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初高中英语衔接教材(2017)


初高中英语衔接教材
目 前言 第一章 高中新教材简介及学习方法 第二章 词汇知识及实践演练 第三章 句子成分和基本句型 第四章 简单句的种类 第五章 动词的时态语态 第六章 复合句:宾语从句,状语从句,定语从句 录

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 初中英语 词汇量较小(1500+200) 句子结构易理解 语法不陌生但都是皮毛 课文篇幅较短,课堂逐句分析理解 简单的阅读理解题(事实题) 简单的听力训练、口语表达 作文有话写,写的出 教材内容简单,课堂时间充裕,有时间操练 中考题型 句子结构变复杂 语法的系统性,注意特殊的语法现象 注重篇章理解,不逐句翻译 更高要求的主观题(作者观点,标题,结构) 越来越长的句子,越来越快的语速,跟不上,听不清, 记不住,说不清;会读不会说 作文体裁话题多样,要求更高 课堂时间紧,任务多,注重课下巩固练习,自学为主 高考题型 高中英语 词汇量较大(八级 3500,九级 4500)

第一章 初、高中英语的区别及学习方法
一、认识初、高中英语的区别 即将开始的高中学习生活,特别是英语的学习是与初中阶段有着很大不同的: 1. 课本编排上的区别:初中的每一个单元是分为 4 课的,每篇中有的是对话,有的是阅读文,也配 有一些练习,而高中的每个单元并不分课,而是基本上按模块(module)划分。教材把话题、结构、功能和 任务型活动有机地结合在一起,既符合中国学生英语学习的规律和特点,又体现了新的教育教学理念。教 材系统性强, 各单元采用板块的设计形式, 有利于教师灵活整合教材内容。 大体分为 “Warming up” (热身) , 即是针对本单元的话题提出的一些问题,以练习口语的形式做引子,便于进入本单元的主题,下个部分就 是“Reading”了,高中的阅读文分为阅读前和阅读后的讨论、思考问题并加入了有关的语言知识的学习及 练习, 在阅读教学的安排上。 读后活动的练习层次清楚, 体现对课文理解考察的三个维度: 弄清事实(Factual) — 分析信息(Analytical) — 判断和推理(Inferential)。 可以说是极大地丰富了教学内容。除此之外还会有稍短的阅读与听力及写作等方面的练习,写作训练 既重视结果,更重视过程,提供铺垫性活动以加强对过程性写作的监督。通过听、读活动从语言和写作技 巧方面进行相关输入,为学生的最终成长奠定基础。 2. 在词汇上的区别:我们初中的教材已是新版本了,每个单元的单词可能大家觉得已经不少了,但 高中教材中的词汇更是成倍地增加了,增加了大约 2000 词。这也是新编教材的一个特点,加入了许多当前 常用的,新出现的流行的词汇,也是与我们学的新编初中课本相承接的,所以,为了能尽快适应高中词汇 的学习,我们应该及早着手把初中阶段的词汇再熟悉一遍。另外,对于高中英语词汇的学习,大家还要知 道其要求是远远高于初中的,在学习单词时,我们既要了解它在文中的意思,还要掌握它在练习中,阅读、 考试中可能出现的所有意思,用法及搭配等。一词多义,一词多性,依綱不据本。 3. 在所学语法上的区别:在初中阶段我们把基础的语法内容已经学习过了,但是语法学习没有得到 足够的重视,不少同学对语法知之甚少,甚至一窍不通。而在高中我们要学习的是更深更高层次的语法。 如定语从句,非谓语动词、名词性从句,倒装结构、虚拟语气等等,其中的部分内容我们并不陌生,但是 初中我们所接触的还只是皮毛,高中阶段的学习会比之前的所学内容复杂得多,要求上也要高得多,除了 看懂更要求会应用。语法知识是英语学习的重要内容,是日常及高考的考试范围,所以我们要充分利用暑 假把之前的漏洞弥补好,在后面的学习中,你们也会重温这些知识并将之与高中内容进一步融合,为大家 步入高中学习打好基础。 4. 在课堂要求上的区别:大部分的初中老师对学生的要求还是比较严格的,而这种严格与小学又是
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 不同的,所以有一部分自觉性差的学生就被分化出来,在稍微宽松的环境中,对自己要求降低导致了滑坡 的出现,而升入高中后又会有新的变化,对于自律要求就更加明显了。如果你是按照老师要求做的学生, 那么在高中除了把基本要求做好之外,自己一定不可放松,适当增加课外阅读及一些课外习题是有必要的; 如果你是不太自觉的学生,那么你要努力改掉自己的毛病,除了完成要求交给老师的作业,那些如读、背 等要求也要认真完成才能使自己的高中英语学习逐步走上轨道。不管你属于哪一种,都要持之以恒,千万 不可因为任何原因而放松对自己的要求,即便是你已取得了一定成绩,也没有理由沾沾自喜。 5. 在考试评估制度上的区别:这一区别可能是影响最大的一点,我们许多同学初中英语一直较差的 原因在很大程度上是由于初中这种不正常的考试制度,很多人认为英语不用下功夫学,反正最后背背答案 就可过关,这样成绩不错,学得也很轻松。一旦抱有这种想法,初中这个重要的打基础的阶段就被荒废过 去了,这对我们升入高中后的英语学习是极为不利的,这就好比是建造没有基础的空中楼阁,肯定会感到 很难,很吃力。进入高中之后我们的考试是没有比较明确的特定范围,不能靠背答案过关,而且所学所考 的内容应该都是向高考看齐的,难度肯定不小,但同学们也不要害怕,只要努力学习,坚持不懈,认真积 累,完成好每天的功课,做好充分迎接失败的心理准备,然后在每次经历中吸取经验,一点点地弥补自己 的不足,肯定会取得很好的成绩。 在整个高中阶段你需要完成以下高中英语学习的主要任务: 1)基础要求:单词:3000 左右;短语或词组:1000 个左右;句型:1000 个左右;语法:词法和句法; 交际用语:41 种情景。 2)技能要求介绍:听力:抓听前预读与预测,听中抓关键词句,听后及时选答,过后及时朗读录音原 文。阅读:研究阅读问题六种题型即标题、主旨、细节、生词、推理、结论以及问题的定位、对策。书面 表达:研究几种常见体裁、文章构段技巧、应用文格式与套话。说话技能:掌握几十种常见情景习惯用语, 学习引起、维持、退出会话技巧。 三、高中英语学习方法探索 “三衔接” (一) 、做好英语知识的衔接。 高一开始,应从实际出发,先找到初高中英语知识“脱钩处” ,尽快平稳过渡。梳理初中知识,对掌握 得不够扎实的内容要好好补补。结合新课教学的需要,将初、高中英语语言知识有机地结合起来,复习旧 知识为新课打下基础,在学新课的过程中,旧知识又得到运用和巩固。 “两条腿走路” ,才走得更实、更 好、更远。 (二) 、做好英语学习习惯的衔接。 初中学习英语的习惯大多数是被动式的,进入高中,应该从被动逐渐转向主动。高一开始,应特别注 意培养以下几个新的学习习惯。 1、学会使用工具书的习惯。遇到词汇方面的疑问不要被动等待教师解答,学会自己查词典寻找答案。 准备一本好的英语语法工具书和词典,养成经常翻阅的习惯,在口、笔头实践中有意识地运用所学的语法 知识和词汇,正确地理解语言和运用语言。 2、预习的习惯。初中英语教师对预习也有粗放的要求,初中生对预习也不陌生。但到高中,随着英语 课文篇幅的加长,内容增多,难度加大,如果没有搞好预习就适应不了课堂的教学进程。所以,对预习不 能只是泛泛而提,而要把它当作英语学习的一个重要环节,比如:作预习笔记;学会能用英语词典查单词, 自己解决生词;对重要词组、有用短语进行罗列,并能用这些词组、短语来造句;摘抄课文中结构严谨、 用词优美的句子,读熟背熟;对课文内容进行简写;记下预习过程中遇到的问题和难点以便释疑解惑等。 3、 阅读与摘抄的习惯。 初中英语一般还只限于课本, 到了高中, 英语阅读能力成为一个重点培养目标。 多阅读适合自己水平和兴趣的英语读物,尤其是原汁原味的地道的。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 4、背诵英语课文和范文的习惯 英语表达能力差,要提高书面表达能力一个行之有效的办法就是多背诵,学习别人的好词好句,久而 久之,表达能力也会随之提高。所以要培养背诵英语课文和范文的习惯。 5、每周做一点学法探讨。学习策略是提高学习效率和培养自主学习能力的保证。根据多元智力理论, 每个学生都有自己的优势和独特的学习策略,比如:精耕细作(ploughboy)、博览群书(bookworm)、强化训 练(test-killer)、灵感突现(inspiration-catcher)、听说交际(au-diovisual learner)和博采众长(multi-method learner) 等类型。最佳学习策略应是一整套立足个性、突出特色和强调实效的学习方法。每个学生都应不断改进和 寻找适合自己的学习策略,结合教材的 Learner Log, Assessment, Learning tip 和 Checkpoint 写“学法周记” , 总结和探讨。 (三) 、做好心理上的衔接。 相对于初中英语,高中英语一下子难度加大,容量增加。相当一部分学生不适应。再者,进入高中的 学生往往都是原先初中成绩较好的学生, “高手”群体中总有一些学生会掉在班级的后面。有些学生这时候 以为自己英语学不来了,就想放弃或懈怠它。这个时候,每位学生都应该对自己有个辩证的分析,从客观 主观上,对自身及其他同学上,剖析自己的长处短处,剖析自己初中学习英语的特点,发扬优点,摒弃不 足。与老师沟通,与同学交流。千万不要因为暂时的不适应放弃至关重要的英语。心理上的衔接很重要。 “四环节” 1、预习。每天上课前或上课前一天的某个时间,把老师要讲的内容先去看一看,力争运用所学过的知 识去理解上课的内容。这也是自学能力的一种培养。预习结果可以自已看懂老师上课要讲的内容;通过预 习,也清楚自已哪些地方存在困难,上课就可对症下药地重点去聆听,减轻课堂负担,提高上课效率。 2、上课。通过预习,对上课的内容基本了解或大致掌握。这时,并不是说自己已懂上课可以不听了, 自己做自己的事情。相反,更要认真地听老师是如何讲解的,自己有困难的地方如何搞懂,充分调动思维, 紧跟老师思路。如此一来,对自己的前期预习也是一个深入的发展。 3、复习。大部分同学每天课后总是先做练习,有时间多才会去复习。这种方法是不正确的。每天做作 业、做练习之前先把当天上课内容复习归纳一下。听课时所接收的东西只有经过归纳总结消化才能真正成 为自己的。有的同学上课听得懂,但碰到作业、练习或考试又会出错,大部分是因为忽略了这个环节。 4、练习。练习的目的是检查一下学过的知识是否掌握了。练习不是单纯地做几个题目。在做题目时, 要多问几个为什么,要多思考,这道题为什么要这样做,用到的知识点是哪一些,是否还可以用另外的方 法来解决,下次练习可能会怎样。在做过的练习当中要进行归类。其实练习多了,也无非是那么几种, “换 汤不换药” 。带有此种习惯和目的去做练习,就会拓宽知识,锻炼能力和发展思维。

