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Dielectric properties of chicken and fish(salmon) muscle treated


Food Chemistry 120 (2010) 361–370

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Food Chemistry
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem

Dielectric properties of chicken and ?sh muscle treated with microbial transglutaminase
P. Basaran a,b, N. Basaran-Akgul c,*, B.A. Rasco c
a

Suleyman Demirel University, Department of Food Engineering, Cunur, Isparta, Turkey University of Heidelberg, Institute for Physical Chemistry, D69120 Heidelberg, Germany c Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Transglutaminase (MTGase) initiates the formation of covalent bonds between glutamine and lysine residues in proteins. Adding MTGase can improve the thermal stability of meat proteins, imparting desirable properties to reconstructed products during heating. In this study, the dielectric constant and loss factor of MTGase (0.5%)-treated chicken, salmon and trout muscle were determined and compared with untreated muscle at RF (27 and 40 MHz) and MW (433, 915, and 1800 MHz) frequencies from 20 to 130 °C. The MTGase-treated chicken muscle tended to have higher dielectric constant and loss values at RF frequencies at all temperatures tested. At MW frequencies, the dielectric constants were similar between the MTGase-treated chicken muscle and the control, but the dielectric loss was higher for the MTGase-treated tissue. Similar trends were observed for salmon or trout tissue for dielectric constant; however, at RF frequencies, the dielectric loss factor for MTGase-treated ?sh was not consistently higher than that of the control. Dielectric loss factors were higher for salmon or trout at RF frequencies than for chicken muscle at the same temperature. The addition of MTGase promotes cross-linking and stronger gel formation for RF and MW treatment. ? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 18 July 2008 Received in revised form 12 August 2009 Accepted 15 September 2009

Keywords: Dielectric Transglutaminase Meat processing MW

1. Introduction The endogenous transglutaminase enzyme (TGase, protein glutamine c-carboxyamyl transferase, EC 2.3.2.13) irreversibly catalyses covalent cross-linking of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues and has been long associated with setting response in ?sh (Kim et al., 2002). Addition of exogenous microbial TGase (MTGase) drastically improves the textural characteristics (elasticity and ?rmness), the mechanical strength, and water-holding capacity of the reconstructed ?sh and other meat products, such as restructured steaks, sausages, hot dogs and doner (Kuraishi, Nakagoshi, Tanno, & Tanaka, 2000; Motoki & Seguro, 1998; Ramirez, Rodriguez-Sosa, Morales, & Vazquez, 2000). Although, small meat pieces can also be restructured into larger pieces using NaCl and sodium tripolyphosphate, this can lead to ?avour changes that are not desirable, as well as increasing sodium intake (Kuraishi et al., 2000; Muguruma et al., 2003). In recent studies with Raman spectroscopy, TGase was observed to cause a signi?cant decrease in a-helix content and a signi?cant increase in b-sheets in meat proteins (Herrero, Cambero, Ordó?ez, de la Hozand, & Carmona, 2008). Therefore, treatment
* Corresponding author. Address: 2380 NE Ellis Way C11 Pullman, WA 99163, USA. Tel.: +1 509 332 2621. E-mail addresses: nb51@wsu.edu, nb51@cornell.edu (N. Basaran-Akgul). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter ? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.050

with TGase would be expected to affect the ability of proteins to aggregate (Fernandez-Diaz, Montero, & Gomez-Guillen, 2001; Herrero et al., 2008). Demand for minimally processed, safe and stable meat products has stimulated the interest in research on alternative processing technologies. Dielectric heating schemes of radio frequency (RF) (3 kHz and 300 MHz) and microwave (MW) (0.3 GHz and 300 GHz) processes are promising technologies for producing prepared and ready-to-eat foods with extended shelf-life (Wang et al., 2003; Zhang, Lyng, & Brunton, 2004). Volumetric heating could drastically reduce the come-up time needed for processing, thereby reducing the total cumulative thermal treatment, which in return could better preserve valuable nutritional factors such as vitamins (Colonel, Simunovic, & Sandeep, 2003; Sidhu, 2004). For example, thiamine retention is higher in MW treated foods (85– 96% retention) than in those conventionally processed (46–96% retention) (Uherova, Hozova, & Smirnov, 1999). However, quality can be effected. Laycock, Piyasena, and Mittal (2003) reported that RF heating at 27.12 MHz could reduce cooking times up to 90% in whole and minced beef but that the eating quality, and particularly the texture, of some of the products was adversely affected (Mckenna, Lyng, Brunton, & Shirsat, 2006). Several studies have shown that MTGase improves functional and quality characteristics and textural properties of raw and restructured meat products, including ?sh. The dielectric proper-

