是重要的一部分。作者在短文中给我们介绍了 两项调查,通过调查的结果我们可以看到,英国社会里的阶级划分没有消失,它是英国社会重要的一部分。 41.D 细节理解题。根据短文第三段的内容可知,关于―阶级消亡‖的说法,在英国对大众进行了一个调查, 结果发现 90%的人们仍然把自己划分在一定的阶层中;73%的人认为阶级是英国社会一个必不可少的部分。 由此可知人们仍然认为他们在社会中是有区别的,故选 D。 42.B 词义猜测题。根据短文第三段的内容可知,根据一项关于英国社会阶级是否开始消亡的调查可知,绝
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大多数人仍然认为英国社会中存在不同的阶级,这是英国社会中重要的一部分。由此可知,英国人好像对 阶级划分非常热衷。stratification 划分,跟 B 选项是同义词,故选 B。 43.D 细节理解题。根据第四段中 However, a similar study of British accents in the US turned these results upside down and placed some regional accents as the most attractive and BBC English as the least.可知, 美国关于英语口 音的调查结果正好和英国的调查结果相反,他们认为一些地方口音是最吸引人的,而 BBC 的英语是最不吸 引人的,故选 D。 44.D 推理判断题。根据短文的最后一段的内容可知,In recent years, however, young upper middle-class people in London, have begun to adopt some regional accents,可见,现在英国人们对待口音的态度开始改变了。故选 D。 45.C 主旨大意题。这篇短文给我们讲述了在英国社会中,阶级划分是重要的一部分。作者在短文中给我们 介绍了两项调查,其中一项告诉我们大多数人们觉得阶级是英国社会必不可少的一部分;另一项调查是关 于人们说好的口音,英国和美国的调查结果正好相反,也说明了英国阶级划分的根源非常深。由此可知 C 选项:阶级是英国社会中的一个重要部分符合短文的大意。故选 C。 【考点定位】文化类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】这篇短文介绍了英国社会中存在的阶级划分这一现象,通过调查数据,论证这一话题。短文 属于中上难度,主要考查学生的语篇理解的能力,以及词义猜测、推理判断及概括主旨大意的能力。学生 们在平时的英语学习中,要具备对一些说英语国家的文化背景知识,这对他们做题是有好处的。 8.【2015·陕西】D Parents who help their children with homework may actually be bringing down their school grades. Other forms of prenatal involvement, including volunteering at school and observing a child's class, also fail to help, according to the most recent study on the topic. The findings challenge a key principle of modern parenting(养育子女) where schools except them to act as partners in their children's education. Previous generations concentrated on getting children to school on time, fed, dressed and ready to learn. Kaith Robinson, the author of the study, said, "I really don't know if the public is ready for this but there are some ways parents can be involved in their kids' education that leads to declines in their academic performance. One of the things that was consistently negative was parents' help with homework." Robinson suggested that may be because parents themselves struggle to understand the task." They may either not remember the material their kids are studying now, or in some cases never learnt it themselves, but they're still offering advice." Robinson assessed parental involvement performance and found one of the most damaging things a parent could do was to punish their children for poor marks. In general, about 20% of parental involvement was positive, about 45% negative and the rest statistically insignificant. Common sense suggests it was a good thing for parents to get involved because "children with good
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academic success do have involved parents ", admitted Robinson. But he argued that this did not prove parental involvement was the root cause of that success." A big surprise was that Asian-American parents whose kids are doing so well in school hardly involved. They took a more reasonable approach, conveying to their children how success at school could improve their lives." 58. The underlined expression "parental involvement " in Paragraph 1 probably means . A. parents' expectation on children's health B. parents' participation in children's education C. parents' control over children's life D. parents' plan for children's future 59. What is the major finding of Robinson's study ? A. Modern parents raise children in a more scientific way. B. Punishing kids for bad marks is mentally damaging. C. Parental involvement is not so beneficial as expected. D. Parents are not able to help with children‘s homework. 60. The example of Asian-American parents implies that parents should . A. help children realize the importance of schooling B. set a specific life goal for their children C. spend more time improving their own lives D. take a more active part in school management 【解析】 试题分析:文章介绍和很多人预期不同的是父母过度地参与孩子的教育未必有好的效果。父母应该帮助孩 子意识到学校教育的重要性。 58.句意理解题。根据第一段的句子:Other forms of parental involvement, including volunteering at school and observing a child‘s class,可知―parental involvement‖指的是―父母参与孩子的教育‖,故选 B。 59.细节理解题。 根据文章第二段的句子: but there are some ways parents can be involved in their kids‘ education that leads to declines in their academic performance.可知 Robinson 的研究发现是父母参与孩子的教育没有预 料的那么有效,故选 C。 60.细节理解题。根据文章最后一段的句子:They took a more reasonable approach, conveying to their children how success at school could improve their lives.可知美国父母的例子暗示父母应该帮助孩子意识到学校教育 的重要性,故选 A。 【考点定位】教育类阅读理解 【名师点睛】这篇文章内容是学生比较熟悉的而且和他们的生活有密切联系的,主旨大意很好理解。这篇 文章篇幅适中。主要考查的是细节理解题和句意理解题,考生在通读文章的基础上,注意到细节理解不难 找出答案。
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9.【2015·四川】C Across Britain, burnt toast will be served to mothers in bed this morning as older sons and daughters rush to deliver their supermarket bunches of flowers, But, according to a new study, we should be placing a higher value on motherhood all year. Mothers have long known that their home workload was just as heavy as paid work. Now, the new study has shown that if they were paid for their parental labours, they would earn as much as$172,000 a year. The study looked at the range of jobs mothers do, as well as the hours they are working, to determine the figure. This would make their yearly income £30,000 more than the Prime Minister earns. By analysing the numbers, it found the average mother works 119 hours a week,40 of which would usually be paid at a standard rate and 79 hours as overtime. After questioning 1,000 mothers with children under 18,it found that ,on most days, mums started their routine work at 7am and finished at around 11pm. To calculate just how much mothers would earn from that labour, it suggested some of the roles that mums could take on, including housekeeper, part-time lawyer, personal trainer and entertainer. Being a part-time lawyer, at £48.98 an hour, would prove to be the most profitable of the“mum jobs” ,with psychologist (心理学家) a close second. It also asked mothers about the challenges they face, with 80 percent making emotional (情感的) demand as the hardest thing about motherhood. Over a third of mums felt they needed more training and around half said they miss ed going out with friends. The study shows mothers matter all year long and not just on Mother’s Day. The emotional ,physical and mental energy mothers devote to their children can be never-ending, but children are also sources of great joy and happiness. Investing(投入)in time for parenting and raising relationships is money well spent. 38.How much would a mother earn a year if working as the Prime Minister? A.£30,000. C.£172,000. B.£142,000. D.£202,000.

39.The biggest challenge for most mothers is from. A. emotional demand C. heavy workload 40.What is stressed in the last paragraph? A. Mothers‘importance shows in family all year long.
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B. low pay for work D. lack of training

B. The sacrifices mothers make are huge but worthwhile. C. Mothers‘devotion to children can hardly be calculated. D. Investing time in parenting would bring a financial return. 41.What can we conclude from the study? A. Mothers‘working hours should be largely reduced. B. Mothers should balance their time for work and rest. C. Mothers‘labour is of a higher value than it is realised. D .Mothers should be freed from housework for social life. 【解析】:这是一篇写在母亲节的文章,在母亲节这一天,每个人都会对母亲做出一些事,比如一束花等 等,但是作者认为,母亲这一职业值得全年的关注,因为它包含太多。 38.B 细节理解题。根据文章的 they would earn as much as$172,000 a year.以及 This would make their yearly income £3000 more than the Prime Minister earns.可知,总理的工资是 172000-30000=142000。故选择 B。 39.A 细节理解题。根据文章倒数第三段的 It also asked mothers about the challenges they face, with 80 percent making emotional(情感的) demand as the hardest thing about motherhood.可知,选择 A。 40.B 细节理解题。根据最后一段的 The emotional ,physical and mental energy mothers devote to their children can be never-ending, but children are also sources of great joy and happiness.可知, 选择 B, 指母亲付出的牺牲是 巨大的,但是又是值得的。 41.C 推理判断题。根据文章第一段的 But, according to a new study, we should be placing a higher value on motherhood all year.可知,作者认为母亲的重要性应该得到更多的关注,故选择 C。 【考点定位】考查说明文阅读 【名师点睛】本篇是一篇说明文,说明了母亲这一职业的伟大。阅读说明文的重点在于读懂它说明的事理。 说明文阅读中要求考生要特别注意一些数字等,如第 38 题。除此之外,还需要抓住关键词、中心词,迅速 在文中进行定位,解决细节题,如 39、40 题。最后,对文章的内容要了解,通常主题在第一段最后出现, 所以考生要善于把握主题。

10.【2015·天津】D
Once when I was facing a decision that involved high risk, I went to a friend. He looked at me for a moment, and then wrote a sentence containing the best advice I‘ve ever had: Be bold and brave — and mighty (强大的) forces will come to your aid. Those words made me see clearly that when I had fallen short in the past, it was seldom because I had tried
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and failed. It was usually because I had let fear of failure stop me from trying at all. On the other hand, whenever I had plunged into deep water, forced by courage or circumstance, I had always been able to swim until I got my feet on the ground again. Boldness means a decision to bite off more than you can eat. And there is nothing mysterious about the mighty forces. They are potential powers we possess: energy, skill, sound judgment, creative ideas — even physical strength greater than most of us realize. Admittedly, those mighty forces are spiritual ones. But they are more important than physical ones. A college classmate of mine, Tim, was an excellent football player, even though he weighed much less than the average player. ―In one game I suddenly found myself confronting a huge player, who had nothing but me between him and our goal line,‖ said Tim. ―I was so frightened that I closed my eyes and desperately threw myself at that guy like a bullet(子弹) — and stopped him cold.‖ Boldness — a willingness to extend yourself to the extreme—is not one that can be acquired overnight. But it can be taught to children and developed in adults. Confidence builds up. Surely, there will be setbacks (挫折) and disappointments in life; boldness in itself is no guarantee of success. But the person who tries to do something and fails is a lot better off than the person who tries to do nothing and succeeds. So, always try to live a little bit beyond your abilities—and you‘ll find your abilities are greater than you ever dreamed. 51. Why was the author sometimes unable to reach his goal in the past? A. He faced huge risks. B. He lacked mighty forces. C. Fear prevented him from trying. D. Failure blocked his way to success. 52.What is the implied meaning of the underlined part? A. Swallow more than you can digest. B. Act slightly above your abilities. C. Develop more mysterious powers. D. Learn to make creative decisions. 53. What was especially important for Tim‘s successful defense in the football game? A. His physical strength. B. His basic skill.
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C. His real fear. 54. What can be learned from Paragraph 5?

