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Earnest Hemingway(1899-1961)


Earnest Hemingway(1899-1961)

--The spokesman of the Lost Generation

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Old types of fiction delighted in depicting characters who might undergo vast changes upon their environment but undergo little or no change themselves. e.g. epic hero—constancy of the hero—he doesn’t change in the face of great pressure to weaken Epic action provides a test of the hero’s strength and virtue. More recent fiction: insists that its proper subject is that of changing human relations, thus presents at least one character who undergoes some change of heart or mind in the process of conflict.

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< hero <flat foil round

<protagonist <typical <static antagonist particular developing

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foil: a character who exists principally to bring out some trait or aspect of a major character through contrast Modern stories have one developing character while minor characters will be static for the sake of the contrast with the main character. The reader can measure the development of the main character by contrasting it with the lack of development in his foils. Flat—simple, two-dimensional, has a single-trait Round--complex, three-dimensional, possessing something of both complexity and contradictoriness, capable of development they learn or become enlightened, grow or deteriorate

? In “Soldier’s Home”, Hemingway wishes to probe a certain individuality obviously he will strive for a three-dimensional characterization. ? But in “The Use of Force”, the author wishes to express a single idea as clearly and forcefully as he can, he may prefer to use flat, uncomplicated characters that will not obscure his theme.

the methods of characterization:
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①expository: tells us about a character through the narrator’s voice ②dramatic: allows the characterization to arise indirectly out of action and speech Characters can be produced by contrast or identification with other characters, by contrast or identification with the setting, by description of physical presence, by analysis of motive or state of mind. What counts is how effectively the author provides the kind of characterization needed to convey the theme, move the plot and engage the reader.

Hemingway and the Lost Generation
The term “Lost Generation” was coined by Gertrude Stein. It included the young English and American expatriates caught in the war and cut off from the old values and yet unable to come to terms with the new era when civilization had gone mad. Stein’s comment suggests the ambiguous and pointless lives of expatriates as they aimlessly wandered about the Continent, drinking, making love, and traveling from place to place and from party to party. Being cut off from their past, disillusioned in reality, and without a meaningful future to fall on, they were lost in disillusionment and existential void. They indulged in hedonism in order to make their life less unbearable. For American expatriates, by experiencing European values, they came to have a perspective on what was going on in America. So the lost generation stayed away from America to understand it better.

Character and Themes
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The remark of Stein, “You are all a lost generation”, addressed to Hemingway, was used as a Preface to the latter’s novel The Sun Also Rises. The novel contrasts the empty search for sensation by American expatriates in Paris with the rich Spanish tradition as epitomized in bullfighting. Hemingway’s novels are mainly concerned with “tough people”, known for the Hemingway hero of athletic prowess and masculinity and unyielding heroism, whose essential courage and honesty are implicitly contrasted with the brutality of civilized society. Almost all his novels deal with the theme of courage in face of tragedy, known as “grace under pressure”. In the general situation of his novels, life is but a losing battle; however, it is also a struggle man can demonstrate in such a way that loss becomes dignity; man can be physically destroyed but never defeated spiritually.

Iceberg Theory of Writing
? He once said, “The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to
only one-eighth of it being above water.” Typical of this “iceberg” analogy is his style. His sentences only give one small bit of the meaning. The rest is implied. One must go very deep beneath the surface to understand the full meaning of his writing. His lean, economical style of writing is striking: sentences short, uncomplicated, but active; words simple but filled with emotion; few modifiers, and great control of pause with action of the story continuing during the silences. There are times when the most powerful effect comes from restraint and understatement for he believed the strongest effect comes with an economy of means.

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Hemingway deserves “the attention of posterity as he captured in his works the uncomfortable realities of his age and forced into public consciousness a realization of the brutalities of war and their lingering psychological effects” (James Martine, Dictionary of Literary Biography )

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This story, the first about Krebs, attempts to reveal the profundity of the shock of re-entry into one's old life. Krebs wants everything to be simple. The world seems so complex. Young women look modern and everyone is involved in political relationships with everyone else. Krebs wants a simple life where he can relax and avoid talking (and lying) about the war. He feels that he cannot love anymore and that he cannot pray. Krebs's soul has been removed by the war.

Attitude to War
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War is the nightmare of the mankind. There is no justice or injustice in the war. War is only a cruel machine capable of killing human beings. Ordinary soldiers scarifies their precious lives in the war, It is such a waste of life, money and energy.

