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2016年初升高英语衔接部分简洁版


2016 初升高专题资料英语部分 第一章 英语构词方法主要有三种:即合成法、派生法和转化法。 1、合成法: 将两个或两个以上的单词合成在一起而构成的新词,叫做合成词。 (1) 合成形容词: English-speaking 讲英语的, man-made 人造的, snow-white, warm-hearted, funny-looking , well-known, full-time, 100-meter,10-year-old,one-eyed 独眼龙 (2)合成名词:bookshop,loudspeaker ,cookbook, daybreak ,sleeping-car ,downpour ,sun-bathing, mother-in-law 岳母 (3)合成动词:overthrow ,whitewash 粉刷,sleepwalk 梦游 (4)合成副词:beforehand 事先,hotfoot 匆忙地,outwards 向外 (5)合成介词:within 在……之内,without 没有,inside 在……里边,into 进入 (6)合成代词:myself 我自己,ourselves 我们自己,anyone 任何人,nobody 没有人 nothing 没东西,somebody 有人。 2、派生法:所谓派生,即在词根上加前缀或后缀构成另一个与原意略有变化或截然相反的词。 (1)前缀: 前缀通常只改变词义,不改变词性。 A. 表示否定的前缀:un-, dis-, in/ im-, ir-, il-, mis-, non-,etc. unfit 不合适的,unhappy 不高兴的,disagree 不同意的,impossible 不可能的,irregular, illegal,misuse, non-stop,non-smoker B.表示其他意义的前缀: ①re- 表示“再;又;重”,re-多重读,构成双重读词。 例:rewrite 重写 ②a- 表示“的”,多构成表语形容词。 例:alone 单独的,alike 相像的 ③tele- 表示“远程的”。 例:telephone 电话,television 电视 ④en- 表示“使”,构成动词。 例:enlarge 扩大,enable 使能够 ⑤inter- 表示“关系”。 例:Internet 因特网 international 国际的 (2)后缀:后缀通常改变词性,构成意思相近的其它词性的词;少数后缀同时会改变词义。 A.形容词性后缀: 1.-al 例:nation→national 民族的,国家的;nature→natural 自然的 2.-able 表示“有能力的” 例:eat→eatable 能吃的 3.-an/ian 表示“国家的,国家人的”。 例:America→American 美国(人)的 4.-ern 表示“方向的”。 例:east→eastern 东方的,south→southern 南方的 5.-ful 例:beauty→beautiful 美丽的,care→careful 小心的 6.-less 表示否定 例:care→careless 粗心的,use→useless 无用的 7.-ic/ical 例:electricity→electric/electrical 电的 8.-ese 表示“人的”。 例:China→Chinese 中国(人)的 9.-ly 例:friend→friendly 友好的,year→yearly 每年的 10.-y 表示“天气”等。 例:cloud→cloudy 多云的,dust→dusty 多尘的
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词法衔接