D. His spiritual force.

A. Confidence grows more rapidly in adults. B. Trying without success is meaningless. C. Repeated failure creates a better life. D. Boldness can be gained little by little. 55. What is the author‘s purpose in writing this passage? A. To encourage people to be courageous. B. To advise people to build up physical power. C. To tell people the ways to guarantee success. D. To recommend people to develop more abilities.

【考点定位】议论类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本文是一篇夹叙夹议的议论文。整体难度中等偏上,考生阅读此文首先需要找出文章的论点, 然后找出作者任何用论据来支撑其论点的。52 题词句猜测题需要联系上下文及前后句来判断,不能从字面 含义判断;54 题需要抓住本段的中心句才能找到段落大意;55 题作者写此文的目的需要从文章整体把握才 可以选择正确答案。

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11.【2015·浙江】A From the very beginning of school we make books and reading a constant source of possible failure and public humiliation. When children are little we make them read aloud, before the teacher and other children, so that we can be sure they ―know‖ all the words they are reading. This means that when they don‘t know a word, they are going to make a mistake, right in front of everyone. After having taught fifth-grade classes for four years, I decided to try at all costs to rid them of their fear and dislike of books, and to get them to read oftener and more adventurously. One day soon after school had started, I said to them, ―Now I‘m going to say something about reading that you have probably never heard a teacher say before. I would like you to read a lot of books this year, but I want you to read them only for pleasure. I am not going to ask you questions to find out whether you understand the books or not. If you understand enough of a book to enjoy it and want to go on reading it, that‘s enough for me. Also I‘m not going to ask you what words mean. ― The children sat stunned and silent. Was this a teacher talking? One girl, who had just come to us from a school where she had had a very hard time, looked at me steadily for a long time after I had finished. Then, still looking at me, she said slowly and seriously, Mr Holt, do you really mean that?‖ I said just as seriously, ―I mean every word of it. During the spring she really astonished me. One day, she was reading at her desk, From a glimpse of the illustrations I thought I knew what the book was. I said to myself, ―It can‘t be,‖ and went to take a closer look. Sure enough, she was reading Moby Dick , in edition with woodcuts. I said, ―Don‘t you find parts of it rather heavy going?‖ She answered, Oh, sure, but I just skip over those parts and go on to the next good part. ― This is exactly what reading should be and in school so seldom is,an exciting, joyous adventure. Find something, dive into it, take the good parts, skip the bad parts, get what you can out of it, go on to something else. How different is our mean-spirited, picky insistence that every child get every last little scrap of ―understanding‖ that can be dug out of a b ook. 41. According to the passage, children‘s fear and dislike of books may result from________. A. reading little and thinking little B. reading often and adventurously C. being made to read too much D. being made to read aloud before others
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42. The teacher told his studen ts to read______ . A. for enjoyment C. for a larger vocabulary B. for knowledge D. for higher scores in exams

43. Upon hearing the teacher‘s talk, the children probably felt that________. A. it sounded stupid B. it was not surprising at all C. it sounded too good to be true D. it was no different from other teachers' talk 44. Which of the following statements about the girl is TRUE according to the passage? A. She skipped over those easy parts while reading. B. She had a hard time finishing the required reading tasks. C. She learned to appreciate some parts of the difficult books. D. She turned out to be a top student after coming to this school. 45. From the teacher's point of view,_________ . A. children cannot tell good parts from bad parts while reading B. children should be left to decide what to read and how to read C. reading is never a pleasant and inspiring experience in school D. reading involves understanding every little piece of information 【解析】 试题分析:作者认为阅读应该是一种快乐,而不是强迫性的阅读,强调通过快乐阅读培养阅读习惯。 41. D 细节理解题 题目的意思是根据文段孩子们害怕或者是不喜欢读书是因 ____。根据第一段第四行

―This means that when they don‘t know a word, they are going to make a mistake, right in front of everyone‖. 意 为这意味着当他们不知道单词的时候,他们会犯错,而且是在所有的人面前犯错,这会给他们带来一些害 怕。 42. A 细节理解题 根据第二段作者的话 ―Now I‘m going to say something about reading that you have

probably never heard a teacher say before. I would like you to read a lot of books this year, but I want you to read them only for pleasure. I am not going to ask you questions to find out whether you understand the books or not. If you understand enough of a book to enjoy it and want to go on reading it, that‘s enough for me. Also I‘m not going to ask you what words mean.‖―,but I want you to read them only for pleasure.‖ 意为―现在我要说一些关于阅读
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的事情,你可能从来没有听说过一个老师说。我希望你读很多书,但今年,我想让你读书只为乐趣。我不 想问你问题,是否理解文章。如果你足够理解一个喜欢这本书,想去读它,这对我来说已经足够了。我也 不想问你单词的意思。‖在这里 enjoyment,enjoy 和 pleasure 是同义词。所以答案选 A 43. C 细节理解题 根据―The children sat stunned and silent. 孩子们震惊和沉默地坐着。 ‖第三段第四行 ―seriously, ?Mr. Holt, do you really mean that?‘‖不能得出答案。当老师说了这些话之后,孩子们都很震惊耶, 很奇怪, 所以他会确定问老师是不是真的这样?这表明学生是很不太相信的。 答案选项的 it sounded too good to be true,意为听起来太好了以致不相信这是真的。 44. C 细节理解题这种题目是判断正误题, 答题时一定要细心选择是错误还是正确的。 此题选择的是正确的, 也就意味着有 3 个是错误,只有一个是正确的。 根据第四段最后一句话―She answered, Oh, sure, but I just skip over those parts and go on to the next good part. ―她回答说,哦,当然,但我只是跳过这些部分,继续读下一 个好的部分。 “可以得出答案是这个女孩知道如何欣赏这些文章。 45. B 细节理解题 四个选项的意思分别是 A 孩子在阅读的时候不能够区别好的部分以及不好的部分;B 应 该留给学生孩子自己去选择,读什么以及如何读;C 在学校阅读永远不会是一个愉快和启发性的体验;D 阅 读需要理解每一部分的信息。其实根据常识可以判断 C 和 D 是错误的,然后再结合全文大意,作者认为孩 子不应该是强迫去读,要让他们自己读,选择材料读。 【考点定位】这是一篇记叙文。 【名师点睛】记叙文的文章相对而言是比较容易做的,细节题占多数,但需要的是一个细心。答案都是在 文章中可以找到,必须一个一个选项匹配排除,最终才能够得出最佳答案。当遇到答案比较接近的时候, 尤其需要细心,比如说 41 题的 CD 选项,两者都用到了 being made to read。其实这种表达也间接说明了答 案就是在两个中选择一个。 12.【2015·浙江】B Graph can be a very useful tool for conveying information especially numbers, percentages,and other data . A graph gives the reader a picture to interpret. That can be a lot more pages and pages and pages explaining the data . Graphs can seem frightening, but reading a graph is a lot like reading a story. The graph has a title ,a main idea ,and supporting details .You can use your active reading skills to analyze and understand graphs just like any other text . Most graphs have a few basic parts: a caption or introduction paragraph, a title , a legend or key, and labeled axes. An active reader looks at each part of the graph before trying to interpret the data. Captions will usually tell you where the data came from (for example, a scientific study of 400 African elephants from 1980 to 2005). Captions
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usually summarize the author's main point as well. The title is very important. It tells you the main idea of the graph by stating what kind of information is being shown. A legend, also called a key,is a guide to the symbols and colors used in the graph. Many graphs, including bar graphs and line graphs, have two axes that form a corner, Usually these axes are the left side and the bottom of the graph .Each axis will always have a label. The label tells you what each axis measures. Bar Graphs A bar graph has two axes and uses bars to show amounts. In Graph 1 ,we see that the x-axis shows grades that students earned, and the y-axis shows bow many students earned each grade .You can see that 6 students earned an A because the bar for A stretches up to 6 on the vertical measurement. There is a lot of information we can get from a simple graph like this(See Graph 1). Line Graphs A line graph looks similar to a bar graph ,but instead of Bars, it plots points and connects them with a line .It has the same parts as a bar graph – two labeled axes –and can be read the same way .To read a line graph, it‘s important to focus on the points of intersection rather than the line segments between the points, This type of graph is most commonly used to show how something changes over time. Here is a graph that charts how far a bird flies during the first Five days of its spring migration (See Graph 2). The unit of measurement for the x-axis is days. The unit of measurement for the y-axis is kilometers. Thus we can see that ,on the first day, the pipit flew 20 kilometers. The line segment goes up between Day 1 and Day 2,which means that the bird flew farther on Day 2.If the line segment angled dawn, as between Day 4 and Day 5,it would mean that the bird flew fewer kilometers than the day before. This line graph is a quick, visual way to tell the reader about the bird‘s migration. Pie Graphs A typical pie graph looks like a circular pie. The circle is divided
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into sections, and each section represents a fraction of the data. The graph is commonly used to show percentages; the whole pie represents l00 percent, so each piece is a fraction of the whole. A pie graph might include a legend,or it might use icons or labels within each slice. This pie graph shows on month‘s expense, (See Graph 3 ). Food $ 25 Movies $ 12 Clothing $ 36 Savings $ 20 Books $ 7

46. When used in a graph,a legend is_____ A. a guide to the symbols and colors C. the main idea B. an introduction paragraph D. the data

47. What is the total number of students who earned a C or better ? A .4. B.6. C.10. D.20 .

48. The bird covered the longest distance on _____ A. Day 1 B. Day 2 C. Day 3 D. Day 4

49. Which of the following cost Amy most ? A. Food. 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇说明文介绍图表的类型以及相关作用,通过对条形图、线形图和饼形图的介绍,让学 生学会读图,运用英语解决实际问题。 46.A 根据第三段可以得出答案,第三段出现了两次 legend,第一次是在第一行 a legend or key ,第二次是 在第六行 A legend, also called a key,is a guide to the symbols and colors used in the graph.‖ 一个图例, 也被称为 一个关键,是一个指导图中使用的符号和颜色。―而且答案直接可以在第六行找到,与答案选项表述一样 a guide to the symbols and colors。 47.D 根据表述‖In Graph 1 ,we see that the x-axis shows gradesthat students earned, and the y-axis shows bow manystudents earned each grade .You can see that 6 studentsearned an A because the bar for A stretches up to 6 on thevertical measurement. 在图 1 中,我们看到 X 轴显示学生获得的等级,Y 轴显示每个等级的学生数。可以
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B. Books

