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现代大学英语精读 4 第二版 Unit3 Groundless


Groundless Beliefs
A. E. Mander

Groundless Beliefs

Unit 3

W arming up

B ackground
T ext Analysis R einforcement

Groundless Beliefs

Unit 3

Questions / Activities Check-on Preview Objectives
W T B R

Warming up

Warming up

Questions / Activities

Are carrots a rabbit’s favorite? How do you know?

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Warming up

Questions / Activities

Lesson 6 – Groundless Beliefs

Aristotle vs. Galileo’s

? Why was Galileo able to prove Aristotle wrong? ? What lesson shall we learn from Galileo’s experiment?

Warming up

Check-on Preview

?What are the words used by the author in referring to groundless “beliefs”?

--- propositions, assumptions, dogma, opinion
?According to the author where do these beliefs come from?

--- from other people: family, friends, media, tradition, interest groups, etc.
?Why do we tend to accept these beliefs? --- ―suggestion‖, self-interest, sentimental associations, Fashion ?Why do we have to be on guard against them? --- most of them are irrational; they are _________ rather than thought.

--- once they become so s________ in they prevent us from accepting new ideas.

Warming up

Objectives

? ? ? ?

Call attention to groundless beliefs Understand the causes of groundless beliefs Discuss the importance of inquisition Consider the strategies against groundless beliefs ? Encourage students to actively identify groundless beliefs in life ? Appreciate the logic structure W
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Groundless Beliefs
Author

Unit 3

Background

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Background

Author

His Life and Works

? A. E. Mander (1894–1985) ? A well-published Australian scholar. ? Books
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Logic for the millions Clearer thinking (logic for everyman) The making of the Australians Our sham democracy Psychology for everyman (and woman) Clearer thinking; logic for everyday use Public enemy, the press Alarming Australia

Background

Author

Quotations from Mander’s book
? The trouble with most folks is not so much their ignorance, as their "knowing" so many things which ain't so. ---- Josh Billings ? He who cannot reason is a fool; he who will not is a bigot; he who dare not is a slave. -----W. Drummond

Groundless Beliefs
Theme

Unit 3

Text Analysis
Structure

Detailed Analysis
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Text Analysis

Theme

?

Understand the sources of groundless beliefs

? ?

Develop the alert to groundless beliefs
Emphasize the importance of a curious, inquiring mind Discuss how to develop such a mind
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?

Text Analysis I. II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. III.

Structure

The Introduction (para. 1): Prevalence of groundless beliefs The body (paras. 2–24): Types/Causes of groundless beliefs Result of environment in early life. (paras. 2–3) Parroting. (paras. 4–13) Self-interest (paras. 14–17) Sentimental associations (paras. 18–19) Fashion (paras. 20–24) The conclusion (para. 25): The writer’s praise of rational thinkers

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
I II III

Main Idea Sentence Paraphrase Words & Expressions Exercise
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Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: The Introduction (para.1): Prevalence of groundless beliefs Main Idea
? What does the author advocate in the first sentence? ? Have you ever asked yourself these questions? ? Can you give examples of groundless beliefs which rest upon “mere tradition” or somebody’s “bare assertion”?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part I: Sentence Paraphrase

?

They rest upon mere tradition, or on somebody’s bare assertion unsupported by even a shadow of proof... (para. 1) be based on the slightest trace of proof These groundless believes are either based on tradition or on somebody’s strong claims which are not supported by the slightest trace of proof.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern

class

come across meet with rest upon(on) a shadow of

What reason have we for doing…

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part I: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.
– 如今,在他们生活的城市,农民工很少被当成市民看待。(class) – Yet few of migrant workers are even classed as citizens of the city where they live. – 一个国家的实力不只是取决于经济发展;它至少在相同的程度上有赖于其 教育水平。(rest upon) – The strength of a country does not rest upon economic development alone; it rests upon education, at least to the same extent. – 我们明确地知道,人的生命从何时开始。(a shadow of…) – We know, without a shadow of a doubt, when human life begins。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Types/Causes of groundless beliefs (paras. 2–24) Section 1. Result of environment in early life. (paras. 2–3)
? How can a simple “suggestion” become a “belief”?
? …uncritically we accepted and believed it. ? …we didn’t have the power of questioning.

? How shall we deal with the beliefs developed in early childhood?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Presbyterian ?We believe that Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God, and we shall trust in Him, alone, for salvation. ?We believe the Bible is the revelation of God’s truth and is infallible and authoritative in all matters of faith and practice. ?We believe that all are sinners and totally unable to save themselves from God’s displeasure, except by His mercy.

Roman Catholic ?In order to be saved, all persons who have attained the use of reason must believe explicitly that God exists and that he rewards the good and punishes the wicked. ?The Church is the congregation of all baptized persons, under the authority of the Sovereign Pontiff and the bishops in communion with him. ?We find the chief truths taught by Jesus Christ through the Catholic Church in the Apostles' Creed.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern Grammar

way reverse

be consistent with… feel sure of… be brought up to…

It is…to do… The same is true of…

…when infants (omission)

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.
– 尽管中国有此抱怨,但世界贸易组织称碳关税符合世界贸易规则。 (consistent) – Despite bluster from Beijing, the WTO says carbon tariffs can be consistent with world trade rules.

