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Toluene–nitrite inhibition synergy of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) activity


Process Biochemistry 48 (2013) 926–930

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Process Biochemistry
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/procbio

Short communication

Toluene–nitrite inhibition synergy of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) activity
Sergio Martínez Hernández a,b,? , Wenjie Sun a,1 , Reyes Sierra-Alvarez a,1 , Jim A. Field a,1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210011, Tucson, AZ, United States Instituto de Biotecnología y Ecología Aplicada (INBIOTECA), Universidad Veracruzana, Av. de las Culturas Veracruzanas No. 101, Col. Emiliano Zapata, C.P. 91090, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
b a

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Anammox process is emerging as a promising biotechnology to remove ammonium (NH4 + ) from wastewater. Co-existing organic matters such as toluene could pose potential inhibitions on this process. In this study, the mechanisms of toluene–nitrite (NO2 ? ) inhibition synergy of anammox activity (AA) was ?1 1 investigated in batch culture. In results, the AA (mmol N2 -N L? h ) in reference assays achieved valliquid ues of 0.21 ± 0.0078. The toluene (0.1–3.0 mM) demonstrated different inhibitory effects on the AA and caused 50% inhibition (IC50 ) at 0.79 mM. The pre-exposure to toluene and NO2 ? or NO2 ? alone in the absence of NH4 + demonstrated a much severer inhibition, compared to toluene alone. The IC50 of the AA due to pre-exposure to NO2 ? lacking NH4 + was of 6.25 mM NO2 ? . These results indicated that toluene by itself did not severely inhibit the anammox process but did so in the presence of NO2 ? . ? 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 25 November 2012 Received in revised form 11 April 2013 Accepted 14 April 2013 Available online 22 April 2013 Keywords: Anammox Toluene Nitrite Inhibition synergy Anammox activity Batch assay

1. Introduction Ammonium (NH4 + ) contamination in wastewater systems is an environmental problem of increasing concern, causing adverse effects such as eutrophication and human health risk [1–3]. Although NH4 + can be removed by physicochemical processes [4], biological technologies provide the cost-effective advantages [5]. Anammox process is emerging as a promising biotechnology to improve NH4 + removal in a more sustainable fashion [6]. The process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacteria within the Plantomycete phylum, which catalyzes the oxidation of NH4 + (as electron donor) by nitrite (NO2 ? ) (as electron acceptor) to form dinitrogen gas (N2 ) and nitrate (NO3 ? ) [7]. The stoichiometry reaction is shown in Eq. (1): NH4 + + 1.32NO2 ? + 0.066HCO3 ? + 0.13H+ → 1.02N2 + 0.26NO3 ? + 0.066CH2 O0.5 N0.15 + 2.03H2 O (1)

Anammox process has been extensively used to treat a large variety of wastewater such as sludge liquor, land?ll leachate

and stock waste [8]. The studies have demonstrated that some anammox microorganisms have the ability to biodegrade organic compounds such as acetate and propionate [9,10]. However, coexisting organic matters can be utilized as alternative electron donors to promote others competitive biological processes such as denitri?cation, as reported by others authors [11,12], On the other hand, the presence of organic matter such as methanol may also cause different levels of inhibition to anammox activity [9,13]. Thus there is a need to better understand the effects of various organic compounds on the metabolism of anammox bacteria. Among the organic constituents, toluene is of most concern due to its toxic and carcinogenic potential, and since it is common in various types of land?ll leachates [14,15]. Toluene is a priority pollutant classi?ed by the U.S. EPA, which causes severe harm to humans, such as to the neurological and the endocrine systems [16]. Also, toluene can provoke several damages on microorganisms, mainly at level of cytoplasm membrane [17]. However, the impact of toluene on the anammox process has yet been studied based on literature review. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of toluene on the anammox activity and explore the inhibitory mechanisms of toluene–nitrite inhibition synergy on metabolism of anammox process.
2. Methods 2.1. Microorganisms One anammox granular sludge was obtained from a full-scale anammox bioreactor (Paques BV, The Netherlands) treating sludge liquor from an agro-industrial