C. Movies

D. Clothing.

看到,6 的学生获得了 A,因为在它延伸到 6 垂直测量。 “可以得出答案。另外其实不需要看文字说明,直 接看图读图就可以得出答案。C 以上就是包含 A,B,C,其中 A 为 6, B 为 10,C 为 4,所以答案为 20 48.C 不需要看文字说明,直接看图读图就可以得出答案。从曲线图可以得出答案是 Day3。 49.D 不需要看文字说明,直接看图读图就可以得出答案。 从扇形图可以得出 Clothing 占比例最多。 【考点定位】说明文 【名师点睛】初步尝试考查解读图表数据能力,以满足考生进一步学习和社会实践需求。这份阅读虽然文 字内容很多,而且涉及到了不少的专业术语表达。但是由于图已经说明了一切,所以不需要认真的读文章。 但是在读图之前必须要看一看它的一些备注说明,也就是说起点是多少,每一格代表什么,以免出错。另 外这种题目还涉及到一种多学科的能力,比如说文科政治、历史和地理会经常出现一些图表。 13.【2015·浙江】D In 2004 ,when my daughter Becky was ten , she and my husband ,Joe, were united in their desire for a dog . As for me , I shared none of their canine lust. But why , they pleaded. ―Because I don‘t have time to take care of a dog.‖ But we‘ll do it.‖Really? You‘re going to walk the dog? Feed the dog? Bathe the dog?‖ Yes, yes , and yes .‖I don‘t believe you .‖ We will . We promise. They didn‘t . From day two (everyone wanted to walk the cute puppy that first day ) , neither thought to walk the dog . While I was slow to accept that I would be the one to keep track of her shots , to schedule her vet appointments , to feed and clean her , Misty knew this on day one . As she looked up at the three new humans in her life (small, medium, and large) , she calculated ,”The medium one is the sucker in the pack .” Quickly, she and I developed something very similar to a Vulcan mind meld (心灵融合) . She‘d look at me with those sad brown eyes of hers , beam her need , and then wait , trusting I would understand — which , strangely , I almost always did . In no time , she became my feet as I read , and splaying across my stomach as I watched television . Even so , part of me continued to resent walking duty . Joe and Becky had promised. Not fair , I‘d balk (不心 甘情愿地做) silently as she and I walked . ―Not fair , ‖ I‘ d loudly remind anyone within earshot upon our return home . Then one day — January 1, 2007 , to be exact — my husband ? s doctor uttered an unthinkable word : leukemia ( 白血病) .With that , I spent eight to ten hours a day with Joe in the hospital , doing any28thing and everything I could to ease his discomfort. During those six months of hospitalizations, Becky, 12 at the time, adjusted to other adults being in the house when she returned from school. My work colleagues adjusted to my
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taking off at a moment's notice for medical emergencies. Every part of my life changed; no part of my old routine remained. Save one: Misty still needed walking. At the beginning, when friends offered to take her through her paces, I declined because I knew they had their own households to deal with. As the months went by, I began to realize that I actually wanted to walk Misty. The walk in the morning before I headed to the hospital was a quiet, peaceful time to gather my thoughts or to just be before the day's medical drama unfolded. The evening walk was a time to shake off the day's upsets and let the worry tracks in my head go to white noise. When serious illness visits your household, it's , not just your daily routine and your assumptions about the future that are no longer familiar. Pretty much everyone you acts differently. Not Misty. Take her for a walk, and she had no interest in Joe's blood counts or ‘one marrow test results. On the street or in the park, she had only one thing on her mind: squirrels! She Was so joyous that even on the worst days, she could make me smile. On a daily basis she reminded me that life goes on. After Joe died in 2009,Misty slept on his pillow. I'm grateful 一 to a point. The truth is, after years of balking, I've come to enjoy m‘ walks with Misty. As I watch her chase after a squirrel, throwing her whole being into the here-and-now of an exercise that has never once ended in victory, she reminds me, too, that no matter how harsh the present or unpredictable the future , there's almost always some measure of joy to be extracted from the moment. 55. why didn't the writer agree to raise a dog at the beginning of the story? A. She was afraid the dog would get the family, into trouble. B. It would be her business to take care of the dog C. Her husband and daughter were united as one. D. She didn't want to spoil he‘ daughter. 56. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to "The medium one is ―he sucker in the pack.‖ (Paragraph 3)? A. "The middle-aged person loves me most.‖ B. ‖The medium-sized woman is the hostess.‖ C. "The man in the middle is the one who has the final say.‖ D. "The woman is the kind and trustworthy one in the family.‖ 57. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that_______.
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A. Misty was quite clever B. Misty could solve math problems C. the writer was a slow learner D. no one walked Misty the first day 58. The story came to its turning point when________. A. Joe died in 2009 B. Joe fell ill in 2007 C. the writer began to walk the dog D. the dog tired to please the writer 59. Why did the writer continue to walk Misty while Joe was in hospital? A. Misty couldn‘t live without her B. Her friends didn‘t offer any help C. The walk provided her with spiritual comfort. D. She didn't want Misty to ‘others companion. 60. What is the message the writer wants to convey in the passage? A. One should learn to enjoy hard times. B .A disaster can change everything in life. C. Moments of joy suggest that there is still hope ahead. D. People will change their attitude toward you when you are in difficulty. 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇记叙文,讲述作者从遛狗的体验中悟出生活的哲理——尽管有时生活艰难、前途难测, 但人生总有希望和快乐。 55. B 细节理解题 根据第三段第二行―While I was slow to accept that I would be the one to keep track of her shots, to schedule her vet appointments, to feed and clean her―作者慢慢地意识到她要去接父女俩的手尾,比 如说安排见宠物医生等。这意味着最终将由她来照顾这一只狗。 56. D 猜词题, 根据这 3 个单词的意思不难知道 small 指的是作者的女儿, medium 指的是作者, 一个 woman; and large 指的是作者的丈夫。根据后文他们有了心灵相通不难得出答案小狗认为这个妇女(也就是作者)是 最信任的和最好心的。学科网 57. A 推理题, 根据第三段―Misty knew this on day one 它在第一天就知道―和 ―she calculated 它在计算‖可以
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得出答案这只狗是非常聪明的。另外也可以根据意思排除选项 BCD。B. Misty could solve math problems 就 算文章中出现了一个计算的词语,但也不能够得出能够解答数学题的结论,而且根据常识也可以把它排除。 C. the writer was a slow learner 这个内容没有提及, D. no one walked Misty the first day 这个选项的答案, 也原 文“它在第一天就知道了”是不一致的。 58. B 细节理解题,根据第六段第一句话“Then one day — January 1, 2007 , to be exact — my husband ? s doctor uttered an unthinkable word : leukemia ( 白血病) . 然后,2007 年 1 月 1 日,确切地说是丈夫的医生宣 布了丈夫得了白血病” ,说明这一天是一个转折点,所以可以得出答案为 B。 59. C 细节理解题,根据第八段第二行―quiet, peaceful time to gather my thoughts or to just be before the day‘s medical drama unfolded 安静,安静的时间来收集我的想法 ― ,所有的这一切都是精神上的一些安慰,所以 答案选择 The walk provided her with spiritual comfort.这个散步给她带来了心灵的安慰。 60. C 推理题,根据文章最后一句话 no matter how harsh the present or unpredictable the future , there's almost always some measure of joy to be extracted from the moment.不管现在是多么困难或者将来是多么的难以预计, 总是有一些提取快乐的方法。此题易错选 A,虽然这句话是正确的。但是这篇文章并不是在说在困难时期 享受快乐。 【考点定位】记叙文 【名师点睛】这种记叙文,一定要理清作者的思路。往往作者经历的事情是一波几折的,最初的想法和最 后的想法是不一样的。比如说最初她不想养这只宠物狗,但是最后就是这一只狗陪伴了她,让她得到了一 些体会。 14.【2015·重庆】B In ancient Egypt, a shopkeeper discovered that he could attract customers to his shop simply by making changes to its environment. Modern businesses have been following his lead,with more tactics(策略). One tactic involves where to display the goods. Foe example, stores place fruits and vegetables in the first section. They know that customers who buy the healthy food first will feel happy so that they will buy more junk food(垃圾食品)later in their trip. In department stores, section is generally next to the women‘s cosmetics(化妆 品) section:while the shop assistant is going back to find the right size shoe, bored customers are likely to wander over cosmetics they might want to try later. Besides, businesses seek to appeal to customers‘ senses. Stores notice that the smell of baked goods encourages shopping, they make their own bread each morning and then fan the bread smell into the store throughout the day. Music sells goods, too. Researchers in Britain found that when French music was played, sales
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of French wine went up. When it comes to the selling of houses, businesses also use highly rewarding tactics. They find that customers make decision in the first few second upon walking in the door, and turn it into a business opportunity. A California builder designed the structure of its houses smartly. When entering the house, the customer would see the Pacific Ocean through the windows, and then the poll through an open stairway leading to the lower level. The instant view of water on both levels helped sell these $10 million houses. 40. Why do stores usually display fruits and vegetables in the first section? A. To save customers times. B. To show they are high quality foods. C. To help sell junk food. D. To sell them at discount prices. 41. According to Paragraph 3, which of the following encourages customers to buy? A. Opening the store early in the morning. B. Displaying British wines next to French ones. C. Inviting customers to play music. D. Filling the store with the smell of fresh bread. 42. What is the California builder‘s story intended to prove? A. The house structure is a key factor customers consider. B. The more costly the house is, the better it sells. C. An ocean view is much to the customers‘ taste. D. A good first impression increases sales. 43. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To explain how businesses turn people into their customers. B. To introduces how businesses have grown from the past. C. To report researches on customer behavior. D. To show dishonest business practices. 【解析】 试题分析: 本文在解释为什么要水果放要店里的最显眼的位置,目的是促进后面的商业交易 40.C 推断题。根据第二段提到 they know that customers who buy the healthy food first will feel happy so that
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[来源:学+科+网]

they will buy some more junk food later in their trip 为了是能够在稍后卖出那些垃圾食品,故选 C 项。 41.D 推断题。根据第三段提到 Stores notice that the smell of baked goods encourages shopping ,so they make their own bread each morning and then fan the bread smell into the store throughout the day 可知烤面包的味道能 促进购物,因此他们让面包味充满着整个商店,故选 D 项。 42.D 推断题。 根据最后一段提到 When entering the house,the customer would see the Pacific Ocean throught the windows, and the the pool throught an open stairway leading to the lower level. The instant of water on both levels helped sell these $10million houses 当人们进入房间,看到窗外的太平洋和游泳池时,销售业绩会增长,故选 D 项。 43.A 推断题。 本文在解释为什么要水果放要店里的最显眼的位置, 目的是促进后面的商业交易, 故选 A 项。 【考点定位】社会生活类阅读。 【名师点睛】对于社会生活类阅读,大多数是细节理解或推断题,考生要把握题干的大意,准备的定位, 来找到相关信息。注意文章中的所给的汉语注释,不要由于紧张而对于 while the shop assistant is going back to find the right size shoe, bored customers are likely to wander overcosmeticsthey might want to try later.这个词 意有所忽视从而影响对于文章整体的理解。 15.【2015·重庆】C Join the discussion…

