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男人到天堂a在538线:2015年高考英语真题分类汇编:专题16_阅读理解之科普类说明文_Word版含解析

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专题十六 阅读理解之科普类说明文
1.【2015·湖北卷】D The oddness of life in space never quite goes away. Here are some examples. First consider something as simple as sleep. Its position presents its own challenges. The main question is whether you want your arms inside or outside the sleeping bag. If you leave your arms out, they float free in zero gravity, often giving a sleeping astronaut the look of a funny balled (芭 蕾)dancer. “I’m an inside guy,” Mike Hopkins says, who returned from a six-month tour on the International Space Station. “I like to be wrapped up.” On the station, the ordinary becomes strange. The exercise bike for the American astronauts has no handlebars. It also has no seat. With no gravity, it’s just as easy to pedal violently. You can watch a movie while you pedal by floating a microcomputer anywhere you want. But station residents have to be careful about staying in one place too long. Without gravity to help circulate air, the carbon dioxide you exhale (呼气) has a tendency to form an invisible (隐形的) cloud around you head. You can end up with what astronauts call a carbon-dioxide headache. Leroy Chiao, 54, an American retired astronaut after four flights, describes what happens even before you float out of your seat,”Your inner ear thinks your’re falling . Meanwhile your eyes are telling you you’re standing straight. That can be annoying—that’s why some people feel sick.” Within a couple days —truly terrible days for some —astronauts’ brains learn to ignore the panicky signals from the inner ear, and space sickness disappears. Space travel can be so delightful but at the same time invisibly dangerous. For instance, astronauts lose bone mass. That’s why exercise is considered so vital that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) puts it right on the workday schedule. The focus on fitness is as much about science and the future as it is about keeping any individual astronauts return home, and, more importantly, how to maintain strength and fitness for the two and a half years or more that it would take to make a round-trip to Mars. 63.What is the major challenge to astronauts when they sleep in space? A. Deciding on a proper sleep position B. Choosing a comfortable sleeping bag C. Seeking a way to fall asleep quickly D. Finding a right time to go to sleep. 64.The astronauts will suffer from a carbon-dioxide headache when _____. A. the y circle around on their bikes
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B. they use microcomputers without a stop C. they exercise in one place for a long time D. they watch a movie while pedaling 65.Some astronauts feel sick on the station during the first few days because _____. A. their senses stop working B. they have to stand up straight C. they float out of their seats unexpectedly D. whether they are able to go back to the station 66.One of the NASA’s major concerns about astronauts is _____. A. how much exercise they do on the station B. how they can remain healthy for long in space C. whether they can recover after returning home D. whether they are able to go back to the station 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇说明文。本文通过举例说明了太空生活的奇妙:在太空睡觉时,对宇航员 来说主要的挑战在于恰当的睡眠姿势;宇航员在一个地方运动久了会出现碳毒性头痛;宇航员 的大脑接收到矛盾的信息时会感到恶心。最后告诉我们美国国家宇航局对宇航员主要的担心是 宇航员回家后的修养期和如何在太空长久地保持健康。 63.A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一、二句“First consider something as simple as sleep. Its position presents its own challenges.”可知在太空睡觉时,对宇航员来说主要的挑战在于恰当的睡眠姿势。 故选 A 项。 64. C 细节理解题。 根据第三段中“But station residents have to be careful about staying in one place too long. …You can end up with what astronauts call a carbon-dioxide headache”可知宇航员在一个 地方运动久了会出现碳毒性头痛。故选 C 项。 65. D 细节理解题。根据第四段中“Your inner ear thinks you’re failing. Meanwhile your eyes are telling you you’re standing straight. That can be annoying-that’s why some people feel sick.”可知宇 航员在大脑接收到矛盾的信息时会感到恶心。故选 D 项。 66.B 细节理解题。 根据最后一段倒数第一、 二句“The focus on fitness is as much about science and the future as is about keeping any individual astronaut healthy…NASA is worried about two things :… and, more importantly, how maintain strength and fitness…”可知美国国家宇航局对宇航员主要的 担心之一是如何在太空长久地保持健康。故选 B 项。

【考点定位】说明文阅读
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【名师点睛】科普类说明文历来是高考阅读理解命题的重点,文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,主要 考查学生对语篇的整体把握和领悟能力以及对特定细节的认读和处理能力。考生应注意:1.平 时多读科普知识类文章,学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本上提高科普英语的阅读 能力。2.熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(高考题中一般不给出标题)、 导语、背景、主体和结尾五部分构成。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。背景交待一个事实的起 因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述,这部分是命题的重点,考生应该重点把握。结尾 往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。3. 在进行 推理判断时,考生一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同时所得出的结论还应符合基 本的科普常识。 2.【2015·北京卷】C

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Life in the Clear Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window. These animals typically live between the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach. Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch. Sonke Johnsen, a scientist in biology, says, “These animals live through their life alone. They never touch anything unless they’re eating it, or unless something is eating them.” And they are as clear as glass. How does an animal become see-through? It’s trickier than you might think. The objects around you are visible because they interact with light. Light typically travels in a straight line. But some materials slow and scatter(散射) light, bouncing it away from its original path. Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. But a transparent object doesn’t absorb or scatter light, at least not very much, Light can pass through it without bending or stopping. That means a transparent object doesn’t look very different from the surrounding air or water. You don’t see it ----you see the things behind it. To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light. Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments(色素) that absorb specific colors of light. But a transparent animal doesn’t have pigments, so its tissues won’t absorb light. According to Johnsen, avoiding absorption is actually easy. The real challenge is preventing light from scattering. Animals are built of many different materials----skin, fat, and more----and light moves through each at a different speed. Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters. Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering. Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat. Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see—through. Others build a large, clear mass of non-living jelly-lie(果冻状的)material and spread themselves over it . Larger transparent animals have the biggest challenge, because they have to make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does. They need to look uniform. But how they’re doing it is still unknown. One thing is clear for these larger animals, staying transparent is an active process. When they die, they turn a non-transparent milky white. 63. According to Paragraph 1, transparent animals_______. A. stay in groups C. appear only in deep ocean B. can be easily damaged D. are beautiful creatures

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64. The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means__________. A. silently C. regularly B. gradually D. completely

65. One way for an animal to become transparent is to ________. A. change the direction of light travel B. gather materials to scatter light. C. avoid the absorption of light D. grow bigger to stop light. 66. The last paragraph tells us that larger transparent animals________. A. move more slowly in deep water B. stay see-through even after death C. produce more tissues for their survival D. take effective action to reduce light spreading 【解析】 试题分析:文章解释了生活在海洋的透明生物的特点,透明原理,以及形成机制。 63.B 细节理解题。 文章第一段第三行: Mostof them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch。得知 B 选项:透明动物是很容易受伤的。故选 B。 64.D 词义猜测题。该词出现在文章第三段第三行。前文提到了:你能看到的物体一种是对光线 进行了散射;而另外一种是对光线的吸收。既然吸收了,那在光的传播过程中就完全阻止了, 因此这里 dead 是完全的意思。故选 D。 65.C 推理判断题。根据第五段第一句 To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light。可知,想变透明就要避免散射或吸收光线,因此其中的一个方 法是 C 选项,避免光线的吸收。故选 C。 66.D 推理判断题。根据最后一段第一句中的 make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does 可以推断出 D 为正确答案。 其中 slowdown 对应 reduce。 故选 D。 【考点定位】科技类说明文 【名师点睛】做科技类说明文时,考生应能:理解语篇主旨要义,理解文中具体信息,根据上 下文提供的线索推测生词的词义,根据文中事实和线索作出简单的判断和推理。此次出现了新 型科技类说明文。往年科技类说明文的阅读难点在于专业类词汇,但是今年的“新型耳机”在问 题设置上难度不大,属于文章难但题目不难的题目。所以要理解好文章做好此题就不是难题。 3.【2015·江苏】B
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In the United States alone, over 100 million cell-phones are thrown away each year. Cell-phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole. Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in So-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals. Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment. Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging(包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products — as well as management of the resulting waste — all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start — for instance, buying reusable products and recycling. In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place? Governments’ incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap (气泡垫) that encased your television? From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers. 58.By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that _________ . A. the weight of e-goods is rather small B. E-waste deserves to be made good use of C. natural minerals contain more precious metals
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D. the percentage of precious metals is heavy in e-waste 59.The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended _________ . A. from producers to governments B. from governments to producers C. from individuals to distributors D. from distributors to governments 60. What does the passage mainly talk about? A. The increase in e-waste. B. The creation of e-waste. C. The seriousness of e-waste. D. The management of e-waste. 【解析】

【考点定位】科普说明文阅读
【名师点睛】科普类文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,主要考查学生对语篇的整体把握和领悟能力以 及对特定细节的理解和推理能力。文章选材时代气息浓厚,与经济、科技的发展和变化密切相 关。考生应注意:1.平时多读科普知识类文章,学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本 上提高科普英语的阅读能力。2.熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(高考题 中一般不给出标题)、导语、背景、主体和结尾五部分构成。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。 背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述,这部分是命题的重点,考 生应该重点把握。结尾往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道 推理判断题。3. 在进行推理判断时,考生一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同时所
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得出的结论还应符合基本的科普常识。 4.C Suppose you become a leader in an organization. It ’s very likely that you’ll want to have volunteers to help with the organization’s activities. To do so, it should help to understand why people undertake volunteer work and what keeps their interest in the work. Let ’s begin with the question of why people volunteer. Researchers have identified several factors that motivate people to get involved. For example, people volunteer to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships. If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate. To select volunteers, you may need to understand the motivations of the people you wish to attract. People also volunteer because they are required to do so. To increase levels of community service, some schools have launched compulsory volunteer programs. Unfortunately, these programs can shift people’s wish of participation from an internal factor (e.g., “I volunteer because it ’s important to me”) to an external factor (e.g., “I volunteer because I’m required to do so”). When that happens, people become less likely to volunteer in the future. People must be sensitive to this possibility when they make volunteer activities a must. Once people begin to volunteer, what leads them to remain in their positions over time? To answer this question, researchers have conducted follow-up studies in which they track volunteers over time. For instance, one study followed 238 volunteers in Florida over a year. One of the most important factors that influenced their satisfaction as volunteers was the amount of suffering they experienced in their volunteer positions. Although this result may not surprise you, it leads to important practical advice. The researchers note that attention should be given to“training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”. Another study of 302 volunteers at hospitals in Chicago focused on individual differences in the degree to which people view “volunteer ” as an important social role. It was assumed that those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work. Participants indicated the degree to which the social role mattered by responding to statements such as “Volunteering in Hospital is an important part of who I am.” Consistent with the researchers’ expectations, they found a positive correlation (正相关) between the strength of role identity and the length of time people continued to volunteer. These results, once again, lead to concrete advice: “Once an individual begins volunteering, continued efforts
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might focus on developing a volunteer role identity.... Items like T-shirts that allow volunteers to be recognized publicly for their contributions can help strengthen role identity ”. 61.People volunteer mainly out of ______ . A. academic requirements C. financial rewards B. social expectations D. internal needs

62.What can we learn from the Florida study? A. Follow-up studies should last for one year. C. Strategy training is a must in research. advice. 63.What is most likely to motivate volunteers to continue their work? A. Individual differences in role identity. C. Role identity as a volunteer. 64.What is the best title of the passage? A. How to Get People to Volunteer C. How to Keep Volunteers’ Interest 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇议论文。文章分析讲述志愿者为什么自发地去服务社会,并通过 3 个实 验研究志愿者的意图。 61. D 细节理解题。 根据文章第二段内容可知人们做志愿者工作的原因为: “to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships”,再结合“If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate” 可知答案为 D 项(满足内在的需求)。 62.B 推理判断题。根据第四段最后一句中“training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”可知志愿者应该从心理上做好充分的准备。故选 B 项。 63.C 细节理解题。 根据第五段第二句中 “those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work” 可知志愿者身份认同 会激励他们继续从事志愿者工作。故选 C 项。 64.A 标题归纳题。文章首段提出假设:假如你是一名组织领导人,很想得到志愿者的帮助。并 指出在此之前, 必须弄清志愿者为什么自发地去服务社会, 并通过 3 个实验研究志愿者的意图。 因此 A 项(如何使人们从事志愿者服务)是文章的最佳标题。 B. How to Study Volunteer Behaviors D. How to Organize Volunteer Activities B. Publicly identifiable volunteer T-shirts. D. Practical advice from researchers. B. Volunteers should get mentally prepared. D. Volunteers are provided with concrete