? Corresponding author at: Instituto de Biotecnología y Ecología Aplicada (INBIOTECA), Universidad Veracruzana, Av. de las Culturas Veracruzanas No. 101, Col. Emiliano Zapata, C.P. 91090, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Tel.: +52 228 8422773/ +1 520 626 6781; fax: +52 228 8422773/+1 520 621 6048. E-mail address: sermartinez@uv.mx (S.M. Hernández). 1 Tel.: +1 520 626 6781; fax: +1 520 621 6048. 1359-5113/$ – see front matter ? 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2013.04.010

S.M. Hernández et al. / Process Biochemistry 48 (2013) 926–930

927

NO2- consumption (mM)

wastewater treatment plant. The volatile suspended solids (VSS) content of the sludge was 4.8 ± 0.2% of the wet weight. The granular samples were washed and sieved immediately before use to remove ?nes. The inocula were stored in N2 gas at 4 ? C. 2.2. Basal medium The basal medium was prepared using ultrapure water (Milli-Q system; Millipore) and contained the following compounds (mg l?1 ): NaH2 PO4 ·H2 O (57.5); CaCl2 ·2H2 O (100); MgSO4 ·7H2 O (200); NaHCO3 (4000); and 1.0 ml l?1 for each of two trace element solutions. Trace element solution 1 contains (in mg l?1 ) FeSO4 (5000) and Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5000). Trace element solution 2 contains (in mg l?1 ) EDTA (1500); ZnSO4 ·7H2 O (430); CoCl2 ·6H2 O (240); MnCl2 (629); CuSO4 ·5H2 O (250); Na2 MoO4 ·2H2 O (220); NiCl2 ·6H2 0 (190); Na2 SeO4 ·10H2 O (210); H3 BO3 (14); NaWO4 ·2H2 O (50). The initial pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.6 ± 0.2. 2.3. Batch bioassays Batch experiments were conducted in shaken ?asks, which were incubated in a dark climate-controlled room at 30 ± 2 ? C. Serum ?asks (160 ml) were supplied with 100 ml basal mineral medium as described above containing bicarbonate as the only added carbon source. The medium was supplemented with NO2 ? and NH4 + ; the concentrations are described in each experiment as required. Inoculum was added to each bioassay at 1.25 g VSS l?1 medium. The ?asks were sealed with Te?on lined butyl rubber stoppers and aluminum caps, and then the liquid medium and headspace were purged with He/CO2 (80/20, v/v) for 10 min, respectively, to exclude molecular oxygen (O2 ). All assays were conducted in triplicate. Liquid samples were analyzed for the concentration of NO2 ? , NO3 ? and NH4 + . Headspace samples were analyzed periodically for N2 with a pressure lock gas tight syringe (1710RN, 100 ?l (22s/2/2), Hamilton Company, Reno, Nevada USA) to evaluate the anammox activity. Flushed headspace controls incubated with just water were monitored to ensure background levels of N2 were low. Three series of assays were carried out to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanism to anammox reaction. In the ?rst set of experiments, the anammox sludge was supplied with standard reference treatment containing NH4 + (2.7 mM) and NO2 ? (3.57 mM). The toluene was added to the ?asks reaching different dissolved liquid phase concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mM) using a pressure lock gas tight syringe. The toluene was injected (after the bottles were sealed and headspace ?ushed) according to the gas-liquid equilibrium equation: Cl = Cadd /(1 + H × F), where Cl = actual dissolved toluene concentration (mM); 1 ); F = the ratio of gas phase volCadd = total toluene concentration added (mmol L? liquid ume to liquid volume; H = dimensionless Henry’s factor toluene Cg /Cl (Cg = toluene 1 ). The anammox activity (AA) was measured concentration in gas phase, mmol L? liquid
1 based on the N2 -N production rate and expressed as mmol N2 -N L? h . In a secliquid ond set of assays, the anammox sludge was pre-exposure to standard reference treatment, toluene alone (0.8 mM) or in presence of NH4 + (2.7 mM), toluene and NO2 ? in presence or absence of NH4 + and NO2 ? alone (3.57 mM). When the standard reference treatment indicated that anammox reaction had been completed, the preexposure experiments were stopped. Then the anammox sludge was washed and exposed to fresh standard reference medium, and then followed the same ?ushing strategy described before. After that, the residual anammox activity (RAA), which was considered as the recovered activity after pre-exposition to the inhibitory compounds, was determined based on the N2 -N production rate. In the last set of assays, anammox sludge was pre-exposed to different concentrations of NO2 ? (0.035, 0.35, 1.78, 3.57, 7.17, 8.92 and 10.71 mM) in the absence of NH4 + . When the standard reference treatment indicated that anammox reaction had been completed, the anammox sludge was washed and exposed to fresh standard reference medium, and then followed the same experimental strategy described before. The RAA and inhibition level were also measured. ?1