LakeLander

· 2 hours ago

Today, a man talked very loud on his phone on a train between Malvern and Reading, making many passengers upset. I wonder how he would react if I were to read my newspaperoutloudonthetrain, Ihave never had the courage to do it, though.

Pak50

· · ·

· 57 minutes ago

Why not give it a try? Perhaps you should take lessons on a musical instrument. The late musician Dennis Brian is said to have asked a fellow train passenger to turn off his radio. When his request was refused, he took out his French horn(号) and started
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to practice.

Angie O‘Edema·42 minutes ago I don‘t see how musical instruments can help improve manners in public. Don‘t do to others what you wouldn‘t like to be done to yourself. Once, a passenger next to me talked out loud on his mobile phone. I left my seat quietly, giving him some privacy to finish his conversation. He realized this and apologised to me. When his phone rang again later, he left his seat to answer it. You see, a bit of respect and cooperation can do the job better.

Taodas

· 29 minutes ago I did read my newspaper out loud on a train, and it turned out well. The guy took it in good part, and we chatted happily all the way to Edinburgh.

Sophie 76

· 13minutes ago

I have not tried reading my newspaper out loud on a train, but ,several years ago, I read some chapters from Harry Porter to my bored and noisy children. Several passengers seemed to appreciate what I did. 44. The passenger made an apology to Angie O‘Edema because____. A. he offered his seat to someone else B. he spoke very loudly on his phone C. he refused to talk with Angie D. he ignored Angie‘s request 45. Who once read a newspaper out loud on a train? A. Pak50 B. Angie O‘Edema C. Taodas D. Sophie76

46. What is the discussion mainly about? A. How to react to bad behavior. C. How to chat with strangers. B. How to kill time on a train. D. How to make a phone call.

47. Where is the passage most probably taken from? A. A webpage. B. A newspaper. C. A novel. D. A report.
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【解析】 试题分析: 主要讲述了 Lake Lander 在论坛上描述了自己遇到的不文明现象后,众人发表的关于自己经历的 不文明现象的描述和看法。 44.B 推断题。根据第三段提到 Once, a passenger next to me talked out loud on his mobile phone. I left my seat quietly, giving him some privacy to finish his conversation. He realized this and apologised to me. 火车上大声讲电话,并向我道歉,故选 B 项。 45.C 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段提到 I did read my newpaper out loud on a train 可知 Taodas 曾在火车大声 读报纸,故选 C 项 46.A 主旨大意。本文主要是对别人的不文明行为如何做出反应的一个讨论,故选 A 项。 47.A 推断题。本文是篇对于社会现象的讨论,根据出现的讨论的时间,彼此隔开时间不长,可知来自网络, 故选 A 项。 【考点定位】社会现象类阅读。 【名师点睛】本文是由论坛上截取的关于不文明现象的讨论,难度中等,注意题干的提问方式,找到问题 的切入点,很容易得出答案。在第 44 题中题干中运用 made an apology to 而文章中运用的是 apologised to, 所以注意平时词汇的积累,会让这类的题目更有目标性;在 47 题中提到文章的来源,根据段落的设计格式, 显示的时间和各自所而对的问题,来推断出来自网络论坛,所以注意扩大阅读的范围,多加运用网络而不 是局限于文体。 16.【2015·重庆】E The values of artistic works, according to cultural relativism(相对主义), are simply reflections of local social and economic conditions. Such a view, however, fails to explain the ability of some works of art to excite the human mind across cultures and through centuries. History has witnessed the endless productions of Shakespearean plays in every major language of the world. It is never rare to find that Mozart packs Japanese concert halls, as Japanese painter Hiroshige does Paris galleries, Unique works of this kind are different from today‘s popular art, even if they began as works of popular art. They have set themselves apart in their timeless appeal and will probably be enjoyed for centuries into the future. In a 1757 essay, the philosopher David Hume argued that because―the general principles of taste are uniform(不变的) in human nature,‖the value of some works of art might be essentially permanent. He observed that Homer was still admired after two thousand years. Works of this type, he believed, spoke to deep and unvarying features of human nature and could continue to exist over centuries.
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可知因为他在

Now researchers are applying scientific methods to the study of the universality of art. For example, evolutionary psychology is being used by literary scholars to explain the long-lasting themes and plot devices in fiction. The structures of musical pieces are now open to experimental analysis as never before. Research findings seem to indicate that the creation by a great artist is as permanent an achievement as the discovery by a great scientist. 52. According to the passage, what do we know about cultural relativism? A. It introduces different cultural values. B. It explains the history of artistic works. C. It relates artistic values to local conditions. D. It excites the human mind throughout the world. 53. In Paragraph 2, the artists are mentioned in order to show that _____ A. great works of art can go beyond national boundaries B. history gives art works special appeal to set them apart C. popular arts are hardly distinguishable from great arts D. great artists are skilled at combining various cultures 54. According to Hume, some works of art can exist for centuries because_____ A .they are results of scientific study B. they establish some general principles of art C. they are created by the world‘s greatest artists D. they appeal to unchanging features of human nature 55. Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage? A. Are Artistic Values Universal? C. Is Human Nature Uniform? 【解析】 试题分析: 本文是说明文,主要介绍了根据文化相对主义,艺术作品在永恒受欢迎的原因是人类的审美具有 共同性,并且就此展开说明。 52.C 推断题。根据第一段第一句话可知根据相对主义,艺术作品就是把艺术的价值与当地的社会经济条件 结合在一块,故选 C 项。 53.A 推断题。根据第二段提到第二行和第三行提到可知不会把莫扎特与日本的音乐进行比较,正如日本的
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.

.

B. Are Popular Arts Permanent? D. Is Cultural Relativism Scientific?

画作与巴黎的画廊进行比较,艺术作品是没有国界的,故选 A 项。 54.D 推断题。 根据第三段第一句话提到可知 Davide 曾辩论到风格的原则上是没有变化的, 所以一些艺术是 可能会永生的,故选 D 项。 55.A 主题标题。本文主要从相对论的角度来说,艺术的价值只能反应当时的社会经济,但作者提出不同的 观点,故选 A 项。 【考点定位】文化类阅读。 【名师点睛】文章内容较为简单,集中考查细节题,对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词然后 以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速寻找这一细节找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔 细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别。52.53.54 这三道题分别属于第一段第二段和第三段这个递进的原 则,所以定位段落就比较容易而最后一题属于主旨标题,把握整体,提取中心,所以这个阅读理解整体来 说目标性比较强。 17.【2015·安徽】C As Internet users become more dependent on the Internet to store information, are people remember less? If you know your computer will save information, why store it in your own personal memory, your brain? Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how. In a recent study, Professor Betsy Sparrow conducted some experiments. She and her research team wanted to know the Internet is changing memory. In the first experiment, they gave people 40 unimportant facts to type into a computer. The first group of people understood thatthe computer would save the information. The second group understood that the computer would not save it. Later, the second group remembered the information better. People in the first group knew they could find the information again, so they did not try to remember it. In another experiment, the researchers gave people facts to remember, and told them where to find the information on the Internet. The information was in a specific computer folder (文件夹). Surprisingly, people later remember the folder location (位置) better than the facts. When people use the Internet, they do not remember the information. Rather, they remember how to find it. This is called "transactive memory (交互记忆)". According to Sparrow, we are not becoming people with poor memories as a result of the Internet. Instead, computer users are developing stronger transactive memories; that is, people are learning how to organize huge quantities of information so that they are able to access it at a later date. This doesn't mean we are becoming either more or less intelligent, but there is no doubt that the way we use memory is changing. 64. The passage begins with two questions to ______.
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A. introduce the main topic C. describe how to use the Interne.