【考点定位】议论文阅读
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【名师点睛】议论说理类文章具有以下特点:1.一般按提出问题、分析问题、解决问题的方法 写作。作者一般从日常生活中的热点问题、社会上的重大问题、与读者息息相关的问题入手, 即提出问题。然后,分析利弊,举例说明,推理判断,即分析问题。最后,阐述观点,提出办 法,即解决问题。2.以作者的观点或情感为核心,对细节推理等方面进行考查。3.文章的主 题一般是生活中的热点问题、重大问题或与生活息息相关的问题等。考生应注意抓住作者提出 的观点、给出的例证及最后得出的结论。同时,理清作为论据的诸多事例和理由之间以及它们 和观点/结论之间的内在联系,把握文章的结构。 5.【2015·广东】C Daniel Anderson, a famous psychologist, believes it’s important to distinguish television’s influences on children from those of the family. We tend to blame TV, he says, for problems it doesn’t really cause, overlooking our own roles in shaping children’s minds. One traditional belief about television is that it reduces a child’s ability to think and to understand the world. While watching TV, children do not merely absorb words and images (影像). Instead, they learn both explicit and hidden meanings from what they see. Actually, children learn early the psychology of characters in TV shows. Furthermore, as many teachers agree, children understand far more when parents watch TV with them, explaining new words and ideas. Yet, most parents use an educational program as a chance to park their kids in front of the set and do something in another room. Another argument against television is that it replaces reading as a form of entertainment. But according to Anderson, the amount of time spent watching television is not related to reading ability. TV doesn’t take the place of reading for most children; it takes the place of similar sorts of recreation, such as listening to the radio and playing sports. Things like parents’ educational background have a stronger influence on a child’s reading. “A child’s reading ability is best predicted by how much a parent reads.” Anderson says. Traditional wisdom also has it that heavy television-watching lowers IQ (智商) scores and affects school performance. But here, too, Anderson notes that no studies have proved it. In fact, research suggests that it’s the other way around. “If you’re smart young, you’ll watch less TV when you’re older,” Anderson says. Yet, people of lower IQ tend to be lifelong television viewers. For years researchers have attempted to show that television is dangerous to children. However, by showing that television promotes none of the dangerous effects as conventionally believed, Anderson suggests that television cannot be condemned without considering other influences. 36. By watching TV, children learn _________.
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A. images through words B. more than explicit meanings C. more about images than words D. little about people’s psychology 37. An educational program is best watched by a child _________. A. on his own B. with other kids C. with his parents D. with his teachers 38. Which of the following is most related to children’s reading ability? A. Radio-listening B. Television-watching C. Parents’ reading list D. Parents’ educational background 39. Anderson believed that _________. A. the more a child watches TV, the smarter he is B. the younger a child is, the more he watches TV C. the smarter a child is, the less likely he gets addicted to TV D. the less a child watches TV, the better he performs at school 40. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To advise on the educational use of TV. B. To describe TV’s harmful effects on children. C. To explain traditional views on TV influences. D. To present Anderson’s unconventional ideas. 【解析】 试题分析:本文叙述著名心理学家 Daniel Anderson 对孩子们看电视的看法,打破了以往人们认 为看电视对孩子不好的想法。他认为孩子们看电视不知学到显现出来的东西;父母陪孩子看电 视,孩子可以学到更多知识;孩子看电视并没有代替孩子阅读,并没有影响孩子的智商。 36. B 细节理解题。根据第二段的 Instead, they learn both explicit and hidden meanings from what they see.可知孩子们通过看电视,可以学到显性和隐藏的意义,因此不仅仅学到隐藏的意思。故 选 B。

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37. C 推理判断题。 根据第二段的 Furthermore, as many teachers agree, children understand far more when parents watch TV with them“孩子们有父母陪着看电视理解的更多”,故推断教育节目最 好是父母陪着孩子看。故选 C。 38. D 细节理解题。根据第三段的 Things like parents’ educational background have a stronger influence on a child’s reading.可知父母的教育背景对孩子的阅读有很强的影响。故选 D。 39. C 细节理解题。根据第四段的“If you’re smart young, you’ll watch less TV when you’re older” 可知如果你小时越聪明,长大看电视看得越来越少。故选 C。 40. D 推理判断题。根据最后一段的 Anderson suggests that television cannot condemned without considering other influences.“Anderson 认为不应该按照常规,不考虑电视的其他影响而去谴责 电视”故推断这篇文章的目的是呈现 Anderson 打破常规的想法,故选 D。 【考点定位】教育类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】本文侧重考查学生的细节理解能力。问题设置巧妙,根据题干要求,学生自己阅 读,就能在文中找到答案。尤其第 40 题,充分考查了学生的语篇理解能力。同时,这篇短文提 出的一种与常规不一样的看法,看电视对孩子是有好处的。 6.【2015·陕西】C The production of coffee beans is a huge, profitable business, but, unfortunately, full-sun production is taking over the industry and bringing about a lot of damage. The change in how coffee is grown from shade-grown production to full-sun production endangers the very existence of, certain animals and birds, and even disturbs the world’s ecological balance. On a local level, the damage of the forest required by full-sun fields affects the area’s birds and animals. The shade of the forest trees provides a home for birds and other special(物种) that depend on the trees’ flowers and fruits. Full-sun coffee growers destroy this forest home. As a result, many special are quickly dying out. On a more global level, the destruction of the rainforest for full-sun coffee fields also threatens(威胁)human life. Medical research often makes use of the forests' plant and animal life, and the destruction of such species could prevent researchers from finding cures for certain diseases. In addition, new coffee-growing techniques are poisoning the water locally, and eventually the world's groundwater. Both locally and globally, the continued spread of full-sun coffee plantations (种植园)could mean the destruction of the rainforest ecology. The loss of shade trees is already causing a slight change in the world's climate, and studies show that loss of oxygen-giving trees also leads to air pollution and global warming. Moreover, the new growing techniques are contributing to acidic(酸性 的) soil conditions. It is obvious that the way much coffee is grown affects many aspects many aspects of life, from the local environment to the global ecology. But consumers do have a choice. They can purchase shade-grown coffee whenever possible, although at a higher cost. The future health of the planet
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and mankind is surely worth more than an inexpensive cup of coffee. 54. What can we learn about full-sun coffee production from Paragraph 4? A. It limits the spread of new growing techniques. B. It leads to air pollution and global warming. C. It slows down the loss of shade trees. D. It improves local soil conditions. 55. The purpose of the text is to . A. entertain B. advertise C. instruct D. persuade

56. Where does this text probably come from ? A. An agricultural magazine. B. A medical journal. C. An engineering textbook. D. A tourist guide. 57.Which of the following shows the structure of the whole text?

【解析】 试题分析:文章介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产给环境和生态带来的种种危害,呼吁人们不要购买这 种咖啡,而要买对环境有利的产品。
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54.细节理解题。根据文章第四段的句子:The loss of shade trees is already causing a slight change in the world's climate, and studies show that loss of oxygen-giving trees also leads to air pollution and global warming.可知阳光充足的咖啡生产会带来空气污染和全球气温变暖,故选 B。 55.写作意图题。根据文章最后一段的句子:But consumers do have a choice. They can purchase shade-grown coffee whenever possible, although at a higher cost.可知作者的意图是劝说人们购买 阴凉处种植的咖啡,这样对环境是有好处的,故选 D。 56.推理判断题。文章介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产会带来的破坏,应该是出自一本农业杂志,故选 A。 57.文章结构题。文章第一段介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产的话题,二、三、四段介绍了阳光充足的 咖啡生产带来的破坏,第五段说服人们去购买对环境有利的阴凉处种植的咖啡,所以是总分总 的结构,故选 A。 【考点定位】环保类阅读理解 【名师点睛】这篇文章内容不是学生非常熟悉的,但是篇幅适中。考查比较全面,除了抓住主 旨,理解细节题,还需要适当的推理,如:判断文章的出处,作者的意图,文章的结构。这些 不是某个句子可以体现的,要对文章有整体把握。 7.【2015·四川】D Their cheery song brightens many a winter's day. But robins are in danger of wearing themselves out by singing too much. Robins are singing all night 一 as well as during the day, British-based researchers say. David Dominoni, of Glasgow University, said that light from street lamps, takeaway signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clocks, leading to them being wide awake when they should be asleep. Dr Dominoni, who is putting cameras inside nesting boxes to track sleeping patterns, said lack of sleep could put the birds’ health at risk. His study shows that when robins are exposed to light at night in the lab, it leads to some genes being active at the wrong time of day. And the more birds are exposed to light, the more active they are at night. He told people at a conference, "There have been a couple of studies suggesting they are increasing their song output at night and during the day they are still singing. Singing is a costly behaviour and it takes energy. So by increasing their song output, there might be some costs of energy." And it is not just robins that are being kept awake by artificial light. Blackbirds and seagulls are also being more nocturnal. Dr Dominoni said, "In Glasgow where I live, gulls are a serious problem. I
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have people coming to me saying `You are the bird expert. Can you help us kill these gulls?'.During the breeding(繁殖)season, between April and June, they are very active at night and very noisy and people can't sleep." Although Dr Dominoni has only studied light pollution, other research concluded that robins living in noisy cities have started to sing at night to make themselves heard over loud noise. However, some birds thrive(兴旺)in noisy environments. A study from California Polytechnic University found more hummingbirds in areas with heavy industrial machinery. It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators(天敌)fleeing to quieter areas. 42.According to Dr Dominoni's study, what cause robins to sing so much? A. The breeding season. C. The dangerous environment. B. The light in modern life D. The noise from heavy machinery.

43.What is the researchers' concern over the increase of birds' song output? A. The environment might be polluted. B. The birds' health might be damaged. C. The industry cost might be increased. D. The people's hearing might be affected. 44.What does the underlined word "nocturnal" in Paragraph 5 mean? A. Active at night. C. Active during the day. B. Inactive at night. D. Inactive during the day.

45.Why do some birds thrive in noisy environments? A. Because there are fewer dangers. B. Because there is more food to eat. C. Because there is less light pollution D. Because there are more places to take shelter. 【解析】 试题分析:本文主要介绍了一项研究调查的结果,由于人类制造的光线问题,越来越多的鸟类 如知更鸟在晚上也会唱歌,这极大地影响了鸟的健康。 42.B 细节理解题。根据文章第二段的 David Dominoni, of Glasgow University, said that light from street lamps, take away signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clock, leading to them being wide awake 可知选择 B。

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43.B 细节理解题。 根据文章 Singing is a costly behaviour and it takes energy. So by increasing their song output, there might be some costs of energy."可知,唱歌唱得越多,就会损耗更多的能量,故 选择 B。 44.A 词义辨析题。根据上文的 And it is not just robins that are being kept awake by artificial light. Blackbirds and seagulls are also being 可知乌鸦和海鸥情况也一样,也就是说这两种鸟晚上也唱 歌,故选择 A,指晚上很兴奋。学优高考网 45.A 细节理解题。 根据文章最后一段的 It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators(天 敌)fleeing to quieter areas.可知,它们的天敌都去了安静的地方,故选择 A,指在这些工业区, 天敌更少,也就是危险更少。 【考点定位】考查说明文阅读 【名师点睛】 本篇文章考查了科普说明文的阅读。 科普说明文是高考阅读理解中的重点与难点。 在阅读此类文章时,考生会觉得篇幅长、生词多、逻辑性强、长句多、话题陌生且枯燥,表达 方式专业化。因此,要求考生要掌握相对的解题技巧与能力。在读此类文章时,要弄清文章的 主题,本文主题为人造光影响了鸟类的生物钟,使得它们晚上还在歌唱,影响了鸟类的健康。 在设题时,此类文章常考词义辨析题,如,要求考生要从上文的具体现象中概括出生词词义。 8.【2015·四川】E No one is sure how the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids near Cairo. But a new study suggests they used a little rock‘n’roll. Long-ago builders could have attached wooden pole s to the stones and rolled then across the sand, the scientists say. “Technically, I think what they’re proposing is possible,” physicist Daniel Bonn said. People have long puzzled over how the Egyptians moved such huge rocks. And there’s no obvious answer. On average, each of the two million big stones weighed about as much as a large pickup truck. The Egyptians somehow moved the stone blocks to the pyramid site from about one kilometer away. The most popular view is that Egyptian workers slid the blocks along smooth paths. Many scientists suspect workers first would have put the blocks on sleds(滑板). Then they would have dragged them along paths. To make the work easier, workers may have lubricated the paths either with wet clay or with the fat from cattle. Bonn has now tested this idea by building small sleds and dragging heavy objects over sand. Evidence from the sand supports this idea. Researchers found small amounts of fat, as well as a large amount of stone and the remains of paths. However, physicist Joseph West thinks there might have been a simpler way , who led the new
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study . West said , “I was inspired while watching a television program showing how sleds might have helped with pyramid construction . I thought , ‘Why don’t they just try rolling the things?’“A square could be turned into a rough sort of wheel by attaching wooden poles to its sides , he realized . That , he notes , should make a block of stone” a lot easier to roll than a square”. So he tried it. He and his students tied some poles to each of four sides of a 30-kilogram stone block. That action turned the block into somewhat a wheel. Then they placed the block on the ground. They wrapped one end of a rope around the block and pulled. The researchers found they could easily roll the block along different kinds of paths. They calculated that rolling the block required about as much force as moving it along a slippery(滑的)path. West hasn’t tested his idea on larger blocks, but he thinks rolling has clear advantages over sliding. At least, workers wouldn’t have needed to carry cattle fat or water to smooth the paths. 46.It’s widely believed that the stone blocks were moved to the pyramid site by ______. A. rolling them on roads B. pushing them over the sand C. sliding them on smooth paths D. dragging them on some poles 47.The underlined part “lubricated the paths” in Paragraph 4 means____. A. made the path wet B. made the path hard C. made the path wide D. made the path slippery 48.What does the underlined word “it”in Paragraph 7 refer to? A. Rolling the blocks with poles attached. B. Rolling the blocks on wooden wheels. C. Rolling poles to move the blocks. D. Rolling the blocks with fat. 49.Why is rolling better than sliding according to West ? A. Because more force is needed for sliding. B. Because rolling work can be done by fewer cattle. C. Because sliding on smooth road is more dangerous. D. Because less preparation on path is needed for rolling.
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50.What is the text mainly about ? A. An experiment on ways of moving blocks to the pyramid site. B. An application of the method of moving blocks to the pyramid site. C. An argument about different methods of moving blocks to the pyramid site. D. An introduction to a possible new way of moving blocks to the pyramid site. 【解析】 试题分析:本文主要讲述的是关于金字塔的建造,不同的专家有着不同的见解。这篇文章主要 讲述了两种看法。 46.C 细节理解题。根据文章第四段的 The most popular view is that Egyptian workers slid the blocks along smooth paths.可知选择 C。 47.D 词义猜测题。根据第四段的 To make the work easier,以及下文的 either with wet clay or with the fat from cattle.可知,这样做是为了让路更加平滑,故选择 D。 48.A 词义猜测题。这是考查指代词的指代内容,由于是指代词,可知内容应该在上文,根据第 六段的内容可知,选择 A,意为把杆绑在石块上,然后滚动石块。 49.D 细节理解题。 根据文章最后一段的 workers wouldn’t have needed to carry cattle fat or water to smooth the paths.可知,滚动石块不需要有准备工作,故选择 D。 50.D 主旨大意题。 根据文章内容可知, 文章主要讲述了一种新的把石块移动到金字塔地址的方 法,故选择 D。 【考点定位】考查说明文阅读 【名师点睛】 本篇文章考查了科普说明文的阅读。 科普说明文是高考阅读理解中的重点与难点。 在阅读此类文章时,考生会觉得篇幅长、生词多、逻辑性强、长句多、话题陌生且枯燥,表达 方式专业化。因此,要求考生要掌握相对的解题技巧与能力。设题时,常会考查生词词义判断 题,如要求考生从上下文理解中概括出生词词义。以及代词指代判断题,如,此类试题常以 it、 them 等代词为命题特色,要求考生推断其指代对象。通常在上文出现。

