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名词性从句与定语从句档


1.定语从句的考查要点: (1)关系词的使用,特别是 which,that,when,where 等; (2)介词和关系代词连用时,介词的选用; (3)以 as 引导的定语从句; (4)只用 that 的情况; (5)只用 which 的情况; (6)关系代词与关系副词的选用; (7)定语从句与强调句型的区别。 2.名词性从句的考查要点: (1)what,that 引导名词性从句的区别; (2)whether,if 引导名词性从句的区别; (3)名词性从句与定语从句、状语从句的区别; (4)it 作形式主语、形式宾语的情况; (5)名词性从句中的虚拟语气。

1.定语从句仍是近五年高考的热点。 2009 年高考共考了 15 道 定 语从句题。主要考查引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副 词(2009 辽宁,23;2009 安徽,30);非限制性定语从句(特别是先行词是

整个句子时)(2009 全国卷Ⅱ,17;2009 山东,24);“介词+关系 代词”引导的定语从句(2009 宁夏· 海南, 全国卷Ⅰ,28)。此外, 非限制性定语从句关系代词 as 和 which 的区别,是近年来的热 点之一;对于表地点、时间的先行词模糊化(如 2009 浙江,14), 为近年来高考的热点和难点。 2.名词性从句主要考查内容:语序问题、连接词的选用。 近五 年高考中关于名词性从句的考查全部是连接词的选用。2009 年 在连接词的选用中考查连接词 that 的有 5 道题,对 whether/if 的 考查有 2 道题; 特殊疑问词引导的名词性从句有 3 道题; wh-ever 引导的名词性从句有 3 道题。 1.关系代词 that 与 which 的用法区别 (1)关系词指物只用 that 引导,不用 which 的情况: ①当先行词是不定代词:all,much,little,something, everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 时。 Do you have anything that you want to say for yourself? You should hand in all that you have. ②当先行词前面用 only,any,few,no,very 等词修饰时。 This is the very book that I'm looking for. The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ③当先行词是形容词最高级时或它的前面有形容词最高级修饰 时。 This is the best that has been used against pollution.

This is the most interesting film that I've ever seen. ④当先行词是序数词或它前面有一个序数词时。 This train is the last that will go to Suzhou. What is the first American film that you have seen? ⑤当先行词既有人又有物时。 Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ⑥当主句的主语是疑问词 who 或 which 时。 Which is the bike that you lost? Who is the boy that won the gold medal? ⑦有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已用 which,另外一个 宜用 that。 They secretly built up a small factory which produced things that could cause pollution. ⑧当先行词在主句中作表语,而关系代词也在从句中作表语时。 Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be. (2)关系代词指物,而引导词只用 which 不用 that 的情况: ①关系代词指物,作介词宾语的时候: This is the question about which they have had so much discussion in the past few weeks. 这是他们在过去几周讨论了多次的问题。 ②关系代词指代前面的整个句子, 引导非限制性定语从句时: He failed in the exam,which made his father angry.

他考试不及格,这使他父亲很生气。 2.介词+关系代词 (1)介词+关系代词中介词的宾语只能是 which 或 whom。 The gentleman about whom you told me yesterday proved to be a thief .你昨天告诉我的那位绅士证实是小偷。 In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在漆黑的大街上没有一个人能为她提供帮助。 (2)当复合介词短语+which 引导定语从句时, 这种定语从句常与 先行词用逗号隔开,从句用倒装语序。 He lived in a big house,in front of which stood a big tall tree.他 住在一所大房子里,房前有一棵大树。 (3)介词+which/who+不定式结构。 The poor man has no house in which to live. 那个可怜的人没有房子住。

(4)of+which/whom 表示所属关系。(表所属关系也可用 whose) Recently I bought an ancient vase,the price of whose price)was very reasonable. 最近我买了个古代的花瓶,它的价钱很合理。 (1)(2009· 江西高考)The house I grew up has been taken which(=

down and replaced by an office building. A.in it 选 B.in C.in that D.in which

此题考查定语从句。句意:我小时候住过的房子已

经被拆掉,取而代之的是一座办公大楼。先行词为 the house,代 入定语从句后为:I grew up in the house,故答案为 B。

(2)(2009· 陕西高考)Gun control is a subject argued for a long time. A.of which D.into which 选 B.with which