B. show the author's altitude D. explain how to store information
[来源:Zxxk.Com]

65. What can we learn about the first experiment? A. Sparrow's team typed the information into a computer. B. The two groups remembered the information equally well. C. The first group did not try to remember the formation. D. The second group did not understand the information. 66. In transactive memory, people ______. A. keep the information in mind B. change the quantity of information

C. organize information like a computer D. remember how to find the information 67. What is the effect of the Internet according to Sparrow's research? A. Weare using memory differently. B. We arebecoming more intelligent.
[来源:学|科|网 Z|X|X|K]

C. We have poorer memories than before. D. We need a better way to access information. 【答案】 64. A 65. C 66. D 67. A 【解析】

试题分析:文章主要讲的是互联网给人类的记忆带来的影响。互联网使用者越来越依赖互联网储存信息, 人们这样做是否会丧失记忆事物的能力呢?专家怀疑互联网可能正在改变人们的记忆内容和记忆的方式。 64. A 写作意图题。根据第一段“Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how.” 可知,作者使用两个问句是为了引出要讨论的话题。 65. C 细节理解题。根据第二段“People in the first group knew they could find the information again, so they did not try to remember it.”可知答案。 66. D 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段“Rather, they remember how to find it. This is called "transactive memory (交互记忆)"”可知,在交互记忆里,人们记得怎样找到信息。 67. A 细节理解题。根据最后一段“but there is no doubt that the way we use memory is changing”可知,互联 网对人们的记忆产生的影响是它改变了我们使用记忆力的方式。
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【考点定位】心理类短文阅读 【名师点睛】一般来说,举例的目的是为了引出即将讨论的话题,可以从例子后面找到总结性的话语。 “Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how.”就是举例的意图。后三道题都 属于细节理解题,可以直接从文章找到提示性的语句;最后一道题有一定的难度,需要进行一些推理和排 除。 18.【2015·安徽】E Food serves as a form of communication in two fundamental ways. Sharing bread or other foods is a common human tradition that can promote unity and trust. Food can also have a specific meaning, and play a significant role in a family or culture's celebrations or traditions. The foods we eat—and when and how we eat them—are often unique to a particular culture or may even differ between rural (农村的) and urban areas within one country. Sharing bread, whether during a special occasion (时刻) or at the family dinner table, is a common symbol of togetherness. Many cultures also celebrate birthdays and marriages with cakes that are cut and shared among the guests. Early forms of cake were simply a kind of bread, so this tradition hits its roots in the custom of sharing bread. Food also plays an important role in many New Year celebrations. In the southern United States, pieces of corn bread represent blocks of gold for prosperity (兴旺) in the New Year. In Greece, people share a special cake called vasilopita. A coin is put into the cake, which signifies (预示) success in the New Year for the person who receives it. Many cultures have ceremonies to celebrate the birth of a child, and food can play a significant role. In China, when a baby is one month old, families name and welcome their child in a celebration that includes giving red-colored eggs to guests. In many cultures, round foods such as grapes, bread, and moon cakes are eaten at welcome celebrations to represent family unity. Nutrition is necessary for life, so it is not surprising that food is such an important part of different cultures around the world. 72. According to the passage, sharing bread______. A. indicates a lack of food C. is a custom unique to rural areas B. can help to develop unity D. has its roots in birthday celebrations

73. What does the coin in vasilopita signify for its receiver in the New Year? A. Trust. B. Success. C. Health. D. Togetherness.
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74. The author explains the role of food in celebrations by______. A. using examples C. analyzing causes 75. What is the passage mainly about? A. The custom of sharing food. C. The role of food in ceremonies. 【答案】 72. B 73. B 74. A 75. D 【解析】 试题分析:文章主要讲的是食物和文化的关系。不同的文化里包含着不同的饮食传统和庆祝方式。食物通 过两种基本的方式在扮演着沟通的角色。 72. B 细节理解题。 根据第一段 “Sharing bread or other foods is a common human tradition that can promote unity and trust.”可知,分享食物可以促进团结和建立信任。 73. B 细节理解题。根据第三段“A coin is put into the cake, which signifies (预示) success in the New Year...” 可知,硬币预示着来年的成功。 74. A 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段“In China, when a baby is one month old...In many cultures, round foods” 可知,作者主要使用了举例的方法来解释食物在庆祝中的角色。 75. D 主旨大意题。根据第一段“and play a significant role in a family or culture's celebrations or traditions”和 第四段“Many cultures have ceremonies to celebrate”及最后一段“food is such an important part of different cultures around the world.”可知,文章主要讲的是食物在不同文化中的作用。 【考点定位】社会类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本篇题目的设置主要考查考生对细节的理解能力和对文章大意的把握。做细节理解题,需要 快速从文章中到找有用的信息。第四题是主旨大意题,考生容易误选 A 项,A 项太片面,它只是文章前两 段所讲的内容。 19.【2015·湖南】A Forget Cyclists, Pedestrians are Real Danger
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B. making comparisons D. describing processes

B. The specific meaning of food. D. The importance of food in culture.

We are having a debate about this topic. Here are some letters from our readers. ■Yes, many cyclists behave dangerously. Many drivers are disrespectful of cyclists. But pedestrians are probably the worse offenders. People of all ages happily walk along the pavement with eyes and hands glued to the mobile phone, quite unaware of what is going on around them. They may even do the same thing while crossing a road at a pedestrian crossing or elsewhere. The rest of us have to evade (避让) them or just stand still to wait for the unavoidable collision. The real problem is that some pedestrians seem to be, at least for the moment, in worlds of their own that are, to them, much more important than the welfare of others. ——Michael Horan ■I love the letter from Bob Brooks about cyclists (Viewpoints, May 29). I am afraid they seem to think they own the roads. I was walking across Altrincham Road one morning when a cyclist went round me and on being asked what he was doing he shouted at me. The government built a cycle lane on the road but it is hardly used. The police do nothing. What a laugh they are! The cyclists should all have to be made to use the cycle lanes and wear helmets, fluorescent (发荧光的) jacket and lights at night and in the morning they should pay some sort of tax and be fined for not wearing them. ——Carol Harvey ■Cyclists jump on and off pavements (which are meant for pedestrians), ride at speed along the pavements, and think they have a special right to go through traffic lights when they are on red. I was almost knocked down recently by a cyclist riding on the pavement when there was a cycle lane right next to him. Other road users, including horse riders, manage to obey the rules so why not cyclists? It's about time they had to be registered and insured, so when they do hit a pedestrian or a vehicle, or cause an accident, at least they can be treated and there might be an opportunity to claim.
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——JML Write to Viewpoints of the newspaper.

56.Michael Horan wrote the letter mainly to show that _______. A. drivers should be polite to cyclists B. road accidents can actually be avoided C. sine pedestrians are a threat to road safety D. walking while using phones hurts one's eyes 57.Carol Harvey suggests that cyclists should _______. A. be provided with enough roads B. be asked to ride on their own lanes C. be made to pay less tax for cycling D. be fined for laughing at policemen 58.What is a complaint of JML? A. Very few drivers are insured. B. Cyclists ride fast on pavements. C. Pedestrians go through red traffic lights. D. Horse riders disrespect other road users. 59.The underlined word "they" in the third letter refers to ______. A. accidents C. pedestrians 60.The three letters present viewpoints on _______. A. real source of road danger B. ways to improve road facilities C. measures to punish road offences D. increased awareness of road rules 【答案】 56.C 57.B
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B. vehicles D. cyclists

58.B 59.D 60.A 【解析】 试题分析:本文围绕一个主题展开一场争论——谁才是马路安全隐患的威胁。 56.C;细节理解题。根据第一段中的最后一句话:But pedestrians are probably the worse offenders.(但是,路 人可能才是更严重的罪犯)可知 Michael Horan 的观点是,路人对道路安全存在威胁,故选 C 57.B;细节理解题。根据第八段的开头:The cyclists should all have to be made to use the cycle lanes and wear helmets.可知 Carol Harvey 建议骑自行车的人应该在他们应该走的车道去骑。故选 B 58.B;细节理解题。根据倒数第四段第一句话: Cyclists jump on and off pavements(which are meant for pedestrians),ride at speed along the pavement, and think they have special right to go through traffic lights when they are on red 可知 JML 抱怨骑自行车的人骑的太快,对道路安全产生隐患,故选 B 59.D;细节推理题。最后一段说到:It‘s about time they had to be registered and insured, so when they do hit a pedestrian or a vehicle, or cause an accident, at least they can be tranced and there might be an opportunity to claim.JML 希望对自行车拥有者登记,当他们撞到行人或者车辆、制造出车祸的时候,他们能够被追查到, 所以 They 在此指的是 cyclists。故选 D 60.A;主旨大意提。根据文章的标题和所有读者的来信不难发现这篇文章主要是围绕到底谁(自行车或者 行人)才是道路安全存在的隐患。故选 A 学科网 【考点定位】社会现象类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】本文考查社会现象类短文阅读,要求考生根据作者的细节描述掌握这一社会现象的起因、结 果及影响,然后做题,进行归纳。这篇文章旨在给出了一个议题,让人们给出讨论,意见以及看法,要求 学生能够通过字里行间的细节描写找出人们对这个议题想法,例如第一段的第二句: But pedestrians are probably the worse offenders.就给出 Michael Horan 的看法,因此方便了我们做出第 56 题,所以在做这种文 章时一定得抓住表达作者或者他人态度或观点的句子。 20.【2015·湖南】C Have your parents ever inspected your room to see if you cleaned it properly? Imagine having your entire houses, garage, and yard inspected at any time -- with no warning. Inspections were a regular part of lighthouse (灯塔) living, and a keeper's reputation depended on results. A few times each year, an inspector arrived to look over the entire light station. The inspections were supposed to be a surprise, but keeper sometimes had advance notice.
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Once lighthouses had telephones, keepers would call each other to warn that the inspector was approaching. After boats began flying special flags nothing the inspector aboard, the keeper's family made it a game to see who could notice the boat first. As soon as someone spotted the boat, everyone would do last-minute tidying and change into fancy clothes. The keeper then scurried to put on his dress uniform and cap. Children of keepers remember inspectors wearing white gloves to run their fingers over door frames and windowsills looking for dust. Despite the serious nature of inspections, they resulted in some funny moments. Betty Byrnes remembered when her mother did not have time to wash all the dishes before an inspection. At the time, people did not have dishwashers in their homes. In an effort to clean up quickly, Mrs. Byrnes tossed all the dishes into a big bread pan, covered them with a cloth and stuck them in the oven. If the inspector opened the oven door, it would look like bread was baking. he never did. One day, Glenn Furst's mother put oil on the kitchen floor just before the inspector entered their house. Like floor wax, the oil made the floors shiny and helped protect the wood. This time, though, she used a little too much oil. When the inspector extended his hand to greet Glenn's mother, he slipped on the freshly oiled surface. "He came across that floor waving his arms like a young bird attempting its first flight," Glenn late wrote. After he steadied himself, he shook Glenn's mother's hand, and the inspection continued as though nothing had happened. 66.What does Paragraph I tell us about the inspection at the light station? A. It was carried out once a year. B. It was often announced in advance. C. It was important for the keeper's fame. D. It was focused on the garage and yard. 67.The family began making preparations immediately after ______. A. one of the members saw the boat B. a warning call reached the lighthouse C. the keeper put on the dress uniform and cap D. the inspector flew special flags in the distance 68.Mrs. Byrnes put the dishes in the oven because this would ______. A. result in some fun B. speed up washing them C. make her home look tidy
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D. be a demand from the inspector 69.If the inspector had opened the oven door, he would have seen _______. A. an empty pan B. many clean dishes C. pieces of baked bread D. a cloth covering something 70.The inspector waved his arms ______. A. to try his best to keep steady B. to show his satisfaction with the floor C. to extend a warm greeting to Glenn's mother D. to express his intention to continue the inspection 【答案】 66.C 67.A 68.C 69.D 70.A 【解析】 试题分析:本文讲述了如何利用各种方法应对巡视员的突袭。 66.C;细节理解题。根据第一段的倒数第四行和倒数第三行:and a keeper‘s reputation depended on the results. (看守人的名声取决于结果的好坏)可知,故选 C 67. A;细节理解题。 根据第二段的第三句话: As soon as someone spotted the boat, everyone would do last-minute tidying and change into fancy clothes.可知在建庭成员中一旦有人发现船的到来,全家人就开始快速准备。故 选A 68. C;细节理解题。 根据倒数第二段的第二句话:Betty Byrnes remembered when her mother did not have time to wash all the dishes before an inspection. 可知没有时间在检查之前去洗所有的碗, 所以 Mrs.Byrnes 将所有的碗 都丢进了烤箱避免被 inspector 发现。故选 C 69.D;细节理解题。根据倒数第二段的倒数第三行:Mrs.Byrnes toss all the dishes into a big bread pan, covered them with a cloth, and stuck them in the oven.可知当 inspector 打开烤箱的时候他只会看到一块盖着布的某物,
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故选 D 70.A;细节推理题。根据最后一段倒数第三行:After he steadied himself, he shook Glenn‘s mother‘s hand, and the inspection continued as though nothing had happened.可知 inspector 挥动着他的双手保持平衡。故选 A 【考点定位】社会生活类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】社会生活类的文章相对而言是比较容易做的,细节题占多数,需要的是一个细心。注意事情 发展的先后顺序和发展的情节,理清作者的思路,以此得出答案。有时可以找出原句,有时可能需要理解, 根据前后文推断,进行一个一个选项匹配排除,最终得出最佳答案。