9.【2015·天津】B
Whether in the home or the workplace, social robots are going to become a lot more common in the next few years. Social robots are about to bring technology to the everyday world in a more humanized way, said Cynthia Breazeal, chief scientist at the robot company Jibo. While household robots today do the normal housework, social robots will be much more like companions than mere tools. For example, these robots will be able to distinguish when someone is happy or sad. This allows them to respond more appropriately to the user. The Jibo robot, arranged to ship later this year, is designed to be a personalized assistant. You
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can talk to the robot, ask it questions, and make requests for it to perform different tasks. The robot doesn’t just deliver general answers to questions; it responds based on what it learns about each individual in the household. It can do things such as reminding an elderly family member to take medicine or taking family photos. Social robots are not just finding their way into the home. They have potential applications in everything from education to health care and are already finding their way into some of these spaces. Fellow Robots is one company bringing social robots to the market. The company’s “Oshbot” robot is built to assist customers in a store, which can help the customers find items and help guide them to the product’s location in the store. It can also speak different languages and make recommendations for different items based on what the customer is shopping for. The more interaction the robot has with humans, the more it learns. But Oshbot, like other social robots, is not intended to replace workers, but to work alongside other employees. “We have technologies to train social robots to do things not for us, but with us,” said Breazeal. 41. How are social robots different from household robots? A. They can control their emotions. C. They do the normal housework. B. They are more like humans. D. They respond to users more slowly.

42. What can a Jibo robot do according to Paragraph 3? A. Communicate with you and perform operations. B. Answer your questions and make requests. C. Take your family pictures and deliver milk. D. Obey your orders and remind you to take pills. 43. What can Oshbot work as? A. A language teacher. C. A shop assistant. B. A tour guide. D. A private nurse.

44. We can learn from the last paragraph that social robots will ______. A. train employees C. improve technologies 45. What does the passage mainly present? A. A new design idea of household robots. B. Marketing strategies for social robots. C. Information on household robots.
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B. be our workmates D. take the place of workers

D. An introduction to social robots. 【解析】 试题分析:文章大意:文章主要介绍了社会机器人的功能与作用。 41. B 细节理解题。 根据文章第二段 While household robots today do the normal housework, social robots will be much more like companions than mere tools.可知社会机器人更像人或不是纯粹的 工具。故选 B。 42. D 细节理解题。根据文章第二段“his action to keep his balance against the strong winds made for some heart-stopping(令人担忧的)moments for the audience.”可知选 D。 43. C 细节理解题。根据第三段 You can talk to the robot, ask it questions, and make requests for it to perform different tasks.和 It can do things such as reminding an elderly family member to take medicine or taking family photos.可知此机器人可以解答问题且可以提醒家庭成员服药和拍照片。 选 C。 44. B 推理判断题。 根据最后一段 Breazeal 的话 “We have technologies to train social robots to do things not for us, but with us”可以推断出社会机器人可以和我们一起做事情。故选 B。 45. D 主旨大意题。根据全文内容可知,文章主要介绍了社会机器人的功能与作用。故选 D。 【考点定位】科技类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本文是一篇科技类短文阅读,整体难度中等偏易,多数考查细节理解题,只需通 过关键词定位可得出答案。倒数第二题需要稍加推理才能判断出答案,最后一题是对文章的主 旨大意的考查,考生做题时尤其注意切切不能以偏概全,干扰选择项要多回到原文的原句反复 斟酌。 10.【2015·浙江】C If humans were truly at home under the light of the moon and stars,we would go in darkness happily,the midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal(夜间活动的) species on this planet. Instead,we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light. This is a basic evolutionary fact, even though most of us don’t think of ourselves as diurnal beings. Yet it’s the only way to explain what we’ve done to the night: We’ve engineered it to receive us by filling itwith light. The benefits of this kind of engineering come with consequences 一 called light pollution 一 whose effects scientists are only now beginning to study. Light pollution is largely the result of bad lighting design,which allows artificial light to shine outward and upward into the sky.III-designed lighting washes out the darkness of night and completely changes the light levels 一 and light rhythms — to which many forms of life, including, ourselves, have adapted. Wherever human light
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spills into the natural world, some aspect or life is affected . In most cities the sky looks as though it has been emptied of stars, leaving behind a vacant haze(霾) that mirrors our fear of the dark. We’ve grown so used to this orange haze that the original glory of an unlit nigh, - dark enough for the planet Venus to throw shadow on Earth, is wholly beyond our experience, beyond memory almost. We’ve lit up the night as if it were an unoccupied country, when nothing could be further form the truth. Among mammals alone, the number of nocturnal species is astonishing, Light is a powerful biological force, and on many species it acts as a magnet(磁铁). The effect is so powerful that scientists speak of songbirds and seabirds being“captured”by searchlights on land or by the light from gas flares on marine oil platforms. Migrating at night, birds tend to collide with brightly lit tall buildings. Frogs living near brightly lit highways suffer nocturnal light levels that are as much as a million times righter than normal, throwing nearly every aspect of their behavior out of joint including most other creatures ,we do need darkness .Darkness is as essential to our biological welfare, to our internal clockwork, as light itself. Living in a glare of our making,we have cut ourselves off from our evolutionary and cultural heritage—the light of the stars and the rhythms of day and night .In a very real sense light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe, to forget the scale of our being, which is best measured against the dimensions of a deep night with the Milky Way—the edge of our galaxy arching overhead. 50. According to the passage, human being A. prefer to live in the darkness B. are used to living in the day light C. were curious about the midnight world D. had to stay at home with the light of the moon 51. What does “it”(Paragraph 1) most probably refer to? A. The night. B. The moon C. The sky . D. The planet .

52. The writer mentions birds and frogs to A. provide examples of animal protection B. show how light pollution affects animals C. compare the living habits of both species

D. explain why the number of certain species has declined
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53. It is implied in the last paragraph that

.

A. light pollution dose harm to the eyesight of animals B. light pollution has destroyed some of the world heritages C. human beings cannot go to the outer space D. human beings should reflect on their position in the universe 54. What might be the best title for the passage? A. The Magic light. C. The Disappearing Night. B. The Orange Haze. D. The Rhythms of Nature.

【解析】
试题分析:文章介绍了光污染对于动物和人类的影响,呼吁我们反思我们的行为。 50. B 细节理解题 根据第一段第三行“ with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light 眼睛适应了太 阳的光线” 可以知道答案。其中 adapted to 和 used to 同义,意为习惯于。 51. A 猜词题,对于这种指代的题目,往往答案是最接近它的一个。根据这种原则,不能得出 答案是 night 夜晚。最后一句话的句意是:但是这是唯一的方法去解释我们对于夜晚做了什么: 我们设计了光,让光充满星空。 52. B 写作目的题 根据第二段第一句话”The benefits of this kind of engineering come with consequences 这项工程带来好处的同时也带来了坏处“和最后一句,“Wherever human light spills into the natural world, some aspect of life is affected“, 此句意为无论光洒在什么地方,生 活都会受到一些影响。 所以答案是 show how light pollution affects animals 说明光污染影响的 动物 53. D 推理题,最后一段的意思是” Living in a glare of our making ,we have cut ourselves off from our evolutionary and cultural heritage—the light of the stars and the rhythms of day and night .In a very real sense light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe, to forget the scale of our being, which is best measured against the dimensions of a deep night with the Milky Way—the edge of our galaxy arching overhead.生活在一个刺眼世界,我们已经远离了进化 和文化遗产:星星和昼夜节律的光。在一个非常真实的意义上,光污染使我们在宇宙中失去真 我,而这些失去的正好就是最好的测量银河系银河深夜的工具。“ 根据语意,不难得出答案是 D. human beings should reflect on their position in the universe 人类应该反思自己的行为。但此题 易错选 B,之所以不选 B 是因为 some of 的表达是扩大了说法,以偏概全。 54. C 标题题,根据,文章出现最多的就是 light 和 night, 我们可以知道答案是 C。之所以不选 A,是因为它所使用的形容词 Magic 意思是奇幻的,这个单词具有褒义的意思。而 C 选项的 disappearing 是消失的,这符合本文的语境,让我们反思。
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【考点定位】这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章 【名师点睛】对于这种文章,一定要读懂作者的观点是什么?留意作者看法的用词,即是文章 所使用的形容词是支持还是反对。尤其要读懂第一段的内容,因为往往开头是陈述作者观点的 地方。 如第一段 “If humans were truly at home under the light of the moon and stars, we would go in darkness happily,the midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal(夜间 活动的) species on this planet. Instead,we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light.如果人类真的在家里的月亮和星星的光下,我们会在黑暗中快乐,午夜的世界,我们 可见的是夜间的大量在这个星球上的物种。相反,我们是日行动物,眼睛适应了太阳的光线。” 11.【2015·安徽】C As Internet users become more dependent on the Internet to store information, are people remember less? If you know your computer will save information, why store it in your own personal memory, your brain? Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how. In a recent study, Professor Betsy Sparrow conducted some experiments. She and her research team wanted to know the Internet is changing memory. In the first experiment, they gave people 40 unimportant facts to type into a computer. The first group of people understood thatthe computer would save the information. The second group understood that the computer would not save it. Later, the second group remembered the information better. People in the first group knew they could find the information again, so they did not try to remember it. In another experiment, the researchers gave people facts to remember, and told them where to find the information on the Internet. The information was in a specific computer folder (文件夹). Surprisingly, people later remember the folder location (位置) better than the facts. When people use the Internet, they do not remember the information. Rather, they remember how to find it. This is called "transactive memory (交互记忆)". According to Sparrow, we are not becoming people with poor memories as a result of the Internet. Instead, computer users are developing stronger transactive memories; that is, people are learning how to organize huge quantities of information so that they are able to access it at a later date. This doesn't mean we are becoming either more or less intelligent, but there is no doubt that the way we use memory is changing. 64. The passage begins with two questions to ______. A. introduce the main topic C. describe how to use the Interne. B. show the author's altitude D. explain how to store information

65. What can we learn about the first experiment?
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A. Sparrow's team typed the information into a computer. B. The two groups remembered the information equally well. C. The first group did not try to remember the formation. D. The second group did not understand the information. 66. In transactive memory, people ______. A. keep the information in mind B. change the quantity of information D. remember how to find the information

C. organize information like a computer

67. What is the effect of the Internet according to Sparrow's research? A. Weare using memory differently. B. We arebecoming more intelligent. D. We need a better way to access information.