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ties of intact muscle tissue are affected by the source of the muscle (e.g. animal species, type of muscle), muscle ?bre orientation, ionic strength (pH and salt content) and level of fat (Basaran-Akgul, Basaran, & Rasco, 2008). Dielectric constant (e0 ) determines the energy re?ected from and transmitted into the product; dielectric loss factor (e00 ) describes how well a material absorbs energy from an electric ?eld and converts that energy to heat. However, there is no published information concerning the dielectric characteristics of MTGase-treated meat products. Fish muscle is more heat-labile than is terrestrial muscle and tends to undergo structural changes at lower heating temperature (An, Peters, & Seymour, 1996; Uresti, Tellez-Luis, et al., 2004). It is possible that the dielectric properties of MTGase-treated ?sh would be different from that of chicken. The objective of this study was to investigate how enzymatic cross-linking, produced by MTGase, would affect the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor in RF and MW chicken breast and in trout and salmon muscle and to generate practical data that will be useful for predicting the heating behaviour of this and similar meat compositions, leading to the development of improved RF and MW processing procedures for safer and more convenient meat products with minimal losses in functional and nutritive values. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Preparation of restructured meat samples Previously, fresh chicken breast, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ?llets were purchased at a local retailer. The meat was trimmed of visible fat and connective tissue at 5 °C. Then samples were ground twice in a laboratory meat grinder (Hobart Inc., Spokane, WA) through a plate with 3 mm diameter. Activa TG-1, derived from Streptoverticilium mobaerense, was kindly provided by Ajinomoto Inc. (Teanec, NJ, USA). Five g/kg of MTGase were dispersed individually into the meat paste in a dry form, yielding 50 U of MTGase activity per 100 g of homogenate. Then the homogenate was mixed slowly for 2 min at room temperature and held below 10 °C for 4 h to allow enzymic cross-linking to occur, as recommended by Stangierski, Baranowska, Rezler, and Kijowski (2008). The MTGase enzyme formulation, according to the manufacturer, contained 99% maltodextrin and 1% MTGase, and MTGase activity was approximately 100 IU/g. Following enzyme treatment, 200 g of MTGase-treated salmon, trout or chicken were passed once through a grinder with 1/16 in. perforations (Hobart Inc., Spokane, WA). Treatments included (1) control: chicken, salmon or trout without MTGase treatment and (2) enzyme-treated: chicken, salmon or trout with 0.5% MTGase added. Then, ca. 19 g were packed into 22 mm diameter ? 50 mm long plastic pipes, the same diameter as the sample cell of the dielectric measurement sample cell. This was done to maintain the shape and to obtain an uniform sample (Basaran-Akgul et al., 2008). Then, samples were placed into 3 ml polyethylene bags (10.5 ? 17.5 cm, standard barrier; Koch, Kansas City, MO), and vacuum-packaged (Multi Vac model 160; Koch Industries, Kansas City, MO) to limit oxidation. The resulting gels were stored overnight at 4 °C prior to the dielectric measurements. Samples were removed from the plastic pipes using a very sharp knife with a thin blade. At least three replicates were taken for measurement. The sample temperature was kept below 5 °C prior to dielectric properties measurement. 2.2. Dielectric properties measurement system and system calibration The dielectric properties measurements were obtained using a system previously described (Basaran-Akgul et al., 2008; Guan,

Fig. 1. Unloading of dielectric-treated sample from custom-built temperaturecontrolled test cell. (A) Treated sample still in contact with probe. (B) Unloaded treated sample (upper view).

Cheng, Wang, & Tang 2004; Wang et al. 2003) over a frequency range of 1 and 1800 MHz and at temperatures from 20 to 130 °C (Fig. 1A and B). 2.3. Compositional analysis (pH, moisture, protein, fat) The pH, moisture, protein and fat were measured (N = 3). The pH was measured on a homogenate of a 5 g sample in 50 ml of distilled water. Moisture content of randomly selected samples was determined by gravimetric measurement by drying ca. 2.000 g of ground sample (n = 2) at 100 °C in a forced-air oven (model OV490A-2; Blue M, Blue Island, IL) for 24 h (the Of?cial Methods of Analysis of AOAC International Method Number 39.1.02; 950.46). Protein content was measured in quadruplicate by a Nitrogen Determinator LECO FP-2000 (Leco Corporation, St. Joseph, MI).

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Fat content (n = 2) was determined by the Soxhlet method, using petroleum ether (Fisher Scienti?c Company, Pittsburgh, PA) (AOAC, 2000, Method Number 960.39). 2.4. Cooking loss Cooking loss during the dielectric measurements was determined. The samples were weighed before they were placed into the dielectric measurement chamber and directly after the dielectric treatment was completed following the cooling of the chamber. The juice that was collected at the bottom of the cell was also taken with a micro-pipetman and weighed. 2.5. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Changes in thermal stability of samples with the addition of 0.5% MTGase were measured using a DSC machine (Model 2920, TA Instruments, Inc., New Castle, USA) according to Ramírez-Suárez and Xiong (2002). Samples were accurately weighed (ca. 15 mg) into aluminium capsules and hermetically sealed, then heated from 20 to 130 °C at a constant rate. An empty capsule was applied as reference. Temperature, at maximum heat ?ow (Tmax), was measured using the software provided by the manufacturer (TA Instruments Inc., New Castle, USA). Analysis was carried out in triplicate for all samples. The results were compared with samples without MTGase treatment. 2.6. Statistical analysis Mean values and standard deviations were calculated (n = 3). Only the data at 27, 40, 433, 915, and 1800 MHz are reported in tabular form because they are allocated for industrial, scienti?c, and medical applications (European Radio Communications and US Federal Communication Commission). Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 1999). Analysis of variance, using the PROC MIXED repeated analysing method of