21.【2015·新课标全国 II】C
More students than ever before are taking a gap year(间隔年) before going to university. It used to be the ―year off‖ between school and university. The gap-year phenomenon originated(起源) with the months left over to Oxbridge applicants between entrance exams in November and the start of the next academic year. This year, 25,310 students who have accepted places in higher education institutions have put off their entry until next year, according to statistics on university entrance provided by the University and College Admissions Service (UCAS). That is a record 14.7% increase in the number of students taking a gap year. Tony Higgins from UCAS said that the statistics are good news for everyone in higher education. ―Students who take a well-planned year out are more likely to be satisfied with, and complete, their chosen course. Students who take a gap year are often more mature and responsible,‖ he said. But not everyone is happy. Owain James, the president of the National Union of Students (NUS), argued that the increase is evidence of student hardship – young people are being forced into earning money before finishing their education. ―New students are now aware that they are likely to leave university up to£15,000 in debt. It is not surprising that more and more students are taking a gap year to earn money to support their study for the degree. NUS statistics show that over 40% of students are forced to work during term time and the figure increases to 90% during vacating periods,‖ he said. 29. What do we learn about the gap year from the text? A. B. C. D. It is flexible in length. It is a time for relaxation It is increasingly popular It is required by universities

30. According to Tony Higgins. students taking a gap year ____.
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A. B. C. D.

are better prepared for college studies know a lot more about their future job are more likely to leave university in debt have a better chance to enter top universities

31. How does Owain James feel about the gap-year phenomenon? A. B. C. D. He‘s puzzled He‘s worried He‘s surprised He‘s annoyed

32.What would most students do on their vacation according to NUS statistics? A. B. C. D. Attend additional courses. Make plans for the new term Earn money for their education Prepare for their graduate studies

【答案】 29. C 30.A 31. B 32.C 【解析】 试题分析:本文提到大学的学费高使得很多大学生在上大学学前就要先去挣钱然后再上大学学习。这样的 好处是让学生更珍惜大学的时光,更成熟有责任感。但是也给人们带来了思考。 29.C 推理判断题。由短文第一段 More students than ever before are taking a gap year(间隔年) before going to university.可知,过间隔年学生比以前多了,第三段第一句话 That is a record 14.7% increase in the number of students taking a gap year.可知体验间隔年数量上升了 14.7%,说明越来越受到欢迎,因此选 C。 30.A 细节理解题。由人名定位到短文第三段。Students who take a well-planned year out are more likely to be satisfied with, and complete, their chosen course. Students who take a gap year are often more mature and responsible,‖ he said.第三段在说它的优点,有间隔年之后再去上大学,会让人更成熟有责任感,对大学的学 习有帮助。故选 A。 31.B 细节理解题。 根据文章最后一段 But not everyone is happy. 然后提到 Owain, Owain James, the president of the National Union of Students (NUS), argued that the increase is evidence of student hardship,这证明学生很 难;…more and more students are taking a gap year to earn money to support their study for the degree.他说越来
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越多的学生会在 gap year 期间是要去挣大学的费用。故选 B。 32. C 细节理解题。根据文章最后一句话可知:NUS statistics show that over 40% of students are forced to work during term time and the figure increases to 90% during vacating periods,‖ 数据表明, 40%多的学生在学校兼职, 90%的学生要在假期打工挣学费。 【考点定位】社会社会类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本题以大学生做兼职或专职去挣钱为话题,通过对相关数据的分析可知,大学学生的学费给 他们的学习生活带来了深刻的影响。我们考生应多关注社会生活方面的文章,才能更好地理解文章,解决 相关的问题。 22.【2015· 福建】A Food festivals around the world Stilton Cheese Rolling May Day is a traditional day for celebrations, but the 2,000 English villagers of Stilton must be the only people in the world who include checsc rolling in their annual plans. Teams of four,dressed in a variety of strange and funny clothes , roll a complete cheese along a 50-metre course. On the way, they must not kick or throw their cheese, or go into their competitors' lane. Competition is fierce and the chief prize is a complete Stilton cheese weighing about four kilos (disappointingly, but understandably the cheeses used in the race are wooden ones). All the competitors arc served with beer or port wine, the traditional accompaniment for Stilton cheese. Fiery Foods Festival—The Hottest Festival on Earth Every year more than 10,000 people head for the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico. They come from as far away as Australia, the Caribbean and China, but they all share a common addiction—food that is not just spicy ,but hot enough to make your mouth burn, your head spin and your eyes water. Their destination is the Fiery Eood and BBQ Festival which is held over a period of three clays every March. You might like to try a chocolate-covered habanero pepper—officially the hottest pepper in the world—or any one of the thousands of products that are on show. But one thing's for sure—if you don't like the feeling of a burning tongue, this festival isn't for you! La Tomatina—The World's Biggest Food Fight On the last Wednesday of every August, the Spanish town of Bunol hosts Ea Tomatina—the world's largest food fight. A week-long celebration leads up to an exciting tomato battle as the highlight of the week's events. The early morning sees the arrival of large trucks with tomatoes—official fight-starters get things going by casting
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tomatoes at the crowd. The battle lasts little more than half an hour, in which time around 50,000 kilograms of tomatoes have been thrown at anyone or anything that moves, runs, or fights back. Then everyone heads down to the river to make friends again—and for a much-needed wash! 56. In the Stilton cheese rolling competition, competitors on each team must __ . A. wear various formal clothes B. roll a wooden cheese in their own lane C. kick or throw their cheese D. use a real cheese weighing about four kilos 57.Where is the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival held? A. In New Mexico. B. In the Caribbean. C. In Australia. D. In China.

58.The celebration of La Tomatina lasts ____________ . A. three days B. seven days C. less than three days D. more than seven days

59.Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. The chief prize for the Stilton cheese rolling competition is beer or port wine. B.More than 10,000 Chinese take pail in the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival. C. Thousands of spicy foods are on show in the Fiery Food and BBQ Festival. D. An exciting tomato battle takes place at the beginning of La Tomatina. 【解析】

试题分析:本文是一篇说明文,分别讲述了英国、新墨西哥以及巴西的几个关于食物的传统节日。

56.B 细节理解题。根据第一段第二句 Teams of four,dressed in a variety of strange and funny clothes , roll a complete cheese along a 50-metre course.可以知道,四个队伍,穿着滑稽搞笑的服装,在 50 米的路程中卷一 个完整的奶酪。以及后面倒数第二句括号里面的内容, but understandably the cheeses used in the race are wooden ones,这个奶酪是木头的。故选 B 57.A 细节理解题。 根据第二段第一句 Every year more than 10,000 people head for the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico.可以知道这是在新墨西哥发生的事情,从段落中第三句 Their destination is the Fiery Eood and BBQ Festival 可以知道人们到新墨西哥是为了参加 Fiery food festival。故选 A
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58.B 细节理解题。根据文章第三段第二句 A week-long celebration leads up to an exciting tomato battle as the highlight of the week's events.可以知道,西红柿大战这个西班牙的节日的持续时间是一周,故选 B 59.C 细节理解题。根据文章第二段倒数第二个破折号后面的文字 or any one of the thousands of products that are on show.可以知道你可以任意品尝展出的上千种的食物。故选 C 【考点定位】说明文阅读。 【名师点睛】说明文的文章相对而言是比较容易做的,细节题占多数,但需要的是一个细心。答案都是在 文章中可以找到,必须一个一个选项匹配排除,最终才能够得出最佳答案。当遇到答案比较接近的时候, 尤其需要细心,因为很有可能有些选项会有一些迷惑性。需要考生认真判断。 23.【2015· 福建】D Life can be so wonderful, full of adventure and joy. It can also be full of challenges, setbacks and heartbreaks. Whatever our circumstances, we generally still have dreams, hopes and desires—that little something more we want for ourselves and our loved ones. Yet knowing we can have more can also create a problem, because when we go to change the way we do things, up come the old patterns and pitfalls that stopped us from seeking what we wanted in the first place. This tension between what we feel we can have and "what wre're seemingly able to have is the niggling suffering, the anxiety we feel. This is where we usually think it's easier to just give up. But we're never meant to let go of the part of us that knows we can have more. The intelligence behind that knowing is us—the real us. It's the part that believes in life and its possibilities. If you drop that, you begin to feel a little "dead" inside because you're dropping "you". So, if we have this capability but somehow life seems to keep us stuck, how do we break these patterns? Decide on a new course and make one decision at a time. This is good advice for a new adventure or just getting through today's challenges. While, deep down, we know we can do it, our mind—or the minds of those close to us—usually says we can't. That isn't a reason to stop, it's just the mind, that little man or woman on your shoulder, trying to talk you out of something again. It has done it many times before. It's all about starting simple and doing it now. Decide and act before overthinking. When you do this you may feel a little, or large, release from the jail of your mind and you'll be on your way. 68.It can be inferred from the first two paragraphs that we should ______________ . A.slow down and live a simple life
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B.be careful when we choose to change C.stick to our dreams under any circumstances D.be content with what we already have 69.What is the key to breaking the old patterns? A. To focus on every detail.B. To decide and take immediate action. C. To listen to those close to us. D. To think twice before we act.