C. We have poorer memories than before. 【答案】 64. A 65. C 66. D 67. A

【考点定位】心理类短文阅读 【名师点睛】一般来说,举例的目的是为了引出即将讨论的话题,可以从例子后面找到总结性 的话语。 “Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how.”就是举例 的意图。后三道题都属于细节理解题,可以直接从文章找到提示性的语句;最后一道题有一定 的难度,需要进行一些推理和排除。 12.【2015·湖南】B
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In its early history, Chicago had floods frequently, especially in the spring, making the streets so muddy that people, horses, and carts got stuck. An old joke that was popular at the time went something like this: A man is stuck up to his waist in a muddy Chicago street. Asked if he needs help, he replies, "No, thanks. I've got a good horse under me." The city planner decided to build an underground drainage (排水) system, but there simply wasn't enough difference between the height of the ground level and the water level. The only two options were to lower the Chicago River or raise the city. An engineer named Ellis Chesbrough convinced me the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover them with dirt. This raised the level of the city's streets by as much as 12 feet. This of course created a new problem: dirt practically buried the first floors of every building in Chicago. Building owners were faced with a choice: either change the first floors of their buildings into basements, and the second stories into main floors, or hoist the entire buildings to meet the new street level. Small wood-frame buildings could be lifted fairly easily. But what about large, heavy structures like Tremont Hotel, which was a six-story brick building? That's where George Pullman came in. He had developed some house-moving skills successfully. To lift a big structure like the Tremont Hotel, Pullman would place thousands of jackscrews (螺旋千 斤顶) beneath the building's foundation. One man was assigned to operate each section of roughly 10 jackscrews. At Pullman's signal each man turned his jackscrew the same amount at the same time, thereby raising the building slowly and evenly. Astonishingly, the Tremont Hotel stay open during the entire operation, and many of its guests didn't even notice anything was happening. Some people like to say that every problem has a solution. But in Chicago's early history, every engineering solution seemed to create a new problem. Now that Chicago's waste water was draining efficiently into the Chicago River, the city's next step was to clean the polluted river. 61.The author mentions the joke to show ______. A. horses were fairly useful in Chicago B. Chicago's streets were extremely muddy C. Chicago was very dangerous in the spring D. the Chicago people were particularly humorous 62.The city planners were convinced by Ellis Chesbrough to_______. A. get rid of the street dirt B. lower the Chicago River
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C. fight against heavy floods D. build the pipes above ground 63.The underlined word "hoist" in Paragraph 4 means "_______". A. change C. repair B. lift D. decorate

64.What can we conclude about the moving operation of the Tremont Hotel? A. It went on smoothly as intended. B. It interrupted the business of the hotel. C. It involved Pullman turning ten jackscrews. D. It separated the building from its foundation. 65.The passage is mainly about the early Chicago's ______. A. popular life styles and their influences B. environmental disasters and their causes C. engineering problems and their solutions D. successful businessmen and their achievements 【答案】 61.B 62.D 63.B 64.A 65.C 【解析】 试题分析:本文讲述了芝加哥城的问题和改造方案 61.B;细节推理题。根据文章的第一段第一句话:In early history, Chicago had floors frequently, especially in the spring, making the streets so muddy that people, horses, and carts got stuck.可知芝 加哥因为洪水的经常泛滥导致大街上总是泥泞不堪,行人,马和车全部都堵在路上。所以作者 提及那个玩笑是为了突出芝加哥这一特点,故选 B 62.D;细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话:An engineer named Eill Chesbrough convinced the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover thenwith dirt.可知以 Eill Chesbrough 为首的人们认为应该在地上埋下排水管道,故选 D 63.B;细节推理题。根据后文:Small wood-frame building could be lifted fairly easily.可知另一种 方法就是将建筑升高。故选 B
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64.A;细节推理题。根据倒数第二段中的倒数第二句话:At Pullman’s signal each man turned his jackscrew the same amount at the same time, thereby raising the building slowly and evenly.(在 Pullman 的指导下,每个人同时抬起他们手中的千斤顶,因此建筑就被慢慢地、平整地抬起来 了)可知 A 项正确, 故选 A 65.C;主旨大意题。文章的第一段就提出芝加哥城所存在的问题,接下来的段落讨论了解决这 个问题的一些方法,最后一段讲到这些方法虽然解决当前的问题,但是随之而来的又会冒出一 些新的问题有待解决。故文章大致上讲述的是建造的问题与解决办法,故选 C 【考点定位】科普类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】这是一篇科普类的文章,主要是考查上下文理解和对文章细节的把握,明白作者 的构思在文章中给出的自己想法和观点以及对文章的总结。例如最后一段:Some people like to say that every problem has a solution. But in Chicago's early history, every engineering solution seemed to create a new problem. Now that Chicago's waste water was draining efficiently into the Chicago River, the city's next step was to clean the polluted river.可知作者觉得所有的解决办法都 会解决了原有的问题后又产生出一个新的问题。这是对文章的一个总结。

13.【2015·新课标全国 II】B
Your house may have an effect on your figure. Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off. you can make your environment work for you instead of against you. Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan. Open the curtains and turn up the lights. Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating, for people are often less self-conscious(难为情) when they’re in poorly lit places – and so more likely to eat lots of food. If your home doesn’t have enough window light, get more lamps and flood the place with brightness. Mind the colors. Research suggests warm colors fuel our appetites. In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room. Warm colors like yellow make food appear more appetizing, while cold colors make us less hungry. So when it’s time to repaint, go blue. Don’t forget the clock – or the radio. People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals. Begin keeping track of the time, and try to make dinner last at 30 minutes. And while you’re at it, actually sit down to eat. If you need some help slowing down, turning on relaxing music. It makes you less likely to rush through a meal. Downsize the dishes. Big serving bowls and plants can easily makes us fat. We eat about 22
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percent more when using a 12-inch plate instead of a 10-inch plate. When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one, total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent. And we’ll pour about 30 percent more liquid into a short, wide glass than a tall, skinny glass. 25. The text is especially helpful for those who care about ____. A. B. C. D. their home comforts their body shape house buying healthy diets

26. A home environment in blue can help people ____. A. B. C. D. digest food better reduce food intake burn more calories regain their appetites

27. What are people advised to do at mealtimes? A. B. C. D. Eat quickly. Play fast music Use smaller spoons Turn down the lights

28.What can be a suitable title for the text? A. B. C. D. Is Your House Making You Fat? Ways of Serving Dinner Effects of Self-Consciousness Is Your Home Environment Relaxing?

【答案】

25. B 26. B 27.C 28.A
【解析】 试题分析:你家的房子对你的身材很有影响。长胖还是变瘦关键看你如何设计自己的家了。我 们这里有很好的建议 4 条:1.房间要明亮;2.用冷色系会减少食欲;3.放一些舒缓的音乐就餐; 4. 用小的碗碟。 25. B 推理判断题。根据全文第一段 Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan.可知,要让你的家的设计成为你减肥计划的一部分。所以这篇文章对那些在乎自己的体型 的人更有帮助。故选 B。

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26.B 细节理解题。根据第三段第二句话 In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room.可知在蓝色的房间内人吃的食物相对 在黄色或者红色房间少 33%。暖色让人胃口大开,冷色让人感觉到不饿。故选 B。 27.C 推理判断题。 本题是在考查考生是否理解了 4 条建议。 第 4 段 People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals.,说明 吃得慢就吃得少,吃得快就多,故 A 错;If you need some help slowing down, turning on relaxing music.说明放舒缓的音乐可以让人吃得慢, 反之则快, 故 B 错; 第二段 Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating,由此可知房间暗会增加饮食, 所以 D 错; 最后一段 When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one, total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent.用大勺和小勺吃饭,相差 14%,故选 C。 28.A 主旨大意题。根据文章的开头 Your house may have an effect on your figure. Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off. you can make your environment work for you instead of against you.可知,你的家居环境既可以让 你变胖也会让你变瘦。 本文非常适合那些想减肥的人士来阅读。 所以选 A 可以更好地概括全文。 【考点定位】科普类短文阅读 【名师点睛】 本文的结构清楚。 主题句 Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan.在第一段,抓住就可以理清文章的脉络,接下来是 4 条建议,一段一条。题目中的第三题 考查对文章的全面了解,并要求理解四个选项的意思才能做好。平时还应该多练习对文章结构 的分析。 14.【2015·新课标全国 I】D

Conflict is on the menu tonight at the café La Chope. This evening, as on every Thursday night, psychologist Maud Lehanne is leading two of France’s favorite pastimes, coffee drinking and the “talking cure”. Here they are learning to get in touch with their true feelings. It isn’t always easy. They customers - some thirty Parisians who pay just under $2 (plus drinks) per session - care quick to intellectualize (高谈阔论),slow to open up and connect. “You are forbidden to say ‘one feels,’ or ‘people think’,” Lehane told them. “Say ‘I think,’ ‘Think me’.” A café society where no intellectualizing is allowed? It couldn’t seem more un-French. But Lehanne’s psychology café is about more than knowing oneself: It’s trying to help the city’s troubled neighborhood cafes. Over the years, Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle - longer working hours, a fast food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home. Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation. Cafes focused around
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psychology, history, and engineering are catching on, filling tables well into the evening. The city’s psychology cafes, which offer great comfort, are among the most popular places. Middle-aged homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed come to such cafes to talk about love, anger, and dreams with a psychologist. And they come to Lehanne’s group just to learn to say what they feel. “There’s a strong need in Paris for communication,” says Maurice Frisch, a cafe La Chope regular who works as a religious instructor in a nearby church. “People have few real friends. And they need to open up.” Lehanne says she’d like to see psychology cafes all over France. “If people had normal lives, these cafes wouldn’t exist”, she says, “If life weren’t a battle, people wouldn’t need a special place just to speak.” But them, it wouldn’t be France. 32.What are people encouraged to do at the cafe La Chope? A. Learn a new subject B. Keep in touch with friends. C. Show off their knowledge. D. Express their true feelings. 33. How are cafes affected by French lifestyle changes? A. They are less frequently visited. B. They stay open for longer hours. C. They have bigger night crowds. D. They start to serve fast food. 34. What are theme cafes expected to do? A. Create more jobs. B. Supply better drinks. C. Save the cafe business. D. Serve the neighborhood. 35. Why are psychology cafes becoming popular in Paris? A. They bring people true friendship. B. They give people spiritual support. C. They help people realize their dreams. D. They offer a platform for business links.

【答案】
32. D 33. A
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34. C 35. B 【解析】 试题分析:文章主要讲述了法国精神咖啡馆(psychology cafes)的社会意义和功能特色,以及 在法国越来越受欢迎。 32. D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第三句 Here they are learning to get in touch with their true feelings.可知在 La Chope 咖啡馆鼓励人们表达他们真正的情感。故选 D。 33. A 细节理解题。根据文章第二段 Over the years, Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle-longer working hours, a fast food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home.可知改变了更多时间呆在家里的更年轻一代人。故选 A。 34. C 推理判断题。根据第二段 Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation.可以得 出答案。故选 C。 35. B 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段第一句话“If people had normal lives, these cafes would’t exist”, she says,”If life weren’t a battle, people wouln’t need a special place just to speak.” But them, it wouldn’t be France.可知心理咖啡馆在巴黎受欢迎的原因在于他们给予人们精神上的支持。故 选 B。学优高考网 【考点定位】社会类短文阅读 【名师点睛】这是一篇社会类短文阅读。难度中等偏上,学生不易读懂。但是第 32 和 33 题均 为考查细节理解题,问题设计比较简单,考生只需通过关键词定位即可得出答案。其中第 34 和 35 题需要在原文的内容的基础之上作出推理, 才能判断出正确的答案。 考生做此类阅读时要 注意前后之间的联系与对比,选择答案时切不可以以偏概全。

专题十六 阅读理解之科普类说明文
1.【2015·湖北卷】D The oddness of life in space never quite goes away. Here are some examples. First consider something as simple as sleep. Its position presents its own challenges. The main question is whether you want your arms inside or outside the sleeping bag. If you leave your arms out, they float free in zero gravity, often giving a sleeping astronaut the look of a funny balled (芭 蕾)dancer. “I’m an inside guy,” Mike Hopkins says, who returned from a six-month tour on the International Space Station. “I like to be wrapped up.” On the station, the ordinary becomes strange. The exercise bike for the American astronauts has no handlebars. It also has no seat. With no gravity, it’s just as easy to pedal violently. You can watch a
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movie while you pedal by floating a microcomputer anywhere you want. But station residents have to be careful about staying in one place too long. Without gravity to help circulate air, the carbon dioxide you exhale (呼气) has a tendency to form an invisible (隐形的) cloud around you head. You can end up with what astronauts call a carbon-dioxide headache. Leroy Chiao, 54, an American retired astronaut after four flights, describes what happens even before you float out of your seat,”Your inner ear thinks your’re falling . Meanwhile your eyes are telling you you’re standing straight. That can be annoying—that’s why some people feel sick.” Within a couple days —truly terrible days for some —astronauts’ brains learn to ignore the panicky signals from the inner ear, and space sickness disappears. Space travel can be so delightful but at the same time invisibly dangerous. For instance, astronauts lose bone mass. That’s why exercise is considered so vital that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) puts it right on the workday schedule. The focus on fitness is as much about science and the future as it is about keeping any individual astronauts return home, and, more importantly, how to maintain strength and fitness for the two and a half years or more that it would take to make a round-trip to Mars. 63.What is the major challenge to astronauts when they sleep in space? A. Deciding on a proper sleep position B. Choosing a comfortable sleeping bag C. Seeking a way to fall asleep quickly D. Finding a right time to go to sleep. 64.The astronauts will suffer from a carbon-dioxide headache when _____. A. the y circle around on their bikes

