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chapter 10 Physiology of Nervous System


Chapter 10

Physiology of Nervous System

Section 1 The Functions of Neuron and Neuroglia

Neuron The elementary functions of neuron
(1) Receive the excitations or inhibitions induced by internal or external stimulations. (2) Analyze and integrate the information from every organs.
(3) Generate or carry the demands regulating the activities of the effectors. (4) Some neurons have neuroendocrine function.

Neurons have 4 important zones
? Soma and dendrites –receive the information,generate and integrate the local potential changes.

? Initial segment - action potentials are generated.
? Axon process - transmits the impulses to the nerve endings. ? Nerve endings - release the synaptic transmitters.

Types of nerve fibres
Fibre type Aα (I) Function motor α – fibres spindle afferents (Ia) tendon organs (Ib) touch and pressure motor to muscle spindles
Axon diameter mm / Myelin + Conduction velocity, m/s

9-18/+

70-120

Aβ (II) Aγ

5-12/+ 3-6/+

30-75 18-36

Aδ(III)
B C (IV)

pain, pressure, temperature preganglionic
pain, touch, heat

1-5/3/1/-

4-30
3-12 1-2

Axoplasmic transport
? Anterograde anxoplasmic transport: soma → terminals - Rapid transport : 410mm/d, ? organelles with membrane, ? neurotransmitters( neuropeptide), ? mitochondria and enzymes - Slow transport: 1-12(0.5-10)mm/d. microtubule and microfilament, ? Retrograde axoplasmic transport : soma ← terminals 205mm/d. NGF, virus and toxin,etc. by endocytosis.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Nerve growth factor(NGF) Brain-derived neurotrophin factor(BDNF) Neurotrophin 3 Neurotrophin 4/5 Neurotrophin 6 Ciliary neurotrophin factor(CNTF) Glial cell-derived neurotrophin factor(GDNF) Leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) Insulin-like growth factorⅠ(IGF-Ⅰ) Transforming growth factor(TGF) Fibroblast growth factor(TGF) Platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF)

Neurotrophin

Neuroglia
? About 1.0×1012~ 5.0×1012 neuroglia cells , 10~50 fold of neurons ? Dendrites and axons can not be distinguished clearly ? No synapse formed and no AP produced

The types of glia
? CNS - astrocyte oligodendrocyte microglia ependamal cell Choroidal epithelium ? PNS - Schwann cell satellite cell

Functions of glial cells
? Astrocytes (Astroglia)
- Support the neurons - Clean up brain "debris"( damaged material) and fill in the damaged area - Transport nutrients to neurons - regulate the external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess ions, and recycling neurotransmitters.

1. Transport nutrients to neurons, 2. They regulate the external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess ions, notably potassium, and recycling neurotransmitters released during synaptic transmission

? Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
- myelinate axons (1) insulate the axons (2) facilitate the conduction of electrical impulses.

? Microglia
- act as the immune cells of the CNS - remove most of the waste and cellular debris
from the CNS - derivation,action in brain injury, action in other diseases.

Section 2

General interactions between neurons

Classifications of Synapses
– Chemical synapses ?Directed synapses (Typical synapses) ?Non- directed synapses (Varicosity) – Electrical synapses

Typical Synapses (chemical synapses)
The small gap or space between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron is called the Synapse .

Synapse

Structure of Synapse
? Membrane of presynaptic neuron ? Synaptic cleft
? Membrane of postsynaptic neuron

Major types of Synapses
A: axo-somatic synapse B:axo-dendritic synapse
C:axo-axonic synapse

1. An arriving action potential depolarizes the presynaptic membrane. 2. Calcium ions enter the cytoplasma of the synaptic knob. 3. Neurotransmitters release. 4. Neurotransmitters diffuse to and bind to the receptors on postsynaptic membrane. 5. Receptors on the postsynaptic membrane are activated, producing a postsynaptic potential. 6. Neurotransmitters are broken down.

