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Lead—in: exercises 1.______ the baby could speak made his parents very happy. A. That B. What C. Why D. If 2. I wonder ______ you will go shopping or stay at home. A. that B. if C. whether D. what 3. This is ______ he was often late for school. A. what B. that C. why D. whether 4. We all know the truth ______ the earth ______ around the sun. A. if; moved B. that; moves C. why; move D. whether; move 一.名词性从句的概念: 一个句子在连接词的引导下,在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词 性从句。 二.名词性从句的功能: 相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位 语、介词宾语等。 His job is important. (主语) What he does is important. (主语) This is his job. (表语) This is what he does every day. (表语) I don’t like his job. (宾语) I don’t like what he does every day. (宾语) I don’t know about the fact that he is a teacher. (同位语) I don’t know about the man, Mr. White. (同位语) 得出结论:因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分为四类,即:主语从句、宾 语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 三.引导名词性从句的连接词: 1、连接代词:who, whoever, whose, whom, whomever, what, which。有词义,在从句中担任 成分,如主语、表语、宾语、或定语等。 ? I don’t believe __________ he has achieved so far. ? __________ breaks the law should be punished. 2、连接副词:when, where, why, how。有词义,在从句中担任成分,作状语。 ? __________ we will hand in the project will be discussed later. ? Parents are thought to understand __________ important education is to their children’s future. ? The reason __________ he was absent was that he was ill. 3、连接词:that, whether, if, as if, as though。that 无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可省 略;if (whether), as if 虽有词义,但在从句中不担任成分。 ? I don’t care about __________ you have money or not. ? The problem is __________ Tom is able to arrive on time. ? __________ the meeting will be held here is not decided yet. ? It looks __________ it is going to rain. ? The truth is __________he didn’t come for the concert. ? __________ the earth is round is true. 四.名词性从句的类型: 1. 主 语 从 句 : 在复合 句中 作主 句的主 语。 连接词 有 that, whether; who, what ,which; when ,where, how, why 等。 如: ? __________ he is a famous singer is known to us.

? __________ he will go to America is not yet fixed. ? __________ she’s coming or not doesn’t matter too much. ? __________ broke the glass yesterday is not clear. 注意: 1. 为避免主语冗长,句子头重脚轻, 经常用 it 作形式主语, 主语从句放在后面作真正的主语。 记住以下 it 作形式主语的句型: It’s likely / possible / important / necessary / clear that…很可能 / 重要的是… / 必要的是… / 很清楚… It’s said / reported that…据说/据报道… It seems / appears / happens that…显然、明显、碰巧… It’s been announced / declared that…已经通知/宣布… It’s no wonder that…并不奇怪/无疑… It’s a pity/a fact /a common knowledge (众所周知)/ a common saying(俗话说)that… ? It worried her a bit ______ her hair was turning grey. A. while B. that C. if D. for ? It remains a question ______ we can get so much money in such a short time. A. how B. that C. when D. what ? It is known to us ______ where there is pollution, there is harm. A. which B. where C. what D. that 2. 单个的主语从句作主语时, 谓语动词用句单数形式;如果是两个或两个以上的主语作 主语,谓语动词则视情况而定。 When and where he was born hasn’t been found. When he was born and where he was born haven’t been found. When and why the person was murdered is still unknown. When the person was murdered and why he was murdered are still unknown. Exercises: ? .______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever ? ______I can pay back the help that people give me makes me very happy. A. Where B. What C. That D. How ? It’s not clear ______ was responsible for the accident. A. Who B. What C. How D. That ? ______ in the regulations that you should not tell other people the password of your e-mail account. A. What is required B. What requires C. It is required D. It requires 2. 表语从句:在复合句中作主句的表语。引导词有连词 that , whether, as if, as though; who, what, which, whose; when, where, how, why, because 等。如: ? The problem is _________ we didn’t get in touch with him. ? This is _________ Henry solved the problem. ? His suggestion is _________ we (should) finish the work at once. ? It looked _________ it was going to rain. ? The reason _________ we didn't trust him is _________ he has often lied. 注意: 1. 如果句子的主语是 suggestion, advice, order, demand, proposal 等名词时,后面引导的表语从 句用 should+动词原形,should 可省略。 他的建议是我们应该马上完成工作. His suggestion is that we (should) finish the work at once.