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B. they use microcomputers without a stop C. they exercise in one place for a long time D. they watch a movie while pedaling 65.Some astronauts feel sick on the station during the first few days because _____. A. their senses stop working B. they have to stand up straight C. they float out of their seats unexpectedly D. whether they are able to go back to the station 66.One of the NASA’s major concerns about astronauts is _____. A. how much exercise they do on the station B. how they can remain healthy for long in space C. whether they can recover after returning home D. whether they are able to go back to the station 【解析】 试题分析:这是一篇说明文。本文通过举例说明了太空生活的奇妙:在太空睡觉时,对宇航员 来说主要的挑战在于恰当的睡眠姿势;宇航员在一个地方运动久了会出现碳毒性头痛;宇航员 的大脑接收到矛盾的信息时会感到恶心。最后告诉我们美国国家宇航局对宇航员主要的担心是 宇航员回家后的修养期和如何在太空长久地保持健康。 63.A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一、二句“First consider something as simple as sleep. Its position presents its own challenges.”可知在太空睡觉时,对宇航员来说主要的挑战在于恰当的睡眠姿势。 故选 A 项。 64. C 细节理解题。 根据第三段中“But station residents have to be careful about staying in one place too long. …You can end up with what astronauts call a carbon-dioxide headache”可知宇航员在一个 地方运动久了会出现碳毒性头痛。故选 C 项。 65. D 细节理解题。根据第四段中“Your inner ear thinks you’re failing. Meanwhile your eyes are telling you you’re standing straight. That can be annoying-that’s why some people feel sick.”可知宇 航员在大脑接收到矛盾的信息时会感到恶心。故选 D 项。 66.B 细节理解题。 根据最后一段倒数第一、 二句“The focus on fitness is as much about science and the future as is about keeping any individual astronaut healthy…NASA is worried about two things :… and, more importantly, how maintain strength and fitness…”可知美国国家宇航局对宇航员主要的 担心之一是如何在太空长久地保持健康。故选 B 项。

【考点定位】说明文阅读
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【名师点睛】科普类说明文历来是高考阅读理解命题的重点,文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,主要 考查学生对语篇的整体把握和领悟能力以及对特定细节的认读和处理能力。考生应注意:1.平 时多读科普知识类文章,学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本上提高科普英语的阅读 能力。2.熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(高考题中一般不给出标题)、 导语、背景、主体和结尾五部分构成。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。背景交待一个事实的起 因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述,这部分是命题的重点,考生应该重点把握。结尾 往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。3. 在进行 推理判断时,考生一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同时所得出的结论还应符合基 本的科普常识。 2.【2015·北京卷】C

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Life in the Clear Transparent animals let light pass through their bodies the same way light passes through a window. These animals typically live between the surface of the ocean and a depth of about 3,300 feet—as far as most light can reach. Most of them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch. Sonke Johnsen, a scientist in biology, says, “These animals live through their life alone. They never touch anything unless they’re eating it, or unless something is eating them.” And they are as clear as glass. How does an animal become see-through? It’s trickier than you might think. The objects around you are visible because they interact with light. Light typically travels in a straight line. But some materials slow and scatter(散射) light, bouncing it away from its original path. Others absorb light, stopping it dead in its tracks. Both scattering and absorption make an object look different from other objects around it, so you can see it easily. But a transparent object doesn’t absorb or scatter light, at least not very much, Light can pass through it without bending or stopping. That means a transparent object doesn’t look very different from the surrounding air or water. You don’t see it ----you see the things behind it. To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light. Living materials can stop light because they contain pigments(色素) that absorb specific colors of light. But a transparent animal doesn’t have pigments, so its tissues won’t absorb light. According to Johnsen, avoiding absorption is actually easy. The real challenge is preventing light from scattering. Animals are built of many different materials----skin, fat, and more----and light moves through each at a different speed. Every time light moves into a material with a new speed, it bends and scatters. Transparent animals use different tricks to fight scattering. Some animals are simply very small or extremely flat. Without much tissue to scatter light, it is easier to be see—through. Others build a large, clear mass of non-living jelly-lie(果冻状的)material and spread themselves over it . Larger transparent animals have the biggest challenge, because they have to make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does. They need to look uniform. But how they’re doing it is still unknown. One thing is clear for these larger animals, staying transparent is an active process. When they die, they turn a non-transparent milky white. 63. According to Paragraph 1, transparent animals_______. A. stay in groups C. appear only in deep ocean B. can be easily damaged D. are beautiful creatures

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64. The underlined word “dead” in Paragraph 3 means__________. A. silently C. regularly B. gradually D. completely

65. One way for an animal to become transparent is to ________. A. change the direction of light travel B. gather materials to scatter light. C. avoid the absorption of light D. grow bigger to stop light. 66. The last paragraph tells us that larger transparent animals________. A. move more slowly in deep water B. stay see-through even after death C. produce more tissues for their survival D. take effective action to reduce light spreading 【解析】 试题分析:文章解释了生活在海洋的透明生物的特点,透明原理,以及形成机制。 63.B 细节理解题。 文章第一段第三行: Mostof them are extremely delicate and can be damaged by a simple touch。得知 B 选项:透明动物是很容易受伤的。故选 B。 64.D 词义猜测题。该词出现在文章第三段第三行。前文提到了:你能看到的物体一种是对光线 进行了散射;而另外一种是对光线的吸收。既然吸收了,那在光的传播过程中就完全阻止了, 因此这里 dead 是完全的意思。故选 D。 65.C 推理判断题。根据第五段第一句 To become transparent, an animal needs to keep its body from absorbing or scattering light。可知,想变透明就要避免散射或吸收光线,因此其中的一个方 法是 C 选项,避免光线的吸收。故选 C。 66.D 推理判断题。根据最后一段第一句中的 make all the different tissues in their bodies slow down light exactly as much as water does 可以推断出 D 为正确答案。 其中 slowdown 对应 reduce。 故选 D。 【考点定位】科技类说明文 【名师点睛】做科技类说明文时,考生应能:理解语篇主旨要义,理解文中具体信息,根据上 下文提供的线索推测生词的词义,根据文中事实和线索作出简单的判断和推理。此次出现了新 型科技类说明文。往年科技类说明文的阅读难点在于专业类词汇,但是今年的“新型耳机”在问 题设置上难度不大,属于文章难但题目不难的题目。所以要理解好文章做好此题就不是难题。 3.【2015·江苏】B
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In the United States alone, over 100 million cell-phones are thrown away each year. Cell-phones are part of a growing mountain of electronic waste like computers and personal digital assistants. The electronic waste stream is increasing three times faster than traditional garbage as a whole. Electronic devices contain valuable metals such as gold and silver. A Swiss study reported that while the weight of electronic goods represented by precious metals was relatively small in comparison to total waste, the concentration (含量) of gold and other precious metals was higher in So-called e-waste than in naturally occurring minerals. Electronic wastes also contain many poisonous metals. Even when the machines are recycled and the harmful metals removed, the recycling process often is carried out in poor countries, in practically uncontrolled ways which allow many poisonous substances to escape into the environment. Creating products out of raw materials creates much more waste material, up to 100 times more, than the material contained in the finished products. Consider again the cell-phone, and imagine the mines that produced those metals, the factories needed to make the box and packaging(包装) it came in. Many wastes produced in the producing process are harmful as well. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that most waste is dangerous in that “the production, distribution, and use of products — as well as management of the resulting waste — all result in greenhouse gas release.” Individuals can reduce their contribution by creating less waste at the start — for instance, buying reusable products and recycling. In many countries the concept of extended producer responsibility is being considered or has been put in place as an incentive (动机) for reducing waste. If producers are required to take back packaging they use to sell their products, would they reduce the packaging in the first place? Governments’ incentive to require producers to take responsibility for the packaging they produce is usually based on money. Why, they ask, should cities or towns be responsible for paying to deal with the bubble wrap (气泡垫) that encased your television? From the governments’ point of view, a primary goal of laws requiring extended producer responsibility is to transfer both the costs and the physical responsibility of waste management from the government and tax-payers back to the producers. 58.By mentioning the Swiss study, the author intends to tell us that _________ . A. the weight of e-goods is rather small B. E-waste deserves to be made good use of C. natural minerals contain more precious metals
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D. the percentage of precious metals is heavy in e-waste 59.The responsibility of e-waste treatment should be extended _________ . A. from producers to governments B. from governments to producers C. from individuals to distributors D. from distributors to governments 60. What does the passage mainly talk about? A. The increase in e-waste. B. The creation of e-waste. C. The seriousness of e-waste. D. The management of e-waste. 【解析】

【考点定位】科普说明文阅读
【名师点睛】科普类文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,主要考查学生对语篇的整体把握和领悟能力以 及对特定细节的理解和推理能力。文章选材时代气息浓厚,与经济、科技的发展和变化密切相 关。考生应注意:1.平时多读科普知识类文章,学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本 上提高科普英语的阅读能力。2.熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(高考题 中一般不给出标题)、导语、背景、主体和结尾五部分构成。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。 背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述,这部分是命题的重点,考 生应该重点把握。结尾往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道 推理判断题。3. 在进行推理判断时,考生一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同时所
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得出的结论还应符合基本的科普常识。 4.C Suppose you become a leader in an organization. It ’s very likely that you’ll want to have volunteers to help with the organization’s activities. To do so, it should help to understand why people undertake volunteer work and what keeps their interest in the work. Let ’s begin with the question of why people volunteer. Researchers have identified several factors that motivate people to get involved. For example, people volunteer to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships. If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate. To select volunteers, you may need to understand the motivations of the people you wish to attract. People also volunteer because they are required to do so. To increase levels of community service, some schools have launched compulsory volunteer programs. Unfortunately, these programs can shift people’s wish of participation from an internal factor (e.g., “I volunteer because it ’s important to me”) to an external factor (e.g., “I volunteer because I’m required to do so”). When that happens, people become less likely to volunteer in the future. People must be sensitive to this possibility when they make volunteer activities a must. Once people begin to volunteer, what leads them to remain in their positions over time? To answer this question, researchers have conducted follow-up studies in which they track volunteers over time. For instance, one study followed 238 volunteers in Florida over a year. One of the most important factors that influenced their satisfaction as volunteers was the amount of suffering they experienced in their volunteer positions. Although this result may not surprise you, it leads to important practical advice. The researchers note that attention should be given to“training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”. Another study of 302 volunteers at hospitals in Chicago focused on individual differences in the degree to which people view “volunteer ” as an important social role. It was assumed that those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work. Participants indicated the degree to which the social role mattered by responding to statements such as “Volunteering in Hospital is an important part of who I am.” Consistent with the researchers’ expectations, they found a positive correlation (正相关) between the strength of role identity and the length of time people continued to volunteer. These results, once again, lead to concrete advice: “Once an individual begins volunteering, continued efforts
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might focus on developing a volunteer role identity.... Items like T-shirts that allow volunteers to be recognized publicly for their contributions can help strengthen role identity ”. 61.People volunteer mainly out of ______ . A. academic requirements C. financial rewards B. social expectations D. internal needs

62.What can we learn from the Florida study? A. Follow-up studies should last for one year. C. Strategy training is a must in research. advice. 63.What is most likely to motivate volunteers to continue their work? A. Individual differences in role identity. C. Role identity as a volunteer. 64.What is the best title of the passage? A. How to Get People to Volunteer C. How to Keep Volunteers’ Interest 【解析】 试题分析:本文是一篇议论文。文章分析讲述志愿者为什么自发地去服务社会,并通过 3 个实 验研究志愿者的意图。 61. D 细节理解题。 根据文章第二段内容可知人们做志愿者工作的原因为: “to express personal values related to unselfishness, to expand their range of experiences, and to strengthen social relationships”,再结合“If volunteer positions do not meet these needs, people may not wish to participate” 可知答案为 D 项(满足内在的需求)。 62.B 推理判断题。根据第四段最后一句中“training methods that would prepare volunteers for troublesome situations or provide them with strategies for coping with the problem they do experience”可知志愿者应该从心理上做好充分的准备。故选 B 项。 63.C 细节理解题。 根据第五段第二句中 “those people for whom the role of volunteer was most part of their personal identity would also be most likely to continue volunteer work” 可知志愿者身份认同 会激励他们继续从事志愿者工作。故选 C 项。 64.A 标题归纳题。文章首段提出假设:假如你是一名组织领导人,很想得到志愿者的帮助。并 指出在此之前, 必须弄清志愿者为什么自发地去服务社会, 并通过 3 个实验研究志愿者的意图。 因此 A 项(如何使人们从事志愿者服务)是文章的最佳标题。 B. How to Study Volunteer Behaviors D. How to Organize Volunteer Activities B. Publicly identifiable volunteer T-shirts. D. Practical advice from researchers. B. Volunteers should get mentally prepared. D. Volunteers are provided with concrete