Table 1 Fat, moisture and ash content of chicken, salmon and trout. Sample Chicken tight Salmon Trout pH 5.8 5.4 6.1 Moisture (%) 75.1 ± 0.32 75.7 ± 0.52 72.8 ± 0.81 Protein (%) 21.4 ± 0.16 19.0 ± 0.26 18.6 ± 0.56 Fat (%) 5.37 ± 0.21 5.05 ± 0.21 6.8 ± 0.71

Statistical Analysis System, was performed to investigate the individual effects of frequency, temperature, treatment and composition on the measured dielectric properties of the samples with signi?cance set at p 6 0.05. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. General The commercial application of MTGase began with surimi production in Japan, and is now employed for many restructured meat products and to improve the rheological properties of different protein foods (meat, bakery and dairy) (Kuraishi et al., 2000). By employing MTGase, it is possible to increase the yield of marketable products by utilising lower value cuts and smaller pieces of meat, consequently reducing cost (Dondero, Figueroa, Morales, & Curotto, 2006). MTGase usually does not negatively affect the ?rmness, juiciness, colour, aroma, taste or saltiness of most meat products (Müller, 2003). 3.2. Dielectric properties of MTGase-treated chicken MTGase induced crosslinks often improve the functional and rheological properties of chicken meat proteins by enhancing emulsion stability and water uptake (Carrascal & Regenstein, 2002; Muguruma et al., 2003) and reducing the expressible moisture of chicken meat gels (Trespalacios & Reyes, 2007).

Table 2 Mean ± SD of dielectric properties for chicken breast with MTGase treatment. T (°C) Chicken breast 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 Chicken breast + 0.5% MTGase 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 27 MHz 91.64 ± 0.35 332.33 ± 2.40 95.56 ± 1.30 458.01 ± 3.69 109.18 ± 0.99 567.21 ± 1.21 118.70 ± 2.46 549.48 ± 7.67 126.03 ± 3.45 618.96 ± 7.15 136.13 ± 0.88 796.89 ± 13.36 142.45 ± 3.40 903.48 ± 6.01 100.07 ± 0.21 513.95 ± 0.90 103.21 ± 0.33 610.88 ± 9.74 118.60 ± 0.39 772.25 ± 0.34 131.00 ± 0.25 791.99 ± 12.49 136.36 ± 0.20 849.15 ± 3.21 143.20 ± 0.04 987.00 ± 6.18 147.22 ± 0.24 1076.03 ± 3.18 40 MHz 83.50 ± 1.09 227.34 ± 5.11 85.29 ± 2.35 312.17 ± 6.31 94.59 ± 2.31 388.57 ± 5.27 101.44 ± 1.01 379.79 ± 4.80 106.28 ± 2.21 427.76 ± 6.28 113.59 ± 0.59 547.90 ± 9.06 118.45 ± 3.55 619.77 ± 5.05 88.90 ± 0.23 350.18 ± 0.46 90.31 ± 0.15 415.43 ± 6.56 100.75 ± 0.31 526.32 ± 0.30 110.10 ± 0.10 542.79 ± 8.10 113.27 ± 0.14 582.14 ± 2.20 118.09 ± 0.19 675.32 ± 4.64 121.13 ± 0.20 735.57 ± 2.26 433 MHz 62.26 ± 0.89 28.66 ± 0.70 60.05 ± 0.14 36.87 ± 0.50 57.09 ± 0.56 46.21 ± 0.77 52.64 ± 0.94 48.43 ± 0.99 51.47 ± 0.90 54.65 ± 0.80 52.78 ± 0.14 67.79 ± 0.98 53.93 ± 2.41 75.69 ± 0.09 61.51 ± 0.19 41.36 ± 0.34 60.66 ± 0.10 47.57 ± 0.79 58.82 ± 0.05 59.80 ± 0.09 55.32 ± 0.27 64.66 ± 0.65 53.36 ± 0.06 70.20 ± 0.38 53.57 ± 0.05 80.35 ± 0.46 54.13 ± 0.03 86.68 ± 0.23 915 MHz 59.01 ± 0.45 18.25 ± 0.67 56.65 ± 0.88 21.44 ± 0.80 53.00 ± 0.09 25.57 ± 0.34 47.26 ± 0.65 26.75 ± 0.45 45.15 ± 0.06 30.08 ± 0.98 45.31 ± 0.05 36.87 ± 0.51 45.77 ± 3.27 41.06 ± 1.60 57.44 ± 0.18 23.88 ± 0.31 56.50 ± 0.21 26.63 ± 0.41 53.99 ± 0.08 32.20 ± 0.06 49.05 ± 0.29 34.60 ± 0.31 46.22 ± 0.12 37.71 ± 0.25 45.54 ± 0.03 43.04 ± 0.22 45.65 ± 0.01 46.36 ± 0.09 1800 MHz 55.11 ± 3.01 14.94 ± 1.30 53.18 ± 2.79 15.46 ± 0.09 49.82 ± 3.60 16.74 ± 0.70 43.90 ± 1.40 16.97 ± 0.61 41.23 ± 0.34 19.92 ± 0.12 41.37 ± 0.01 22.18 ± 0.27 41.39 ± 1.90 24.61 ± 0.45 54.78 ± 0.89 16.88 ± 0.89 53.55 ± 0.17 17.85 ± 0.20 50.97 ± 0.11 20.12 ± 0.07 45.61 ± 0.29 21.05 ± 0.14 41.60 ± 0.08 24.16 ± 0.20 41.18 ± 0.02 25.81 ± 0.12 40.87 ± 0.05 27.68 ± 0.02