Process of Typical Synaptic Transmission

Electrical Activities of Postsynaptic Neurons (Postsynaptic Potential) Forms of the postsynaptic potential
? Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) ? Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

Postsynaptic Potentials Excitatory
?When a neuron responds to the neurotransmitter postsynaptically, it allows ions to move across its membrane. ?The movement of ions changes the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. ?It is called the Inhibitory postsynaptic potential “postsynaptic potential”.
postsynaptic potential

EPSP
? Excitatory transmitters → Synaptic cleft → bind to receptors → ↑the postsynaptic membrane's permeability to Na+, Ca2+ → enter the postsynaptic neuron →produce a depolarizing potential.

? Inhibitatory transmitters → Synaptic cleft → bind to receptors → ? the postsynaptic membrane’s permeability to Cl-(or K+ ) → Cl- enter the postsynaptic neuron →generate a hyperpolarizing potential.

IPSP

They can also produced by closure of Na+ or Ca2+ channels

? The EPSP is produced by depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. During this potential, the excitability of the neuron to other stimuli is increased, and this the potential is called the EPSP. ? The IPSP is produced by hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. During this potential, the excitability of the neuron to other stimuli is decreased, and this the potential is called the IPSP.

Types of postsynaptic potentials
EPSP: ? excitatory postsynaptic potential ? can help lead to the production of an action potential ? causes a depolarization IPSP: ? inhibitory postsynaptic potential ? can help to prevent the production of an action potential ? causes a hyperpolarization

Features of post-synaptic potential
? Post-synaptic body works as a “ device of integration ”. ? Algebraic sum of EPSP and IPSP generated simultaneously. summation

Inactivation of Neurotransmitters

1. Be reuptaken by presynaptic membrane or by Glial cells (Serotonin,NE) 2. Diffusion (Neuropeptide) 3. Enzymatic degradation (ACh )

Synaptic inhibition
It can be divided into the postsynaptic inhibition and presynaptic inhibition according to the location.

Postsynaptic inhibition
The inhibitory interneuron releases the inhibitory neurotransmitter which induces the postsynaptic membrane hyperpolarizing.

? Afferent collateral inhibition:The branches (reciprocal inhibition,交互抑制)

of axon synapse the inhibitory interneuron, which connect with other excitatory neurons.

? Recurrent inhibition:The inhibitory

interneuron is connected in such a way that they act back on the excited cell itself.

Afferent collateral inhibition

It is very important for coordinating reflex activity.

Strychnine(士的宁):
glycin

block the inhibitory synapses

Recurrent inhibition

Presynaptic inhibition
? In presynaptic inhibition, there is no change in the postsynapstic membrane, but a reduction in the release of transmitter at the presynaptic terminal of the excitatory synapses. ? Presynaptic inhibition is induced by an activation of axo-axonic synapse (combined with axo-somatic synapse).

A
C

C

Characteristics of chemical synaptic transmission
1. One way conduction 2. Synaptic delay:0.5ms↑ 3. Summation 4. Susceptibility:to asphyxia, ischemia, and drugs. 5. Fatigue

Non-synaptic chemical transmission (Varicosity)
? The autonomic nerve fibers

? Smooth muscle cells
? Distinguish it with neuromuscular junctions

Electrical synaptic transmission --- gap junction

?Gap junctions allow charges to flow from on cell to the next. These ions may depolarize the adjacent cell to threshold. An AP is generated.

Section 3
Nerve reflex and neuronal circuit

neuronal circuit
?

Divergence:responsible for motor and sensory systems. ? Convergence: responsible for the interpretation of the sensory stimuli. ? Chain circuit: facilitate or inhibit the signals. ? Recurrent circuit:prolong or shorten the signal activities.

divergence and convergence

Recurrent circuit

Chain circuit

Section 4
Sensory Function of Nervous System

Sensory pathways of somatic sensory

gracile (薄束) and the cuneate

Pain and temperature

Proprioception, active tactile

Thalamus
? The somatosensory thalamus is a relay station for most sensory modalities. ? Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex. ? There are other thalamic nuclei that receive input from cerebellar-, basal ganglia- and limbic-related brain regions.

Thalamic relay nuclei
? Sense-relay nuclei

Relay auditory, visual and somatosensory impulse to the auditory, visual cortex and postcentral gyrus.
? Associated nuclei which are concerned with the integration of movement, and the connection of the all senses. ? The third thalamic nuclei They transmits nerve impulses to subcortical areas before transmission to the cerebral cortex. And then project diffusely to the cortex and maintain wakefulness.