学习理念:study theory passive learning(被动学习)→→→active learning(主动学习)
学习要求“四个一” 一套作业本(听写本,作业本,作文本) 一本纠错本 一本笔记本(至少够一学期用) 一本字典 英语学习一日常规 ? ? ? 今天我背单词了吗? 今天我完成作业了吗? 今天我预习了吗?
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 ? ? ? ? ? 今天我复习了吗? 今天我大声朗读了吗? 今天我阅读了吗? 今天我听录音了吗? 今天我试着用英语交流了吗?

学习英语要理顺的几个概念: 1、 主谓关系与动宾关系 2、 主动关系与被动关系 3、 动作的执行者与承受着 4、 逻辑主语与真正的主语 5、 逻辑宾语与真正的宾语

第二章
一、名词
个体名词 集体名词 名词 分类 抽象名词 专有名词 普通名词 物质名词

重要词性了解

表示人或物的个体,如:teacher, pen, hand 表示个体组成的集合体,如:family, team, police 表示无法分为个体的固体、液体、气体等实物,如:ice, water, gas 表示抽象概念的,如性质、状态、情感等的名词,如: sadness, happiness, work

人名、地名、机构、事物、组织、概念、节日等。 ①一般直接在名词后加-s ②以字母-s,-sh, -ch, -x 结尾的名词后加-es

规则变化

③以字母-f 或-fe 结尾的名词,把-f/-fe 改为-v,再加-es ④以-0 结尾的名词的复数多数加-es ⑤以辅音字母+y 结尾的名词,要把 y 改为 i,再加-es

名词复 数构成 规律

①改变单数名词中的元音字母 ②单复数形式相同,如:sheep, deer, fish, means ③表示某国人的名词的复数形式因习惯不同而各异 不规则变化 a.单复数形式相同(多以 ese 结尾) ,如:Chinese, , Swiss b.词尾加-s(多以-an 结尾) ,如:Americans, Koreans, Indians c.将 man 变成 men, 将 woman 变成 women, 如: Englishman-Englishmen ④其他形式,如:mouse—mice, child- children

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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语

①名词单数形式,用-’s,表示,如: the girl’s books ②复数形式,用 s’表示,如 Teachers’ books 注: 所有格后所接名词表示地点时候, 地点名词可省略。 如: the doctor ’s 加-’s/-s’ 名词所 有格 ③复合名词在最后的名词后加’s,如 brother-in-law’s books ④表示时间、距离、重量、国家、城市,地点无生命的名词也可用’s 形式来表示其所有关系,如:three days walk

借助介词 of 双重所有格

无生命的物体的名词所有格常用 of 表示。如:the cover of the book 由’s 所有格和 of 所有格组合修饰名词,如:an old friend of Tom’s

二、代词
人称 第一人称 种类 第二人称 第三人称 人称代词 I, we, me, us you we, he, she, it 物主代词 my, our, mine, ours your, yours his, her, its, hers, theirs 反身代词 myself, ourselves yourself,yourselves himself, herself, itself, themselves 指示代词 不定代词 this, that, these, those, such, the same all, both, neither, none, either, each, many, few, little,another, much, one, ones, some, any 以及 no-/some-/any-/every-+body/one/thing 疑问代词 相互代词 Exercises: 1. Here is the A. coffee cup that his younger brother loves best. B. coffee’s cup C. cup of coffee D. coffee of cup to tell his students at the beginning of his lectures. B. some pieces of good news D. some piece of good news by selling famous C. wealths ; works of English and American writers. D. wealths ; work who, whom, whose, what, which each, other, one, another, each other ’s, one another ’s

2. Mr. Tony always has A. some good pieces of news C. some good piece of news A. wealth; work A. Few

3. As a businessman, Mr. Li gained his B. wealth; works 4. He is a kind-hearted man.

People can get on well with him. bicycle ride. C. half an hour D. half an hour ’s native people.
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B. A little C. Quite a few D. Little B. an hour and a half

5. The post office isn’t far from here. It’s only A. half an hours’ 6. The population of Shanghai

very big and most of its population

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 A. are ; is B. is ; is C. are; are ,Tom? B. some more oranges and apples or coffee? C. tea; Two teas D. teas; Two teas D. is; are 7. —Would you like to have A. any more orange and apples 8. —Which do you prefer to drink, — A. teas; Two tea 9. lt was really in . B. such a big surprise; surprise D. such big surprise; surprise B. Jack and Jerry’s , please. B. tea; Two tea to get a present from him on her birthday party that she couldn’t believe it, looking at him

—No, thanks, l have had enough. C. any more oranges and apples D. some more oranges and apple

A. such big surprise; a surprise C. so big surprise; a surprise 10. These are A. Jack’s and Jerry’s — A. A little

bikes. The twin brothers like them very much. B. Jack’s and Jerry C. Jack’s and Jerry

11. —How much water is there in the bottle? .You’d better come to fetch another bottle. B. Nothing C. No one D. None in his class. He is the most excellent student l have met. B. other boys C. any boy D. another boy

12. Bill works harder than A. the other boys

三、形容词
一、成分 成 分 定 语 表 语 宾语补足语 状 语 例 句

One of the most common languages used for creating web pages is called HTML. Who is the greatest woman writer alive in the world? After getting her hair cut, she looked even more beautiful With the window open, many things in the shop were stolen at night. The bird fell onto the ground, dead.

二、比较级
此外,初中还安排了形容词比较级、最高级的语法点学习。其变化规则如下表: 规 则 原 级 high few large wide 比较级 higher fewer larger wider 最高级 highest fewest largest widest

单音节形容词在词尾 加-er;-est 以字母 e 结尾的形容词 在词尾加-r;-st

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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 以重读闭音节结尾的 形容词, 末尾只有一个 元音字母加一个辅音 字母结尾, 应先双写该 辅音字母,然后加-er; -est 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的 形容词, 须先将 y 变成 i,然后加-er;-est 多音节形容词前加 more 变比较级;加 the most 变最高级 原级 good bad/ill many/much little far old 三、具体用法 1、只能修饰形容词原级的词 very, quite, so, too. 例如: He is too tired to walk on. 他太累了以至不能再继续走了。 My brother runs so fast that I can’t follow him. 我弟弟跑得那么快以至我跟不上他。 2、含有 as?as(与?一样)的原级表达句式。例如: Tom is as old as Kate. 汤姆和凯特年龄一样大。 Tom is twice as old as Kate. 汤姆的年龄是凯特的两倍。 Tom runs as fast as Mike. 汤姆和迈克跑得一样快。 【注意】 1、否定形式 not as?as 也可以用成 not so?as“不如??不及??。 ”例如: He doesn’t walk as slowly as you. 他走路不像你那样慢。 This room is not as/so big as that one. 这个房间不如那个大。 2、 可以修饰比较级的词 much, a lot, a great deal, far, by far(??得多), a little, a bit(??一点儿), even(甚至), still(仍然),any(用于否定、疑问句中)。例如: Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two.第一课比第二课容易得多。 Tom looks even younger than before. 汤姆甚至比以前更年轻。 This train runs much faster than that one. 这辆火车比那辆跑得快。 She drives still more carefully than her husband. 她开车仍然比她丈夫还认真。 【典型例题】 1、The experiment was A. more B. much more easier than we had expected. C. much D. more much
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thin big hot

thinner bigger hotter

thinnest biggest hottest

happy funny

happier funnier

happiest funniest

beautiful interesting

more beautiful more interesting

the most beautiful the most interesting

部分不规则的形容词变化如下表: 比较级 better worse more less farther/further older/elder 最高级 best worst most least farthest/furthest oldest/eldest

答案 C。much 可修饰比较级,easier 本身已是比较级,不能再用 more.