5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0

A

1.0
0.0 3.0
2.0 1.0 0.0 7.5

NH4+ consumption (mM)

B

N2-N formation (mmol L liquid-1)

6.0
4.5

C

3.0
1.5 0.0

0

10

20 30 Time (h)

40

50

Fig. 1. Inhibitory effects of different concentrations of toluene on anammox reaction. (A) NH4 + removal; (B) NO2 ? removal; (C) N2 -N formation. Legends: concentration of toluene (mM): 0 ( ), 0.5 (?), 1( ), 1.5 ( ), and 3.0 (*).

3. Results and discussion 3.1. Inhibitory effect of toluene on anammox activity The consumption of NO2 ? and NH4 + and production of N2 N are depicted in Fig. 1. It took 45 h for the anammox standard reference treatment (in the absence of toluene) to complete the anammox reaction, in which both NO2 ? (3.97 ± 0.05 mM) and NH4 + (2.90 ± 0.01 mM) were interdependently consumed without any apparent lag phase, with a concomitant N2 -N production. The NO3 ? production was also observed as an additional evidence of anammox reaction, although its concentration was always lower than the expected stoichiometric value. The total nitrogen recovery was 94.69 ± 2.46%, in the form of N2 -N (6.40 ± 0.11 mM) and NO3 ? (0.11 ± 0.01 mM). In comparison, the presence of toluene demonstrated different inhibitory effects on lowering or even stopping the N2 production (Fig. 1C). The anammox reaction was stopped at 16 h without further consumption of NO2 ? and NH4 + . The inhibitory effect of toluene on AA is summarized in Fig. 2. The activity of treatment containing toluene at 0.3 mM was similar to standard reference. However, when the concentrations of toluene were higher the AA decreased progressively. The estimated concentration of toluene that caused the IC50 of the N2 -N production rate was 0.79 mM. Not toluene removal was observed in all the treatments, which indicate there was no biological or physical–chemical removal. Microbial inhibition by toluene has

2.4. Analytical methods NO3 ? and NO2 ? were analyzed by suppressed conductivity ion chromatography using a Dionex IC-3000 system (Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) ?tted with a Dionex IonPac AS18 analytical column (4 mm × 250 mm) and an AG18 guard column (4 mm × 50 mm). During each injection the eluent (10 mM KOH) was used for 20 min. NH4 + was determined using Mettler Toledo SevenMulti ion selective meter with Mettler Toledo selective NH4 + electrode (Mettler Toledo, Columbus, OH, USA). N2 was analyzed using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph (Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA, USA) ?tted with a CarboxenTM 1010 Plot column (30 m × 0.32 mm) and a thermal conductivity detector. The temperatures of the column, the injector port and the detector were 220, 110 and 100 ? C, respectively. Toluene in the gas phase was analyzed using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph ?tted with a GS-Gaspro column (30 m × 0.32 mm) and a ?ame ionization detector. The temperatures of the column, the injector port and the detector were 260, 250, and 250 ? C, respectively. Helium was used as the carrier gas and the injection volume was 100 ?l. Other analytical determinations (e.g., pH, VSS, etc.) were conducted according to Standard Methods [18].