Americans have

C.about which

此题考查“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从。句意:

枪支控制是美国人争论了很长时间的一个话题。先行词为 subject ,带入定语从句后为: Americans have argued about the subject for a long time。由此可知,先行词在定语从句中作 about 的宾语,介词 about 提前,故用关系代词 which。故选 C。 3.关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 关系代词 as 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制 性定语从句,as 在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。引导限制性定语 从句常用于下列句式:

其中关系代词 as 在从句中担当主语、宾语或表语。

We have found such materials as are used in their factory. 我们已经找到了像他们工厂里用的那种材料。(as 作主语) These houses are sold at such a low price as people expected.(as 作 宾语)这些房子以人们期望的低价出售。 He is not the same man as he was. 他和过去不同了。(as 作表语) [注意] (1)such...as...(定语从句)像……那样 such...that...(状语从句)如此……以至于…… This is such an easy question as I can answer. (定语从句)这是一个我能回答的简单问题。 This is such an easy question that I can answer it. (状语从句)这是个简单的问题,我能回答。 (2009· 福州检测)Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of interest everyone likes to visit. A.that 选 B.as C.which D.what

as everyone likes to visit 是定语从句,修饰先行词

place,as 在从句中作 visit 的宾语,此句是“such...as...”结构。如 果理解为结果状语从句而选择 A 项,需要在题干中 visit 后加上 it。故选 B。 (2)the same...as...表示相似的东西 the same...that...表示同一人或物 This is the same knife as I lost.这把小刀和我丢的那把一样。

This is the same knife that I lost.这把小刀就是我丢的那一把。 4.关系代词 as,which 的区别 (1)as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又 可在主句

后,有时还可插入主句中,而 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只 能置于主句之后。相同的是 两者都可替代主句的整个内容,而 不是主句中的某一个词。 The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than we could expect. (2009· 山东高考)Whenever I met her, greeted me with a sweet smile. A.who 选 B.which C.when D.that was fairly often, she

句意:不管我何时遇见她,她都用甜甜的微笑迎接

我,这是常事儿。which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面的句 子。故选 B。 2)当非限制性定语从句放在主句前面时,只能用 as。 As is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month. =The moon travels round the earth once every month,as/which is known to everybody. =It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month. =What is known to everybody is that the moon travels round

the earth once every month. 后两句属名词性从句范畴。 (3)as 意为“正如……”, 后面的谓语动词多是 see, know, expect, say,mention,report,announce 等;which 意为“这一点”。 As is known to all,Edison invented the telephone. =Edison invented the telephone,as is known to all. (2009· 西安八校联考)A war is so cruel that it always causes great losses, A.what 选 子。故选 B。 5.使用定语从句应注意的几个问题: (1)当先行词是 way ,意为“方式,方法”,在从句中作状 语, 则引导定语从句的关系词有以下三种: I don't like the way has happened in Iraq. B.as C.that D.one

as 为关系代词,引导定语从句,指代前面的整个句

我不喜欢他说话的方式。 (2)注意区别先行词和引导词。

①Is this +名词+the one+that 从句

Is this school the one 这 所 学 校 是 那 个 吗 ?

②Is this the+名词+that 从句

Is this the school 这 是 那 所 学 校 吗 ?

(3)当先行词是表示时间的名词时,应注意引导词在定语从句 中的成分。 Do you still remember the days that/which we spent in Qingdao? 你还记得我们一起在青岛度过的日子吗? Do you still remember the days when we spent the summer holidays in Qingdao? 你还记得我们在青岛过暑假的日子吗?

(4)当先行词为 case,point,position,situation 等词且关系词 在从句中作状语时,常用 where 引导定语从句。 They have reached the point where they have to (2009·福 建 高 考 )It's helpful to put children in a situation they can see themselves differently. A.that 选 B.when C.which D.where

句意: 把孩子放在一个能使他们从另外一个角度认

识自己的环境中对他们有益。先行词是 situation,代入定语从句 后为:They can see themselves differently in the situation。由此可 见,先行词在定语从句中作状语,故用关系副词;而 when 表“时 间”,不合本题要求,只有 where 符合本题要求。故选 D。 6.定语从句中的谓语动词与先行词保持一致 当引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作主语时, 那么 定语从 句中的谓语动词的数的形式应与先行词保持一 致。 (1)one of+复数名词+关系代词+复数动词 He is one of the students who pass the exam. (2)the only one of+复数名词+关系代词+单数动词 He is the only one of the students who passes the exam. 他是惟一通过考试的学生。 (3)其他情况 I,who am your teacher,will try my best to help you. 我,你的老师,将尽力帮你。

Have you heard of the persons and things that are being talked about?你听说过正在被谈论的这些人和事吗?