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 2、最高级表示三者及三者以上事物间的比较,常与 of?,in?连用。例如: The Yangtze River is the longest river in China. 长江是中国最长的河流。→ The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China. 长江比中国其他任何一条河都长。 Of all the planets, the Mercury is the nearest to the sun. 在所有的行星中,水星离太阳最近。 3、 “比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越??” 。例如: He is getting taller and taller. 他长得越来越高了. The flowers are more and more beautiful. 花儿越来越漂亮。 4、 “the + 比较级…the+比较级‖表示“越??,就越??” 。例如: The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you’ll make. 你越认真,犯的错误就越少。 【典型例题】 children there are in a family, A. The less, the better their life will be. B. The fewer, the better C. Fewer, richer D. More, poorer

答案 B。由句意得知“家里孩子越少,生活会越好。‖children 是可数名词,应用 few 来修饰。 四、形容词与不定代词的搭配连用 当形容词和不定代词 something, anything, noting, everything 连用时,这些代词应放在前面,形容词在后 面。例如: Do you have anything interesting to tell us all today? 今天有啥有趣的事情跟我们大家说说吗? Take it easy. There is nothing serious with your disease, which is just a cold. 感冒而已。 【典型例题】 I have to do today. A. anything important B. something important C. important nothing D. important something 答案 B。形容词修饰不定代词时应放在其后面。故排除 C、D。句意是“我今天有重要的事情要做” ,表 示肯定用 something. 五、形容词与 enough 的搭配连用 当形容词 enough 和不定代词连用时, 形容词放在前面, enough 在后面。 例如: Charlie was lucky enough to have been taken to the Loch Ness with families. 查理足够幸运地被家人带着去过尼斯湖。 【注意】 1. 只能用作定语,不能用作表语的形容词:little, wooden , golden, many, elder…不能说 The boy is little. The watch is golden / wooden. 2. 只能作表语,不能用作定语的形容词:well, ill, alone, content, unable, worth, afraid, alive, asleep, ashamed, awake, aware…例如:an ill boy, an alone village 就是用错的短语。可以说 an ill idea“坏点子‖,ill 当定语时是转义,不是“有病的”了。 3. 英语形容顺序 当两个以上形容词修饰一个名词,形容词该如何排列?为什么不能说 a black new pen,而是说成 a new black pen? 这里面有无规则可循? 如果你记住下列口决:好美小高状其新,颜色国料特别近。那你就能掌握英语中系列形容词做前置定语 时的排列问题。 “好”代表评价性的形容词,如 nice, good, kind 等; “美”指描述物体给人的心理感受的形容词,如 beautiful, pretty, handsome, ugly, good-looking, lovely 等; “小”指描述物体大小的形容词,如 small, big, large, little 等; “高”指描述物体的高低/矮的形容词,如 tall, high, short, deep, wide, shallow, thick 等; “状”指描述物体形状的形容词。如 round, square, narrow 等; “其”是整个口诀中的语气词,无含义。
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别紧张,你的病无大碍,只是

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 “新”指描述物体新旧的形容词。如 new, old young 等。 “颜色”就是 red, green, blue, pink, black, yellow, purple 这类词语。 “国”也就是描述国籍类的形容词。如 Chinese, Germany, Russian, Spanish 等。 “料”指描述物体制成所用的材料。如 plastic, metal, wood, aluminum, wool, cotton, glass, steel 等。 英语中这六类形容词连用时就按上述先后顺序排列,如 a nice long new black British plastic pen 当然,实 际语言使用中不可能出现这么多形容词连用的情况。 4. 英语同源形容词的区别 在英语中某些词有两种或两种以上的形容词形式,它们词形相近,但词义不同,容易用错。 v-ing 表示事物的特征 frightening 令人恐惧的 delighting annoying exciting 【典型例题】 The boy on the tree asked in a A. happy 理很恐惧。 5.“定冠词 the+形容词”表示一类人或物,用做主语时,谓语用复数形式。例如: the young 年青人 the weak 弱者 the strong 强者 the disabled 残疾人 the old/aged 老年人 the injured 受伤人员 E.g: The injured in the traffic accident have been rushed to the nearest hospital. 交通事故中受伤的人员已 经被迅速送到最近的医院去了。 6.“not +比较级”并不表示否定,而是表示正面的肯定。例如: I couldn’t agree more. 我绝对赞同。 You couldn’t have chosen a better gift for me.你挑选给我的是最好的礼物。 7. 并非所有的形容词都有比较级。如:superior, senior, junior, similar, different, necessary, impossible 等形容 词没有比较级、最高级的用法。 【典型例题】 After we compare the two, we find this design is A. more superior to B. far superior than that one. C. more superior than D. far superior to voice,“Are you sure I’m going to land on the mat?” B. frightened C. frightening D. embarrassing v-ed 表示人的心理感受 Frightened 对??感到恐惧 delighted annoyed excited

答案 B。树上的孩子害怕地问道: “你们确信我会落到垫子上吗?”a frightened voice,表明树上的孩子心

答案 D。 “对比之后,我们发现这款设计比那一款要优越” 。形容词 superior 没有比较级形式,选项 A.C. 用了比较级,故错误;superior 与 to 搭配连用,故 B 也错。 8. 连系动词 seem, feel, sound, appear, remain, look, go, turn, get, become 常接形容词构成系表结构。 例如: The witness remained silent over the matter for some reasons. 出于某些原因,目击者对此事保持沉默。 Your proposal sounds very practical. 你的提议听起来很实用。 Exercises: 1. Several hours later, with the help of the police, the students managed to escape from the dangerous place, . B. hungrily and frightening D. hungrily and frightened C. worse D. worst
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A. hungry and frightened C. hungry and frightening 2. l feel even A . bad now. B. well

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 3. She was very happy. She ran A. fastest A. many too 5. —Have you — No, A. already; never B. ever; never 6. He is taller than A. any boy 7. English is as A. important A. fewer in his class. as Chinese. You should learn it well. B. more important C. more C. the most important D. much more important useful than science. D. a lot C. yet; already D. ever; ever B. the quickest B. too many 4. Keep quiet, please. It’s of all the runners. C. slowest D. quickly noisy here. C. much too D. too much

spoken to a foreigner?

B. any c. any other boy D. some other boys

8. Music is not so useful as science. It’s B. less 9. We’ve never heard of A. such a strange story before.

B. such strange C. so a strange D. so strange D. safety carry. D. no; to . B. the more equipped for life you are D. you are equipped the more for life C. so; that

10. You must wear glasses. They can keep your eyes A. soft B. safe C. safely 11. The box is A. too; to B. to; too heavy for the girl

12. As far as I’m concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn, A. the more for life are you equipped C. the more life you are equipped for 四、副词 一、成分 1、作状语

We should listen to the teachers carefully in class. 我们在课上应该仔细听讲。 (副词修饰动词) You are quite right. 你相当正确。 (修饰形容词) He parked the car very easily. 他很容易地把汽车停放好了。(修饰副词) I usually go to school at 6:40 every morning. 我通常每天 6 点 40 去上学。 (修饰整个句子) 2、作定语 有时少数地点副词和时间副词可以作定语,放在所修饰词的后边。 People there used to drink or use the water in the river. 过去那儿的人们饮用那条河里的水。 【注意】副词作定语时和介词短语作定语一样,一律后置。 3、作表语 作表语的副词多数是表示位置的,如 in, out, on, back, down, up, off, away, upstairs. He is in. 他在家。 What’s on this evening? 今晚演什么节目? I must be off mow. 我现在必须走了。 4、作宾语补足语 Let them in.让他们进来。 We saw her off two days ago. 两天前我们为她送行。 二、副词在句中的位置 1、在形容词之前。 It’s extremely hot today.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 Wind is a kind of environmentally friendly energy. 2、在 be 动词、助动词之后。 I’m terribly sorry for what I have done to you. English is widely used all over the world. 3、多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。但须注意: ①大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. 我们能清晰地看到一束奇怪的光在我们的前头。 ②方式副词 well, badly(糟、坏) ,hard 等只放在句尾。 He speaks English well. 4、地点副词、时间副词和方式副词一般放在句末。 【注意】地点副词作状语时要后置,不属于这种情况。 I’ll wait for you here. 我将在这儿等你。 (地点副词) I’ll meet him at the station tomorrow. 明天我将去车站接他。 (时间副词) Tomorrow I’ll meet him at the station. The boy wrote the homework quickly. 这个男孩子写作业很快。 (方式副词) They did their experiments carefully in the lab yesterday. 昨天他们在实验室认真地做实验。(方式地点时 间) 【注意】有时为了强调时间,也可把时间副词放在句首。 Last week the students all worked well here. 这些学生上周在这里都做得很好。 5、频度副词在句子位置有以下两种: ①在 be 动词、情态动词及第一个助动词之后。例如: She is always kind to us. 她对我们总是很好。 (动词) I can never forget the day. 我永远也不能忘掉这一天。 (情态动词) The work has never been done. 这件工作永远也做不完。 ②在实义动词之前。例如:He often goes to school late. 三、副词的比较级和最高级 规则副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样的,这里不再赘述。仅举几例: hard — harder — hardest late-- later -- latest 不规则副词 well – better -- best badly – worse -- worst much – more – most little – less –least quietly -- more quietly -- most quietly fast — faster — fastest early – earlier – earliest

但是,派生类副词即以后缀-ly 结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加-er 或-est,如 quickly -- more quickly -- most quickly 四、副词的排列顺序 1、时间、地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 Let’s make it 8:30 tomorrow morning. 2、方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. 3、多个不同副词排列,程度+地点+方式+时间副词 【注意】副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 (错)I very like English. (对) I like English very much.
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【注意】early 中的 ly 不是后缀,故可以把 y 变 i 再加-er 和-est

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 【注意】副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don’t know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. 五、副词的构成 除了 often, seldom, always, already, ever, fast, straight 等副词外, 一般情况下, 在形容词末尾加上-ly 就成 了副词,一些以-l 结尾的形容词变副词时须双写 l,然后加-ly。如: slow – slowly, quick – quickly , clear – clearly, obvious – obviously physical – physically, mental – mentally, peaceful – peacefully 另外少数-le 结尾的形容词变副词时,-le 直接换成-ly。 Terrible – Terribly gentle – gently comfortable – comfortably 但需注意:下列-ly 结尾的词多用做形容词。 friendly, deadly, lovely, lively, likely, lonely, weekly, monthly, orderly, warmly 六、come, go, head, arrive 等动词与下列副词连用时,不用介词。 drive downtown 驾车去商业区 go upstairs 上楼 live abroad 住在国外 go home 回家 衔接学习: 1、否定副词(no, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, little, few 等)置于句首用部分倒装。例如 Hardly had the criminal arrived at the airport when the policemen arrested him. 罪犯一到机场就被警察抓 住。 Seldom does my father drink unless there comes a good friend. 我父亲很少饮酒,除非有好朋友来。 Under no circumstances will Mary give up the idea of going go college. 任何情况下玛丽都不会放弃上大 学的想法 2、当副词 here, there, now, out, in, up, down, away, then, back, off 等放在句首时,须用完全倒装句式。 Here comes the bus! 公共汽车来了。 Now comes your turn! 现在轮到你了。 The door opened, and in came Mr Wan. 门开了,万先生进来了。 A strong wind blew and away went his hat. 一阵强风刮来,他的帽子飞走了。 3、高中有这些词如:strangely, unfortunately, obviously, clearly, additionally, hopefully 常用于句首修饰整 个句子,对整个句子做评注。 Unfortunately,the village was covered by a heavy mud storm. 很不幸地,这个村庄被泥石流给埋没了。 Obviously , they have already known the result of the interview. 显然他们已经知晓面试的结果。 Hopefully the problem will be solved soon. 这个问题有望很快得到解决。 4、兼有两种形式的副词 (1)close 与 closely close 意思是“近”; closely 意思是“仔细地“。例如: He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. (2)late 与 lately late 意思是“晚” ;lately 意思是“最近” 。例如: You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? (3)deep 与 deeply deep 意思是“深” ,表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度, “深深地” 。例如:
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true – truly