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Composition of chicken breast (Table 1) used here re?ected the average muscle composition of broilers and no signi?cant difference was observed in chemical composition of MTGase-restructured chicken, as observed by others (Dimitrakopoulou, Ambrosiadis, Zetou, & Bloukas, 2005) (data not shown). Addition of the enzyme preparation, did not affect pH of the manually deboned chicken breast muscle which was 5.8–5.9, similar to values reported by others (Trindade, de Felicio, Contreas, & C.J.C., 2004). Dielectric constant (e0 ) and dielectric loss factor (e00 ) were compared between MTGase-treated and non-treated chicken breast samples at RF (27 and 40 MHz) and MW (433, 915, and 1800 MHz) (Table 2 and Figs. 2 and 3). There was a tendency for the dielectric constant to be higher at RF frequencies. The dielectric loss factor also tended to be higher in MTGase-treated chicken than in the control at the same frequency and temperature, with the differences being greater at lower frequencies and higher temperatures. Traditionally, salt, and more recently phosphates, have been used to solubilise myo?brillar proteins which serve as binders for restructured meats and set-forming medallions or sausages (Ghavimi, Althen, & Rogers, 1987). Adding salt at levels of 1.5–2.0% can increase the yield and juiciness of processed meat

balls (Tseng, Liu, & Ming-Tsao, 2000), and reducing either salt or phosphate in restructured meats weakens the texture and increases cooking loss (Uresti, Tellez-Luis, Ramirez, & Vazquez, 2004; Uresti, Velazquez, Raminez, Vazquez, & Torres, 2004). Substituting MTGase for salt can form stronger gels than those obtained by conventional methods. Ahhmed et al. (2007) evaluated texture of MTGAse-treated chicken sausages. The value of breaking strength of control chicken sausage treated at 80 °C for 30 min was 3.63 ± 0.66 (104 N/m2) and, for those which were affected by the addition of MTGase, it was higher, at 4.99 ± 0.36 (104 N/m2). Little residual effect of the enzyme during storage of the ?nished meat product would remain since the enzyme is inactivated during cooking at temperatures above 60 °C (Kütemeyer, Froeck, Werlein, & Watkinson, 2005). In restructured chicken, Trespalacios and Reyes (2007) observed that there were no differences in enzymeinduced colour changes after 75 °C, indicating thermal inactivation at this temperature. 3.3. Dielectric properties of MTGase-treated salmon and trout Salmon and rainbow trout are among the most popular cultivated ?sh species with global productions of 1.4 and a half a mil-

A

160 140 40 MHz

Dielectric constant

120 100 80 60 40 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (°C)

27 MHz

Control

121

130
TGase

B 1200
1000 Dielectric loss factor 800 600 400 200
Control

40 MHz 27 MHz

0

20

40

60 80 100 Temperature (°C)

121

130

TGase

Fig. 2. (A) Dielectric constants of chicken breast treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at radio frequencies. (B) Dielectric loss factors of chicken breast treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at radio frequencies.

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A

65 60 55

Dielectric constant

433 MHz

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (°C) 121 130
Control TGase

915 MHz 1800 MHz

B 100
90 80 Dielectric loss factor 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (°C) 121 130
Control TGase

433 MHz

915 MHz

1800 MHz

Fig. 3. (A) Dielectric constants of chicken breast treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at microwave frequencies. (B) Dielectric loss factors of chicken breast treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at microwave frequencies.

lion tons, respectively (FAO, 2004, 2007). High production costs have stimulated research to utilise all recovered muscle to maximise the yield of marketable products. The most common technique to restructure and extend trimmings and low value ?sh cuts is to solubilise them with 2–3% salt, exuding proteins that act as binding agents (Kuraishi et al., 1997). Fish treated in such a manner form strong gels, often stronger than those from ground chicken (Carrascal & Regenstein, 2002). Fernandez-Diaz et al. (2001), Uresti, Tellez-Luis, et al. (2004) and Uresti, Velazquez, et al. (2004) demonstrated that high quality ?sh gels can be prepared with 1% added salt and MTGase without undesirable changes in quality, colour or transparency. However gel-forming properties of some ?sh (Wan, Kimura, Satake, & Seki, 1995) chum salmon, can be poor, even with TGase. TGase may act synergistically with salt to improve the mechanical properties of gels (Kütemeyer et al., 2005; Uresti, Tellez-Luis et al., 2004; Uresti, Velazquez et al., 2004). Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 4 and 5 show the dielectric properties obtained for restructured salmon and trout. Dielectric constant for either salmon or trout tended to be higher for the MTGase-treated samples. Similar trends were observed for dielectric loss. The dielectric constants of chicken and salmonid muscles were similar at similar temperatures and frequencies.