2. The reason is that … …的理由是,… 的原因是… The reason __________ he was late again was __________ he was caught in the traffic jam. The reason ______ I have to go is ______ my mother is ill in bed. A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because 3. It is because … 这是因为… Exercises: ? This is ______ she was born. A. where B. which C. that D. what ? The question is ______ we can’t go there today. A. that B. what C. which D. when ? The reason he has made such great progress is ______ he has never wasted his time. A. because B. why C. that D. what ? My advice is that he ______ school by bike. A. go to B. would go to C. goes to D. went to ? ______ she couldn’t understand was ______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that ? Energy is ______ makes things work. A. what B. everything C. something D. anything 3.宾语从句:在复合句中作主句的宾语。 引导词有连词 that , whether, if; who, whom, whose, what ,which; when ,where, how, why 等。如: (1) V + 宾语从句,即“动宾”: We believe that he is honest. / I asked if they had a cheap suit. / Can you tell me which dictionary is hers? / I really don’t know what he is doing. ? I just don’t understand______ that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect. A .why it does B. what it does C. what it is D. why it is ? --- Don’t you believe me? --- ______, I will believe ______ you say. A. No; whatever B. Yes; no matter what C. No; no matter what D. Yes; whatever ? “What did your parents think about your decision?” “They always let me do ______ I think I should.” A. when B. that C. how D. what .(2) prep + 宾语从句,即“介宾”: He’s pleased with what we did yesterday. / Pay attention to what the teacher said. ? I wish to have a friend with ______ shares my hobbies and interests. A. whomever B. no matter who C. whoever D. anyone ? Mary wrote an article on ______ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that ? It was a matter of ______ would take the position. A. who B. whoever C. whom D. whomever (3) adj + 宾语从句,即“形宾”: I’m sure that my brother will love the jacket. / I am glad that you can come and help me. 不能误将”It + be + adj + that” 的主语从句当成宾语从句. 如:It is necessary that we should learn English well. 注意:

(1) whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句,常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时,只用 if,不用 whether。 I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解,就要用 whether。 Please let me know whether you want to go.(如果把 whether 改成 if,容易当成条件句理解) ③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用,就不能换成 if;不直接连用,可换成 if。 I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether the report is true or not. ④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。 whether 可与不定式连用, 构成 whether to do 结构。 whether 也可引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句,还可引导让步状语从句,以上均不能 换成 if。但引导条件从句时,只能用 if,而不能用 whether。 They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time. Exercises: ? I asked her __________ she had a bike. ? __________ we will hold a party in the open air tomorrow depends on the weather. ? We’re worried about __________ he is safe. ? I don’t know __________ he is well or not. ? I don’t know ___________ or not he is well. ? The question is __________ he should do it. ? The doctor can hardly answer the question __________ the old man will recover soon. (2) 如果宾语从句是由 that 引导,and 或 but 连接的两个或两个以上的并列的宾语从句, 那 么只有第一个 that 可以省略,第二个或第二个以后的 that 不能省略. He said ( that ) the text was very difficult and that we had to work hard at it. My deskmate told me (that ) he watched a football match last night, but that it was very discouraging. 如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,就用 it 作形式宾语,将宾语从句后置,并且 that 不可以 省略. He has made it clear that he will win the game. I find it necessary that we should learn English well. We find it necessary that we practice spoken English every day. (3) 表示“建议,命令,要求”的宾语从句,如 advise, suggest, order, request, require, demand 等,从句用虚拟语气,即 should+动词原形,should 可省略。 (4) 在“主语+ believe/think/suppose/know/expect”的结构中,其否定形式要用否定转移,即主 句否定,从句肯定。 I don’t think he will come. I don’t think I’ll trouble you again. I don’t expect that they will get married soon. (5) 宾语从句的时态呼应: a. 如果主句时态是一般现在时或将来时,从句谓语可根据句意需要而选用任一种时态. 他相信他的梦想总有一天会实现的. He believes _________________________ . b .请告诉我你昨天这个时候在干什么. Please tell me _________________________. b. 如果主句谓语是一般过去时,从句谓语动词一般用过去的某种时态 ,但如果从句表达的是 客观事实、真理、自然规律等时,从句谓语通常用一般现在时。 他告诉我他正在为考试做准备. He told me _______________________________. 他说他已离开家乡十年了。 He told me _________________________________.