come downstairs 下楼 play outdoors 在户外玩 arrive here 到这儿

stay indoors 呆在室内 get there 去那儿

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. (4)high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much.例如: The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. (5)wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是“广泛地” , “在许多地方” ,例如: He opened his mouth wide. English is widely used in the world. (6)free 与 freely free 的意思是“免费”;freely 的意思是“无限制地” 。例如 You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely, say what you like. 5、有些副词如:however, therefore, nevertheless, thus, meanwhile 等用在句中,起前后过度作用。例如: There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless, it is important that we try. 我们 几乎没有可能改变法律。不过,重要的是我们努力争取。 Exercises: 1. —What was the weather like yesterday? —lt was terrible. It rained so A. hardly…hard 2. Three years A. late B. later that people could go out. B. hardly…hardly , he became a driver. C. lately , l think. B. well, good C. well, well D. good, well than we had thought. nest week. C. some times D. some time D. more lately ? C. hard…hardly D. hard…hard

3. —Do you think the fish tastes —She cooked it A. good, good 4. She played the piano 5. l’ll go and visit you

A.successful B. successfully C. more successful D. more successfully A. sometime B. sometimes —No, we only meet A. eventually 7. The key . C. occasionally D. frequently

6. —You don’t see the professor from Singapore quite often, do you? B. constantly

English well is to read more when B. of learning; possibly D. to learning; possible they realized they had left their bag in the car. C. No sooner…when . D. anywhere . D. No sooner…then

A. to learn; possible 8.

C. of learning; was possible had they left the train A. Hardly…when A. somewhere

B. Hardly…than B. everywhere

9. l couldn’t find my English-Chinese dictionary C. nowhere 10. —l don’t stand a chance of getting the job. —Don’t be silly, you mustn’t put yourself A. down B. up C. off D. away

11. —Do you think that the evening party was a success?
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 —Yes, ! It’s couldn’t be . D. fortunately; more excellent to see our teachers. D. attentively C. particularly A. relatively; better C. approximately; more perfect A. especially B. specially B. absolutely; better

12. On Teachers’ Day , We all went to school

第三章
句子成分:

句子的成分和基本句型

组成句子的各个部分叫作句子成分。英语的句子成分和中文的句子成分大致相同,可分为:主语,谓 语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,宾语补语。 一、主语——表明句子里所谈的是: “什么人”或“什么物” ,主语常用名词、代词或相当于名词的词 或短语充当。例如: Lily likes her new bike.(名词) 莉莉喜欢她的新自行车。 He gets up early every day.(代词) 他每天都起得很早。 To learn English well is not easy.(不定式短语)学好英语不容易。 二、谓语——说明主语“做什么” 、 “是什么”或“怎么样” ,英语中谓语只能用动词 充当。例如: .. We work hard.我们努力工作。 The boy caught a bird. 那个男孩逮住一只鸟。 He is my father. 他是我父亲。 They all look fine. 他们都很好。 谓语和主语在人称和数方面必须保持一致。例如: I am reading. You are reading. He\She is reading. We are reading. 三、宾语——宾语是动作行为的对象。由名词、代词或相当于名词或代词的词或短语充当,和及物动 词一起构成谓语,说明主语“做什么” 。例如: Tom bought a story-book.(名词)汤姆买了一本故事书。 I saw him yesterday. (代词)昨天我看到他了。 He wanted to have a cup of tea. (不定式短语)他想要一杯茶。 直接宾语和间接宾语——有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,一个指人,一个指物,指人的叫作间接宾语, 指物的叫直接宾语。合称双宾。例如: He gave me some ink . 他给了我一些墨水。 an interesting story. 老师给我妈讲了一个有趣的故事。 直接宾语 间接宾语 直接宾语 Our teacher told us 间接宾语

四、表语——说明主语“是什么”或“怎么样” ,与连系动词一起构成谓语,表语由名词、形容词、或 相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当。例如: My sister is a nurse.(名词)我的姐姐是一名护士。 They were at home.(介词短语)他们在家里。 She got angry. (形容词)她生气了。 Her grandfather is over eighty years old.(数词)她的祖父八十多岁了。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 五、定语——定语是修饰名词或代词的,可以作定语的除形容词外,还有名词、代词、数词、介词短 语或相当于形容词的词或短语等。例如: This is a green cup.(形容词)这是一个绿色的杯子。 Are these students your classmates? (代词)这些学生是你班的吗? Winter is the coldest season of the year.(介词短语)冬天是一年中最冷的季节。 I have something important to tell you.(不定式)我有重要的事情要告诉你。 The people here are very friendly.(副词)这里的人们非常友好。 注意:形容词作定语时通常放在被修饰的词之前。而介词短语、不定式短语或副词等作定语时则放在 被修饰的词之后。 六、状语——状语是修饰动词、形容词、或副词的,有的修饰全句。可以作状语的主要是副词和介词 短语或相当于副词的词或短语等。例如: You are quite right .(副词) 你非常正确。 Mr.Wu comes to the school by bike. (介词短语) 吴老师骑自行车上学校。 She will arrive in Beijing on Monday. (介词短语)她将于星期一到达北京。 He stopped to have a look. (不定式短语)他停下来看了看。 七、宾语补足语——有些及物动词的宾语后边还需要有一个补足语,意思才能够完整。宾语和它的补 足语构成复合宾语。例如: We call her Xiao Li. 宾语 宾语补足语 You must keep John asked I will have the room clean and tidy. 宾语 宾语 宾语 宾语 宾语补足语 宾语补足语 宾语补足语 宾语补足语

me to help him with his Chinese. my hair cut tomorrow.

We saw the boy playing basketball on the playground just now.

句子成分巧记歌诀 主谓宾表定状补, 定语修饰主宾表, 主谓人称数一致,
Exercises: 指出下列句子中划线部分的成分。 1.We all study hard at English. A. 主语 A. 主语 B. 谓语 B.谓语 C. 宾语 C.宾语 D.表语 D.表语
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七种成分记清楚。 宾语之后常有补。 状语位置最灵活。

句子主干主谓宾(表) ,枝叶成分定状补。

2.Betty likes her new bike very much.

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 3.My brother is a policeman. A. 主语 A.定语 A 定语 A.定语 A.定语 A.宾语 A.宾语 A.宾语 A.表语 A.主语 A.表语 A.状语 A.宾语 B.谓语 B.状语 B.状语 B.状语 B.状语 B.直接宾语 B.表语 B.直接宾语 B.直接宾语 B.谓语 B.谓语 B.定语 B.定语 C.宾语 C.宾补 C.宾补 C.宾语 C.宾补 C.间接宾语 C.谓语 C.间接宾语 C.间接宾语 C.表语 C.宾语 C.宾语 C. 状语 D.宾语 D.定语 D.宾补 D.宾补 D.表语 D.表语 D.表语 D.表语 D.表语 D.宾补 D.定语 D.宾补 D.宾补 4.Were you at home last night? 5.Winter is the coldest season of the year. 6.He often walks in the park. 7.Mary asked me to help her yesterday. 8.He bought me a nice present last week. 9.His parents are doctors. 10.I’ll get you some tea now. 11.My mother told us an interesting story last night. 12.He has read the book twice. 13.They seemed unhappy when they heard the news. 14.Do you have something to eat ? 15.We made him our monitor.

简单句的基本句型: 由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)所构成的句子叫简单句。根据句子的基本结构, 简单句分为 5 种基本句型: 1.S+V;(主语 + 不及物动词) I 主语 主语 The plane 主语 can swim. 我会游泳。 谓语(不及物动词) changes. 万物都在变。 谓语 has already arrived. 谓语 飞机已经抵达。

Everything

2.S+V+O;(主语++及物动词+宾语) I like English. 我喜欢英语。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 主语 They 主语. 谓语 宾语 books . 他们在看书。 宾语

are reading 谓语

He bought a computer last week. 他上周买了台电脑。 主语 谓语 宾语

3.S+V+P;(主语+连系动词+表语) My mother 主语 She 主语 is 谓语 looks 谓语 tastes 谓语 a scientist. 我母亲是个科学家。 表语 young. 她看上去很年轻。 表语 very delicious. 这食物尝起来很香。 表语

The food 主语

4.S+V+IO+DO;(主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语) My mother bought 主语 Can you me a dictionary yesterday. 我母亲昨天给我买了本字典。

谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 give me the math book? 你能给我那本数学书吗?

谓语 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 Will you tell us something about your school life? 你给我讲讲你们的学习生活,好吗? 直接宾语

谓语 主语 谓语 间接宾语

5.S+V+O+Oc;(主语+及物动词+宾语+补语) We 主语 must keep 谓语 our classroom 宾语 clean and tidy. 我们必须保持教室干净、整洁。 宾语补足语

My mother asks 主语 I

me to speak English as much as possible. 我母亲要求我尽可能多地讲英语。 宾语补足语

谓语 宾语

heard her

singing happily in the room just now. 刚才我听到她在房间里高兴地唱着歌。 宾语补足语

主语 谓语 宾语

简单句五种基本句型巧记歌诀: 英语句子万万千,五大句型把线牵。 句型种类看动词,后接成分是关键。 系词之后接表语,不及物后无需连。 及物又可分三类,单宾双宾最常见。 还有宾语补足语,各种搭配记心间。
Exercises:
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 指出下列句子的基本类型 1.They are listening. 2.My mother is fifty now. 3.I have bought three books. 4.My friend gave me a birthday present. 5.I painted the wall white. 6.The boss often makes the workers work twelve hours a day. 7.They arrived at six o’clock. 8.The map is on the wall 9.Children often sing this song. 10.Mr Wu teaches us English. 11.She showed her friends all her pictures. 12.I find him a lovely boy.

