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1. Briefly describe how products/services are developed to sustain competitive advantage.
Definition of competitive advantage: Unique selling points of the business which enable it to outshine the competitors. Firstly the business decides what their unique selling points are and then develop them. Firms need competitive advantage because to be successful and thrive they need to hold on to or extend their market share. Two main types of competitive advantages: 1. Differential advantage: a firm produces unique quality products and services that give an advantage over competitors. Also, customers think that it is better than competitor’s products. 2. Cost advantage: a firm produces a good quality product and service at a lower cost than its competitors or to generate a larger margin on sales. For example: CHANEL and PRIMARK Chanel chooses the differential advantage. Because Chanel is a luxury fashion brand. Its products are in high quality and very expensive. Primark choose the cost advantage. The company wants to use the

low price to attract the customers. The success is because many people thought that the expensive cloth is not necessary for them. The customers can achieve the good product but spend less money. The competitive advantage of Parcel force: Parcel force provides arrange of services including a guaranteed delivery on certain times or days. Parcel force Worldwide uses a network of international partners to extend its reach beyond the UK to 99.6% of the world population. Parcel force Worldwide delivers around 210,000 parcels a day and operates in three distinct markets: Business-to-Business services Business-to-Consumer services Consumer-to-Consumer Parcel force Worldwide has made big changes to improve its business. Product:-Primary research -Secondary research Price:-differential pricing -price leadership -market penetration

-competitive pricing Place:-depots -post office branches -direct collection by Parcel force worldwide -international partner networks overseas

2. Explain how distribution is arranged to provide customer convenience.
Distribution is part of the marketing mix. It comes under the dement place. It plays on important part in enlacing the convenience for customers. It can be a major competency. An efficient distribution system can build sales because customers have easy access to the company's products. Distribution is organized in a channel. A distribution channel is defined as a chain of intermediaries; each passing the product down the chain to the next organization, before it finally reaches the consumer or end-user. This process is known as the 'distribution chain' or the 'channel.' Each of the elements in these chains will have their own specific needs, which the producer must take into account, along with those of the all-important enduser.

Distribution channel:

Why is distribution is important? It has to work efficiently so that the customer can get what they want when they want it. Both spouse work has little time for shopping and too many commit months. Sales on internet are 24hours per day, 7 days per week. The need to make sales is driven by the need to sell when it is convenient for the customer. Speed is important, customers expect 1 day delivery. Less hassle/Less problematical The efficiency of the distribution channel is part of the interaction

between the company and the customers. Customers' needs for conveniences have driven the recent changes in distribution. Business has had to respond to social changes. The efficient of the distribution channel The efficient of the distribution channel is the part of interaction between the company and the customer. The customers’ needs for convenience have driven the recent changes in distribution businesses have had to respond to social changes.

3. Explain how prices are set to reflect the organisations objectives and market conditions.
Pricing Strategies
Loss leader Psychologi cal pricing

Market Penetration pricing Price discriminatio n Influence of elasticity Cost plus pricing Target pricing skimming

Value pricing

Pricing Strategies

Absorption cost pricing

Going rate

Margin Contribution pricing al cost pricing

Predatory pricing

Penetration pricing: ? Set “low “to penetrate the market ? Usually low price/high volume sales ? Useful of launching into a new market ? Used for products with anticipated long life cycles A new sparkling lemon drink is being launched into the already highly competitive fizzy drinks market.

Loss leader: ? items are sold below cost or at cost Fight off competition ? Keep customers coming in/stimulate demand ? To attract buyers to something else ASDA sales below cost for some products but the mainly objective is persuasive the customer come to shop at ASDA. Their benefit is the customers also buy other products from ASDA. Value Pricing: Charging what people think its worth A business producing an anti-ageing wrinkle cream wants to position its product, so customers believe it to be of better quality. Marketing skimming (high price low volume) New products, new technology, new development: Ipad, Iphone A luxury limo service wants to offer clients an exclusive service where all their needs are catered for in a professional manner. Psychological pricing: Linked with value pricing 99.9 Pounds is more attractive than 100 Pounds. Going rate: "Price leadership “what everybody charges/No differentiation A new sparkling lemon drink is being launched into the already

highly competitive fizzy drinks market. Tender Pricing secret: Sealed bid-big jobs/projects-

customized/tailor-made A and B both want to sell the coke to C. They present their own price. And they don’t know the competitor’s price. Then C chooses the lower price one. Price discrimination: differ to discriminate Charge a different price in different markets Analyse the market, economic factors Quality of service and demand A company providing broadband Internet access wants to target many different types of users such as business, home, and off-peak. The price will depend on type of service. Contribution pricing: Cost and some profits__ meeting expense

A small toy manufacturer has started producing a new line and wants to ensure that the price it is charging will cover all overheads in addition to delivering a certain level of profit. Target pricing: you know what profit you want cost of service with? No, you have to sell

A small toy manufacturer has started producing a new line and wants to ensure that the price it is charging will cover all overheads in addition to delivering a certain level of profit.