70.Which of the following best explains the underlined part in the last paragraph? A. Escape from your punishmentB. Realization of your dreams. C. Freedom from your tension. D. Reduction of your expectations. 71.What does the author intend to tell us? A.It's easier than we think to get what we want. B. It's important to learn to accept sufferings in life. C. It's impractical to change our way of thinking. D. It's harder than we expect to follow a new course. 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇说明文,作者介绍了在我们想要放弃的时候改变这种模式的一种方法就是重新选择 目标并且迅速作出决定。 68.C 细节理解题。文章第一段第三句 Whatever our circumstances, we generally still have dreams, hopes and desires 说不管在什么情况下, 我们仍然有着梦想、 希望和欲望。 以及第二段最后一句 If you drop that, you begin to feel a little "dead" inside because you're dropping "you".如果你放弃了,你的内在会变得了无生机,因为你放 下了你自己。故选 C 69.B 细节理解题。根据倒数第三段第一句 Decide on a new course and make one decision at a time.可以知道为 了打破旧格局需要决定一个新目标并且立刻做出决定。故选 B 70.C 分析推断题。根据划线句子可知其本意是逃出你内心的牢笼。结合上文中在过多思考之前快速决定和 行动可以推测这个划线句子是指要从过多考虑的焦虑中解放自己。故选 C 71.A 分析推断题。从全文来看,作者主要是想要强调果断的行动而不是空想来实现自己的梦想和欲望,故 选 A.比起想要成功,行动更加容易。 【考点定位】说明文阅读。 【名师点睛】说明文的文章更相对而言是比较容易做的,答案都是在文章中可以找到或者通过文中的线索
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分析出来,必须一个一个选项进行分析匹配排除,最终才能够得出最佳答案。结合上下文中的联系,只要 掌握了每一段的大意,做题就不会太难。 24.【2015· 福建】E Group exercise is one of the most effective ways to improve physical fitness and sustain a healthy lifestyle.Group exercise is challenging, yet fun and empowering! Of course everyone knows that exercise is good for the body.However, studies have shown that when exercise is performed in groups, it's not only great for improving physical health but for psychological health. It's an opportunity to be social, release endorphins , and improve your strength. Additionally, group exercise creates a community feel and the shared common goal motivates participants to work hard. The instrumental support of taking on a fitness journey with others proves more effective than going to the gym alone. Another beneficial aspect of group exercise is the informational support participants receive from the instructor.Many people fear the gym because they feel lost and don't want to embarrass themselves. If you feel you can relate, then group training is an even better option for you. It's a great opportunity to learn more about fitness through the clear instruction and supervision (Hu) of a fitness instructor. If you're tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming bored, !you can attend an upbeat group fitness class that'll keep your workout on track. Don't let fitness frighten you! If you're serious about wanting to live a healthy lifestyle, it's extremely important to surround yourself with people who'll provide you with the proper emotional support. I wouldn't scold anyone for deciding to party on weekends and in turn I wouldn't expect anyone to give offence to me for focusing on my health. Surround yourself with people who uplift, encourage and understand you! Make fitness even more fun by trying something new or any group fitness class, with a friend. Plan to go for a jog together. Then try a fun healthy restaurant or fresh juice bar! Fitness can be both fun and social! Surrounding yourself with people who'll provide you with respect support can be very beneficial while working towards reaching health and fitness goals. First, decide to do it for yourself and work towards staying positive. Then make sure the people you surround yourself with are supportive. Don't let negativity ruin your motivation. 72. The first paragraph focuses on ____ . A. the greatest challenge of group exercise B. the most effective way to improve physical fitness
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C. the contribution of group exercise to psychological health D. the shared common goal in performing exercise in groups 73. The underlined word "upbeat" in the second paragraph probably means " A. cheerful B. average C. serious D. temporal*)'

74.When it comes to emotional support, the author thinks it necessary A. B. C. D. to sustain a colorful lifestyle to party on weekends with positive people to try a fun healthy restaurant regularly to surround yourself with supportive people

75. What would be the best title for the passage? A. Seeking Support C. Improving Your Strength 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇说明文,主要是在介绍团体运动的好处。和其他人一起运动可以和他人交流从而获 得支持,也能够得到一些无形的好处。 72.C 细节题。根据文章第一句 Group exercise is one of the most effective ways to improve physical fitness and sustain a healthy lifestyle 团体运动是一项最有效增加身体健康保持健康生活的的方式,故选 C 73.A 分析推断题。从划线短语所在句子你可以参加一个 upbeat 的集体健康课,那将会使得你正确的锻炼自 己。前半句 if you're tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming bored, 是一个 if 引导的条件 句,意思是假如你对于在健身房游荡感到心烦并且觉得这很浪费时间。所以这个单词应该是与浪费时间和 让你心烦相反的意思,故选 A 74.D 细节理解题。 根据最后一段第一句 Surrounding yourself with people who'll provide you with respect support can be very beneficial while working towards reaching health and fitness goals.在以健康为目标锻炼的时候和那 些你能够给你尊敬和支持的人们在一起是很有益处的,故选 D 75.B 分析推断题。文章的主要内容是在说团体运动的好处,团体运动包含的好处主要是因为大家在一起运 动,不仅生理上会有一些好处,而且团内其他成员会给你支持,教练也会给你们一些信息上的支持,故选 B 【考点定位】说明文阅读。 【名师点睛】说明文的文章更相对而言是比较容易做的,答案都是在文章中可以找到或者通过文中的线索 分析出来,必须一个一个选项进行分析匹配排除,最终才能够得出最佳答案。结合上下文中的联系,只要
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B. Supporting Health D. Building Up Fitness

掌握了每一段的大意,做题就不会太难。 25.【2015·新课标全国 I】B The freezing Northeast hasn‘t been a terribly fun place to spend time this winter, so when the chance came for a weekend to Sarasota, Florida, my bags were packed before you could say ―sunshine‖. I left for the land of warmth and vitamin C(维生素 C), thinking of beaches and orange trees. When we touched down to blue skies and warm air, I sent up a small prayer of gratefulness. Swimming pools, wine tasting, and pink sunsets(at normal evening hours, not 4 in the afternoon) filled the weekend, but the best part - particularly to my taste, dulled by months of coldweather root vegetables- was a 7 a.m. adventure to the Sarasota farmers‘ market that proved to be more than worth the early wake-up call. The market, which was founded in 1979, sets up its tents every Saturday from 7:00 am to 1 p.m., rain or shine, along North Lemon and State streets. B askets of perfect red strawberries; the red-painted sides of the Java Dawg coffee truck; and most of all, the tomatoes: amazing, large, soft and round red tomatoes. Disappointed by many a broken, vine-ripened(蔓上成熟的) promise, I‘ve refused to buy winter tomatoes for years. No matter how attractive they look in the store, once I get them home they‘re unfailingly dry, hard, and tasteless. But I homed in, with uncertainty, on one particular table at the Brown‘s Grove Farm‘s stand, full of fresh and soft tomatoes the size of my fist. These were the real deal- and at that moment, I realized that the best part of Sarasota in winter was going to be eating things that back home in New York I wouldn‘t be experiencing again for months. Delighted as I was by the tomatoes in sight, my happiness deepened when I learned that Brown‘s Grove Farm is one of the suppliers for Jack Dusty, a newly opened restaurant at the Sarasota Ritz Carlton, where - luckily for me - I was planning to have dinner that very night. Without even seeing the menu, I knew I‘d be ordering every tomato on it. 24. What did the author think of her winter life in New York? A. Exciting. C. Relaxing. B. Boring. D. Annoying.

25. What made the author‘s getting up late early worthwhile? A. Having a swim. B. Breathing in fresh air. C. Walking in the morning sun.
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D. Visiting a local farmer‘s market. 26. What can we learn about tomatoes sold in New York in winter? A. They are soft. B. They look nice. C. They taste great. D. They are juicy. 27. What was the author going to that evening? A. Go to a farm. B. Check into a hotel. C. Eat in a restaurant. D. Buy fresh vegetables 【答案】 24. B 25. D 26. B 27. C 【解析】 试题分析:文章讲述了作者生活在冬天寒冷的纽约,当有一个到佛罗里达州萨拉索塔一个周的机会,作者 在那里体验到完全不同的冬天。 24. B 推理判断题。根据文章第一段第一句 The freezing Northeast hasn‘t been a terribly fun place to spend time this winter,可以推测出作者在纽约冬天的生活是令人厌烦的。故选 B。 25. D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段最后一句 dulled by months of cold- weather root vegetables- was a 7 a.m. adventure to the Sarasota farmers‘ market that proved to be more than worth the early wake-up call.可知作者早上 7 点到农产品市场是很有意义的。可知选 D。 26. B 推理判断题。 根据文章第三段第二句 No matter how attractive they look in the store, once I get them home they‘re unfailingly dry, hard, and tasteless.可知,纽约的西红柿在商店里看起来是很吸引人的。可知选 B。 27. C 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段尤其倒数第一二句可知,作者晚上计划在餐馆吃饭,并且点西红柿。 故选 C。 【考点定位】记叙类短文阅读
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[来源:学#科#网]