请朗读以下句子,划分下列句子的成分,并指出他们分别属于简单句中的哪种。 1. Our country consumes a large number of plastic bags. 2. The super-thin bags are the main source of white pollution. 3. We should encourage people to return to carrying cloth bags. 4. The new rule came out. 5. Enviornmental groups welcome the new rule. 6. They can stop using plastic bags. 7. What is particularly positive is that it involves public participation. 8. Shops don’t offer free plastic bags to their consumers. 9. Hong Kong and Australia are considering measures to curb plastic bag litter. 10. Chinese consumers have gotten used to free plastic shopping bags.

第四章
1、 简单句 Simple Sentences

简单句的种类

英语句子按结构可分为三类:简单句,并列句和复合句: 含有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子。 e.g. He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. 2、 并列句 Compound Sentences 包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子且句子之间有并列连词 and/but 等或用分号连接。 e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 3、 复合句 Complex Sentences 包含一个主句和一个从句或一个主句和多个从句的句子,且从句用从属连词引导。定语从句,状语 从句,名词性从句都是复合句。 e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall. 按照句子的功能,简单句可分为 4 类:陈述句,疑问句,祈使句,和感叹句。 一、陈述句——用来陈述一件事或表达一种看法。 1.肯定式:主语+谓语+…… I came here last night. 我是昨晚到这儿的。 The earth turns around the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。 We have many friends. 我们有很多朋友。 Zhang Hong likes dancing. 张红喜欢跳舞。 2.否定式:如果句子的谓语动词是 be/have 或有助动词和情态动词,在它们之后加 not 构成否定式。 China is not a developed country. 中国不是一个发达国家。 He hasn’t been to Hangzhou. 他没去过杭州。 We can’t live without air. 没有空气,我们就不能生存。 They will not (won’t) go there. 他们将不去那里。 如果句子的谓语是行为动词, 而又没有助动词或情态动词时, 在谓语动词前加助动词 do(第三人称单数 用 does,过去式用 did)再加 not 构成否定式。 I don’t want to go. 他不想去。 He doesn’t like English. 他不喜欢英语。 She didn’t go to the party last night. 昨晚她没有去参加晚会。

二、 疑问句——英语中的疑问句分为一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句。 1. 一般疑问句——用 yes 或 no 来回答的疑问句。 Are you from England? 你是英格兰人吗? Do you speak English? 你讲英语吗? Will you be free tomorrow? Whose bike is the newest? Who teaches you English? Who are you waiting for? 你明天有空吗? 谁的自行车最新? 谁教你们英语? 你在等谁? 会议将在什么时候开始? 你为什么不早点告诉我呢? 2. 特殊疑问句——用疑问代词或疑问副词提问的句子,不用 yes 或 no 回答。

When will the meeting begin? Why didn’t you tell me earlier?

3. 选择疑问句——提出两个或两个以上的情况让对方选择。 选择疑问句由“一般疑问句+or+一般疑问句”构成,其中后一个问句中与前一个句中的相同部分被省 略。不用 yes 或 no 回答,要用完整的句子回答。 Is Kate’s hair long or short? It’s long. 凯特的头发是长还是短? 是长的。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 Shall we go by bus or walk? By bus. 我们是乘车去还是步行呢? 乘车去 4. 反意疑问句——前一部分陈述一件事实,后一部分对前面的陈述提出相反的疑问。即前一部分如果是肯 定结构,后一部分用否定结构;如果前一部分是否定结构,后一部分用肯定结构。 You are from England, aren’t you? 你是英格兰人,对吗? He can swim, can’t he ? 他会游泳,对吗? Jim will go to England, won’t he? 吉姆将去英国,是吗? Tom tells you about it, doesn’t he? 汤姆告诉你那件事的,对吗? 珍妮昨天没来上学,对吗? 他们没有去过万里长城,是吗? Jenny didn’t come to school yesterday, did she? They haven’t been to the Great Wall, have they? It’s not very cold today, is it? Exercises: 1. The teacher had a word with you,_______? A. didn’t he A. didn’t you A. do we A. hasn’t it A. No, she does B. hadn’t he B. will you B. don’t we B. doesn’t it B. No, she do C. didn’t have he C. aren’t you C. shall we C. is it D. did not he 2. You won’t take back what you said,________? D. were you 3. Let’s go to watch the football match,________? D. will you D. does it ------_________ D. Yes, she is 4. Your family has no colour TV set,________? 5. Miss Liu doesn’t like dancing, does she?

今天天气不很冷, 是吗?

C. Yes, she does

6. There’s something wrong with the radio, ______? A. hasn’t there B. doesn’t there C. isn’t there D. is there 三.祈使句——表示命令,请求或建议,主语通常省略 说话对象是第二人称时,主语 you 一般省略。 肯定式:谓语是动词原形(+宾语) 否定式:Don’t/Never+动词原形+??例如: Be quiet,please. 请安静 Please come in. 请进 Don’t be afraid. 别害怕 说话对象式第一第三人称时,用“Let+宾语+动词原形” ,否定式用“Let+宾语+not+动词原形” ,也可以 “Don’t +let +宾语+动词原形” 。例如: Let’s go to school. 我们去上学吧 Let him not come in.===Don’t let him come in. 四.感叹句——表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情 感叹句有 what 和 how 开头的两种形式。What 修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,句末用感叹
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别让他进来

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 号。例如: 1.What+(a)+名词! What fun!多么有趣 What+(a)+形容词+名词主语+谓语! What a beautiful picture it is!这是多么美的一幅画啊! 口语中,常省略主语和谓语。例如: What a good idea!多好的主意啊! 2.How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语! How interesting the film is!这电影真有趣! 3.How+主语+谓语! How she works!她工作多努力啊! How I wanted to see you!我多么想见到你啊! Exercises: 1._______clever boy he is! A. How A. What a A. What A. What A. How hard Exercises★: 指出下列句子的种类。 1. I’m from London. 2. Don’t speak to me now. 3. Lucy likes bananas. 4. Do you like cooking? 5. What about you? 6.Is it Lucy or Lily? 7. Nice to meet you! 8. This way, please. 9. He doesn’t work on a farm. 10. What a fine day it is! B. What B. How B. How B. What a C. How a C. What D. What a D. How a 2._______beautiful the Daming Lake looks! 3._______ wonderful film it is ! C. What a D. So C. How D. How a D. What hardly 4._______ happy life we are living today ! 5.________all these dustmen are working! B. What hard C. How hardly

第五章

动词的时态与语态
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语

动词时态
时态是表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。英语中有 16 种时态。常用的时态有:一 般现在时、一般过去时、现在完成时、过去完成时、现在进行时、过去进行时、过去将来时、将来进行时、 将来完成时。 处理时态问题首先要把握各种动词时态所表达的时间概念,注意捕捉决定时态的信息。如:表示时间 的副词、短语和从句。有时还要通过上下文的时间关系以及题目设置的语境去挖掘隐藏信息。 形式 时间 现在 does 过去 did were Shall 将来 will Should 过去将来 would (一)一般现在时 1.通常表示现阶段经常发生的动作、存在状态或经常的习惯性的动作。常与 often, usually, always, sometimes, today, every five minutes, on Sundays 等时间状语连用。 She is always ready to help others. 她总是乐于助人。 The old man goes to park every morning. 这位老人每天早上都去公园。 2.表示永恒的真理以及客观事实。 The earth goes round the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。 3.表示按规定或计划要发生的动作。 The train starts at seven in the morning. 火车早上七点出发。 4.在时间和条件状语从句中代替一般将来时。 I’ll go with you, if you are free tomorrow. 如果你明天有空,我就会和你一起去。 (二)一般过去时 1. 一般过去时表示过去某一时间发生的动作或情况。 常与表示过去的时间状语 ago, yesterday , last week, in the old days ,when I was five years old, in 1995 等连用。 I met him yesterday. 昨天我遇见了他。 They began to work two months ago. 两个月前他们开始工作。 2.一般过去时多和表示过去了的时间状语连用。但是有时候句子并没有过去的时间状语,这时就要通 过语境、说话人的口气来判断。 He wrote a novel. 他写了一部小说。 I didn’t expect you were waiting for us. 我没预料到你正在等我们。
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一般 do