【考点定位】议论文阅读
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【名师点睛】议论说理类文章具有以下特点:1.一般按提出问题、分析问题、解决问题的方法 写作。作者一般从日常生活中的热点问题、社会上的重大问题、与读者息息相关的问题入手, 即提出问题。然后,分析利弊,举例说明,推理判断,即分析问题。最后,阐述观点,提出办 法,即解决问题。2.以作者的观点或情感为核心,对细节推理等方面进行考查。3.文章的主 题一般是生活中的热点问题、重大问题或与生活息息相关的问题等。考生应注意抓住作者提出 的观点、给出的例证及最后得出的结论。同时,理清作为论据的诸多事例和理由之间以及它们 和观点/结论之间的内在联系,把握文章的结构。 5.【2015·广东】C Daniel Anderson, a famous psychologist, believes it’s important to distinguish television’s influences on children from those of the family. We tend to blame TV, he says, for problems it doesn’t really cause, overlooking our own roles in shaping children’s minds. One traditional belief about television is that it reduces a child’s ability to think and to understand the world. While watching TV, children do not merely absorb words and images (影像). Instead, they learn both explicit and hidden meanings from what they see. Actually, children learn early the psychology of characters in TV shows. Furthermore, as many teachers agree, children understand far more when parents watch TV with them, explaining new words and ideas. Yet, most parents use an educational program as a chance to park their kids in front of the set and do something in another room. Another argument against television is that it replaces reading as a form of entertainment. But according to Anderson, the amount of time spent watching television is not related to reading ability. TV doesn’t take the place of reading for most children; it takes the place of similar sorts of recreation, such as listening to the radio and playing sports. Things like parents’ educational background have a stronger influence on a child’s reading. “A child’s reading ability is best predicted by how much a parent reads.” Anderson says. Traditional wisdom also has it that heavy television-watching lowers IQ (智商) scores and affects school performance. But here, too, Anderson notes that no studies have proved it. In fact, research suggests that it’s the other way around. “If you’re smart young, you’ll watch less TV when you’re older,” Anderson says. Yet, people of lower IQ tend to be lifelong television viewers. For years researchers have attempted to show that television is dangerous to children. However, by showing that television promotes none of the dangerous effects as conventionally believed, Anderson suggests that television cannot be condemned without considering other influences. 36. By watching TV, children learn _________.
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A. images through words B. more than explicit meanings C. more about images than words D. little about people’s psychology 37. An educational program is best watched by a child _________. A. on his own B. with other kids C. with his parents D. with his teachers 38. Which of the following is most related to children’s reading ability? A. Radio-listening B. Television-watching C. Parents’ reading list D. Parents’ educational background 39. Anderson believed that _________. A. the more a child watches TV, the smarter he is B. the younger a child is, the more he watches TV C. the smarter a child is, the less likely he gets addicted to TV D. the less a child watches TV, the better he performs at school 40. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To advise on the educational use of TV. B. To describe TV’s harmful effects on children. C. To explain traditional views on TV influences. D. To present Anderson’s unconventional ideas. 【解析】 试题分析:本文叙述著名心理学家 Daniel Anderson 对孩子们看电视的看法,打破了以往人们认 为看电视对孩子不好的想法。他认为孩子们看电视不知学到显现出来的东西;父母陪孩子看电 视,孩子可以学到更多知识;孩子看电视并没有代替孩子阅读,并没有影响孩子的智商。 36. B 细节理解题。根据第二段的 Instead, they learn both explicit and hidden meanings from what they see.可知孩子们通过看电视,可以学到显性和隐藏的意义,因此不仅仅学到隐藏的意思。故 选 B。

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37. C 推理判断题。 根据第二段的 Furthermore, as many teachers agree, children understand far more when parents watch TV with them“孩子们有父母陪着看电视理解的更多”,故推断教育节目最 好是父母陪着孩子看。故选 C。 38. D 细节理解题。根据第三段的 Things like parents’ educational background have a stronger influence on a child’s reading.可知父母的教育背景对孩子的阅读有很强的影响。故选 D。 39. C 细节理解题。根据第四段的“If you’re smart young, you’ll watch less TV when you’re older” 可知如果你小时越聪明,长大看电视看得越来越少。故选 C。 40. D 推理判断题。根据最后一段的 Anderson suggests that television cannot condemned without considering other influences.“Anderson 认为不应该按照常规,不考虑电视的其他影响而去谴责 电视”故推断这篇文章的目的是呈现 Anderson 打破常规的想法,故选 D。 【考点定位】教育类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】本文侧重考查学生的细节理解能力。问题设置巧妙,根据题干要求,学生自己阅 读,就能在文中找到答案。尤其第 40 题,充分考查了学生的语篇理解能力。同时,这篇短文提 出的一种与常规不一样的看法,看电视对孩子是有好处的。 6.【2015·陕西】C The production of coffee beans is a huge, profitable business, but, unfortunately, full-sun production is taking over the industry and bringing about a lot of damage. The change in how coffee is grown from shade-grown production to full-sun production endangers the very existence of, certain animals and birds, and even disturbs the world’s ecological balance. On a local level, the damage of the forest required by full-sun fields affects the area’s birds and animals. The shade of the forest trees provides a home for birds and other special(物种) that depend on the trees’ flowers and fruits. Full-sun coffee growers destroy this forest home. As a result, many special are quickly dying out. On a more global level, the destruction of the rainforest for full-sun coffee fields also threatens(威胁)human life. Medical research often makes use of the forests' plant and animal life, and the destruction of such species could prevent researchers from finding cures for certain diseases. In addition, new coffee-growing techniques are poisoning the water locally, and eventually the world's groundwater. Both locally and globally, the continued spread of full-sun coffee plantations (种植园)could mean the destruction of the rainforest ecology. The loss of shade trees is already causing a slight change in the world's climate, and studies show that loss of oxygen-giving trees also leads to air pollution and global warming. Moreover, the new growing techniques are contributing to acidic(酸性 的) soil conditions. It is obvious that the way much coffee is grown affects many aspects many aspects of life, from the local environment to the global ecology. But consumers do have a choice. They can purchase shade-grown coffee whenever possible, although at a higher cost. The future health of the planet
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and mankind is surely worth more than an inexpensive cup of coffee. 54. What can we learn about full-sun coffee production from Paragraph 4? A. It limits the spread of new growing techniques. B. It leads to air pollution and global warming. C. It slows down the loss of shade trees. D. It improves local soil conditions. 55. The purpose of the text is to . A. entertain B. advertise C. instruct D. persuade

56. Where does this text probably come from ? A. An agricultural magazine. B. A medical journal. C. An engineering textbook. D. A tourist guide. 57.Which of the following shows the structure of the whole text?

【解析】 试题分析:文章介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产给环境和生态带来的种种危害,呼吁人们不要购买这 种咖啡,而要买对环境有利的产品。
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54.细节理解题。根据文章第四段的句子:The loss of shade trees is already causing a slight change in the world's climate, and studies show that loss of oxygen-giving trees also leads to air pollution and global warming.可知阳光充足的咖啡生产会带来空气污染和全球气温变暖,故选 B。 55.写作意图题。根据文章最后一段的句子:But consumers do have a choice. They can purchase shade-grown coffee whenever possible, although at a higher cost.可知作者的意图是劝说人们购买 阴凉处种植的咖啡,这样对环境是有好处的,故选 D。 56.推理判断题。文章介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产会带来的破坏,应该是出自一本农业杂志,故选 A。 57.文章结构题。文章第一段介绍阳光充足的咖啡生产的话题,二、三、四段介绍了阳光充足的 咖啡生产带来的破坏,第五段说服人们去购买对环境有利的阴凉处种植的咖啡,所以是总分总 的结构,故选 A。 【考点定位】环保类阅读理解 【名师点睛】这篇文章内容不是学生非常熟悉的,但是篇幅适中。考查比较全面,除了抓住主 旨,理解细节题,还需要适当的推理,如:判断文章的出处,作者的意图,文章的结构。这些 不是某个句子可以体现的,要对文章有整体把握。 7.【2015·四川】D Their cheery song brightens many a winter's day. But robins are in danger of wearing themselves out by singing too much. Robins are singing all night 一 as well as during the day, British-based researchers say. David Dominoni, of Glasgow University, said that light from street lamps, takeaway signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clocks, leading to them being wide awake when they should be asleep. Dr Dominoni, who is putting cameras inside nesting boxes to track sleeping patterns, said lack of sleep could put the birds’ health at risk. His study shows that when robins are exposed to light at night in the lab, it leads to some genes being active at the wrong time of day. And the more birds are exposed to light, the more active they are at night. He told people at a conference, "There have been a couple of studies suggesting they are increasing their song output at night and during the day they are still singing. Singing is a costly behaviour and it takes energy. So by increasing their song output, there might be some costs of energy." And it is not just robins that are being kept awake by artificial light. Blackbirds and seagulls are also being more nocturnal. Dr Dominoni said, "In Glasgow where I live, gulls are a serious problem. I
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have people coming to me saying `You are the bird expert. Can you help us kill these gulls?'.During the breeding(繁殖)season, between April and June, they are very active at night and very noisy and people can't sleep." Although Dr Dominoni has only studied light pollution, other research concluded that robins living in noisy cities have started to sing at night to make themselves heard over loud noise. However, some birds thrive(兴旺)in noisy environments. A study from California Polytechnic University found more hummingbirds in areas with heavy industrial machinery. It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators(天敌)fleeing to quieter areas. 42.According to Dr Dominoni's study, what cause robins to sing so much? A. The breeding season. C. The dangerous environment. B. The light in modern life D. The noise from heavy machinery.

43.What is the researchers' concern over the increase of birds' song output? A. The environment might be polluted. B. The birds' health might be damaged. C. The industry cost might be increased. D. The people's hearing might be affected. 44.What does the underlined word "nocturnal" in Paragraph 5 mean? A. Active at night. C. Active during the day. B. Inactive at night. D. Inactive during the day.

45.Why do some birds thrive in noisy environments? A. Because there are fewer dangers. B. Because there is more food to eat. C. Because there is less light pollution D. Because there are more places to take shelter. 【解析】 试题分析:本文主要介绍了一项研究调查的结果,由于人类制造的光线问题,越来越多的鸟类 如知更鸟在晚上也会唱歌,这极大地影响了鸟的健康。 42.B 细节理解题。根据文章第二段的 David Dominoni, of Glasgow University, said that light from street lamps, take away signs and homes is affecting the birds' biological clock, leading to them being wide awake 可知选择 B。