老师告诉我们光是沿直线运行的. The teacher told us _________________________. Exercises: ? Do you see ______ I mean? A. that B./ C. how D. what ? Tell me______ is on your mind. A. that B. what C. which D. why ? We must stick to ______ we have agreed on. A. what B. that C. / D. how ? Let me see ______. A. that can I repair the radio B. whether I can repair the radio C. I can repair the radio D. whether can I repair the radio ? Keep in mind ______. A. that the teacher said B. what did the teacher say C. that did the teacher say D. what the teacher said 4. 同位语从句: 在复合句中起同位语的作用。 一般放在名词 idea ; belief ; fact ; truth ; problem ; news, information; hope; thought; promise 等之后, 用以说明或解释前面的名词。 常用 that, whether, who, whom, when, where, why, how, which 等引导(whose 和 which 不引导 同位语从句) ? We all know the truth ______ the earth goes round the sun. A. that B. which C. what D. whether ? We heard the news ______ our team had won. A. which B. that C. what D. where ? The problem ______ it is right or wrong has not yet been decided. A. which B. that C. whether D. if ? They expressed the hope ______they would come over to China. A. which B. that C. whom D. when ? The fact______he didn’t see Tom yesterday is true. A. that B. which C. when D. what 注意: 1. 名词 suggestion, advice, order 等词后的同位语从句的谓语动词要用 should+动词原形, should 可省略。 a. The suggestion that he ______ at the meeting was agreed to by most people. A. was put forward B. put forward C. should look forward D. looked forward b. The suggestion that we ______ to picnic on Sunday was agreed to by most people. A went B. would go C. go D. were allowed to go 2. 同位语从句有时没有紧跟在名词后面,而是被别的词分开,称为隔裂式同位语从句。 He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. Word came that Tom would go abroad. ? The question came up at the meeting ______we had enough money for our research. A. that B. what C. which D. whether ? There’s a feeling in me ______we’ll never know what a UFO is-----not ever. A. that B. which C. of which D. what ? It remains a question ______ we can get so much money in such a short time. A. how B. that C. when D. what ? Danby left word with my secretary ______ he would call again in the afternoon.

A. who B. that C. as D. which 3. 如何判断同位语从句和定语从句? a. 定语从句是先行词的修饰语,它不涉及先行词的具体内容。定语从句中 that 不但起连接 作用,而且在定语从句中充当一个成分,充当宾语成分时可省略。 b. 同位语从句对中心词的内容作进一步的解释和说明,表明中心词的具体内容。引导同位 语从句的 that 在同位语从句中不做任何成分,只起连接作用, 无具体含义,且不可省略. 五.名词性从句的考点归纳: 1. 名词性从句的语序: a. That + 陈述句:That light travels in straight lines is known to all. --- I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. --- ______ it made me nearly mad. A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break b. 疑问词引导的名词性从句要求使用陈述语序,不能用一般疑问句语序, 即“疑问词+句子 的剩余成分” 。 I don’t know when he will go to Nanjing. / This is what we are looking for. a. How was he successful is still a puzzle. ( ) How he was successful is still a puzzle. ( ) b. Could you tell me where he lives? ( ) Could you tell me where does he live? ( ) 2. 表示 “建议, 命令, 要求” 的名词性从句, 如(suggest)suggestion, (advise)advice, order, request, demand 等,要用虚拟语气,即 should+动词原形, should 可省略。 3. that 可省略的情况:单个宾语从句中的 that 可省略 that 不可省略的情况:主语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 用 it 做形式宾语的宾语从句 并列的宾语从句中的后几个从句的 引导词 that 不能省略 ? I don’t think ________ she is coming. ? It is a pity ________ he has made such a mistake. ? The reason is _________ he is careless . ? The news ________ our team won the match inspired us. ? I don’t think it necessary _________ you should read English aloud. ? He told me __________ his father had died and __________ he had to make a living alone. 4. 关于 whether 与 if 的使用: ? What the doctor is uncertain about is ______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. A. when B. how C. whether D. why ? Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and ______ it is rough or smooth. A. 不填 B. whether C. how D. what ? The question is ____the film is worth seeing. A. if B. what C. whether D. how ? ______ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if Exercise: ? 我们何时举行运动会还没有决定。