进行 am is are was doing doing

完成 have done has had done shall

do

will be doing will

have done

do

would be doing

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 3.used to do sth. 意为“过去常常做某事” ,暗含“现在不做了”之意。be used to do sth. 意为“被用 于做某事” ,不定式表示目的,可用于多种时态。be used to doing sth. 习惯做某事。 He used to get up early . 过去他总是早起。 (现在不这样了) He will be used to getting up early . 他将会习惯早起。 Wood is used to make paper. 木材被用来造纸。 (三)一般将来时 1、 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态, 常用的时间状语有 later(on), soon, in a month, next time, from now on, tomorrow 等。 I shall be eighteen years old next year. 明年我就十八岁了。 He will not go to the airport to meet her this afternoon. 今天下午他不去机场接她。 2、一般将来时的其它表示形式 (1)一般现在时表将来 ①按照计划或时刻表要发生的事情。 The new library opens next month. 新图书馆下月开放。 The plane takes off at 3:00 P.m. 飞机于下午三点起飞。 ②在条件状语从句和时间状语从句中用一般现在时表将来。 If you leave tomorrow , I’ll see you at the airport. 如果你明天走,我到机场送你。 When she comes, I’ll tell her about it. 她来时我将把这件事告诉她。 (2)现在进行时表将来 现在进行时表示将来, 往往是指计划好或准备要做的事。 一些表示动作转换的终止性动词, 如 go, come, leave, start, begin,stay,take off,arrive 等,或者也称为位移性动词,其进行时表示马上要做某事。 I’m taking the kids to the zoo this Sunday. 这个周日我将带孩子们去动物园。 He is leaving school in one year ’s time.他一年后就要毕业了。 (3)be to do sth 结构表示计划中约定的或按职责、义务和要求必须去做的事或即将发生的动作。 The president is to visit Japan in May.主席将于五月访问日本。 I’m to get married next year. 我明年结婚。 (4)be about to do. 结构表示“刚要做某事,马上要做某事,正要做某事” ,强调动作即将发生(不跟 表将来的时间状语连用) 。 We are about to discuss this problem.我们将马上讨论这个问题。 They were about to leave when the telephone rang. 他们正要离开时电话响了。 3、will 和 be going to 的区别。 (1)will 多表示带意愿色彩的将来或客观上将来要发生的事,也可表示临时做出决定将要做的事。 I will stay with you and help you. 我会和你一起并且帮助你。 —You have left the light on. 你还开着灯呢。 — Oh, so I have. I will go and turn it off. 哦,确实是的。我马上去关掉它。 (2)be going to 常用于口语中,主要用来表示将发生的动作或存在的状态、打算或准备要做的事或根 据某种迹象判断可能将要发生的事。 There’s going to be an English film this evening. 今晚有一场英文电影。 Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. 看那些乌云,要下雨了。 (四)现在完成时 1、表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。常与 already, ever, never, just ,yet 等 副词连用。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 I have just finished my homework. 我刚刚完成我的家庭作业。 He has been to Germany. 他去过德国。 2、表示从过去某时刻开始,持续到现在的动作或情况,并且有可能会继续持续下去,此时经常用延续 性动词。时间状语常用 since 加一个过去的时间点,或 for 加一段时间,或加一个现在时间。 I have known him for three years. 我认识他三年了。 He has lived here since 1995.他自 1995 年以来就住在这儿。 【注意】 (1)因为含有 for 加一段时间或 since 加一时间点这样的时间状语的完成时,有延续性的特点, 所以不能使用瞬间动词。 My sister has been married for 5 years.我姐姐结婚五年了。 My sister has married. Don’t disturb her. 我姐姐已经结婚了。不要打扰她。 (2)在 This/That/It is the first/second/third/..time that..句型里,从句要用现在完成时。 This is the second time that the products of our company have been shown in the International Exhibition. 这 是我公司产品第二次参加国际展览会。 (3)句型 It is/has been...since..所使用的两种时态都正确。 It is/has been 10 years since I last saw him. 从我上次见到他以来已经有 10 年了。 (五)过去完成时 1、 过去完成时是一个相对时态, 表示过去的过去, 只有在两个过去发生的动作相比较时才可显示出来。 When we got to the station, the train had left. 2、过去完成时表示截止到过去某一时间已经完成的动作。 By the end of last month, we had reviewed four books. 截止到上个月末,我们已经复习了四本书。 3、表示思维的动词用过去完成时,意为“原本· · · · · · (但事与愿违) ” 。 I had thought that he would win. 我原以为他能赢。 We had believed that he could tell the truth. 我们原本相信他能够说实话。 (六)现在进行时 1、现在进行时表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作。 Listen, someone is crying. 听,有人在哭。 What are you doing these days? 这些天你们在干什么? 2、有时,现在进行时也与 always 等副词连用,表示反复出现的习惯性动作,用以表达说话人赞扬、 讨厌等情绪。 He is always asking the same question. 他总是问同一个问题。 (厌烦) 3、动词 go, come, leave, arrive, start, begin, end 等表将要发生的动作时也用现在进行时。 They are leaving for Shanghai. 他们将动身去上海。 4、状态动词 be, have, belong to, remember, know, love, like, prefer, remember, forget, hope, wish, want, see, hear, find, feel 等一般不用于进行时。 Do you know where he is? 你知道他在哪儿吗? (七)过去进行时 1、表示在过去某一时刻或过去一段时间内正在发生的动作。 I was doing my homework at this time yesterday. 昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。 2、如果 when, while 这样的时间状语引导词所引导的主从句之一是一般过去时,则另一个句子常用过 去进行时。 I was washing my hair when you knocked at the door. 你敲门的时候我正在洗头发。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 【辨析】现在完成时与一般过去时 现在完成时是联系过去和现在的纽带,它强调过去的动作对现在的影响;一般过去时只表示过去的某 个具体时间里发生的动作,与现在没有联系。试比较: He has worked in that hospital for 8 years. (表示他从过去开始工作,一直工作到现在, 可能现在仍在那家 医院工作。) 他已经在那家医院里工作了 8 年。 He worked in that hospital for 8 years. (这只是讲述一个过去的事实,表示他现在已经不在那家医院了。) 他曾经在那家医院工作了 8 年。 Have you had your lunch? 你吃午饭了吗? What did you have for lunch? 你午饭吃的是什么? I have ever been to the Great Wall, and I went there last summer. 我去过长城,我去年夏天去的。 Exercises: 1. —I took a photo of you just now. —Really? I A. didn’t look — I’m sorry I A. don't say — No, thanks, I with attention. B. wasn’t looking C. am not looking D. have’t looked

2. —You haven’t said a word about my new hair-style. What do you think of it? anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty. B. wasn’t saying C. didn’t say D. haven’t said

3. —Can I help you, Madam. . B. just look around D. just looked around because of pollution.

A. have just looked around C. am just looking around 4. —That famous cherry tree

—Yes, we have to do something to save it. A. has died B. had died C. is died D. is dying too long.

5. She ought to stop reading; she has a headache because she A. had read B. read C. is reading 6. —You’re talking too much. —Only at home. No one A. is hearing —Sorry, I A. listened —I A. did B. had heard me but you. C. hears D. heard

D. has been reading

7. —What have you been doing? I asked you a question. Why didn’t you answer? to the news on the radio. B. have listened C. was listening D. had listened

8. —You should have told him the date earlier. , but he forgot about it. B. have C. had D. should have ,Why didn’t you tell me earlier?
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9. —You could have asked Tom for help, for he is good at physics. —Really? Oh, a whole night

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 A. is wasted B. was wasted C. had wasted D. has wasted him but failed.

10. The thief tried to break away from the policeman who A. held 11. You B. had held C. would hold

D. was holding

exercises at your desk! Why not take some exercise?

A. always do B. are always doing C. have always done D. have always been doing 12. —What were you up to when she dropped in? —I for a while and some reading. B. played; did D. had played; did

A. was playing; was going to go C. had played; was going to go

用括号中动词的适当形式填空。 1.It is the fourth time that Mike 2.He 3.LiMing 4.I 5.We 6.How long 7.—He —When did he —He 8.—His father —When —He 9.—It —When —It 10.I — it he you (live) in this city since he (leave) there? there three years ago. (be) in the Party for years. (join) the Party? (travel) to China.

(not finish)the work by the end of last month. (know) him since then. (receive) a letter from my brother last night. (be ) to London many times before we left England. (learn) English by the end of this term? (leave) his hometown..

(join) the Party in 1996. (rain )for such a long time! (rain)?

(rain) 3 hours ago. (hope)to be back last night, but I (not catch) the train.

11.—Hello, may I speak to John? (speak).

动词的语态
语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。 主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。 (1) 被动语态 1) 用法 A. B. 不知道动作的执行者是谁。 没有必要指出动作的执行者
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 C. 强调动作的承受着。 (2)被动语态的构成及用法 1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是: be +及物动词过去分词 一般现在时:is/am/are+done 一般过去时:was/were+done 现在进行时:is/am/are+being+done 过去进行时:was/were+being+done 一般将来时:will+be+done 过去将来时:would+be+done 现在完成时:have/has+been+done 过去完成时:had+been +done 2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词 因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如 look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh at 等,也可用于被动语态。 The children were taken good care of by her. 【注意】 短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。 3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加“to”的情况 若宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加“to” 。此类动词为感官动词, 如:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch 等。例如: The teacher made me go out of the classroom. I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher). 4) 主动形式表示被动意义 1) 如 wash, clean, cut, read, wear, draw, write, sell 等动词虽然用做主动形式却表示被动的意义。 例如: The pen writes smoothly. 2) 感官动词如 feel,look,smell,taste,sound 等直接跟形容词作表语。 The food tastes good. 非谓语动词(只简要介绍初中部分内容,在高中阶段非谓语动词是重要语法项目,同学们要努力掌握) 对非谓语动词的考点是: 感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词 ing 形式作宾语补足语的用法; 一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带 to,但变为被动语态时就要带 to;有些动词既 可接不定式也可接动词 ing 形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。这些都是历年中考的重点。 (1)非谓语动词的形式 非谓语动词指的是在句中起名词, 形容词或副词作用的动词形式, 而不是作谓语的动词形式。动 词的非谓语形式分为动名词,分词,动词不定式。 (2)不定式作宾语补足语 Father will not allow us to play on the street. (3)不定式作目的状语
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. (4)用不定式和分词作补足语都可以的动词 这样的动词有感官动词如: see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel 等, 使役动词如: have, make, leave, keep, get 等。接不定式表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。 I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调“我看见了”这个事实) I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调“我见他正干活”这个动作) 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。 (5)用不带 to 不定式的情况 使役动词如: let, have, make 等和感官动词如: see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后 作宾补,省略 to。在被动语态中则 to 不能省掉。 (6)接动名词与不定式意义不同 1) stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。 stop doing 停止做某事。 2) forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 forget doing 忘记做过某事。 3) remember to do 记得去做某事。 remember doing 4) try to do try doing (未做) (已做) (未做)

记得做过某事。 (已做)

努力,企图做某事。 试验,试着做某事。

5) go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。 go on doing 6) mean to do mean doing 继续做原来做的事。 打算、想 意味着