【名师点睛】本文是一篇记叙类短文,整体难度中等,难度较大的是 24 和 26 题,学生容易判断错误,需 要通过一定的推理才能判断正确。学生首先要从倒数第二段最后一句判断出作者原来生活在纽约,才可理 解第一段第一句描述的是纽约。第 26 题考生是不能根据作者前面描述的文字判断,真正答案要从后段文字 描述去判断。这就要求考生做此类阅读时要注意前后之间的联系与对比,选择答案时切不可以以偏概全。 26.【2015·上海】A Look to many of history‘s cultural symbols, and there you‘ll find an ancestor of Frosty, the snowman in the movie Frozen. It appeared on some of the first postcards, starred in some of the earliest silent movies, and was the subject of a couple of the earliest photos, dating all the way back to the 1800s. I discovered even more about one of humanity‘s earliest forms of life art during several years of research around the world. For example, snowmen were a phenomenon in the Middle Ages, built with great skill and thought. At a time of limited means of expression, snow was like free art supplies dropped from the sky. It was a popular activity for couples to leisurely walk through town to view the temporary works of chilly art. Some were created by famous artists, including a 19-year-old Michelangelo, who in 1494 was appointed by the ruler of Florence, Italy, to build a snowman in his mansion‘s courtyard. The Miracle of 1511 took place during six freezing works called the Winter of Death. The city of Brussels was covered in snowmen—an impressive scene that told stories on every street corner. Some were political in nature, criticizing the church and government. Some were a reflection of people‘s imagination. For the people of Brussels, this was a defining moment of defining freedom. At least until spring arrived, by which time they were dealing with damaging floods. If you fear the heyday of the snowman has passed, don‘t worry: I‘ve learned that some explosive snowman history is still being made today. Every year since 1818, the people of Zurich, Switzerland, celebrate the beginning of spring by blowing up a snowman. On the third Monday of April, the holiday Sechselauten is kicked off when a cotton snowman called the Boogg is stuffed with explosive and paraded through town by bakers and other tradesmen who throw bread to the crowds. The parade ends with the Boogg being placed on a 40-foot pile of firewood. After the bells of the Church of St. Peter have rung six times, representing the passing of winter, the pile is lit. When the snowman explodes, winter is considered officially over—the quicker it is burnt down, the longer summer is said to be. 66. According to the passage, why did snowmen become a phenomenon in the Middle Ages? A. People thought of snow as holy art supplies.
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B. People longed to see masterpieces of snow. C. Building snowmen was a way for people to express themselves. D. Building snowmen helped people develop their skill and thought. 67. ―The heyday of the snowman‖ (paragraph 4) means the time when___________. A. snowmen were made mainly by artists B. snowmen enjoyed great popularity C. snowmen were politically criticized D. snowmen caused damaging floods 68. In Zurich, the blowing up of the Boogg symbolizes__________________. A. the start of the parade B. the coming of a longer summer C. the passing of the winter D. the success of tradesmen 69. What can be concluded about snowmen from the passage? A. They were appreciated in history B. They have lost their value C. They were related to movies D. They vary in shape and size 【答案】 66. C 67. B 68. C 69. A 【解析】 试题分析:本文讲述历史的文化标志:雪人。 66. C 细节理解题 根据第二段第二句― At a time of limited means of expression, snow was like free art

supplies dropped from the sky 在那时,表达方式的方法有限,雪就像是来自于上天的一种自由艺术。‖. 这说 明雪的流行是因为它是一种表达的方式,关键词是 express,而且 means 和 way 同义。 67. B 细节理解题 根据黑体字后面的内容 ―has passed, don‘t worry: I‘ve learned that some explosive

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snowman history is still being made today. 已经过去了,不用担心:我了解到一些历史的雪人现在依然在制 造。‖这表明担心的是现在没有了这样的东西,换句话说就是现在不再流行,所以答案就是 B。 68. C 细节理解题 根据―celebrate the beginning of spring ….庆祝春天的开始‖,可以知道答案应该是冬天的 过去,也就是春天的开始。所以答案是 C。 69. A 推理题根据文章的第一句话 look to many of history‘s cultural symbols 回顾许多的历史文化标志,另外 整篇文章出现过很多的 history,结合上下文可以知道答案是 A (雪人在历史上是受欣赏的。 )另外也可以 根据排除法,排除其他选项。比如 B 选 项,他们的价值现在依然存在,所以它的表达错误。C 选项,雪人 的确是与电影有关,但是这个答案不可以通过文章得出来。D 选项在文章中没有提及这个内容。 【考点定位】 这是一篇说明文 【名师点睛】 细节题占多数,但需要的是一个细心。答案都是在文章中可以找到,而且往往答案都是在设 问内容的附近。另外也可以通过排除法,一个一个选项匹配排除,最终得出最佳答案。当遇到答案比较接 近的时候,尤其需要细心。 27.【2015·上海】C One of the executives gathered at the Aspen Institute for a day-long leadership workshop using the works of Shakespeare was discussing the role of Brutus in the death of Julius Caesar. ―Brutus was not an honorable man,‖ he said. ―He was a traitor (叛徒) . And he murdered someone in cold blood.‖ The agreement was that Brutus had acted with cruelty when other options were available to him. He made a bad decision, they said—at least as it was presented by Shakespeare—to take the lead in murdering Julius Caesar. And though one of the executives acknowledged that Brutus had the good of the republic in mind, Caesar was nevertheless his superior. ―You have to endeavor,‖ the executives said, ―our policy is to obey the chain of command.‖ During the last few years, business executives and book writers looking for a new way to advise corporate America have been exploiting Shakespeare‘s wisdom for profitable ends. None more so than husband and wife team Kenneth and Carol Adelman, well-known advisers to the White House, who started up a training company called ―Movers and Shakespeares‖. They are amateur Shakespeare scholars and Shakespeare lovers, and they have combined their passion and their high level contacts into a management training business. They conduct between 30 and 40 workshops annually, focusing on half a dozen different plays, mostly for corporations, but also for government agencies. The workshops all take the same form, focusing on a single play as a kind of case study, and using individual scenes as specific lessons. In Julius Caesar , sly provocation(狡诈的挑唆) of Brutus to take up arms against the
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what was a basis for a discussion of methods of team building and grass roots organism. Although neither of the Adelmans is academically trained in literature, the programmes, contain plenty of Shakespeare tradition and background. Their workshop on Henry V, for example, includes a helpful explanation of Henry‘s winning strategy at the Battle of Agincourt. But they do come to the text with a few biases (偏向): their reading of Henry V minimizes his misuse of power. Instead, they emphasize the story of the youth who seizes opportunity and becomes a masterful leader. And at the workshop on Caesar, Mr. Adelmans had little good to say about Brutus, saying ―the noblest Roman of them all‖ couldn‘t make his mind up about things. Many of the partici pants pointed to very specific elements in the play that they felt related Caesar‘s pride, which led to his murder, and Brutus‘s mistakes in leading the after the murder, they said, raise vital questions for anyone serving as a business when and how do you resist the boss? 73. According to paragraph 1, what did all the executives think of Brutus? A. Cruel. B. Superior. C. Honorable. D. Bade

74. According to the passage, the Adelmans set up ―Movers and Shakespeares‖ to ________. A. help executives to understand Shakespeare‘s plays better B. give advice on leadership by analyzing Shakespeare‘s plays C. provide case studies of Shakespeare‘s plays in literature workshops D. guide government agencies to follow the characters in Shakespeare‘s plays. 75. Why do the Adelmans conduct a workshop on Henry V? A. To highlight the importance of catching opportunities. B. To encourage masterful leaders to plan strategies to win. C. To illustrate the harm of prejudices in management. D. To warn executives against power misuse. 76. It can be inferred from the passage that ____. A. the Adelmans‘ programme proves biased as the roles of characters are maximized. B. executives feel bored with too many specific elements of Shakespeare‘s plays. C. the Adelmans will make more profits if they are professional scholars. D. Shakespeare has played an important role in the management field. 77. The best title for the passage is _____. A. Shakespeare‘s plays: Executives reconsider corporate culture
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B. Shakespeare‘s plays: An essential key to business success C. Shakespeare‘s plays: a lesson for business motivation D. Shakespeare‘s plays: Dramatic training brings dramatic results 【答案】 73. A 74. B 75 A 76. D 77. D 【解析】 试题分析:文章介绍了莎士比亚戏剧在商业管理方面的运用。 73. A 细节理解题 根据第一段描述所用的一些词语―not an honorable man 不是一个受敬仰的人‖,―traitor 叛徒‖,―in cold blood 冷血‖等可以得出答案为 cruel 残忍的。Superior 意为较高的(级别、地位); 较好的 (在质量等方面); 较多的(数量); 上等的; rude 意为粗鲁的。 74. B 细节题 根 据 第 二 段 的 一 些 用 词 ―well-known advisers to the White House 著 名 的 白 宫 顾

问‖,‖management training business 管理训练商业‖,可以知道答案是与 leadership 管理有关。其中 leadership (领导)和 management 是同义词。 75. A 细节理解题 根据―Instead, they emphasize the story of the youth who seizes opportunity and becomes a masterful leader.相反,他们强调年轻人的故事。这些年轻人能够抓住机会以及成为有能力的领导‖ 可以知 道答案是强调抓住机会的重要性。其中 highlight 强调和 emphasize 是同义词,seizes opportunity 和 catch opportunities 是同义词。学科网 76. D 推理题,纵观全文,本文提到的一个是莎士比亚,以及是 Adelmans 所创立的一个培训商业,这个 培训主要是管理有关,也与领导有关。所以答案是 D Shakespeare has played an important role in the management field.(莎士比亚在管理领域也起着重要作用) 。 77. D 标题题 四个选项的意思分别是 A. Shakespeare‘s plays: Executives reconsider corporate culture (莎士 比亚戏剧:管理层重新认识企业文化) ;B. Shakespeare‘s plays: An essential key to business success (莎士比 亚戏剧:成功商业的关键) ;C. Shakespeare‘s plays: a lesson for business motivation(莎士比亚戏剧:商业动 机的一节课) ;D. Shakespeare‘s plays: Dramatic training brings dramatic results(莎士比亚戏剧:戏剧的训练带 来喜剧的结果) 。标题题选择的正确答案是简练高度概括,而且以文章主题相关,综合这几个因素只有 D 选

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项才符合,其他选项,要么和主题无关,要么就是扩大了范围。 【考点定位】 这是一篇论说文 【名师点睛】 这篇文章,相对来说有一定的难度。所用的词不少是专业术语,也或者是专有名词,这给 阅读带来一定的障碍。但是答案多数能够在文章中找到,稍微有一点难的是 77 题主旨大意题,可能会是错 选到其他选项。这主要是没有把握到文章的主旨,题目的设置。74 题答案需要进行转换,不能够直接找到 答案。推理题 76 题也有一定难度。

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