? ? ?

________ we shall hold our sports meeting is not decided. 我不知道昨天谁打破了玻璃。 I don’t know _________ broke the glass yesterday. 我不知道他长的什么样子。 I have no idea _________ he looks like. 这就是我忘记眼镜的地方。 This is _________ I left my glasses.

1. Go and get your coat. It's _______ you left it. A. there B. where C. there were D. where there 2. _______ the sports meet will be held depends on the weather. A. When ever B. If C. Whether D. That 3. The problem is_______ he has enough time. A. if B. whether C./ D. that 4. He made a promise_______ he would help me. A. what B. when C. that D. which 5. I remember_______ this used to be a quiet village. A. how B. when C. where D. what 6. They lost their way in the forest and _____ made matters worse was that night began to fall. A. that B. this C. what D. which 7. He told me the news ____ the Queen would visit China the next month. A. that B. which C. when D. when 8. When the holidays were drawing near, I asked my American friends ___ was the best way to travel in the United States. A. that B. what C. such D. that 9. He was lucky enough to sell his car for exactly ______. A. where he had paid for it B. what he had paid for it C. what he was paid for it D. which he had paid for it 10. Sometimes we are asked ______ we think the likely result of an action will be. A. that B. what C. which D. whether 11. They have not made any decision on ______ they are going to do to deal with the waste and control pollution. A. that B. which C. if D. what 12. --- Do you know him? --- Yes, but I can’t remember ________I met him for the first time. A. where B. what C that D. if 13. --- Do you know _____ Mr. Black’s address is. --- He may live at No. 18 or No. 19 of Bridge Street. I'm not sure of _____. A. what; which B. where; which C. where ; what D. what; where 14. This old computer must have been of great use to _______ did the scientific research. A. those B. when C. whoever D. whomever 15. _______ all the inventions have in common is _____they have succeeded. A. What; what B. That; that C. What; that D That; what 16. --- I rang you at about ten, but there was no reply. --- Oh, that was probably ____ I was seeing the doctor.