4. 容易混淆的常用动词的辨析 (1) say, speak, talk, tell 的用法。 1) say 表示讲话,作为及物动词使用,后跟宾语或宾语从句。 He said he would go there. It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you. 2)speak 表示“讲话” ,一般作为不及物动词使用,而有时作为及物动词后面跟上各种语言作为 宾语。 Do you speak English? May I speak to Mr Pope, please? 3) talk 表示“谈话” ,是不及物动词,与 to , about, with 等连用,才可宾语。 What are you talking about? Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now. 4) tell 表示“告诉,讲述”是及物动词,可以带双宾语或复合宾语。
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 She told us an interesting story yesterday. My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month. (2) look, see, watch 和 watch 的用法。 1) look 强调“看”这个动作,是不及物动词,常与 at 连用,然后接宾语。 Look! The girl is swimming in the lake. Look at the picture carefully. Can you find something unusual? 2) see 指“看见”某物,强调的是结果。 They can't see the words on the blackboard. Does Lily often go to see a film on Sunday? 3) watch 指的是“观看” , “注视”之意。 The twins are watching TV now. He will go to watch a volleyball match. 4) read 指“看书” 、 “看报” 、 “阅读”之意。 Don't read in the sun. I like to read newspapers when I am free. (3) borrow, lend 和 keep 的区别。 1) borrow 意思为“借入” ,常常与 from 连用,是非延续性动词,表示瞬间即能完成的动作。 Meimei borrowed a book from the library just now. May I borrow your dictionary? 2) lend 是“借出”之意,常常与 to 连用,同 borrow 一样,是非延续性动词,只表示瞬间即能 完成的动作。 Uncle Wany has lent his car to Mr Li. Could you lend us your radio, please? 3) keep 是“保存”的意思,动作可以延续。 How long can the recorder be kept? The farmer kept the pat for two weeks. (4) bring, take, carry 和 get 的用法。 1) bring 意思为“拿来” 、 “带来” 。指将某物或某人从别处“带来” 。 Bring me the book, please. May I bring Jim to see you next Saturday? 2) take 意思是“拿走” , “带走” ,把某物或某人从这里“带来”或“拿到”某处之意。 It looks like rain. Take a raincoat with you. Mother took the little girl to the next room. 3) carry 是“带着、搬运、携带”的意思,指随身携带,有背着、扛着、抱着、提着的含义, 不表明来去的方向。 Do you always carry a handbag? The box is heavy. Can you carry it?
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 4) get 是去某处将某物拿回来。 Please go to my office to get some chalk. There is no water in the bottle. Why not get some? (5) wear, put on 和 dress 的区别 1) wear 是“穿着” “戴着”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽子、戴手套、佩戴首饰等, 强调“穿着”的状态。 Tom always wears black shoes. He wears a raincoat even when it is fine. She doesn't like to wear a red flowers in her hair. 2) put on 是“穿上” “戴上”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽等。着重于穿戴的动作。 It's cold. You'd better put on your coat. He put on his hat and went out of the room. 3) dress 可以作及物动词和不及物动词,有“穿着” “打扮”的意思。作“穿着”解时,只用于 穿衣服,不用于穿鞋、戴帽、戴手套。作为及物动词用时,它的宾语是人,不是衣服。dress sb. (给某人穿衣服) ,而 wear 作“穿着”用时,也是及物动词,但它的宾语是物,不是人,即 wear sth.(穿着衣物) 。 She always dresses well. Get up and dress quickly. Mary is dressing her child. (6) take, spend 和 use 的用法。 1) take 指做某事用多少时间,句型是:It takes/took/ will take + sb. +some time + to do sth. It took me three days to finish the work. It will take you a while week to travel thought the forest. It takes only one hour to fly to Shanghai. 2) spend 指某人在某事(物)上花费时间或钱。句型是: Someone spends + money/time + on something(in) doing sth. She spent more than 500 yuan on that coat. He didn't spend much time on his lessons. He spent much time (in) correcting students' exercises. Mother spent her evenings (in) washing clothes. 3) use 表示使用工具、手段等。 Do you know how to use the computer? Shall we use your car? (7)reach, get 和 arrive 的区别。 1) reach 是及物动词,后面要直接跟表示地点的名词作宾语。 After the train had left, they reached the station We reached the top of the mountain at last.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 2) get 是不及动词,常与 to 连用,再接名词,后面接表示地点的副词时,不用 to,get to 常用于 口语中。 When the students got to the cinema, the film had begun. My sister was cooking when mother got home. 3) arrive 是不及物动词,表示到达一个小地方时,用 arrive at, 到达一个大地方时用 arrive in。 The soldiers arrived at a small village The foreigners will arrive in Shanghai tomorrow. 【演练】 1. Listen! Some of the girls ________ about Harry Potter. Let’s join them. A. are talking C. will talk B. talk D. talked

2. Our teacher, Miss Chen, ________English on the radio the day before yesterday. A. teaches C. will teach B. taught D. had taught

3. I don’t think I _________ you in that dress before. A. have seen C. saw B. was seeing D. see

4. Susan’s parents have bought a large house with a swimming pool. It _______ be very expensive. A. must B. can C. mustn’t D. can’t 5. Coffee is ready. How nice it ________ ! Would you like some? A. looks B. smells C. sounds D. feels 6. ― Mr. Zhu, you’d better _______ too much meat. You are already over weight,‖ said the doctor. A. not to eat B. to eat C. not eat D. eat 7. ―Don’t always make Michael ________ this or that. He is already a big boy, dear,‖ Mr. Bush said to his wife. A. do B. to do C. does D. did 8. Sorry, I can’t hear you clearly. Will you please ________ your E-mail address? I’ll write it down. A. review B. recite C. report D. repeat 9. Don’t ________ your coat, Tom! It’s easy to catch cold in spring. A. take away B. take off C. take down D. take out 10. You _______ go and ask Meimei. She _______ know the answer. A. must; can B. must; may C. need; can D. can; may 11. I’m sorry you’ve missed the train. It ________ 10 minutes ago. A. left B. has left C. had left D. has been left 12. I bought a new dictionary and it ________ me 30 yuan. A. paid B. spent C. took D. cost 13. ---Mum, may I go out and play basketball?
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 ---_______ you _______ your homework yet? A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finishing D. Have; finished 14. I have to go now. Please remember to ________ the lights when you leave. A. turn off B. turn down C. turn up D. turn on 15. A talk on Chinese history ________ in the school next week. A. be given B. has been given C. will be given D. will give 16. Look! How heavy the rain is! You’d better ________. A. don’t go now B. stay here when it stops C. not leave until it stops D. not to leave at once 17. You may go fishing if your work ________. A. is done B. will be done C. has done D. have done 18. Cotton _______ nice and soft. A. is felt B. is feeling C. feel D. feels 19. ---Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick? ---John _________. A. cleaned B. does C. did D. is 20. ---Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _______? ---No. She got up too late. A. had she B. hadn’t she C. did she D. didn’t she 【练习答案】 1.A 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.A 8.D 9.B 10.D 11.A 12.D 13.D 14.A 15.C 16.C 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.C

第六章 复合句(宾语从句、状语从句、定语从句)
宾语从句考点集汇,讲解和训练
一. 宾语从句的种类 宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语 从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。 1. 由 that 引导的宾语从句。That 只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语 和非正式文体中可以省略。例如: He said (that) he wanted to stay at home. She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill. I am sure (that) he will succeed. 2. 由连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which 和连接副词 when, where, why, how 引导的宾语从句。 这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如:
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 Do you know who (whom) they are waiting foe? He asked whose handwriting was the best. Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is? I don’t know why the train is late. 3. 由 if 或 whether 引导的宾语从句。If 和 whether 在句中的意思是“是否” 。例如: I want to know if (whether) he lives there. He asked me whether (if) I could help him. 二. 宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如: I hear (that) physics isn’t easy. I think (that) you will like this school soon. Can you tell me how I can get to zoo? Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting. 三. 宾语从句的时态 1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。例如: I don’t think (that) you are right. Please tell us where he is. Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station? 2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将 来时,过去完成时) 。例如: He asked what time it was. He told me that he was preparing for the sports meet. He asked if you had written to Peter. He said that he would go back to the U.S. soon. 3. 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。例如: Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year. Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun. 【演练】 1. Do you know _______ during the coming summer holiday? A. what will Tom do C. what Tom will do A. what is his name C. that his name is A. that B. what did Tom do D. what Tom did B. what’s his name D. what his name is D. which

2. I want to know_________.

3. Do you know ________ I could pass the exam? B. whether C. what 4. Jim doesn’t understand ____________. A. which is the way to the museum B. why his wife always goes shopping
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 C. what is the way to the museum D. why does she always go shopping 5. ---Could you tell me ______ she is looking for? A. that B. whose C. who D. which 6. Mr. King didn’t know _______ yesterday evening. A. when does his son come home B. when his son comes home C. when did his son come home D. when his son came home 7. Could you tell me _______ the bike this morning? A. how does he mend C. how he mended B. how he mends D. how did he mend

8. ---I’m waiting for the mail. Do you know ________ it will arrive? ---Usually it comes by 4: 00. A. how B. where C. when D. what 9. ---Excuse me, would you please tell me ________? ---Certainly. Go straight along here. It’s next to a hospital. A. how we can get to the post office B. how can we get to the post office C. how get to the post office D. how could we get to the post office 10. ---Can I help you? ---Yes. I’d like a ticket to Mount Emei. Can you tell me ______ take to get there? A. how soon will it C. how long it will B. how soon it will D. how long will it

11. He wanted to know ___________. A. whether he speaks at the meeting B. when the meeting would start C. what he’s going to do at the meeting D. where would the meeting be held 12. ---Could you tell me _________ the Bamboo Garden? ---The day after tomorrow, I think. A. when will you visit C. when would you visit A. what should we do C. what we should do A. how they were excited B. when you will visit D. when you would visit B. we should do what D. should we do what B. how excited they were
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13. Would you please tell me _________ next, Mr Wang?