928

S.M. Hernández et al. / Process Biochemistry 48 (2013) 926–930

0.25
Anammox activity (mmol N2-N L liquid-1 hr-1)

0.20
0.15

0.10 0.05
0.00

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0 liquid-1)

3.5

Concentration of toluene (mmole L
1 Fig. 2. Anammox activity (mmol N2 -N L? h liquid centrations of toluene. ?1

) in the presence of different con-

previously been reported in diverse microorganisms, but not anammox bacteria. For example, Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia oxidizing bacteria, decreased 50% of its activity when exposed to 0.02 mM of toluene [19]. The inhibitory effect was directed at the ammonia-monooxygenase (AMO) enzyme or electron transfer to AMO. The toxicity mechanism of hydrocarbons is attributed to the dramatic increase of permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, although the outer membrane is still intact [20]. Increasing evidences indicate that toluene apparently causes damage of cytoplasmic membrane [20], and impairs the cell growth and activity [17,21]. However, the toxicity studies of hydrocarbons, especially toluene, to anammox bacteria are still scarce. Guven et al. [9] found that exposure to 0.5 mM of methanol lead to complete and irreversible loss of anammox activity. Isaka et al. [13] also found that activity of an anammox enrichment culture, entrapped in a polyethylene glycol gel carrier, was completely lost at concentrations higher than 12.5 mM of methanol. It has been hypothesized that methanol inhibition could be due to its potential conversion to formaldehyde by the anammox enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase [9], which has the well-known ability to destroy enzymes and proteins [22,23]. 3.2. Combined effects of NO2 ? , NH4 + and toluene on anammox activity Others series of assays were conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of toluene and anammox substrates (NO2 ? and/or NH4 + ) in various pre-exposure operation modes. During the pre-exposure period, the anammox reaction in standard reference treatment based on the N2 -N production was completed within 45 h. In comparisons, the N2 -N production ceased (50% of its theoretical production) after 20 h in the treatment with NO2 ? , NH4 + and 0.8 mM of toluene. For the rest of control treatments, there was no N2 -N production, since no co-existence of NO2 ? and NH4 + was present. After the pre-exposure period, the anammox sludge was washed and fed with fresh anammox standard reference medium. The treatment pre-exposed to the anammox standard reference medium completed the anammox reaction within 45 h and 1 achieved an RAA of 0.22 ± 0.014 mmol N2 -N L? h?1 and a total liquid nitrogen recovery of 100.78 ± 5.63%. For the treatments preexposed to toluene alone, NH4 + alone, or toluene together with NH4 + , the N2 -N production was similar to the anammox standard reference treatment (Fig. 3A). However, for the treatments preexposed to toluene together with NO2 ? and NH4 + , toluene together with NO2 ? , and NO2 ? alone the N2 -N production was much slower.

Fig. 3. Impact of pre-exposure of anammox sludge to toluene, toluene with NO2 ? , and NO2 ? in the presence and absence of NH4 + on the subsequent anammox residual activity under anammox standard reference condition. (A) Inhibitory effects of different pre-exposure modes on the N2 -N production. (B) Anammox residual activity under different pre-exposure treatments. Legend: ( ) and (1) anammox standard reference medium, (?) and (6) anammox standard reference medium containing toluene, ( ) and (5) NO2 ? alone, ( ) and (7) NO2 ? with toluene, (?) and (2) NH4 + with toluene, ( ) and (4) toluene alone, and ( ) and (3) NH4 + alone. The N2 -N production rate in the anammox standard reference treatment was measured as ?1 1 h . 0.22 ± 0.011 mmol N2 -N L? liquid

Likewise, the results illustrated that to pre-exposure treatments to toluene alone, NH4 + alone, or toluene together with NH4 + , the RAA was similar; however, for the rest of treatments, the activity considerably decreased, indicating that the combination of NO2 ? and toluene caused the most severe inhibition. The consumption of nitrogen substrates and formation of nitrogen products in all the treatments were summarized in Table 1. The results indicated that the total nitrogen recovery was higher than 98.5 ± 2.10% irrespective of the experimental medium. The results also revealed that the measured consumption ratio of NO2 ? to NH4 + was close to the stoichiometric benchmark value of 1.32 in all the treatments irrespective of the operational conditions during the pre-exposure period. The results in these experiments demonstrated that the toxicity of toluene became evident just in presence of NO2 ? but yet NH4 + , indicating a behavior of synergic inhibition. The inhibitory effect of toluene could be alleviated when the cells were able to obtain energy from metabolism of NH4 + and NO2 ? . A similar phenomenon was observed by Isaka et al. [13] when evaluating the pre-incubation effect of methanol on an anammox enrichment culture at the concentration of 12.5 mM in presence or absence of NH4 + and NO2 ? . The ?ndings suggested that methanol itself was not inhibitory, but only in presence of NO2 ? .