OBJECTIVE

PROMOTION

4. Demonstrate how promotional activity is integrated to achieve marketing objectives.
Promotional activities Marketing objectives are: 1. communication/Reminding -develop customer loyalty -stimulate interest 2. Persuading-reinforce perception 3. Informing:-free samples/tester/money of occupant -new product development (price penetration) -increase market penetration 4. Stimulate impulse buying -Increase sale volume (number of sales) 5. Develop report purchase behaviour-loyalty card, coupons, and air miles 6. Unique selling point/differentiation-customer service -guarantee Typical marketing objectives fall into these broad categories.

Launch a new product

Exhibition Public relation Sales promotion Outdoor Buy 1 get 1 free Development customer loyalty Stimulate interest Demonstration advertising Re-enforce perception Outdoor Media (TV, Radio, Cinema, and Internet)

Communications Reminding

and

Persuading

Informing

Free samples, testers Money of coupon New product development

Stimulate impulse buying Develop behavior repeat

Buy 1 get 1 free Free coupons Collect air miles Customer service Guarantee( after sales service)

purchase Loyalty card

Differentiation

5. Analyse the additional elements of the extended marketing mix.
The traditional marketing mix is the 4ps: product, place, price, promotion. But theorists have argued that the standard marketing mix should be extended to include people, process and physical evidence. This is especially true for Parcel force which is a service. Because place of availability, people and customer service, personal selling and physical evidence. It makes their service tangible. That is it helps potential customers to trust the company and give it credibility. Parcel force, for example, use personal selling: website, phone, service, efficiency place of availability: website, post office, your home people and customer service: telephone numbers, internet, website physical evidence: website, pickup and delivery, telephone call

Physical evidence: Physical Evidence is the element of the service mix which allows the consumer again to make judgments on the organisation. If you walk into a restaurant your expectations are of a clean, friendly environment. On an aircraft if you travel first class you expect enough room to be able to lie down! Physical evidence is an essential ingredient of the service mix; consumers will make perceptions based on their sight of the service provision which will have an impact on the organisations perceptual plan of the service. People: An essential ingredient to any service provision is the use of appropriate staff and people. Recruiting the right staff and training them appropriately in the delivery of their service is essential if the organisation wants to obtain a form of competitive advantage. Consumers make judgments and deliver perceptions of the service based on the employees they interact with. Staff should have the appropriate interpersonal skills, attitude, and service knowledge to provide the service that consumers are paying for. Many British organisations aim to apply for the Investors in People accreditation, which tells consumers that staffs are taken care of by the company and they are trained to certain standards.

Why: (1)Selection and training (2)Internal marketing to promulgate the culture of service within the firm (3)Ensuring conformance with standards Behaviour Dress and appearance Procedures Modes of dealing with the public (4)Mechanising procedures where possible (5)Constantly auditing personnel performance and behaviour (6)Extending the promotion of the service and its qualities into the design of service environments and the engineering of interactions between staff and customers and among the customers themselves. Process: Refers to the systems used to assist the organisation in delivering the service. Imagine you walk into Burger King and you order a Whopper Meal and you get it delivered within 2 minutes. What was the process that allowed you to obtain an efficient service delivery? Banks that send out Credit Cards automatically when their customers’ old one has expired again require an efficient process to identify expiry dates and renewal. An efficient

service that replaces old credit cards will foster consumer loyalty and confidence in the company. Why: Some people minimize the importance of process, using such slogans as "Product over Process" or pointing to pages such as "Ignore all rules", "Snowball clause" or "Wikipedia is not a bureaucracy". But process is essential to the creation of the product. Process is a fundamental tool for carrying out community consensus, and for allowing a very large number of people to work together on a collaborative project. Process is also the mechanism by which users can trust that others are playing fair, that the rules do not suddenly change, nor are they different for some privileged editors. Poor process or no process ultimately harms the product.

WEEK Week 7

TASKS 1. Read and analysis the handout of Parcelforce. 2. Research the information of Parcelforce. 3. Learning the Pricing Strategies.(LO3.3) 4. Research the extended marketing mix.(LO3.5)

Week 8

1. Think about the distribution of Parcelforce. 2. Research how distribution is arranged to provide

customer convenience (LO 3.2) 3. Research the distribution channel. 4. Thinking about why is it important for customer convenience. Week 9 1. Learning the Promotional activity (LO 3.4) 2. Learning the Competitive advantage (LO 3.1) Week 10 1. Discuss the presentation with the partners

EVALUATION: From learning the handout of Parcelforce Worldwide, I know a lot of information about it. Examples: ? The Parcelforce is very important to the British families. ? The distribution channel of Parcelforce. ? How does it work?

Before I only did the presentation about the advertising. And I have never tried to work with three other classmates in one group. From this, I learned that the teamwork is very important. It helps me to learn the knowledge in many different ways. Research the information from the internet is very easy and comprehensive. After these days’ searching, I know the extend of the marketing mix, the pricing strategy, the competitive advantage and the different between the domestic market and international market. All of the workings are useful for my studying in the future. Thanks the teachers’ help.


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