Sensory Projection System
? Specific projection system
-From the Sense-relay nuclei and Associated nuclei -Projecting to the specific areas of cortex( point to point) - Few synapses only - Inducing the specific sensory.

? Non-Specific projection system

- From the third thalamic nuclei - Projecting diffusely to the cortex - Multisynapses - Maintaining the awareness state (ascending reticular system)

Ascending reticular activating system
a) Exerts an activating influence on the cortex to keep awaken state. b) On the background of non-specific sensory pathway. c) Poly-synaptic relay system.

Somatic Sensory areas in cerebral cortex

? Somatic representations
Somatic sensory area Ⅰ–postcentral gyrus Somatic sensory area II– between precentral gyrusand insula

? proprioceptive representations

precentral gyrus -(sharing the same area with motor)

Other Sensory areas in cerebral cortex
? visceral cortex –Somatic sensory area Ⅰ. ? ? ? ? visual cortex– occipital cortex auditory cortex- temporal gyrus smell cortex – inferior part of the limbic system taste cortex – below the head-facial cortical representation which locates in postcentral gyrus

Functional Characteristics of Somatic sensory area I
? Crossing projection for Somatic sensory ,but bilateral projection for head-facial sensation. ? Projection area is proportional to the acuity for epicritic sense ). ? Arrangement of projection is upside-down, but upside-up in head-facial sensory projection.

Pain
Definition :Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience
associated with actual or potential tissue damage.

? Types of pain: fast pain, slow pain, superficial somatic pain, deep somatic pain, visceral pain ? localization of pain:referred pain, phantom limb sensation . ? The sense organs for pain are the naked nerveendings. ? Pain impulses are transmitted to the central nervous system by 2 fibers systems, small myelinated Aδ fibers and unmyelinated C.

The difference between fast pain and slow pain
Fast Pain “bright” quick, sharp Slow Pain “cautery” slow

localized

poorly localized

followed by a dull, intense, followed by nausea, vomiting, unpleased feeling. diffuse, and cardiovascular and respiratory changes. transmitted by Aδ fibers transmitted by C fibers

Visceral Pain & Referred Pain
Properties of visceral pain
? poorly localized ? slow, long-lasting and diffuse. ? sensitive to mechanical stretch, ischemia, colic(绞痛) and inflammation etc. ? especially eliciting unpleasant emotion and cardiovascular and respiratory changes. ? often radiates to the other areas.

Referred pain
? Irritation of a viscus frequently produces pain which is felt not in the viscus but in some somatic structure that may be a considerable distance away.

Mechanism of Referred pain

Convergence theory

Section 5

Wakefulness , Sleep and Electric activity of the brain

? Evoked cortical potentials Definition: The electrical events that occur in the cortex after stimulation of a sense organ can be monitored. ? Electroencephalogram (EEG) Extracellular current flow arising from electrical activity within the cerebral cortex can be detected by placing recording electrodes on the scalp to produce a graphic record known as EEG.

EEG

Evoked cortical potentials

Auditory Evoked Potentials

Sleep
Phases of sleep ? Slow wave sleep (SWS): A person asleep first enters this stage, it lasts about 80~120 minutes. slow and synchronous wave. Body reactivity depressed, but more sweating. ? Fast-wave sleep (FWS) or Rapid eye movements (REM): lasts about 20 to 30 minutes, and usually appears on the average every 90 minutes. fast and de-synchronous wave. Body reactivity further depressed, but a rise in BP, HR and RR irregularly increased.

Section 6
Motor Function of nervous system

1.Spinal control of Motor Function
–α motor neurons ?Causes contraction of the innervated muscle. ?Final common pathway. – γ motor neurons ?innervates intrafusal muscle to adjust the sensitivity of muscle spindle to stretch.

Motor neurons in the spinal cord

Motor unit

? A motor unit consists of a single α-motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers which it innervates.
For the refined motion

For the strength

Stretch reflex
? Definition:Whenever a skeletal muscle is stretched suddenly, excitation of the spindle causes reflex contraction of the large skeletal muscle fibers of the same muscle.

