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Unit 2 Understanding Different Positions_图文

Designed by Shirley Hwang

? Raising awareness of diversity in views on education
? Expanding academic vision in the fields of education ? Developing critical skills in analyzing educational

issues through reading, hands-on interviews, and writing

Word Study
? remedial course: a course given to the students who

need extra help: 补救课程 ? e.g. The school supported the students by offering a few free remedial courses. ? Champion: n. first rate e.g. He was a champion swimmer. ? fraternizing: being friendly e.g. The soldier were caught fraternizing with enemies.

Paul B. Diederich
? All their teachers looked for were mistakes, and there

are so many kinds of mistakes in writing that their students despair of ever learning to avoid them
? Paraphrase: When teachers looked for were mistakes,

they would notice nothing but mistakes or errors. When the teacher overdid the correction, students would lose confidence and gave up any effort in despair to avoid making mistakes.

The Main Idea or argument of Paul B. Diederich
? Knowledge about the subject alone is not enough for

good teaching. Good teaching is also based on teacher’s knowledge of the developmental routes in learners and pedagogical skills in teaching.

Word Study
? not so much as…as:

Success lies not so much as in luck as in hard work. ? 与其说成功在于运气不如说是辛勤努力。
? At a moment’s notice: in an instant

? Intellectual posture理智的姿态 (academic position)

? Assuming at a moment’s notice a new intellectual

posture ? comprehending new intellectual ideas instantly ? At a moment’s notice: in an instant ? Intellectual posture理智的姿态 (academic position) ? Entering quickly into another person’s thought: being able to grasp instantly and absorb other’s ideas ? Submiting to censure and refutation: being able to listen to and accept criticism or different viewpoints

? graduated: adj. arranged in degrees, esp. successively

e.g. a graduated series of lessons ? indicating assent or dissent in graduated terms: being able to express agreement or disagreement in an appropriate manner ? Regarding minute points of accuracy: developing an inclination to details ? Working out what is possible in a given time: working with efficiency

? Discrimination: learning critical skills of analysis and

decision making ? Mental courage and soberness: developing the ability to judge when to take risks, be brave, be cautious, be patient, and keep a cool mind.

the Main Idea of William Cory
? The most valuable part of good education is to create

conditions for learner’s self-development. Education is not just imparting knowledge or training skills, but developing student’s abilities for his future life.

Word Study
? cloistered: adj. secluded from the world; sheltered e.g.

a cloistered life; the cloistered academic world of books ? cloister['kl??st?]n. residence that is a place of religious seclusion n.修道院;隐居地 ? Aikido n. (日)合气道(日本的一种自卫拳术) ? esoteric[,es?'ter?k;] adj. belonging only to the selective few e.g esoteric knowledge ? by ear: without reference to written or printed music e.g. to play the piano by ear

Word Study
? prestidigitation: [prest?,d?d??'te??(?)n]:n. sleight of hand;

skill of playing with action of hands e.g. Audiences were amazed at the magician’s prestidigitation.

? ventriloquism[ven'tr?l?kw?z?m]: n. skill of speaking from

one’s abdomen e.g. The actor showed ventriloquism on the stage.

? I feel unequipped by education for problems that lie

outside the cloistered, literary domain in which I am competent and at home.

? the author felt that he didn’t have the chance to

develop the skills or acquire the ability to solve practical problems at university. What he learned was literature that was his field.

? Actually, the main thing left out of my education was a

proper love for my own body, because one feared to cherish anything so obviously mortal and prone to sickness.

? Because people dare not to love it as it was so easy to get

sick and so short-lived.

the Main Idea or Argument of Alan Watts

? Health is wealth.Education should teach students to

be true to themselves.



? precinct:['pris??kt]n. boundary e.g. a police precinct ? with facility: with ease grasp something easily
? e.g he had a great facility(天赋) for writing ? disentangle a skein of thought: understanding a

complex idea sophistical [s?'fistikl]adj. 强词夺理的;诡辩 fall under no art: without influence of art under no rule: without influence of rule

Words of Wisdom
? Its art is the art of social life, and its end is fitness for

the world.
? 大学教育的艺术就是社会生活的艺术,其目的就是使


? Works indeed of genius fall under no art; heroic minds

come under no rule; ? Both genius and heroes are creative people. Creativity cannot be duplicated or copied through learning rules or teaching in university education.
? 事实上,天才伟业无法人为造就,英雄的思想亦如天

马行空。 ? But a university training is the great ordinary means to a great but ordinary end;
? 大学教育是一条通向伟大而平凡目标的伟大而平凡的


? Both a university training is the great ordinary means to a

great but ordinary end; it aims at raising the intellectual tone of society, at cultivating the public mind, at purifying the national taste, at supplying true principles to popular enthusiasm and fixed aims to popular aspiration, at giving enlargement and sobriety to the ideas of the age, at facilitating the exercise of political power, and refining the intercourse of private life.
University education is both great and ordinary. Its greatness lies in its power to change people, and its ordinariness lies in its basic way of educating people. It aims are raising intellectual level of society, cultivating civilization in the public, improving a nation’s taste, establishing a sound value system for a nation’s people , preserving valuable elements of a nation’s cultural tradition, promoting democracy in political life, and improving people’s private life.