11.-ous 例:famous 著名的,continuous 连续不断的 12.-ish 例:childish 孩子气的,selfish 自私的 13.-en 例:golden 金色的,wooden 木制的,woolen 羊毛的 14.-ive 例:active 积极的,collective 集体的 B.动词后缀: 1.-fy 例:beauty→beautify 美化 2.-en 例:wide→widen 加宽,sharp→sharpen 削 ,loose→loosen 使松散 C.副词后缀 1.-ly 例:bad→badly 坏地,easy→easily 容易地 2.-ward 表示“方向”。 例:backward 向后,eastward 向东 D.名词后缀: 1.-ment 例:agree→agreement 协议,move→movement 运动 2.-ness 例:happy→happiness 幸福,busy→business 事务 3.-tion 例:explain→explanation 解释,dictate→dictation 听写 4。-er 表示“人”。 例:work→worker 工人,buy→buyer 买主 5.-or 表示“人”。 例:act→actor 演员,sail→sailor 海员 6.-ist 表示“人”。例:piano→pianist 钢琴家,science→scientist 科学家 7.-ess 表示“人或动物”,指阴性。 例:actress 女演员,lioness 母狮子 8.-ful 表示“量”。 例:mouthful 一口,handful 一把 9.-th 例:true→truth 真理,long→length 长度 E.数词后缀 1.-teen 构成“十几”。 例:five→fifteen 十五 2.-ty 构成“几十”。 例:nine→ninty 九十,five→fifty 五十 3.-th 构成序数词。 例:five→fifth 第五,six→sixth 第六 3、转化法: 英语单词的词性非常活跃,名词用作动词,动词转化为名词,形容词用作动词等现象非常普遍,这种把一种词性 用作另一种词性的方式就叫做词性的转化。阅读中经常出现转化词,只要抓住单词的原始意思,结合句子成分,就容易弄清它们 的引申义。下面就将一些常见的变化列举如下: (1)动词转化为名词: A.有大量动词可以转化为名词,有时意思没变化。 We stopped there for a swim. 我们在那停下来游了一会儿泳。 B.有时意思有一定的变化。 Women have an equal say in everything. 妇女在各个方面都有同等的发言权。 (2)名词转化为动词 A.有相当多的名词可以用作动词,特别是许多表示物体的名词用作动词来表示动作
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Have you booked your ticket? 你的票订好了吗? B.一些表示身体某部位的名词也可以作为动词 Hand in your book,please. 请把书交上来。 C.一些表示某类人的名词也可做动词 If so,we shall be badly fooled. 如果这样我们就会上大当。 D.一些表示其它实物的名词也可用作动词 Each apartment can house a family of six. 每套房间可以住一户六口人的人家。 E.此外,还有一些抽象名词可以用作动词 Through my childhood,I had hungered for education. 我从小就盼望上学。 (3)形容词转化为动词,有少数形容词也可以用作动词。 The train slowed down to half its speed. 火车速度减慢了一半。 This will help warm up the soil. 这可以帮助土地暖和起来。 第二章 基础词汇衔接

说到记忆单词,这可是同学们普遍感到头疼的事。尤其是现行的新教材词汇量扩大了不少,记忆的难度就更大了。记不住单 词,学好英语就无从谈起。所以突破单词这一难关非常关键。记忆单词的方法很多。下面列举几种主要的记忆方法: 1.按读音记忆单词。实际上在你看单词时就要顺便看一眼音标,掌握字母及字母组合的读音规律。将所有符合规则的单词归类记 忆。 如: ①按开、 闭音节记忆, 掌握元音字母的读音。 Bag: cat, map, sad;cake: name, plane, date; desk: next, set, step, let; these: Chinese, Japanese; hit: big, ship, this, kill; like: side, nice, kite,mine ; not: dog, hot, stop, got; nose: note, those, close, hole ; bus: nut, cup, rubber, dust; use: huge 等。②按字母组合记忆,掌握元音字母组合和辅音字母组合的读音,如:bee, meet, see, keep 等等,ee 字母组合读 /i:/;chair, ch 字母组合读/tS / 。 2.分音节记忆。单词不论长短,如果从第一个字母背到最后一个字母,是很难记忆的。如:information,共 11 个字母组成,可以 把它“大卸八块”,分音节记忆就会很容易。in-for-ma-tion 3.音、形、义结合法: 背单词将它的音、形、义结合起来,记忆牢固,速度也快。读准它的音,看好它的形,明白它的义,尤其 是一词多义,记忆时要提高分辨率。如:orange 是个兼类词,作可数名词意思是“桔子”;作形容词意思是“桔色的”;作不可数名 词意思是“桔汁”。可读音只有一个/'orindJ/,词形一样。这样有意识地去分辨记忆就容易多了。 4.联想记忆来记单词。它主要包括以下几种形式: ① 对比联想记忆: 同义词: study/learn(学习),big/large/great(大的),look/see/watch(看),hear/listen(听),good/fine/well/nice(好的) 反义词: 如:big(大) →small(小),dear(昂贵) →cheap(便宜),hot(热) →cold(冷),slow(慢) →quick/fast(快),thin(瘦) →(胖) 同音词: too(也) →two(二),for(为) →four(四),right(正确) →write(写),by(乘) →buy(买),blue(蓝色的) →blew(blow 的过去式) 词形相近比较:want(想要)→wait(等待),read(读)→ready(准备好的),wall(墙) →walk(走)等放到一起对比记忆。