名词性从句是一种具有名词功能的从句,包括主语从句、宾语从 句、表语从句和同位语从句。 1.主语从句 主语从句有三类: (1)由 what 等代词引起的主语从句, what 表示“……所…… 的 ( 东 西 )” , 在 结 构上 等 于 一 个 名 词加 一 个 定 语 从 句, 也 可 由 whatever 引起,表示“所……的一切”,也可由 whoever 引起, 表示“一切……的人”。 What you need is more practice. 你需要的是更多的练习。 Whatever was said here must be kept secret. 我们在这儿说的无论什么都必须保密。 Whoever fails in the exam shall not be allowed to go home.无论谁 考试不及格都不允许回家。 (2008· 山东高考) was her family. A.It 选 B.This C.What D.As was most important to her, she told me,

句意:她告诉我,对她来说最重要的是她的家庭。

句子可以调整为:What was most important to her was her family. 命题者故意在句中插入了 she told me,这要求考生能快速地识别 出来。故选 C。 (2)由连词 that 引起的主语从句,这类从句在大多数情况下都要 放到句子后面去,而用代词 it 作形式上的主语。 That she will succeed is certain. =It is certain that she will succeed.她一定会成功。 (3)It+系动词+形容词(necessary, right, likely, unlikely, wrong, important,certain,clear,obvious,strange,normal 等)+that 从 句。 It is certain that most of the farmers have brought in more money by all means. 很明显大多数农民通过各种方式赚了更多钱。 (2009· 上海高考)It is not immediately clear crisis will soon be over. A.since 选 B.what C.when D.whether the financial

句意:经济危机能否很快结束现在还不清楚。根据

句意,用 whether。故选 D。 (4)使用主语从句应注意的几个问题 ①在“It is necessary,important,strange,natural+that 从句” 结构中,从句常用(should)+动词原形形式。 It is necessary and important that one (should) master the skill of

operating computers so as to meet the need of a job.为了找工作,掌 握电脑操作技巧是很有必要 并且是很重要的。 ②It+be+名词(短语)(a pity,a shame,good news,a fact,an honour,a wonder,no wonder 等)+that 从句。 It's no wonder that you've achieved so much success. 难怪你取得了这么大的成功。 ③It+be+过去分词(said, told, heard, reported, decided, suggested, advised, ordered, remembered,thought,considered,well known, announced 等)+that 从句。 It is said that the professor has already succeeded in carrying out the experiment. 据说这位教授已成功地完成了这个实验。 (2008· 上海高考)It has been proved eating vegatables in

childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life. A.if 选 B.because C.when D.that

句意: 业已证明童年时期多吃蔬菜有助于预防老年

时一些重病的发生。句中 it 作形式主语,后面从句作真正主语, 从句结构完整,故用连接词 that。故选 D。 ④在“It+be+suggested,advised,ordered,requested,insisted, required+that 从句”结构中, that 从句应用“(should)+动词原形”。 It was suggested that they (should) start at once. ⑤It+特殊动词(seem,appear,happen,matter)+that 从句。

It happened to me that I had been away when he called. 碰巧的是,他打电话时我已经离开了。 2.宾语从句 在句中起宾语作用的从句称为宾语从句。宾语从句可分为三 类:动词的宾语从句、介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。 (1)动词的宾语从句 ①大多数及物动词(hope,tell,say,know,think,consider, imagine,hear,expect,suppose,guess 等)可以带宾语从句。 We all expect that they will win,for members of their team are stronger. 我们都预料他们会赢,因为他们的队员更强壮。 [注意] 在 think,believe,suppose,expect 等动词引导的宾语从 句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意思,却不用否定形式,而将 think 等动词变为否定形式,这一现象称为否定前移。 I don't think you are right.我想你是不对的。 I don't suppose he cares,does he?我看他不在乎,对吧? ②有些“动词+副词”(find out,point out,work out,turn out)结构 也可带宾语从句。 I have found out that all the tickets for the concert have been sold out.我发现这场音乐会的所有门票都卖光了。 ③有的动词短语(make sure,make up one's mind,keep in mind) 也可带宾语从句。

Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in.在交上试卷前确保没有任何错误。 ④动词 find,feel,think,consider,make,believe 等后有宾语补 足语时,则需用 it 作形式宾语而将 that 宾语从句后置。 I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water every day.我 认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。 [注意] 有些动词带宾语从句时习惯上需要在宾语从句前加 it。 这类动词有 hate,enjoy,like,love,dislike,see to 等。 I hate it when they talk with their mouth full of food. 我讨厌他们嘴含食物时说话。 (2)一般情况下介词后只能用 wh-类连接词引导宾语从句。 We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.我们 正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部。 (2009· 湖南高考)She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do it takes to save her life. A.whichever C.whatever 选 B.however D.whoever 句意:她是我们心爱的宝贝。我们准备不惜一切代

价挽救她的生命。whatever=anything that,连接宾语从句,兼作 take 的宾语。故选 C。 3.表语从句:在句中作表语的从句称为表语从句。共分三类: (1)如主句的主语是 idea,advice,suggestion,order, request,

requirement 等名词时,则表语从句的谓语应用虚拟语气,即 “(should)+动词原形”的形式。 His suggestion is that we (should) change our course. (2)主语为名词 reason 时,表语从句中的连接词要用 that,而不用 why 或 because。 The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drunk.这么严重的交通事故完全是由于司机太粗心, 喝酒太多造成的。 (3)because,as if,as though,as,like 等连接词也可引导表语从 句。 He has heart disease. That is because he has been smoking too much.他有心脏病,那是因为他抽烟太多了。 4.同位语从句 同位语从句是用以解释说明某一名词内容和实质的从句。 (1)能接同位语从句的名词有:belief,fact,hope,idea, doubt, news, conclusion, suggestion, problem, order, answer, decision, explanation,information,thought 等。 (2) 同位语从句一般用 that 引导,但也可以用连接代词 (what , which,who)、连接副词(when,where,why,how)或 引导。 I have no idea what has happened to him. (3)有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它说明的某个名词后, 而被别的 whether

词隔开。 The story goes that William Tell did kill the king with that sword.据说 William Tell 确实用那把剑杀了国王。 (4)that 引导同位语从句与关系代词 that 引导的定语从句的区别在 限制性定语从句中关系代词 that 充当主语或宾语, 有实际意义, 作宾语时, 可省略。 同位语从句中 that 是连词, 不充当句子成分, 没有任何实际含义,一般不可省略。 The news that our football team won the match was encouraging.(同位语从句) The news(that)we heard on the radio was not true.(定语从句) (2009· 江西高考)The fact has worried many scientists is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A.what 选 B.which C.that D.though the earth

本题考查同位语从句。句意:近年来全球气候不断

变暖,这一事实使得很多科学家感到担忧。该题同位语从句结构 完整,故选连词 that。 1.(2009· 天津高考)A person able to send or receive any e-mails. A.who B.whom C.whose D.whoever e-mail account is full won't be

解析:此题考查定语从句。句意:一个人的电子邮件账户满了, 就不能收发任何邮件了。 先行词为 a person, 代入定语从句后为: The person's e-mail account is full,由此可见,whose 在定语从句

中作定语,是形容词性的,修饰名词。who 作主语;whom 作宾 语;whoever 连接代词,“无论谁”,用来引导名词性从句或状语 从句。 答案:C 2.(2009· 全国卷Ⅰ )She brought with her three friends , none of I had ever met before. A.them B.who C.whom D.these

解析: 此题考查非限制性定语从句。 句意: 她带了 3 个朋友过来, 没有一个是我曾经见过的。先行词是 her three friends,代入定语 从句后为:I had ever met none of her three friends,而介词后指人 时用关系代词 whom。 答案:C 3.(2009· 全 国 卷 Ⅱ )My friend showed me round the town , was very kind of him. A.which B.that C.where D.it