? Stretch reflex includes:
?

Tendon reflex (Phasic stretch reflex ) :
short lasting and relatively intense (Ⅰa),

strong reflex contraction.(single synaptic
reflex).
?

Muscle tonus (Tonic stretch reflex ) : less intense but lasts longer, maintain the body posture.(polysynaptic reflex)

Receptors
? Muscle spindle : length receptor, sensitive to length. in parallel with the extrafusal muscle,

? Golgi Tendon organ : tone receptor. sensitive to tension. in series with the extrafusal muscle,

? A skeletal muscle is stretched→ spindle is stretched →the impulses are conducted to the spinal cord by Ⅰa/Ⅱfibers to activate the αmotor neurons→which supply the same muscle → the muscle contracts to oppose the stretch (the antagonist muscle relaxes ). ? if stronger stretch applied on muscle, it changes the muscle tone → stretch the tendon organ → in turn to inhibit αmotoneurons by inhibitory interneurons → to inhibits stretch reflex to prevent the stretched muscles from injury.

Mechanism of stretch reflex

Flexor reflex and Crossed extensor reflex

?.Flexor reflex
?A noxious stimulus to the spinal animal induces flexion upward and away from the stimulus. ? Reflex response consists of facilitation of flexor muscles and inhibition of extensor muscle in the stimulated limb. ? That can provide protection from the injury.

?. Crossed extensor reflex
If the stimulus sufficiently strong, flexion of ipsilateral limb and extension of the contra-lateral limb which serves to support the body weight and maintain the body balance.

Conception

Spinal shock

? Complete transection of the spinal cord results in the immediate paralysis and loss of sensation below the lesion segments. All reflexes totally depressed. ? The time course of recovery from the spinal shock varies considerably with the species studied. It is increased with ascent of the phylogenetic scale.

Symptoms of spinal shock
? The tone of skeletal muscle innervated and spinal relaxes below the lesion is decreased or disappeared. ? BP drops down, peripheral blood vessels are dilated. ? Sweating reflex is suppressed. ? Feces is detained in rectum and urine in bladder.

2.Brain stem control of Motor Function

Decerebrate rigidity
? Midbrain at the inter-collicular level is transected. ? Extensor Stretch reflexes become hyperactive and hyper-tonic of all extensor muscles appears, which makes the limbs rigidly extended, the back stiff and straight and the head held up and slightly backward.. No spinal shock occurs due to the connection of brain stem with spinal cord.

Decerebrate rigidity

Faciliatory area

inhibitory area

Reticular formation (RF) and stretch reflex

3. Cerebral control of motor function
? Cerebral representation of motor: ? pre-central gyrus and pre-motor area(the area 4 and 6)

Functional characteristics

?crossed innervation, but bilateral innervation to head-facial muscles. ?precise location for function. ?upside-down arrangement at cortical motor area, upside-up for face.

4.Cerebellum and motor control

Functions and disorders
? Vestibulocerebellum– Balance/ Equilibrium of the trunk (postural balance) and eye movement - positional nystagmus(rapid oscillation, ) ? Spinocerebellum– muscle tone, posture and coordination of skilled voluntary Movement (motor execution) - intention tremor, an unsteadiness of gait , cerebellar ataxia ? Cerebrocerebellum– edition and save of movement program. - Ataxia , dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, asynergia, and terminal tremor.

Structure
?

5.Function of basal ganglia

caudate nucleus putamen Neostriatum globus pallidus---paleostriatum globus pallidus externa (GPe) globus pallidus interna (GPi). subthalamic nucleus red nucleus substantia nigra ? The putamen and globus pallidus, collectively known as the lenticular nucleus

? Function : Controlling movements (Involvement of voluntary motion, muscle tone, muscular proprioception) and establishing postures. ? Disorders: ? Parkinson`s Disease(PD) ? Huntington`s Disease(HD) ? Wilson Disease (Hepatolenticular Degeneration) ? Tourette Syndrome

?

PD,which is the slow and steady loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc. The three symptoms are tremor (at rest), rigidity, and bradykinesia.
Widespread destruction of the portion of substantia nigra (degeneration of the nigrostriatal tract) Administration of L-Dopa can improve the patient’ symptoms.