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Harold’s experiences in Europe have changed him irrevocably, and this change is dramatically played out against the backdrop of a town where nothing has changed for years.

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His father parks his same car in the same place he did before the war; the girls walking down the street look like the same girls with whom Harold went to school. People want Harold to justify his existence by talking about the glories of the war, but the experience wasn’t glorious for him; he is acutely aware that he was "badly, sickeningly frightened all the time."

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His bed was still in the same room and in the same house. However, the boy that returned to this house did not have a home any longer. He could still lay down his head at night, but his mind could not rest now. He knew he had changed, but he didn’t want to.

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Hemingway speaks about Krebs’s war issues from an emotional standpoint. He describes his mental state after the war, but we know nothing about his experiences as a solider.

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At the end of the story, we learn that Krebs has rejected his old world. No longer can he live in a place that is so strange to him. He rejects his old way of life in the search for another. All of these trivial details of Krebs’ life add up to a foreign land for him. He does not have a home at all. Krebs leaves his hometown to find home. He goes to Kansas City to find employment. It is the reader’s hope he found a safe home to rest his head.

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he will never be able to become assimilated back into the community in which he was born. Harold Krebs, only just returned, knows he has to go away.

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As is typical of Hemingway’s fictional heroes, Harold has lost his belief in those systems -- religion, tradition, "family values," and the like -- which protect most of us from the existential world. A person who believes in nothing requires tremendous courage just to keep on living, but for the Hemingway hero it is better than living a lie.

The Characters
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Our first involvement with a story usually comes as a result of an empathy with one or more of the characters. We quite naturally are concerned with what people do and what happens to people(plot) and what their actions and experiences mean (theme). One of the principle functions of characters is to encourage the reader’s empathy and sympathy so that he will experience the reality of the fictional world for himself. The reader’s identification is thus sparked by his concern for the protagonist in his encounter with the antagonist. The protagonist is often the hero—an admirable character who embodies certain human ideals. The major character must be either static or developing.

向所有被时代践踏、侮辱、伤害 的人致敬
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一个时代,一个社会,一个国家很可能 有负于一整代人,欠他一生一世,欠他 整个回不来的青春,而且绝对无法偿还

6百万台湾本地人过了50年没有选择的殖 民生活 ? 年轻时效忠天皇,日本战败,活着的人 成了战犯 ? 整个 社会以你为耻,吊诡的是他回到了 故乡,可他是流亡者 ? 他们绝对地沉默了
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更柔软,更个人,更文明的价值体系

海角七号
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友子 你固執不講理、愛玩愛流行 我卻如此受不住的迷戀你 只是好不容易你畢業了 我們卻戰敗了 我是戰敗國的子民 貴族的驕傲瞬間墮落為犯人的枷 我只是個窮教師 為何要揹負一個民族的罪 時代的宿命是時代的罪過 我只是個窮教師 我愛你,卻必須放棄你

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十二月的海總是帶著憤怒 我承受著恥辱和悔恨的臭味 陪同不安靜地晃盪 不明白我到底是歸鄉 還是離鄉!

食指, 1968
这是四点零八分的北京 ? 一片手的海浪翻动 ? 这是四点零八分的北京 ? 一声尖利的汽笛长鸣
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WWII
Schindler’s List (1993) ? Saving Private Ryan (1998) ? Pearl Harbor (2001) ? Enemy at the Gates( 2001) ? The Pianist (2002)
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The Vietnam War (America 1964 1974 )
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Platoon (1986) is about a platoon of Infantry fighting in the jungles of Vietnam in 1967 ? Apocalypse Now (1979) ? During the on-going Vietnam War, Captain Willard is sent on a dangerous mission into Cambodia to assassinate a renegade Green Beret who has set himself up as a God among a local tribe
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Born on The Fourth of July(1989)
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The film is about a young Marine from a middle America family in the 1960’s. Ron Kovic enters the Marine Corps to fight for his country. While serving in Vietnam he is severely wounded and survives as a paraplegic. He goes through hell in a stateside DOD rehabilitation clinic before he is able to leave. When he is finally able to go home he becomes a difficult burden on his family. Ron becomes even more bitter and feels betrayed by his country. Ron turns to alcohol, hate and bitterness. In the end he becomes a anti war activist as he gets his life back together.


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