S.M. Hernández et al. / Process Biochemistry 48 (2013) 926–930 Table 1 Summary of the inhibitory effects to anammox activity from various pre-exposure treatments. Pre-exposure treatment condition Removal NH4 + (mM) NH4 + NO2 NH4 + + NO2 ? + Toluene NH4 + + Toluene NH4 + alone NO2 ? + Toluene NO2 ? alone Toluene alone
+ ?

929

Production NO2 ? (mM) 3.70 2.10 3.35 3.46 1.94 2.43 3.39 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.14 0.18 0.11 0.08 0.39 0.12 0.12
1 N2 -N (mmol L? ) liquid

Ratio NO3 ? (mM) 0.22 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.07 0.08 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.01 002 005 0.01 0.01 00.8 0.02 NO2 /NH4 + 1.23 1.06 1.19 1.26 1.11 1.15 1.44 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.01 0.05

Total nitrogen recovery (%) (N2 -N + NO3 ? )/(NO2 ? + NH4 + ) × 100 100.78 113.07 105.28 98.50 111.53 114.55 107.79 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 5.63 3.37 3.01 2.10 0.15 1.51 2.14

3.00 1.99 2.82 2.75 1.74 2.11 2.35

± ± ± ± ± ± ±

0.13 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.39 0.13 0.01

6.75 4.63 6.49 6.11 4.10 5.19 6.08

± ± ± ± ± ± ±

0.37 0.05 0.08 0.01 0.64 0.21 0.16

Note: The dissolved liquid phase concentration of toluene is 0.8 mM in the treatment required.

3.3. Effect of NO2 ? on anammox activity To better understand the negative effect of NO2 ? , the anammox sludge was pre-exposed to different concentrations of this compound (0–10.71 mM) in the absence of NH4 + , for a period in which anammox standard reference treatment completed its reaction. After the pre-exposure period, anammox sludge was washed and incubated with fresh anammox standard reference medium to determine the RAA. The treatment pre-exposed to NO2 ? and NH4 + completed the anammox reaction in 45 h (Fig. 4A). However, treatments pre-exposed to NO2 ? alone demonstrated increasing levels of inhibition; therefore the RAA dramatically decreased (Fig. 4B). The estimated concentration of NO2 ? that caused the IC50 of RAA was of 6.25 mM. Although the inhibitory effect of NO2 ? on anammox activity has been previously investigated, no studies were conducted with

pre-exposure to NO2 ? in the absence of NH4 + like this study. Strous et al. [24] reported that anammox activity ceased at NO2 ? concentrations higher than 7.1 mM. However, the activity was recovered if trace amount of hydrazine or hydroxylamine were added to the culture. Dapena-Mora et al. [25] reported that the IC50 of anammox activity was 25 mM NO2 ? in a batch experiment. It had also been found that NO2 ? concentrations higher than 3.3 mM caused short-term inhibition to anammox bacteria with more than 25% loss of anammox activity in batch culture [26]. The mechanisms of NO2 ? toxicity to anammox bacteria are still unclear. However, several studies on different types of microorganisms indicated that NO2 ? induces inhibitory effects on normal functions of cell organelles. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NO2 ? inhibited the active transport, oxygen uptake and oxidative phosphorylation [27]. Studies on Paracoccus denitri?cans showed that NO2 ? acted as an uncoupler, which collapsed the proton gradient across the membrane [28]. In Escherichia coli inhibited the transport active but not the translocation system [29]. The ?ndings illustrate the importance of avoiding the exposure of anammox culture to NO2 ? in the absence of NH4 + . Although NO2 ? is a substrate of anammox process, it also may act as a potent inhibitor to the metabolic energy system. 4. Conclusions Anammox reaction was inhibited by toluene; the level depended on the concentration. The 50% of inhibition was at the concentration of 0.79 mM. The pre-exposure to toluene and NO2 ? or NO2 ? alone in the absence of NH4 + demonstrated the much severer inhibition compared to toluene alone. The IC50 of the anammox activity due to pre-exposure to NO2 ? lacking NH4 + was at the concentration of 6.25 mM. The results indicated that toluene by itself did not severely inhibit the anammox process but did so in the presence of NO2 ? . The inhibition was most likely due to the nitrite–toluene inhibition synergy. Acknowledgments The work presented here was funded by the University of Arizona, Water Sustainability Program. The anammox granular sludge samples were kindly provided by Paques BV, The Netherlands. The use of trade, product, or ?rm names in this report is for descriptive purposes only. Participation of Sergio Martínez Hernández as postdoctoral researcher was funded by the Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant no. 119093).