14. You can’t imagine _________ when they received these nice Christmas presents.

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 C. how excited were they A. that D. they were how excited 15. I want to know ________ you will come back at 8:00 tomorrow. B. when C. where D. whether 16. ---Could you tell me ____________? ---Sorry, I don’t know. I was not at the meeting. A. what does he say at the meeting B. what did he say at the meeting C. what he says at the meeting D. what he said at the meeting 17. ---Could you tell me _________ last night? ---Er, I was watching Euro 2004 at home. A. what you were doing C. what you are doing B. what were you doing D. what are you doing

18. The teacher asked the students __________. A. if they were interested in dinosaurs B. when was Albert Einstein born C. what they will do with the computers D. how many trees they have planted 19. Every morning the patients are asked if ________ their temperature taken. A. they had had C. they have had A. how B. why C. that D. when B. have they had D. had they had

20. It’s up to you to decide _______ you’ll go there, by air or by road. 【练习答案】 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.B 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.C 11.B 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.D 16.D 17.A 18.A 19.C 20.A

状语从句的考点集汇,讲解和训练
【名师点睛】 用来修饰主句中的动词,副词和形容词的从句叫状语从句。根据其含义状语从句可分为时间状语从句,地 点状语从句,条件状语从句, 原因状语从句,结果状语从句,比较状语从句,目的状语从句,让步状语从 句。 1. 时间状语从句 (1)时间状语从句常用 when, as, while, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as 等连词来引导。例如: It was raining hard when got to school yesterday. While he was doing his homework, the telephone rang. As he walked along the lake, he sang happily. He had learned a little Chinese before he came to China.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 After he finished middle school, he went to work in a factory. (2)在时间状语从句里,通常不用将来时态,用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。例如: I’ll ring you up as soon as I get to New York. I will tell him everything when he comes back. He won’t believe it until he sees it with his own eyes. (3)在带有 till 或 until 引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句里, 如果主句用肯定式, 其含义是 “一直到……时” , 谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果主句用否定式,其含义是“直到……才……”, “在……以前不……”, 谓 语动词可用瞬间动词。例如: The young man read till the light went out. Let’s wait until the rain stops. We won’t start until Bob comes. Don’t get off until the bus stops. 2. 条件状语从句 (1)条件状语从句通常由 if, unless 引导。例如: What shall we do if it snows tomorrow? Don’t leave the building unless I tell you to. (2)在条件状语从句里,谓语动词通常用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。例如: I’ll help you with your English if am free tomorrow. He won’t be late unless he is ill. (3)“祈使句 + and (or)+ 陈述句” 在意思上相当于一个带有条件状语从句的复合句。例如: Hurry up, or you’ll be late. =If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late. Study hard and you will pass the exam. =If you study hard, you will pass the exam. 3. 原因状语从句 (1)原因状语从句通常由 because, since, as 引导。例如: He didn’t come to school because he was ill. As it is raining, we shall not go the zoo. Since you can’t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else. (2)because 表示直接原因,语气最强。Because 引导的原因状语从句多放在主句之后。回答由 why 提出 的问题,只能用 because。As 和 since 语气较弱,一般用来表示明显的原因。由 as 和 since 引导的原因 状语从居多放在句首。例如: ------Why aren’t going there? ------Because I don’t want to. As he has no car, he can’t get there easily. Since we have no money, we can’t buy it. (3)because 和 so 不能同用在一个句子里。 4. 结果状语从句 (1)结果状语从句由 so…that, such…that, so that 引导。例如:
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 He is so poor that he can’t buy a bike for his son. She is such a good teacher that everybody likes her. My pencil fell under the desk, so that I couldn’t see it. (2)so…that 语 such...that 可以互换。例如: 在由 so...that 引导的结果状语从句中,so 是副词,与形容词连用。其结构是: “...so + 形容词(副词)+ that + 从句” 。例如: He was so glad that he couldn’t say a word. The hall is so big that it can hold 2,000 people. Mother lives so far away that we hardly ever see her. 在由 such…that 引导的结果状语从句中,such 是形容词,它修饰的可以是单数或复数可数名词,也可以 是不可数名词;名词前面可以带形容词,也可不带。如果是单数可数名词,前面需加不定冠词 a 或 an。例 如: It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anything. He had such long arms that he could almost touch the ceiling. He made such rapid progress that he did very well in the mid-term. 有时上述两种结构是可以互换的。例如: It was such a wonderful film that all of us wanted to see it again. =The film was so wonderful that all of us wanted to see it again. It is such an important match that nobody wants to miss it. =The match is so important that nobody wants to miss it. (3)如果名词前由 many, much, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用 so, 不用 such。例如: Soon there were so many deer that they ate up all the wild roses. He has so little time that he can’t go to the cinema with you. 5. 比较状语从句 比较状语从句通常由 as…as, 比较级 + than…等连词引导。例如: Tom runs faster than John does. This classroom is as big as that one. 6. 目的状语从句 (1)目的状语从句通常由 so that, in order that 引导。例如: We started early so that we could catch the first train. He studies hard so that he could work better in the future. We used the computer in order that we might save time. (2)so that 既可引导目的状语从句,又可引导结果状语从句。区别这两种从句的办法有两个:1)目的状语 从句里往往带有情态动词 can, could, may, might 等。2)从意思上看,目的状语从句往往表示的目的很明 确。例如: Speak clearly so that they may understand you. (目的状语从句) Jack is badly ill so that he has to rest. 7. 让步状语从句 (1)让步状语从句通常由 although, though 等连词引导。例如:
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(结果状语从句)

初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 Though he is young, he knows a lot. Although I am tired, I must go on working. (2)although(though)不能用在同一个句子中。例如: 我们不能说:Though it was raining hard, but he still went out. 应该说:Though it was raining hard, he still went out.或 It was raining hard, but he still went out. 8. 地点状语从句 地点状语从句常常由 where 来引导。例如: Go where you like. Where there is a will, there is a way. 【演练】 一. 单项填空 1. _______ he’s old, he can still carry this heavy bag. A. Though B. Since C. For D. So 2. ---Do you know if he _______ to play basket ball with us? ---I think he will come if he ______ free tomorrow. A. comes; is B. comes; will be C. will come; is B. falls; to help D. falls; helping D. will come; will be 3. In the zoo if a child _____ into the water and can’t swim, the dolphins may come up ______ him. A. will fall; to help C. will fall; help

4. I don’t remember ________ he worked in that city when he was young. A. what B. which C. where D. who 5. We will stay at home if my aunt ________ to visit us tomorrow. A. comes B. come C. will come D. is coming 6. The police asked the children _______ cross the street ________ the traffic lights turned green. A. not; before B. don’t; when C. not to; until D. not; after 7. I was late for class yesterday _______ there was something wrong with my bike. A. when B. that C. until D. because 8. I’ll go swimming with you if I ________ free tomorrow. A. will be B. shall be C. am D. was 9. In the exam, the ________ you are, ______ the _______ mistakes you will make. A. careful; little B. more careful; fewest C. more careful; fewer D. more careful; less 10. You should finish your lessons _______ you go out to paly. A. before B. after C. when D. while 11. I hurried _____ I wouldn’t be late for class. A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless 12. When you read the book, you’d better make a mark _______ you have any questions. A. which B. that C. where D. though 13. The teacher raised his voice _______ all the students could hear him.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 A. for B. so that C. because D. in order D. since 14. He took off his coat _______ he felt hot. A. because B. as C. if A. a lovely day 15. It is ______ that we’d like to go out for a walk. B. too lovely a day C. so lovely a day D. such lovely a day 16. Mary had ______ much work to do that she stayed at her office all day. A. such B. so C. too D. very 17. _______ I felt very tired, I tried to finish the work. A. Although B. Because C. As D. As if 18. ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. Since C. While D. As 19. ______ well you can drive, you must drive carefully. A. So long as C. No matter how B. In order that D. The moment

20. Write to me as soon as you ________ to Beijing. A. will get B. get C. getting D. got 【练习答案】 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.A 11.B 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.B 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B

定语从句的考点集汇,讲解和训练
一. 定语从句的功用和结构 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必 须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如: This is the present that he gave me for my birthday. Do you know everybody who came to the party? I still remember the night when I first came to the village? This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived. 二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用 关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关 系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。 1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如: I don’t like people who talk much but do little. The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well. 2. 作宾语: She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday. The book that my grandmother gave me is called ―The Great Escape‖. 3. 作定语
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中作定语用。例如: What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor? The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard. 4. 作状语 I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing. This is the house where I was born. 三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法 1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如: The person who broke the window must pay for it. The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever. 2. whom 指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如: Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate? Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come. 3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如: The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today. I know the boy whose father is a professor. 4. which 指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如: A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words. Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday. 5. that 多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如: I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news. Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there? 6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如: I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm. He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left. 7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如: This is the house where we lived last year. The factory where his father works is in the east of the city. 四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间, 有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如: That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room which we had lived in for ten years. 五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题: 1. 只能使用 that,不用 which 的情况: (1) 先行词是 all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。 例如: All that he said is true. (2) 先行词被 only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如: He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如: He was the second (person) that told me the secret. (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。 This is the best book (that) I have read this year. (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如: He talked about the people and the things he remembered. 2. 只能用 which,不用 that 的情况: (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如: The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted. (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如: The thing about which he is talking is of great importance. 【演练】 1. ---Who is the man _______ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It’s Mr Baker, our maths teacher. A. he B. that C. whom D. which 2. I hate the people ________ don’t help others when they are in trouble. A. who B. which C. they D. where 3. The foreigner _________ visited our school is from Canada. A. which B. when C. who D. whom 4. George Mallory was an English school teacher _______ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which 5. This is the place A. there A. that A. that _____I have ever visited. C. where D. which B. when

6. Nobody knows the reason ______ she didn’t come to the meeting. B. which C. why D. when B. which C. where D. why 7. The moon is a world ______ there is no life. 8. He has forgotten the day _______ he arrived. A. when B. where C. that D. which 9. He still remembers the days ______ he spent with your family. A. when B. where C. that D. on which 10. Mr. White, ______ car had been stolen, came to the policeman. A. who B. that C. whose D. which 11. He got to the village _______ his family once lived before liberation. A. that B. which C. when D. where 12. This is the house _______ I want to buy. A. in which B. that C. whose D. where 13. This is the house _______ our beloved Premier Zhou once lived and worked. A. which B. that C. when D. where
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初高中衔接教材 ? 英语 14. He didn’t tell me the place _______ he was born. A. that A. that B. which C. when D. where B. which C. where D. when 15. He lived in a small village, ______ was a long way from the railway station. 【练习答案】 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.C 11.D 12.B 13.D 14.D 15.B

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