– 尽管沃尔玛员工的确一般比较穷,但去那里购物的人也同样如此。(the same) – While it is true that Walmart employees tend to be poor, the same is true of Walmart shoppers.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Types/Causes of groundless beliefs (paras. 2–24) Section 2. Parroting. (paras. 4–13)

Main Idea
? What does “parroting” mean?
? Copy, echo, or repeat without question. ? Accept only such new ideas as fit in with the ideas we already hold

? How should we treat other people’s ideas according to the author?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

? What’s the author opinion of newspapers and advertisements? ? Why do we tend to accept only such new ideas as fit in with the ideas we already hold; and all conflicting ideas seem to us “obviously” absurd?

? What propositions should we treat with caution? ? Old propositions Progress in human ? Obvious truths thought seems to consist
mainly in getting rid of such ideas.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
? When we find ourselves entertaining an opinion about which there is a feeling that even to enquire into it would be absurd, unnecessary, undesirable, or wicked—we may know that that opinion is a non-rational one. (para. 7)

allow yourself to consider it as possible or as worth thinking about seriously

Another common mistake we make is to judge opinions according to our feelings. An opinion is true because it is true, not because we like it or find it desirable or useful. In fact, truth can often be unpleasant or painful whereas untruth can be soothing and attractive.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern Grammar

entertain tempt conceive intellect credit (v.)

fit in with on ones guard break down in the light of on the grounds of consist in

…such new ideas as fit in with…

That the earth must be flat formally seemed so obvious…

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.
– 我不会考虑从事这种不跟人打交道的工作。(entertain) – I wouldn't entertain the idea of such an unsociable job. – 我决不相信那个荒谬绝伦的故事。(credit) – I shall never credit that absurd tale.

– 人们永远根据其它人的行动调整他们的行为。(in the light of) – Humans are forever adapting their behaviour in the light of others’ actions.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Types/Causes of groundless beliefs (paras. 2–24) Section 3. Self-interest (paras. 14–17)

Main Idea
? What does “self-interest” mean?
? Way of earning one’s livelihood and acquiring wealth ? Social position ? Justification

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

? How is someone’s social position defined? ? Popularity ? Respect and goodwill ? Prestige

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern Grammar

attribute compel justify

leave no room for…

Put it broadly

cling to…

There is many a man who is… …the ―grapes‖ being the rewards…

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.
– 她认为她的高寿是精心安排饮食的结果。(attribute) – She attributes her great age to carefully planned diet. – 他坚信有朝一日他会返回故乡。(cling to) – He clings to the belief that one day he will be able to return to his native home. – 自此以后,许多中央银行明白了,流通纸币,信任就是一切。(many a) – With paper money, confidence is everything, as many a central bank has since then discovered.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Types/Causes of groundless beliefs (paras. 2–24) Section 4. Sentimental associations (paras. 18–19)

Main Idea
? What examples do you have for groundless believes originated from “sentimental associations”?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

? Do you agree with the author’s arguments about “sentimental associations”? ? How shall we avert such a tendency?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases

associate belittle grudge dispose

have recollections of… play a part in…

stand for…

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.

– 无论你怎么看待马克思,你都不可能贬低他在我们的世界中所发挥的作用。 (belittle) – Whatever one may think about Marx, one must not belittle the role he plays in our world.
– 如果任何人辜负了她的信任,她会怨恨一辈子。(grudge) – She could hold a life-long grudge against anyone who betrayed her trust. – 市场情况的变化使我们倾向于取消合同。(dispose) – Changes in the market conditions here dispose us to cancel the contract.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Types/Causes of groundless beliefs (paras. 2–24) Section 5. Fashion (paras. 20–24)

Main Idea ? What does the author mean by “fashion”? ? How others of our own set feel and believe ? Habits of thought

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

? What is the bio-psychological explanation for “brain path”? ? Why is there the “brain path”/thought pattern? ? In introspection, do you find any particular “brain paths” in yourself? What are they?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern Grammar

dictate merit legitimate

a string of… go to the dogs tell sb. straight

An Old Fogey may have become such at seventeen…

stock stamp in

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.

– 该影片的预算决定了紧张的拍摄进度。(dictate) – The film's budget dictated a tough schedule. – 我的老板是老一套的回答–“没坏的话就别修了!” (stock) – My boss had a stock response – "If it ain't broke, don't fix it!" – 约翰没有坦率地告诉我,他厌倦了,想离开。(tell straight) – John did not tell me straight out that he was fed up and wanted to leave.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: The conclusion (para. 25) The writer’s praise of rational thinkers

Main Idea ? What are the features of rational minds? A desire ? To discover, ? To think things out clearly and rationally ? To et at the truth

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part III: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases Sentence Pattern Grammar

allowance

make allowance for get at… at all costs

not…, not…, but…

To get at the truth at all costs, whatever it may turn out to be.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part III: Exercise

? Translate the following sentences into English, using words in the brackets.

– 你应带体谅其他人所犯得错误并且原谅那些冒犯你的人。 (make allowance for) – You must make allowance for each other's faults and forgive the person who offends you.
– 你要确定是自己走近作者并去领会他的想法,而不是寻找自 己的观点。(get at) – Be sure that you go to the author to get at his meaning, not to find yours.

Groundless Beliefs

Unit 3

Discussion

Reinforcement

Summary
W T B R

Reinforcement

Summary

? What are the five main sources of groundless beliefs?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Early environment; The habit of parroting; Self-interest; Sentimental association; Fashion.

? What words should we watch out for so as to minimize the influence of groundless beliefs?
? ? ? ? ? Naturally Obviously By nature Inevitable …

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Reinforcement

Discussion

Work in groups of four: ? ? ? ? What other examples of groundless beliefs do you have? Why do you think groundless beliefs are so common? What are the dangers of groundless beliefs? How could we keep the monster of groundless belief at bay?

Presentation Time

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