Fig. 4. Impact of pre-exposure of anammox sludge to different concentrations of NO2 ? on anammox activity. (A) Inhibitory effects of different concentrations of NO2 ? on the N2 -N production. Legend: concentration of NO2 ? (mM): 0 ( ), 0.35 ( ), 3.57 (?), 7.17 ( ), 8.92 ( ) and 10.71 ( ). (B) Anammox activity in the presence of different concentrations of NO2 ? .

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游离氨在高含氮废水生物法处理中的作用及其研究进展_图文.pdf
ofammonia-oxidizingbacteriaandnitriteoxidizing...anaerobicammoniumoxidation;selectiveinhibition 生物脱氮...anammox consortium in non-woven biological rotating...
Anammox bacteria from discovery to application.pdf
It also became clear that the anammox enrichment culture preferred nitrite ...a new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst...
南海北部典型河口海湾生态系统对海洋环境变化的响应与....doc
Cytochromecd1-containin g nitrite reductase encoding gene nirS as a new functional biomarker for detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria....
...the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-o....pdf
SBR as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms_环境科学/食品科学_工程科技_专业资料。sharon-anammox,生物脱...
厌氧氨氧化工艺的应用进展.pdf
of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria and process...activity ammonia removal over nitrite) -anammox ...The effect of sulfide inhibition on the ANAMMOX ...
PH.pdf
0.4 for nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The ...for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) [7]. ...enough to minimize the FA or FNA inhibition [4...
厌氧氨氧化技术处理高浓度氨氮工业废水的可行性分析_王....pdf
nitrite) ( Sliekers et al. , 2003 )、 OLAND...et al. 1976. Inhibition of nitrification by ...anaerobic ammoniumoxidizing ( anammox ) bacteria[J...
厌氧氨氧化溶解氧气的限制.pdf
of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine ...nitrite to produce dinitrogen gas (N2) (Mulder ...Anammox bacterial community analysis PCR product ...
厌氧氨氧化菌的生物特性及CANON厌氧氨氧化工艺_王亚宜_....pdf
( ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation ) refers to oxidizing ammonia using nitrite as...et al. 2007. Evaluation of activity and inhibition effects on Anammox process...
Sewage Treatment with Anammox science厌氧氨氧化处....pdf
inhibition is probably due to action at multiple ...ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, which ...Under anaerobic conditions, nitrate and nitrite may...
Operation of an Anammox SBR in the presence of.pdf
of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) ...[15]. Both ammonium and nitrite concentrations in...ammonium-oxidizing consortia from various wastewaters...
Wett_Mainstream_Deammonification_Presentation_图文.pdf
ANAMMOX Anoxic Environment Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Autotrophic Nitrite ...of granule Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria - Diffusion Resistance Biomass Segregation...
pH值对SBBR自养脱氮系统效能及功能菌数量的影响.pdf
( AOB ),nitrite oxidizing bacteria ( NOB ) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing ( ANAMMOX ) bacteria and on the overall nitrogen removal performance of SBBR ...
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