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43.B 细节理解题。 根据文章 Singing is a costly behaviour and it takes energy. So by increasing their song output, there might be some costs of energy."可知,唱歌唱得越多,就会损耗更多的能量,故 选择 B。 44.A 词义辨析题。根据上文的 And it is not just robins that are being kept awake by artificial light. Blackbirds and seagulls are also being 可知乌鸦和海鸥情况也一样,也就是说这两种鸟晚上也唱 歌,故选择 A,指晚上很兴奋。学优高考网 45.A 细节理解题。 根据文章最后一段的 It is thought that they are capitalising on their predators(天 敌)fleeing to quieter areas.可知,它们的天敌都去了安静的地方,故选择 A,指在这些工业区, 天敌更少,也就是危险更少。 【考点定位】考查说明文阅读 【名师点睛】 本篇文章考查了科普说明文的阅读。 科普说明文是高考阅读理解中的重点与难点。 在阅读此类文章时,考生会觉得篇幅长、生词多、逻辑性强、长句多、话题陌生且枯燥,表达 方式专业化。因此,要求考生要掌握相对的解题技巧与能力。在读此类文章时,要弄清文章的 主题,本文主题为人造光影响了鸟类的生物钟,使得它们晚上还在歌唱,影响了鸟类的健康。 在设题时,此类文章常考词义辨析题,如,要求考生要从上文的具体现象中概括出生词词义。 8.【2015·四川】E No one is sure how the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids near Cairo. But a new study suggests they used a little rock‘n’roll. Long-ago builders could have attached wooden pole s to the stones and rolled then across the sand, the scientists say. “Technically, I think what they’re proposing is possible,” physicist Daniel Bonn said. People have long puzzled over how the Egyptians moved such huge rocks. And there’s no obvious answer. On average, each of the two million big stones weighed about as much as a large pickup truck. The Egyptians somehow moved the stone blocks to the pyramid site from about one kilometer away. The most popular view is that Egyptian workers slid the blocks along smooth paths. Many scientists suspect workers first would have put the blocks on sleds(滑板). Then they would have dragged them along paths. To make the work easier, workers may have lubricated the paths either with wet clay or with the fat from cattle. Bonn has now tested this idea by building small sleds and dragging heavy objects over sand. Evidence from the sand supports this idea. Researchers found small amounts of fat, as well as a large amount of stone and the remains of paths. However, physicist Joseph West thinks there might have been a simpler way , who led the new
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study . West said , “I was inspired while watching a television program showing how sleds might have helped with pyramid construction . I thought , ‘Why don’t they just try rolling the things?’“A square could be turned into a rough sort of wheel by attaching wooden poles to its sides , he realized . That , he notes , should make a block of stone” a lot easier to roll than a square”. So he tried it. He and his students tied some poles to each of four sides of a 30-kilogram stone block. That action turned the block into somewhat a wheel. Then they placed the block on the ground. They wrapped one end of a rope around the block and pulled. The researchers found they could easily roll the block along different kinds of paths. They calculated that rolling the block required about as much force as moving it along a slippery(滑的)path. West hasn’t tested his idea on larger blocks, but he thinks rolling has clear advantages over sliding. At least, workers wouldn’t have needed to carry cattle fat or water to smooth the paths. 46.It’s widely believed that the stone blocks were moved to the pyramid site by ______. A. rolling them on roads B. pushing them over the sand C. sliding them on smooth paths D. dragging them on some poles 47.The underlined part “lubricated the paths” in Paragraph 4 means____. A. made the path wet B. made the path hard C. made the path wide D. made the path slippery 48.What does the underlined word “it”in Paragraph 7 refer to? A. Rolling the blocks with poles attached. B. Rolling the blocks on wooden wheels. C. Rolling poles to move the blocks. D. Rolling the blocks with fat. 49.Why is rolling better than sliding according to West ? A. Because more force is needed for sliding. B. Because rolling work can be done by fewer cattle. C. Because sliding on smooth road is more dangerous. D. Because less preparation on path is needed for rolling.
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50.What is the text mainly about ? A. An experiment on ways of moving blocks to the pyramid site. B. An application of the method of moving blocks to the pyramid site. C. An argument about different methods of moving blocks to the pyramid site. D. An introduction to a possible new way of moving blocks to the pyramid site. 【解析】 试题分析:本文主要讲述的是关于金字塔的建造,不同的专家有着不同的见解。这篇文章主要 讲述了两种看法。 46.C 细节理解题。根据文章第四段的 The most popular view is that Egyptian workers slid the blocks along smooth paths.可知选择 C。 47.D 词义猜测题。根据第四段的 To make the work easier,以及下文的 either with wet clay or with the fat from cattle.可知,这样做是为了让路更加平滑,故选择 D。 48.A 词义猜测题。这是考查指代词的指代内容,由于是指代词,可知内容应该在上文,根据第 六段的内容可知,选择 A,意为把杆绑在石块上,然后滚动石块。 49.D 细节理解题。 根据文章最后一段的 workers wouldn’t have needed to carry cattle fat or water to smooth the paths.可知,滚动石块不需要有准备工作,故选择 D。 50.D 主旨大意题。 根据文章内容可知, 文章主要讲述了一种新的把石块移动到金字塔地址的方 法,故选择 D。 【考点定位】考查说明文阅读 【名师点睛】 本篇文章考查了科普说明文的阅读。 科普说明文是高考阅读理解中的重点与难点。 在阅读此类文章时,考生会觉得篇幅长、生词多、逻辑性强、长句多、话题陌生且枯燥,表达 方式专业化。因此,要求考生要掌握相对的解题技巧与能力。设题时,常会考查生词词义判断 题,如要求考生从上下文理解中概括出生词词义。以及代词指代判断题,如,此类试题常以 it、 them 等代词为命题特色,要求考生推断其指代对象。通常在上文出现。

9.【2015·天津】B
Whether in the home or the workplace, social robots are going to become a lot more common in the next few years. Social robots are about to bring technology to the everyday world in a more humanized way, said Cynthia Breazeal, chief scientist at the robot company Jibo. While household robots today do the normal housework, social robots will be much more like companions than mere tools. For example, these robots will be able to distinguish when someone is happy or sad. This allows them to respond more appropriately to the user. The Jibo robot, arranged to ship later this year, is designed to be a personalized assistant. You
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can talk to the robot, ask it questions, and make requests for it to perform different tasks. The robot doesn’t just deliver general answers to questions; it responds based on what it learns about each individual in the household. It can do things such as reminding an elderly family member to take medicine or taking family photos. Social robots are not just finding their way into the home. They have potential applications in everything from education to health care and are already finding their way into some of these spaces. Fellow Robots is one company bringing social robots to the market. The company’s “Oshbot” robot is built to assist customers in a store, which can help the customers find items and help guide them to the product’s location in the store. It can also speak different languages and make recommendations for different items based on what the customer is shopping for. The more interaction the robot has with humans, the more it learns. But Oshbot, like other social robots, is not intended to replace workers, but to work alongside other employees. “We have technologies to train social robots to do things not for us, but with us,” said Breazeal. 41. How are social robots different from household robots? A. They can control their emotions. C. They do the normal housework. B. They are more like humans. D. They respond to users more slowly.

42. What can a Jibo robot do according to Paragraph 3? A. Communicate with you and perform operations. B. Answer your questions and make requests. C. Take your family pictures and deliver milk. D. Obey your orders and remind you to take pills. 43. What can Oshbot work as? A. A language teacher. C. A shop assistant. B. A tour guide. D. A private nurse.

44. We can learn from the last paragraph that social robots will ______. A. train employees C. improve technologies 45. What does the passage mainly present? A. A new design idea of household robots. B. Marketing strategies for social robots. C. Information on household robots.
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B. be our workmates D. take the place of workers

D. An introduction to social robots. 【解析】 试题分析:文章大意:文章主要介绍了社会机器人的功能与作用。 41. B 细节理解题。 根据文章第二段 While household robots today do the normal housework, social robots will be much more like companions than mere tools.可知社会机器人更像人或不是纯粹的 工具。故选 B。 42. D 细节理解题。根据文章第二段“his action to keep his balance against the strong winds made for some heart-stopping(令人担忧的)moments for the audience.”可知选 D。 43. C 细节理解题。根据第三段 You can talk to the robot, ask it questions, and make requests for it to perform different tasks.和 It can do things such as reminding an elderly family member to take medicine or taking family photos.可知此机器人可以解答问题且可以提醒家庭成员服药和拍照片。 选 C。 44. B 推理判断题。 根据最后一段 Breazeal 的话 “We have technologies to train social robots to do things not for us, but with us”可以推断出社会机器人可以和我们一起做事情。故选 B。 45. D 主旨大意题。根据全文内容可知,文章主要介绍了社会机器人的功能与作用。故选 D。 【考点定位】科技类短文阅读 【名师点睛】本文是一篇科技类短文阅读,整体难度中等偏易,多数考查细节理解题,只需通 过关键词定位可得出答案。倒数第二题需要稍加推理才能判断出答案,最后一题是对文章的主 旨大意的考查,考生做题时尤其注意切切不能以偏概全,干扰选择项要多回到原文的原句反复 斟酌。 10.【2015·浙江】C If humans were truly at home under the light of the moon and stars,we would go in darkness happily,the midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal(夜间活动的) species on this planet. Instead,we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light. This is a basic evolutionary fact, even though most of us don’t think of ourselves as diurnal beings. Yet it’s the only way to explain what we’ve done to the night: We’ve engineered it to receive us by filling itwith light. The benefits of this kind of engineering come with consequences 一 called light pollution 一 whose effects scientists are only now beginning to study. Light pollution is largely the result of bad lighting design,which allows artificial light to shine outward and upward into the sky.III-designed lighting washes out the darkness of night and completely changes the light levels 一 and light rhythms — to which many forms of life, including, ourselves, have adapted. Wherever human light
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spills into the natural world, some aspect or life is affected . In most cities the sky looks as though it has been emptied of stars, leaving behind a vacant haze(霾) that mirrors our fear of the dark. We’ve grown so used to this orange haze that the original glory of an unlit nigh, - dark enough for the planet Venus to throw shadow on Earth, is wholly beyond our experience, beyond memory almost. We’ve lit up the night as if it were an unoccupied country, when nothing could be further form the truth. Among mammals alone, the number of nocturnal species is astonishing, Light is a powerful biological force, and on many species it acts as a magnet(磁铁). The effect is so powerful that scientists speak of songbirds and seabirds being“captured”by searchlights on land or by the light from gas flares on marine oil platforms. Migrating at night, birds tend to collide with brightly lit tall buildings. Frogs living near brightly lit highways suffer nocturnal light levels that are as much as a million times righter than normal, throwing nearly every aspect of their behavior out of joint including most other creatures ,we do need darkness .Darkness is as essential to our biological welfare, to our internal clockwork, as light itself. Living in a glare of our making,we have cut ourselves off from our evolutionary and cultural heritage—the light of the stars and the rhythms of day and night .In a very real sense light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe, to forget the scale of our being, which is best measured against the dimensions of a deep night with the Milky Way—the edge of our galaxy arching overhead. 50. According to the passage, human being A. prefer to live in the darkness B. are used to living in the day light C. were curious about the midnight world D. had to stay at home with the light of the moon 51. What does “it”(Paragraph 1) most probably refer to? A. The night. B. The moon C. The sky . D. The planet .

52. The writer mentions birds and frogs to A. provide examples of animal protection B. show how light pollution affects animals C. compare the living habits of both species

D. explain why the number of certain species has declined
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53. It is implied in the last paragraph that

.

A. light pollution dose harm to the eyesight of animals B. light pollution has destroyed some of the world heritages C. human beings cannot go to the outer space D. human beings should reflect on their position in the universe 54. What might be the best title for the passage? A. The Magic light. C. The Disappearing Night. B. The Orange Haze. D. The Rhythms of Nature.

【解析】
试题分析:文章介绍了光污染对于动物和人类的影响,呼吁我们反思我们的行为。 50. B 细节理解题 根据第一段第三行“ with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light 眼睛适应了太 阳的光线” 可以知道答案。其中 adapted to 和 used to 同义,意为习惯于。 51. A 猜词题,对于这种指代的题目,往往答案是最接近它的一个。根据这种原则,不能得出 答案是 night 夜晚。最后一句话的句意是:但是这是唯一的方法去解释我们对于夜晚做了什么: 我们设计了光,让光充满星空。 52. B 写作目的题 根据第二段第一句话”The benefits of this kind of engineering come with consequences 这项工程带来好处的同时也带来了坏处“和最后一句,“Wherever human light spills into the natural world, some aspect of life is affected“, 此句意为无论光洒在什么地方,生 活都会受到一些影响。 所以答案是 show how light pollution affects animals 说明光污染影响的 动物 53. D 推理题,最后一段的意思是” Living in a glare of our making ,we have cut ourselves off from our evolutionary and cultural heritage—the light of the stars and the rhythms of day and night .In a very real sense light pollution causes us to lose sight of our true place in the universe, to forget the scale of our being, which is best measured against the dimensions of a deep night with the Milky Way—the edge of our galaxy arching overhead.生活在一个刺眼世界,我们已经远离了进化 和文化遗产:星星和昼夜节律的光。在一个非常真实的意义上,光污染使我们在宇宙中失去真 我,而这些失去的正好就是最好的测量银河系银河深夜的工具。“ 根据语意,不难得出答案是 D. human beings should reflect on their position in the universe 人类应该反思自己的行为。但此题 易错选 B,之所以不选 B 是因为 some of 的表达是扩大了说法,以偏概全。 54. C 标题题,根据,文章出现最多的就是 light 和 night, 我们可以知道答案是 C。之所以不选 A,是因为它所使用的形容词 Magic 意思是奇幻的,这个单词具有褒义的意思。而 C 选项的 disappearing 是消失的,这符合本文的语境,让我们反思。
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【考点定位】这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章 【名师点睛】对于这种文章,一定要读懂作者的观点是什么?留意作者看法的用词,即是文章 所使用的形容词是支持还是反对。尤其要读懂第一段的内容,因为往往开头是陈述作者观点的 地方。 如第一段 “If humans were truly at home under the light of the moon and stars, we would go in darkness happily,the midnight world as visible to us as it is to the vast number of nocturnal(夜间 活动的) species on this planet. Instead,we are diurnal creatures, with eyes adapted to living in the sun’s light.如果人类真的在家里的月亮和星星的光下,我们会在黑暗中快乐,午夜的世界,我们 可见的是夜间的大量在这个星球上的物种。相反,我们是日行动物,眼睛适应了太阳的光线。” 11.【2015·安徽】C As Internet users become more dependent on the Internet to store information, are people remember less? If you know your computer will save information, why store it in your own personal memory, your brain? Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how. In a recent study, Professor Betsy Sparrow conducted some experiments. She and her research team wanted to know the Internet is changing memory. In the first experiment, they gave people 40 unimportant facts to type into a computer. The first group of people understood thatthe computer would save the information. The second group understood that the computer would not save it. Later, the second group remembered the information better. People in the first group knew they could find the information again, so they did not try to remember it. In another experiment, the researchers gave people facts to remember, and told them where to find the information on the Internet. The information was in a specific computer folder (文件夹). Surprisingly, people later remember the folder location (位置) better than the facts. When people use the Internet, they do not remember the information. Rather, they remember how to find it. This is called "transactive memory (交互记忆)". According to Sparrow, we are not becoming people with poor memories as a result of the Internet. Instead, computer users are developing stronger transactive memories; that is, people are learning how to organize huge quantities of information so that they are able to access it at a later date. This doesn't mean we are becoming either more or less intelligent, but there is no doubt that the way we use memory is changing. 64. The passage begins with two questions to ______. A. introduce the main topic C. describe how to use the Interne. B. show the author's altitude D. explain how to store information

65. What can we learn about the first experiment?
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A. Sparrow's team typed the information into a computer. B. The two groups remembered the information equally well. C. The first group did not try to remember the formation. D. The second group did not understand the information. 66. In transactive memory, people ______. A. keep the information in mind B. change the quantity of information D. remember how to find the information

C. organize information like a computer

67. What is the effect of the Internet according to Sparrow's research? A. Weare using memory differently. B. We arebecoming more intelligent. D. We need a better way to access information.