A. when B. why C. what D. that 17. Maria has to baby-sit. That’s______ she can't come with us. A. why B. how C. when D. what 18. ____ surprised me most was ______ they had finished it so quickly. A. What, what B. That, that C. What, that D. That, what 19. The reason why she couldn’t come to the meeting was_____ she had not been invited. A. because B. which C. that D. why 20. In some countries, ____ is called "equality" does not really mean equal rights for all people. A. which B. that C. what D. one 在空格处填上适当的关连词: 1. The question is ___________ the film is worth seeing. 2. Do you doubt ________ I believe you ? 3. This museum is not _______ it was ten years ago. 4. The reason for his success is ________ he work hard. 5. She dresses well, but the trouble is ______ the clothes she is wearing don’t go with each other very well. 6. The suggestion ______ students should learn some practical knowledge is worth considering. 7. It depends on _______ we have enough time. 8. You have no idea _________ anxious I have been for her safety. 9. Now we can see __________ a serious problem the population is. 10. I want to buy some stamps. Can you tell me _______ there’s a post office near here? 11. There’s some doubt _________ she will be able to repay the money on time. 12. My radio doesn’t work.. I don’t know ________ is the trouble. 13. _______ he doesn’t like them is very clear. 14. I’d appreciate it ______ you carry out the experiment as directed. 15. The fire destroyed ________ was in the building. 16. We know little about the young lady except ______ you told me. 17. I know nothing about her except ________ she is from Canada. 18. ________ there is life on another planet is almost impossible. 19. Please give me the book to _______ wins the first prize. 20. The chance _____ he will attend the meeting is very little. 21. Mark wondered ________ you thought of the new film. 22. The old woman was shocked by _________ had happened to her daughter. 23. Lei Fen was always thinking of _______ he could help others. 24. Could you tell me for_________ you have bought this fur coat? 25. ________ he wanted to see was an end to all the armies of the world. 26. The problem lies in ________ we lack time to have holidays. 27. __________ Thomas Edison became a great inventor is known to all. 28. ______ he felt sorry for was ______ he wasn’t in time to prevent the accident. 29. __________ we will go camping depends on the weather. 30. _________ is likely that we can bridge the generation gap. 31. We should help _____ is in need of our help. 32. The reason ________ he was absent was _______ he wasn’t interested in the meeting. 33. The child is fat. That’s ______ he has a sweet teeth.

34. It’s beyond doubt ________ that man will lag behind in the race. 35. _______ the doctor doubt is _______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. 36. Traditional education taught people to believe ______ being intelligent meant remembering information and writing about it. 37. After three hours’ climbing, they reached _______ they thought was the place they’d been dreaming of. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. The media today can draw public attention to ________ help is actually needed. We agreed to accept ______ they thought was the best tourist guide. “ Do you think _______ I should attend the lecture?” she asked me . The police promised to do ________ was possible to save the people trapped in the mountains. Some people are born with the belief ________ they are masters of their own while others feel _______ they are at the mercy of others. The moment ________ Leo will never forget is ________ Mr. Green gave him a lot of valuable advice on how to improve his writing. I think this trip was well worth _______ we had paid. The word “ media” basically refers to ________ we commonly call newspapers, magazines, radios and televisions. Information has come ______ the superstar Zhang Ziyi will play the leading role in this film. The question occurred _______ we were to get the machines needed. ________ we are sure about is the need to prevent children from being spoiled. _______ matters most in learning English is enough practice. You can only be sure of _____ you have at present; you can not be sure of something _____ you might get in the future. Choosing the right dictionary depends on _______ you want use it for. Could I speak to _______ is in charge of International Sales, please? — Where did you get to know her? — It was on the farm ____ we worked. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity ______ sight matters more than hearing. Why not try luck downtown, Bob? That’s _______ the best jobs are. ________ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. Please remind me ______ he said he was going. I may in time to see him off. It was said ________ that was how the Chinese first raised silkworms. Mary came back with a massage _________ there would be a test soon. Do _________ you think is right __________ difficulties you may have. Our principal didn’t feel like making it clear _______ he attend the meeting the next morning. ________ theory must be put into practice is _______ we must always keep in mind. Stories spread quickly among his friends________ Tom had lived on a desert island for over five months after the ship sank.


参考答案: 1. whether 2. that 3. what. 4. that. 5. that 6. that 7. whether. 8. how. 9. what. 10. whether/of 11. that 12. where 13. That 14. that. 15. what(ever) 16. what. 17. that. 18. That 19. whoever 20. that 21. what 22. what 23. how 24. whom. 25. What 26. that 27. How/ That 28. What, that 29. Whether 30 It 31. whoever 32. why 33. because. 34. that 35. What 36. that 37.what 38. where 39. whoever 40. that 41. whatever 42. that ,/ 43. that, when. 44. what 45. what 46. that 47. where 48. What. 49. What 50. what./ 51. what 52. whoever. 53. where 54. where 55 where 56. Whichever 57. when. 58. that 59. that 60. what, whatever 61. that. 62. That ; what 63. that


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