Dielectric loss factors tended to be somewhat higher for the ?sh muscle than for the chicken at the same temperature at RF frequencies (27 and 40 MHz), possibly due to higher ionic strength. Similar results for chicken and ?sh were observed at MW frequencies (433, 915 and 1800 MHz), indicating that differences in muscle ion content would be less apparent, since ionic conductivity becomes less of an important factor at higher frequencies (Wang, Tang, Rasco, Kong, & Wang, 2008). As observed by Wang et al. (2008), at 27 and 40 MHz, the measured loss factor for salmon increased sharply with increasing temperature from 20 to 130 °C. 3.4. Penetration depth for selected products Table 5 summarises the effect of MTGase on the penetration depth of the MTGase-treated products in this study. The effect of the temperature (p < 0.05), frequency (p < 0.05), and addition of MTGase (p < 0.05) were signi?cant. The penetration depth at 27 and 40 MHz was substantially higher than at 433 MHz which in turn was higher than those of 915 and 1800 MHz in chicken or salmonid muscles with and without MTGase treatment. Penetration depth decreased with increasing temperature. The power penetration depth (dp), one of the essential dielectric processing parame-

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Table 3 Mean ± SD of dielectric properties for salmon with MTGase treatment. T (°C) Salmon 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 Salmon + 0.5% MTGase 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 e e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00
0

27 MHz 77.61 ± 0.28 462.66 ± 10.01 83.98 ± 0.57 627.32 ± 2.75 96.84 ± 0.20 809.98 ± 0.41 109.44 ± 0.09 1001.08 ± 1.12 116.37 ± 0.08 1185.56 ± 0.04 124.47 ± 0.44 1410.20 ± 8.10 132.08 ± 0.47 1548.72 ± 6.27 82.63 ± 0.18 457.89 ± 6.34 88.93 ± 0.16 619.26 ± 0.29 99.95 ± 0.45 790.15 ± 2.72 113.47 ± 0.73 948.20 ± 7.88 121.20 ± 0.29 1119.69 ± 8.08 143.20 ± 0.04 987.00 ± 6.18 147.22 ± 0.24 1076.03 ± 3.18

40 MHz 70.21 ± 0.23 315.04 ± 6.63 74.16 ± 0.35 426.84 ± 1.91 82.62 ± 0.10 552.33 ± 0.28 91.03 ± 0.19 684.00 ± 0.75 94.85 ± 0.10 809.18 ± 0.04 99.53 ± 0.30 961.19 ± 5.47 104.97 ± 0.35 1055.14 ± 4.24 74.34 ± 0.16 312.48 ± 4.36 77.90 ± 0.16 422.09 ± 0.27 84.93 ± 0.31 539.26 ± 1.96 93.88 ± 0.40 648.33 ± 5.36 98.18 ± 0.11 765.39 ± 5.40 118.09 ± 0.19 675.32 ± 4.64 121.13 ± 0.20 735.57 ± 2.26

433 MHz 54.24 ± 0.07 36.33 ± 0.46 54.66 ± 0.04 46.90 ± 0.20 52.83 ± 0.13 60.20 ± 0.01 51.81 ± 0.13 74.23 ± 0.06 50.75 ± 0.14 87.05 ± 0.01 50.61 ± 0.10 102.66 ± 0.55 52.36 ± 0.11 112.47 ± 0.24 55.12 ± 0.08 36.06 ± 0.43 54.53 ± 0.02 46.51 ± 0.06 53.01 ± 0.07 58.82 ± 0.21 51.89 ± 0.12 71.23 ± 0.54 50.66 ± 0.08 83.32 ± 0.49 53.57 ± 0.05 80.35 ± 0.46 54.13 ± 0.03 86.68 ± 0.23

915 MHz 51.99 ± 0.14 22.30 ± 0.17 52.13 ± 0.14 26.87 ± 0.08 49.67 ± 0.12 32.82 ± 0.02 47.75 ± 0.12 39.35 ± 0.06 45.93 ± 0.13 45.62 ± 0.01 44.93 ± 0.07 53.54 ± 0.28 45.98 ± 0.06 58.60 ± 0.03 52.41 ± 0.05 21.76 ± 0.21 51.74 ± 0.05 26.19 ± 0.04 49.64 ± 0.10 31.78 ± 0.08 47.60 ± 0.15 37.80 ± 0.23 45.70 ± 0.10 43.73 ± 0.24 45.54 ± 0.03 43.04 ± 0.22 45.65 ± 0.01 46.36 ± 0.09