解析:句意:我的朋友真不错,他带我绕城转了一圈。本题 was 缺少主语,排除 where;it 不能引导定语从句,排除 it;that 不引 导非限制性定语从句,排除 that。 答案:A 4.(2009· 浙江高考)I have reached a point in my life am supposed to make decisions of my own. A.which B.where C.how D.why I

解析: 句意: 我已经到了应该自己作决定的那个人生阶段。 where 引导定语从句修饰先行词 point。 答案:B 5.(2009·辽 宁 高 考 )They've won their last three matches , I find a bit surprising actually. A.that B.when C.what D.which

解析:考查定语从句。句意:他们已经赢得了最后三场比赛,我 发现这确实有点令人惊讶。先行词是前面整个句子,which 引导 非限制性定语从句,并在定语从句中作 find 的宾语。 答案:D 6.(2009· 安 徽 高 考 )Many children , parents are away

working in big cities,are taken good care of in the village. A.their B.whose C.of them D.with whom

解析:句意:很多小孩在村里都得到了很好的照顾,他们的父母 亲远在大城市里打工。 whose 引导非限制性定语从句。 A 项 their 和 C 项 of them 不能连接从句,可以排除;选 with whom 会导致 句意混乱。 答案:B 7.(2009· 江苏高考)Because of the financial crisis,days are gone local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. A.if B.when C.which D.since

解析:句意:由于经济危机,在当地五星级酒店住一个晚上就要

6,000 元的日子一去不复返了。when local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night 作 days 的定语, 关系副词 when 在定语从 句中作时间状语。 答案:B 8.(2009· 北京高考)—What do you think of teaching,Bob? —I find it fun and challenging.It is a job doing something serious but interesting. A.where B.which C.when D.that you are

解析: 此题考查定语从句。 句意: ——鲍勃, 你认为教书怎么样? ——我觉得不仅有趣而且具有挑战性。 它是一份严谨而有趣的工 作。 先行词是 a job, 把先行词带入从句为: in the job you are doing something serious but interesting,此时 where=in which,故选 A。 9.(2009· 北京高考)At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see A.when B.how it got any better. C.why D.if

解析:此题考查宾语从句。句意:一开始他不喜欢这份新工作, 但还是决定给自己几个月的时间来看一看是否情况会有好转。 从 句中不缺少时间、 地点、 原因, 排除 A、 B、 C 三项。 D 项表示“是 否”,符合题意。 10.(2009· 天津高考)It is obvious to the students get well prepared for their future. A.as B.which C.whether D.that they should

解析:考查名词性从句。本空格处应是一个主语从句的引导词, 因该主语从句不缺成分,且句意完整,故应用不作任何成分的连 词 that。 答案:D 11.(2009· 江苏高考)Many young people in the West are expected to leave could be life's most important decision-marriage-

almost entirely up to luck. A.as B.that C.which D.what

解析:考查名词性从句。宾语从句中缺少主语,因此选择 what。 答案:D 12.(2009· 全 国 卷Ⅰ )Could I speak to International Sales,please? A.anyone matter who 解析: whoever 在句中引导名词性从句, 作介词 to 的宾语, whoever 在从句中作主语;D 项只能引导让步状语 从句。 答案:C 13.(2009· 浙江高考 )—Is there any possibility pick me up at the airport? —No problem. A.when B.that C.whether D.what you could B.someone C.whoever D.no is in charge of

解析:考查同位语从句。此处是由 that 引导的同位语从句,表示 “你有没有可能来机场接我?”。所以这里选 B 项。 答案:B 14.(2009· 重 庆 高 考 )We should consider the students' request the school library provide more books on popular science. A.that B.when C.which D.where

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:我们应该考虑学生的这个要求, 即学校图书馆应该多提供一些大众科学方面的书籍。 根据题意可 知,空格处是同位语从句的引导词,修饰中心名词 request,且在 句子中不充当成分,故用 that。 15.(2009·四 川 高 考 )News came from the school office Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. A.which B.what C.that D.where

解析:考查名词性从句。that 引导同位语从句用来解释说明名词 news 的具体内容。同位语从句常置于名词之后,但句中由于谓 语部分过短,为平衡句子结构,将从句放在了句末。 答案:C


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