? It is the education which gives a man a clear conscious view of

his …..how to bear with them. Education can help people recognize and understand themselves in their opinions and judgments, give people chances to discover truth of life, improve the power of expressing their thoughts and ideas, raise their ability to pursue truth. Education can teach people to be good ,true and pursue beauty of life so that they will have power to execute their goals independently, to distinguish the truth from falsity, and the possible from the impossible. A well-educated person is someone who is capable of confidently handling challenges in life and solving problems effectively. He is willing to change his own idea to make compromise with others; he is able to put himself into other’s shoes ; he is able to communicate his ideas, and he is able to influence other people and able to understand them, and accept their shortcomings.

the Main Idea or Argument of John Henry Newsman
? The true meaning of education is to train good

members of society instead of just passing knowledge or skills to the new generation.

Lord Brougham
? Education is to promote democracy by teaching

people how to think and make decision independently.

? Education should be everyone’s right no matter who

they are and what background they come from .

Analysis of Composition
周桂雅(class 4): Einstein once said, “ education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learnt in school. Most of us may be sad to find ourselves with nothing left but a good memory, a fixed way of thinking, poor ability of creativity and independence Achieving educational equality should be the top priority in the course of educational reform . The so-called “relieve- pressure –on- students ” policy has not been carried out as expected. The reform of college entrance examination

Analysis of Composition
汪蕾蕾(class 3): Argument: how to reform Chinese education 1. exam-oriented education into character-building education (all- round students; all-round good students ); 2. cultivating students with creativity 3. student’s specialty

? remedial course: a course given to the students who need extra ?

Word Study

? ?



help champion: n. first rate fraternizing: being friendly graduated: adj. arranged in degrees, esp. successively cloistered: adj. secluded from the world; sheltered by ear: without reference to written or printed music esoteric adj. belonging only to the selective few e.g esoteric knowledge prestidigitation: [prest?,d?d??'te??(?)n]:n. sleight of hand; skill of playing with action of hands


? ventriloquism[ven'tr?l?kw?z?m]: n. skill of speaking from one’s abdomen ? precinct:['pris??kt]n. boundary ? with facility: with ease grasp something easily ? disentangle a skein of thought: understanding a complex

Word Study

idea sophistical [s?'fistikl]adj. resembling something that appears to be plausible, but is acutually fallacious

On Education Liberalism -- T.S. Eliot

1. Pre-reading questions
1) What should we learn in school – practical skills and knowledge or classics and theories?

2) Which is more important to you: training of mind and abilities or acquiring fact or information? Why?

Language points:
apt: inclined; liable; prone
易于...的, 有...倾向的, 灵敏的, 灵巧的, 适当的, 切题的, 敏捷, 倾向是

He is apt to get excited over trifles.

an apt student

My little sister is apt at languages.

an apt answer


unobjectionable: Raising no objections; acceptable: 不会招致反对的, 无可非议的, 不致引起反感的; 婉转的; 无阻 碍的 acquisition: The act of acquiring. 获得 【商】收购,买进,接办企业,接管企业

Retell the sentence:
It is apt to maintain the apparently unobjectionable view that education is not a mere acquisition of facts, but a training of the mind as an instrument, to deal with any class of facts, to reason, and to apply the training obtained in one department in dealing with new ones.

illicit: Not sanctioned by custom or law; unlawful. progeny: an offspring or a descendant. 后裔; 后代;子女 the illicit sale of opium

ascertainable: traceable, being able to find
可确定(探知), 可发现的 famishing: starving pabulum: Insipid intellectual nourishment: mental pabulum


disillusion: to free or deprive of illusion.觉醒; 幻灭
They had thought that the new colony would be a paradise, but they were soon disillusioned.

He disillusioned his fans by his sloppy play. 他草率的表演使他的崇拜者大失所望。

smatter: n &v work with in an amateurish manner;一知半解
Those women who have a smatter knowledge about men become men's wives at last; 对男人一知半解的女人,最后做了男人的妻子;

Difficult Sentences
? 1. The liberal attitude towards education is that with

which we are the most familiar… with new ones. The liberal education was a very familiar idea to many of his contemporaries because it was well established universally that education focus on the training of the abilities rather than cramming facts. He thought that this unobjectionable idea was mistakenly interpreted by many people as if a person’s mind could be trained equally well in any subject with any facts, old or new alike for any occasions.

On Educational Liberalism
? 2.they

both have made the most opportunities…can be pushed to far.



It was very common that many people believed that some of them could be competent in any profession as far as they had enough opportunities, and equal abilities. But T.S. Eliot rebuked this misjudgment, and thought they went to far in their mistakes. He argued that the outcomes would be different for people who received training in different fields.