1800 MHz 49.04 ± 0.17 16.97 ± 0.08 49.28 ± 0.01 18.49 ± 0.02 46.72 ± 0.05 20.57 ± 0.02 44.82 ± 0.10 23.20 ± 0.01 41.99 ± 0.08 27.52 ± 0.01 41.50 ± 0.01 30.13 ± 0.13 42.17 ± 0.09 32.83 ± 0.12 49.60 ± 0.04 16.63 ± 0.10 49.06 ± 0.03 17.80 ± 0.05 46.93 ± 0.10 19.97 ± 0.06 44.64 ± 0.11 22.51 ± 0.04 41.66 ± 0.06 26.97 ± 0.19 41.18 ± 0.02 25.81 ± 0.12 40.87 ± 0.05 27.68 ± 0.02

Table 4 Mean ± SD of dielectric properties for trout with MTGase treatment. T (°C) Trout 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 Trout + 0.5% MTGase 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 e e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00 e0 e00
0

27 MHz 83.64 ± 0.13 343.83 ± 1.23 89.92 ± 0.48 483.04 ± 1.54 103.55 ± 1.44 645.04 ± 15.20 115.82 ± 0.36 979.89 ± 31.48 100.34 ± 2.05 806.62 ± 23.81 112.60 ± 0.23 955.59 ± 0.57 118.94 ± 0.75 1049.08 ± 29.98 83.12 ± 0.18 355.28 ± 3.39 88.22 ± 0.45 497.70 ± 3.64 101.08 ± 0.55 663.41 ± 3.61 115.85 ± 0.06 802.09 ± 0.99 121.13 ± 0.78 922.07 ± 24.95 126.13 ± 0.01 1095.51 ± 7.53 128.10 ± 0.06 1200.97 ± 6.57

40 MHz 76.44 ± 0.05 236.07 ± 0.84 80.36 ± 0.34 330.93 ± 1.09 89.57 ± 1.05 443.02 ± 10.50 97.20 ± 0.24 669.82 ± 21.53 83.25 ± 1.87 552.66 ± 16.14 92.95 ± 0.21 654.29 ± 0.36 97.86 ± 0.53 718.26 ± 20.23 75.82 ± 0.13 243.17 ± 2.39 78.60 ± 0.37 340.27 ± 2.53 86.91 ± 0.46 454.45 ± 2.54 96.82 ± 0.07 550.73 ± 0.60 99.91 ± 0.45 632.77 ± 16.96 102.69 ± 0.05 750.61 ± 5.12 103.68 ± 0.10 821.79 ± 4.45

433 MHz 57.92 ± 0.04 28.82 ± 0.08 56.91 ± 0.04 38.22 ± 0.15 55.06 ± 0.19 50.94 ± 1.19 58.32 ± 0.54 71.98 ± 1.72 46.46 ± 0.63 62.96 ± 0.86 47.77 ± 0.03 72.91 ± 0.08 49.87 ± 0.17 79.54 ± 1.80 58.85 ± 0.08 31.00 ± 0.23 56.55 ± 0.11 41.42 ± 0.12 54.85 ± 0.03 52.81 ± 0.20 53.94 ± 0.24 63.62 ± 0.11 51.75 ± 0.15 72.36 ± 1.87 51.19 ± 0.02 84.56 ± 0.42 51.19 ± 0.03 91.74 ± 0.39

915 MHz 55.43 ± 0.03 18.11 ± 0.02 54.07 ± 0.03 21.95 ± 0.09 51.24 ± 0.26 27.84 ± 0.54 54.62 ± 0.60 37.60 ± 0.76 42.88 ± 0.22 33.21 ± 0.06 42.50 ± 0.01 38.36 ± 0.01 43.92 ± 0.06 41.66 ± 0.74 57.14 ± 0.06 21.95 ± 0.12 54.28 ± 0.06 26.34 ± 0.06 52.11 ± 0.14 30.58 ± 0.17 50.20 ± 0.09 35.94 ± 0.17 47.16 ± 0.30 39.53 ± 1.05 45.82 ± 0.01 45.99 ± 0.18 45.61 ± 0.12 49.71 ± 0.17

1800 MHz 52.21 ± 0.00 15.43 ± 0.08 51.15 ± 0.02 15.90 ± 0.05 48.22 ± 0.26 17.79 ± 0.16 52.20 ± 0.55 22.22 ± 0.29 41.24 ± 0.62 21.71 ± 0.10 39.47 ± 0.08 22.13 ± 0.02 40.50 ± 0.04 23.68 ± 0.39 54.86 ± 0.10 17.02 ± 0.05 53.33 ± 0.01 17.75 ± 0.05 50.78 ± 0.03 19.52 ± 0.09 48.14 ± 0.18 21.90 ± 0.07 43.53 ± 0.02 24.96 ± 0.22 42.83 ± 0.03 26.70 ± 0.22 42.39 ± 0.00 28.52 ± 0.08

ters, can give useful information concerning effective RF and MW power deposition within a heated sample (Wang et al., 2003). RF heating has been recommended for larger diameter meat portions because of the greater radiation penetration depth compared to MW heating (Mckenna et al., 2006).