?

?

Section 7

Autonomic nervous system

The ANS innervates effectors whose functions are not usually under voluntary control. These effectors are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

There are two parts to the autonomic nervous system:
? Parasympathetic –important for control of 'normal' body functions,controls all your body functions in a relaxed state. ? Sympathetic –important in helping us cope with stress, mediating a "fight-orflight" response.

Structural characteristics
Subdivision Nerves Employed Location of Ganglia Chemical Messenger distribution

Sympathetic

Thoracolumbar

Alongside vertebral column

NorBroad,almost epinephrine all the internal organs

Parasympathetic

Craniosacral On or near Acetylcholi Limit,part of an effector ne the organs organ

?sympathetic division - preganglionic fibers are relatively short & postganglionic neurons are relatively long
?parasypathetic division - preganglionic fibers are relatively long & postganglionic neurons are very short

Acetylcholine and receptor
Cholinergic receptor
M (muscarinic receptor) subtype M1~5 G-protein coupled receptor effect See Later
antagon Atropine ist Distribu Effectors of most parasympathetic postganglionic -tion neurons and less sympathetic postganglionic neurons

N (nicotinic receptor) Muscle-type (N2) and Neuron-type (N1)
Constraction of skeletal muscle, excitation of autonomic ganglionic cell Curare
Postganglionic neurons of all autonomic nerves (N1) and neuromuscular junction (N2)

Adrenergic receptor
? receptor
subtype distribution Agonist antagonist ? 1, ? 2 Sympathetic postganglionic effectors NA >A Phentolamine ?1:prazosin ? 2:yohimbine Propranolol ? 1:atenol ? 2:butoxamine A>NA

? receptor
? 1, ? 2, ? 3

The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation
Ihe effects include : Control of heart rate and force of contraction, constriction and dilatation of blood vessels, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in various organs, visual accommodation, pupillary size and secretions from exocrine and endocrine glands.

Sympathetic Effects
? Fight or flight response. ? Release of NE from postganglionic fibers and Epi and NE from adrenal medulla. ? The major effects for intense activity.
– – – Heart rate (HR) increases. Bronchioles dilate. Blood [glucose] increases..

Parasympathetic Effects
? Normally not activated as a whole.
– Stimulation of separate parasympathetic nerves.

? Release Acetylcholine (ACh) as NT. ? Relaxing effects:
– – – Decreases HR. Dilates visceral blood vessels. Increases digestive activity..

Fuctional characteristics of autonomic nervous system
? Dual innervation: Most of the visceral organs receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
? Sympathetic and parasympathetic “tone”: The two system are continually active and basal rates of activity are known as tone. ? The functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic system are sometimes associated with the status of effectors. ? Regulation to the physiological functions of the whole body. (stress, at rest)

? Spinal cord --is the basic center of visceral action. ?Simple reflexes are integrated here. e.g. feces passage and micturation, sweating and baro-receptor reflexes. ? Lower brain stem ? Medulla oblongata is the vital center.

Central control to visceral action

? Important regulation on BP, HR, and

respiration occur in medulla oblongata. ? Pupillary light reflex is practiced with the action of midbrain.

? Hypothalamus ? Hypothalamus is a higher center for the functional integration of visceral and somatic responses. The primary functions of Hypothalamus : A. Regulation of body temperature– PO/AH. B. Regulation of water balance– osmoreceptor, ADH. C. Regulation of food intake. D. Control of pituitary secretions of hypothalamic regulatory peptide (HRP). E. Biorhythm – suprachiasmatic nucleus

? Cerebral cortex ? Limbic system is concerned with olfaction, influences on visceral, emotional and other functions. ? It also participates in the regulation of various autonomic events, endocrine responses, aggressive and sexual behavior, reproduction, feeding, learning, emotional responses and memory, etc.

Higher Function of the Brain
? Learning and memory ? Language center of cerebral cortex ? Laterality cerebral dominance

Section 8

? Learning is the acquisition of knowledge as result of experiences. ? Memory is the storage of acquired knowledge for later recall.

Synaptic plasticity LTP (long term potentiation) LTD (long term depression)


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