C. We have poorer memories than before. 【答案】 64. A 65. C 66. D 67. A

【考点定位】心理类短文阅读 【名师点睛】一般来说,举例的目的是为了引出即将讨论的话题,可以从例子后面找到总结性 的话语。 “Experts are wondering if the Internet is changing what we remember and how.”就是举例 的意图。后三道题都属于细节理解题,可以直接从文章找到提示性的语句;最后一道题有一定 的难度,需要进行一些推理和排除。 12.【2015·湖南】B
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In its early history, Chicago had floods frequently, especially in the spring, making the streets so muddy that people, horses, and carts got stuck. An old joke that was popular at the time went something like this: A man is stuck up to his waist in a muddy Chicago street. Asked if he needs help, he replies, "No, thanks. I've got a good horse under me." The city planner decided to build an underground drainage (排水) system, but there simply wasn't enough difference between the height of the ground level and the water level. The only two options were to lower the Chicago River or raise the city. An engineer named Ellis Chesbrough convinced me the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover them with dirt. This raised the level of the city's streets by as much as 12 feet. This of course created a new problem: dirt practically buried the first floors of every building in Chicago. Building owners were faced with a choice: either change the first floors of their buildings into basements, and the second stories into main floors, or hoist the entire buildings to meet the new street level. Small wood-frame buildings could be lifted fairly easily. But what about large, heavy structures like Tremont Hotel, which was a six-story brick building? That's where George Pullman came in. He had developed some house-moving skills successfully. To lift a big structure like the Tremont Hotel, Pullman would place thousands of jackscrews (螺旋千 斤顶) beneath the building's foundation. One man was assigned to operate each section of roughly 10 jackscrews. At Pullman's signal each man turned his jackscrew the same amount at the same time, thereby raising the building slowly and evenly. Astonishingly, the Tremont Hotel stay open during the entire operation, and many of its guests didn't even notice anything was happening. Some people like to say that every problem has a solution. But in Chicago's early history, every engineering solution seemed to create a new problem. Now that Chicago's waste water was draining efficiently into the Chicago River, the city's next step was to clean the polluted river. 61.The author mentions the joke to show ______. A. horses were fairly useful in Chicago B. Chicago's streets were extremely muddy C. Chicago was very dangerous in the spring D. the Chicago people were particularly humorous 62.The city planners were convinced by Ellis Chesbrough to_______. A. get rid of the street dirt B. lower the Chicago River
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C. fight against heavy floods D. build the pipes above ground 63.The underlined word "hoist" in Paragraph 4 means "_______". A. change C. repair B. lift D. decorate

64.What can we conclude about the moving operation of the Tremont Hotel? A. It went on smoothly as intended. B. It interrupted the business of the hotel. C. It involved Pullman turning ten jackscrews. D. It separated the building from its foundation. 65.The passage is mainly about the early Chicago's ______. A. popular life styles and their influences B. environmental disasters and their causes C. engineering problems and their solutions D. successful businessmen and their achievements 【答案】 61.B 62.D 63.B 64.A 65.C 【解析】 试题分析:本文讲述了芝加哥城的问题和改造方案 61.B;细节推理题。根据文章的第一段第一句话:In early history, Chicago had floors frequently, especially in the spring, making the streets so muddy that people, horses, and carts got stuck.可知芝 加哥因为洪水的经常泛滥导致大街上总是泥泞不堪,行人,马和车全部都堵在路上。所以作者 提及那个玩笑是为了突出芝加哥这一特点,故选 B 62.D;细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话:An engineer named Eill Chesbrough convinced the city that it had no choice but to build the pipes above ground and then cover thenwith dirt.可知以 Eill Chesbrough 为首的人们认为应该在地上埋下排水管道,故选 D 63.B;细节推理题。根据后文:Small wood-frame building could be lifted fairly easily.可知另一种 方法就是将建筑升高。故选 B
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64.A;细节推理题。根据倒数第二段中的倒数第二句话:At Pullman’s signal each man turned his jackscrew the same amount at the same time, thereby raising the building slowly and evenly.(在 Pullman 的指导下,每个人同时抬起他们手中的千斤顶,因此建筑就被慢慢地、平整地抬起来 了)可知 A 项正确, 故选 A 65.C;主旨大意题。文章的第一段就提出芝加哥城所存在的问题,接下来的段落讨论了解决这 个问题的一些方法,最后一段讲到这些方法虽然解决当前的问题,但是随之而来的又会冒出一 些新的问题有待解决。故文章大致上讲述的是建造的问题与解决办法,故选 C 【考点定位】科普类短文阅读。 【名师点睛】这是一篇科普类的文章,主要是考查上下文理解和对文章细节的把握,明白作者 的构思在文章中给出的自己想法和观点以及对文章的总结。例如最后一段:Some people like to say that every problem has a solution. But in Chicago's early history, every engineering solution seemed to create a new problem. Now that Chicago's waste water was draining efficiently into the Chicago River, the city's next step was to clean the polluted river.可知作者觉得所有的解决办法都 会解决了原有的问题后又产生出一个新的问题。这是对文章的一个总结。

13.【2015·新课标全国 II】B
Your house may have an effect on your figure. Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off. you can make your environment work for you instead of against you. Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan. Open the curtains and turn up the lights. Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating, for people are often less self-conscious(难为情) when they’re in poorly lit places – and so more likely to eat lots of food. If your home doesn’t have enough window light, get more lamps and flood the place with brightness. Mind the colors. Research suggests warm colors fuel our appetites. In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room. Warm colors like yellow make food appear more appetizing, while cold colors make us less hungry. So when it’s time to repaint, go blue. Don’t forget the clock – or the radio. People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals. Begin keeping track of the time, and try to make dinner last at 30 minutes. And while you’re at it, actually sit down to eat. If you need some help slowing down, turning on relaxing music. It makes you less likely to rush through a meal. Downsize the dishes. Big serving bowls and plants can easily makes us fat. We eat about 22
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percent more when using a 12-inch plate instead of a 10-inch plate. When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one, total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent. And we’ll pour about 30 percent more liquid into a short, wide glass than a tall, skinny glass. 25. The text is especially helpful for those who care about ____. E. F. G. H. their home comforts their body shape house buying healthy diets

26. A home environment in blue can help people ____. E. F. G. H. digest food better reduce food intake burn more calories regain their appetites

27. What are people advised to do at mealtimes? E. F. G. H. Eat quickly. Play fast music Use smaller spoons Turn down the lights

28.What can be a suitable title for the text? E. F. G. H. Is Your House Making You Fat? Ways of Serving Dinner Effects of Self-Consciousness Is Your Home Environment Relaxing?

【答案】

25. B 26. B 27.C 28.A
【解析】 试题分析:你家的房子对你的身材很有影响。长胖还是变瘦关键看你如何设计自己的家了。我 们这里有很好的建议 4 条:1.房间要明亮;2.用冷色系会减少食欲;3.放一些舒缓的音乐就餐; 4. 用小的碗碟。 25. B 推理判断题。根据全文第一段 Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan.可知,要让你的家的设计成为你减肥计划的一部分。所以这篇文章对那些在乎自己的体型 的人更有帮助。故选 B。

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26.B 细节理解题。根据第三段第二句话 In one study, people who ate meals in a blue room consumed 33 percent less than those in a yellow or red room.可知在蓝色的房间内人吃的食物相对 在黄色或者红色房间少 33%。暖色让人胃口大开,冷色让人感觉到不饿。故选 B。 27.C 推理判断题。 本题是在考查考生是否理解了 4 条建议。 第 4 段 People who eat slowly tend to consume about 70 fewer calories(卡路里) per meal than those who rush through their meals.,说明 吃得慢就吃得少,吃得快就多,故 A 错;If you need some help slowing down, turning on relaxing music.说明放舒缓的音乐可以让人吃得慢, 反之则快, 故 B 错; 第二段 Dark environments are more likely to encourage overeating,由此可知房间暗会增加饮食, 所以 D 错; 最后一段 When we choose a large spoon over a smaller one, total intake(摄入) jumps by 14 percent.用大勺和小勺吃饭,相差 14%,故选 C。 28.A 主旨大意题。根据文章的开头 Your house may have an effect on your figure. Experts say the way you design your home could play a role in whether you pack on the pounds or keep them off. you can make your environment work for you instead of against you.可知,你的家居环境既可以让 你变胖也会让你变瘦。 本文非常适合那些想减肥的人士来阅读。 所以选 A 可以更好地概括全文。 【考点定位】科普类短文阅读 【名师点睛】 本文的结构清楚。 主题句 Here are some ways to turn your home into part of your diet plan.在第一段,抓住就可以理清文章的脉络,接下来是 4 条建议,一段一条。题目中的第三题 考查对文章的全面了解,并要求理解四个选项的意思才能做好。平时还应该多练习对文章结构 的分析。 14.【2015·新课标全国 I】D

Conflict is on the menu tonight at the café La Chope. This evening, as on every Thursday night, psychologist Maud Lehanne is leading two of France’s favorite pastimes, coffee drinking and the “talking cure”. Here they are learning to get in touch with their true feelings. It isn’t always easy. They customers - some thirty Parisians who pay just under $2 (plus drinks) per session - care quick to intellectualize (高谈阔论),slow to open up and connect. “You are forbidden to say ‘one feels,’ or ‘people think’,” Lehane told them. “Say ‘I think,’ ‘Think me’.” A café society where no intellectualizing is allowed? It couldn’t seem more un-French. But Lehanne’s psychology café is about more than knowing oneself: It’s trying to help the city’s troubled neighborhood cafes. Over the years, Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle - longer working hours, a fast food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home. Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation. Cafes focused around
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psychology, history, and engineering are catching on, filling tables well into the evening. The city’s psychology cafes, which offer great comfort, are among the most popular places. Middle-aged homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed come to such cafes to talk about love, anger, and dreams with a psychologist. And they come to Lehanne’s group just to learn to say what they feel. “There’s a strong need in Paris for communication,” says Maurice Frisch, a cafe La Chope regular who works as a religious instructor in a nearby church. “People have few real friends. And they need to open up.” Lehanne says she’d like to see psychology cafes all over France. “If people had normal lives, these cafes wouldn’t exist”, she says, “If life weren’t a battle, people wouldn’t need a special place just to speak.” But them, it wouldn’t be France. 32.What are people encouraged to do at the cafe La Chope? A. Learn a new subject B. Keep in touch with friends. C. Show off their knowledge. D. Express their true feelings. 33. How are cafes affected by French lifestyle changes? A. They are less frequently visited. B. They stay open for longer hours. C. They have bigger night crowds. D. They start to serve fast food. 34. What are theme cafes expected to do? A. Create more jobs. B. Supply better drinks. C. Save the cafe business. D. Serve the neighborhood. 35. Why are psychology cafes becoming popular in Paris? A. They bring people true friendship. B. They give people spiritual support. C. They help people realize their dreams. D. They offer a platform for business links.

【答案】
32. D 33. A
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34. C 35. B 【解析】 试题分析:文章主要讲述了法国精神咖啡馆(psychology cafes)的社会意义和功能特色,以及 在法国越来越受欢迎。 32. D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第三句 Here they are learning to get in touch with their true feelings.可知在 La Chope 咖啡馆鼓励人们表达他们真正的情感。故选 D。 33. A 细节理解题。根据文章第二段 Over the years, Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle-longer working hours, a fast food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home.可知改变了更多时间呆在家里的更年轻一代人。故选 A。 34. C 推理判断题。根据第二段 Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation.可以得 出答案。故选 C。 35. B 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段第一句话“If people had normal lives, these cafes would’t exist”, she says,”If life weren’t a battle, people wouln’t need a special place just to speak.” But them, it wouldn’t be France.可知心理咖啡馆在巴黎受欢迎的原因在于他们给予人们精神上的支持。故 选 B。学优高考网 【考点定位】社会类短文阅读 【名师点睛】这是一篇社会类短文阅读。难度中等偏上,学生不易读懂。但是第 32 和 33 题均 为考查细节理解题,问题设计比较简单,考生只需通过关键词定位即可得出答案。其中第 34 和 35 题需要在原文的内容的基础之上作出推理, 才能判断出正确的答案。 考生做此类阅读时要 注意前后之间的联系与对比,选择答案时切不可以以偏概全。

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