3.5. Cook loss Pietrasik (2003) reported that the addition of 0.5% MTGase signi?cantly decreased expressible moisture and cooking loss of beef gels, when commercial cooking methods were used. In the absence

P. Basaran et al. / Food Chemistry 120 (2010) 361–370

367

A 160
40 MHz

140
Dielectric constant

120 100 80

27 MHz

Control

60 40

TGase

20

40

60 80 100 Temperature (°C)

121

130

B

1800 1600
40 MHz

1400
Dielectric loss factor

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
TGase Control 27 MHz

20

40

60

80

100

121

130

Temperature (°C)
Fig. 4. (A) Dielectric constants of salmon treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at radio frequencies. (B) Dielectric loss factors of salmon treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at radio frequencies.

of suf?cient amine substrates, water molecules can serve as acyl acceptors of MTGase (Motoki & Seguro, 1998). As a result, MTGase can increase water binding in meat products by reducing thawing and cooking losses (Pietrasik, Jarmoluk, & Shand, 2007). However, in this study addition of MTGase (0.5%) had no signi?cant effect on cook loss (Table 6). 3.6. Effect of MTGase on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) In order to distinguish the effect of the MTGase-treated and the control, samples were analysed by DSC. The samples displayed similar thermal curves, all exhibiting endothermic behaviour corresponding to the major protein in the mixture, i.e. myosin (Tmax = 60–62 °C). Myosin inactivation (60–62 °C) in chicken appeared to be unaffected (p > 0.05) by the MTGase treatment, con?rming results of Ramírez-Suárez and Xiong (2002). Bircan and Barringer (1998) studied salmon treated at 915–2450 MHz and observed no signi?cant changes in DSC compared to controls. MTGase

treatment had little effect on DSC properties for the chicken, salmon, and trout tested here (Table 6). 4. Conclusions Dielectric properties (dielectric constant (e0 ) and dielectric loss (e00 ) at RF (27 and 40 MHz) and MW (433, 915, and 1800 MHz) frequencies for transglutaminase (MTGase, 0.5% w/w) in restructured chicken breast, salmon and trout muscle products, prepared from a muscle mince, over a range of 20–130 °C, were determined. MTGase promotes protein cross-linking and gel formation, replacing salt or phosphate. The effects of MTGase at the level tested here, on dielectric constant or loss, penetration depth, cook loss or DSC properties, indicate that mathematical models for dielectric heating of meat products will need little modi?cation if restructured meat is used in place of intact tissue, assuming that the ionic strength of the two materials is not signi?cantly different.

368

P. Basaran et al. / Food Chemistry 120 (2010) 361–370

A
Dielectric constant

65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20
Control

433 MHz 915 MHz 1800 MHz

20

40

60 80 100 Temperature (°C)

121

130

TGase

B
Dielectric loss factor

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

433 MHz

915 MHz

1800 MHz

20

40

60 80 100 Temperature (°C)

121

130
Control TGase

Fig. 5. (A) Dielectric constants of trout treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at microwave frequencies. (B) Dielectric loss factors of trout treated with TGase (0% and 0.5%) as a function of temperature at microwave frequencies.

Table 5 Penetration depth (mm) mean ± SD of three replicates) of chicken breast, tight, salmon, and trout at temperature range of 20–130 °C at ?ve frequencies. Sample Chicken breast control T (°C) 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 27 MHz 78.55 ± 0.42 64.76 ± 0.52 57.74 ± 0.86 59.34 ± 0.78 55.57 ± 0.33 48.20 ± 0.45 44.97 ± 0.90 60.72 ± 0.034 55.00 ± 0.50 48.54 ± 0.60 48.22 ± 0.45 46.45 ± 0.10 42.76 ± 0.15 40.78 ± 0.06 63.16 ± 0.78 53.34 ± 0.11 46.61 ± 0.02 41.71 ± 0.02 38.11 ± 0.12 34.78 ± 0.10 33.13 ± 0.07 63.88 ± 0.51 53.94 ± 0.01 47.35 ± 0.08 43.08 ± 0.18 39.42 ± 0.15 42.76 ± 0.15 40.78 ± 0.06 40 MHz 66.96 ± 0.00 54.64 ± 0.00 48.27 ± 0.00 49.39 ± 0.00 46.12 ± 0.00 39.94 ± 0.38 37.26 ± 0.00 51.11 ± 0.00 46.10 ± 0.43 40.44 ± 0.14 40.04 ± 0.36 38.51 ± 0.08 35.41 ± 0.14 33.76 ± 0.06 53.08 ± 0.66 44.51 ± 0.10 38.67 ± 0.01 34.46 ± 0.02 31.44 ± 0.50 28.65 ± 0.09 27.29 ± 0.06 53.69 ± 0.45 45.00 ± 0.01 39.29 ± 0.07 35.61 ± 0.16 32.50 ± 0.13 35.41 ± 0.14 33.76 ± 0.06 433 MHz 31.09 ± 0.10 24.14 ± 0.12 19.27 ± 0.40 17.93 ± 0.57 16.04 ± 0.43 13.54 ± 0.15 12.48 ± 0.04 21.94 ± 0.20 19.23 ± 0.30 15.57 ± 0.03 14.28 ± 0.10 13.21 ± 0.06 11.88 ± 0.05 11.24 ± 0.02 23.45 ± 0.26 18.70 ± 0.07 14.92 ± 0.02 12.52 ± 0.81 11.02 ± 0.01 9.75 ± 0.03 9.20 ± 0.01 23.77 ± 0.24 18.82 ± 0.02 15.23 ± 0.05 12.95 ± 0.09 11.38 ± 0.05 11.88 ± 0.05 11.24 ± 0.02 915 MHz 22.20 ± 0.34 18.62 ± 0.54 15.25 ± 0.37 13.89 ± 0.16 12.22 ± 0.30 10.19 ± 0.12 9.28 ± 0.02 16.89 ± 0.00 15.10 ± 0.24 12.38 ± 0.03 11.13 ± 0.06 10.06 ± 0.07 8.91 ± 0.04 8.37 ± 0.02 17.23 ± 0.10 14.44 ± 0.04 11.74 ± 0.02 9.81 ± 0.35 8.50 ± 0.01 7.38 ± 0.03 6.88 ± 0.03 17.71 ± 0.16 14.75 ± 0.02 12.09 ± 0.04 10.16 ± 0.07 8.80 ± 0.05 8.91 ± 0.04 8.37 ± 0.02 1800 MHz 13.29 ± 0.06 12.63 ± 0.80 11.33 ± 0.16 10.53 ± 0.20 9.39 ± 0.13 7.94 ± 0.09 7.21 ± 0.10 11.76 ± 0.51 11.02 ± 0.14 9.58 ± 0.04 8.72 ± 0.03 7.83 ± 0.07 6.88 ± 0.03 6.43 ± 0.01 11.09 ± 0.05 10.23 ± 0.01 9.01 ± 0.01 7.89 ± 0.45 6.94 ± 0.03 5.99 ± 0.02 5.58 ± 0.02 11.38 ± 0.07 10.60 ± 0.03 9.29 ± 0.03 8.10 ± 0.02 7.09 ± 0.04 6.88 ± 0.03 6.43 ± 0.01