3.Even philosophy divorced from theology and from the knowledge of life and ascertainable facts, is but a famishing pabulum, or a draught stimulating for a moment, leaving behind drought and disillusion. Even philosophy is isolated from the religion and from the knowledge of life and facts, it is food for the mind, or a short stimulus to make us forget something dangerous or uncomfortable for the time being/temporarily.

? 4.But the great majority… would tend to smatter

Many people are just ordinary people who don’t have special gifts, tastes, or talents. So left at the mercy of their short-lived interest, and allowed to pursue only what their mind is fascinated at for a short while, they will only acquire a smattering knowledge ,and develop a superficial mind.

1)What is educational liberalism?
Educational liberalism emphasize the training of mind as instrument, acquiring an ability to apply the training to problems in real life. The teaching should follow students’ interest and his natural “bent”– that is, his natural inclination or disposition(习性).

2) What assumption for educational liberalism does Eliot think are wrong? What are his arguments?
Its basic assumption is that the skill/ability transferring, i.e. the abilities or skills acquired in the training of one area will be transferred to other areas.

Eliot argues that the basic assumption is not correct. Not all subjects are suitable for training. Three subjects are mentioned: a) the subject that is to theoretical ,such as philosophy and economics;(b) to minute and particular and (c) literature.

Eliot’s second argument is that student’s interest is not a reliable guide to what he should learn at school. One’s interest or bent often changes.

3) Comment on his statement “it is a part of education to learn to interest ourselves in subjects for whom we have no aptitude.” What are its implication to teachers? His argument is that school should teach something stable, something that represents the accumulation of human intellectual effort and achievement, i.e. the classics.

4) Write “ A Letter to T.S. Eliot” in response to his criticism of educational liberalism and suggestion to restore the study of classics into school curricular.
Open exercise

Language work :

Education has tended to be dominated by the idea of getting on. The individual wants more education, not as an aid to the acquisition wisdom but in order to get on; the nation (1)__________of wants more in order to get the better of other nation, the class wants it to get the better of other classes, or at least to hold its own against them. Education is associated therefore efficiency on the one hand, and with with technical (2) __________ rising in society on the other. Education becomes something to which everybody has a “right”, even irrespective of his capacity; and when everyone gets it – by the time, of course, diluted in a (3) ___________and adulterated from – then we naturally discover that education is no longer an infallible means of getting on, and people turn to another (4) _________: that of fallacy education for leisure” – without having revised their notions of “leisure”.

As soon as this precious motive of (5)__________ snobbery evaporates, the zest has gone out of education; if it is not going to mean more money, or more power over others, or a better social respectable job, few position, or at least a steady and (6)___________ people are going to take the trouble to acquire education. For deteriorate it as you may, education is still going to demand a drudgery An the of people are incapable good deal of (7) __________. of enjoying leisure – that is, unemployment plus an income and a status of respectability – in any but pretty simple forms propelled by hand, by foot, and by – such as balls (8) __________ engines or tools of various types; in playing cards; or in feats watching dogs, horses or other men engage in (9) _______ of speed or skill. The uneducated man with an empty mind, if he be free from financial anxiety or narrow limitation, and can access to golf-clubs, dance halls, etc., is, for all obtain (10) ________ I can see, as well equipped to fill his leisure contentedly as is the educated man.

1. fallacy 2. famishing 3. drought 4. draught 5. ethics 6. In the main

a. mostly b. a long period of dry weather when there is no rain c. a false belief, or idea especially the one that many people believe to be true d. a dose of drink e. causing to suffer severely for hunger f. something (of writing or speech) that is insipid simplistic or bland

7. doctrine
8. pabulum

g. moral rules or principles of behavior for deciding what is right or what is wrong.
h. a strong belief or set of beliefs or opinions that from an important part of religion or system or ideas.

1. Pre-reading questions
What is a healthy environment of education? Brainstorm a few important elements and write them on the following lines.

Questions for discussion:

1) What school, public or private school, does E.B. White prefer? List the details from which you make the inference.
?E.B.White seems to prefer the education at public school.

* The first paragraph (about the teacher ) * The fourth and fifth paragraph (about the freedom the children have) * The sixth paragraph (about how the earlier worries were finally dispelled)

2) Compare the writings of E.B. White and T.S. Eliot. What are the differences in which they state their preferences?
For T.S.Eliot
* Straightforward(as required by essay writing) * The use of first person pronoun is minimum. For E.B.White * Subtle

* Personal (abundant use of first person pronoun)
* Non-fiction writing

* His argument is that school should teach something stable, something that represents the accumulation of human intellectual efforts and achievements, i.e. the classics. Now please discuss how the intellectual achievements can be made.What counts as intellectual achievements? Where does true knowledge come from? And finally have the students write the letter based on their discussion.

Do the exercises on page 47-48
Key: 1 2 3 4


7 8

c A D h D A B B D

Do the exercises on page 47-48
Key: 9 10 11 12



A A D h B C A C B

Do the exercises on page 47-48
Key: 17 18 19 20


B D A h C C