Chicken breast 0.5% MTGase

Salmon control

Salmon 0.5% MTGase

P. Basaran et al. / Food Chemistry 120 (2010) 361–370 Table 5 (continued) Sample Trout control T (°C) 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 20 40 60 80 100 121 130 27 MHz 76.02 ± 0.15 62.37 ± 0.09 53.30 ± 0.67 48.92 ± 0.75 46.82 ± 0.72 42.87 ± 0.02 40.83 ± 0.63 74.45 ± 0.42 61.18 ± 0.24 52.34 ± 0.14 47.42 ± 0.03 43.94 ± 0.65 39.99 ± 0.15 38.03 ± 0.11 40 MHz 64.37 ± 0.14 52.29 ± 0.08 44.31 ± 0.58 42.04 ± 0.64 38.68 ± 0.58 35.39 ± 0.02 33.69 ± 0.53 63.07 ± 0.39 51.27 ± 0.21 43.51 ± 0.12 39.23 ± 0.02 36.28 ± 0.55 32.96 ± 0.13 31.33 ± 0.09 433 MHz 29.94 ± 0.07 22.84 ± 0.08 17.45 ± 0.38 14.30 ± 0.22 13.82 ± 0.10 12.41 ± 0.01 11.75 ± 0.19 28.15 ± 0.18 21.17 ± 0.04 16.89 ± 0.05 14.35 ± 0.04 12.78 ± 0.27 11.29 ± 0.04 10.62 ± 0.03 915 MHz 21.71 ± 0.02 17.81 ± 0.08 13.87 ± 0.28 11.79 ± 0.15 10.94 ± 0.01 9.60 ± 0.00 8.99 ± 0.06 18.28 ± 0.09 14.99 ± 0.05 12.79 ± 0.08 10.85 ± 0.04 9.73 ± 0.25 8.44 ± 0.03 7.89 ± 0.04 1800 MHz

369

Trout 0.5% MTGase

12.55 ± 0.07 12.06 ± 0.04 10.52 ± 0.12 9.81 ± 0.07 8.83 ± 0.12 7.80 ± 0.00 7.40 ± 0.12 11.67 ± 0.04 11.05 ± 0.03 9.85 ± 0.05 8.60 ± 0.01 7.80 ± 0.19 6.78 ± 0.05 6.35 ± 0.02

Table 6 Cooking loss and DSC values for chicken breast, salmon and trout. Meat type Sample treatment Cooking loss (g) Before treatment Chicken breast Salmon Trout Control MTGase Control MTGase Control MTGase 18.77 18.71 18.89 18.83 18.99 18.76 After treatment 17.62 17.54 17.71 17.67 17.89 17.58 Juice 0.95 0.81 0.99 0.93 0.87 0.82 58, 58, 55, 55, 75 76 65, 80 66, 81 75 75 DSC (°C)

Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge Ajinomoto USA Inc., Teaneck, NJ, USA for providing the Activa TG-TI enzyme used in the study. Authors also would like to thank Dr. Juming Tang and Galina Mikhaylenko at the Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University for their help and guidance throughout this study. Author Basaran-Akgul was supported on a USDA National Needs Fellowship grant and by Washington State University. References
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