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同时还可以联想到一些义同形不同的词。如:由 cost 联想到 pay,take 和 spend,并将这些意义相对、相同或读音相同的词的用 法进行比较。 ②归类联想记忆:把所学的单词按照不同的范畴分门别类, 将所学单词合理归类。 A.按词性归类。如:名词 driver, name…,动词 be, have, drive…, 形容词 careful, happy…,副词 carefully, happily…,介词 in, on at…, 代词 he, she, him, her…等。 B.按用途归类。 如: 服装类 coat, shirt, skirt, sweater, shoes… ,运动类 football, basketball, race, sport…,交通类 traffic, bus, car, taxi, train, plane, ship 等。 ③构词联想记忆: 利用同根词(词形转换)联想记忆, 注意词性。 英语单词中有许多词具有一词多性的特点, 如 open 既可作动词用, 又可作形容词用。 另一些词具有同一个词根, 如单词 care 既具备名词性质又具备动词性质, 它的同根词有 careful, carefully,careless, carelessly,对于这些词,我们应重点记忆。再如:north→ northern,noise→noisy→noisily 等。利用合成词联想记忆,如 moonlight 是由 moon 和 light 这两个词合成。 ④搭配联想记忆:以一个单词为中心搭配不同的词而构成新的短语。这种语言现象非常多,如能经常使用此法则会牢固地记住所 学的短语。如:含 make 的短语有:make room for 为……. 让地方, make sentences with 用……造句, made a face or made faces 做 鬼脸, be made in 在…制造 , be made of 由…制成, make tea 沏茶, make friends with 与……交朋友, make up 编出, made a mistake 出 差错, make sure 确保,确信, make a noise 吵闹 (5)记忆单词还要靠勤奋,抓住零散时间进行记忆。 (6)学好英语做好课前预习和课后复习也是十分重要的。 第三章 句法衔接

无论词数多少,只要有主语与谓语而且能表达完整意义的一句话即是句子。如: (1) Life is short.生命是短暂的。 (2) The poor old man with white hair and a white beard who is reading a book in his left hand lives alone in the little cottage at the foot of the hill behind my house. 那个白头发、白胡子、左手里拿着一本书在看的可怜的老人单独住在我家屋后那个山脚下的那间小茅草屋里。 一、对于句子应有的基本认识 1.句子虽然必须具备主语与谓语,但有时由于语言的习惯而被省略某一部分,或两者同时被省略。如: (1) Come in, please. 请进来。(祈使句,省略了主语) (2) —Who will come to see you this afternoon?今天下午谁要来看你?—My mother.我母亲。(答复询问句,省略了谓语) (3) What a pretty bird!多美丽的小鸟啊!(感叹句,省略了主语和谓语) 2. 有时候一个词即可成为句子,因为它具备了主语与谓语,且能表达完整的意思;有时候成群的词却不能成为句子,因为它没 有具备主语与谓语,因此:句子的成立与否,与词数的多少毫无关系。如: (1) Hide.躲起来。(句子) (2) The poor old man with white hair and a white beard who is reading a book in his left hand
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白头发、白胡子、左手里拿着一本书在看的那个可怜的老人 (不是句子) (3) The poor old man with white hair and a white beard who is reading a book in his left hand lives alone in the little cottage at the foot of the hill behind my house.那个白头发、白胡子、左手里拿着一本书在看的可怜的老人单独住在我家屋后那个山脚下的那间小茅草 屋里。(句子) 3. 同一个主语不可有两个谓语,除非其中有并列连词。 (1) a. I hate write letters.× 我讨厌写信。 b.I hate writing letters.√ (2) a.He eats, drinks,plays all day long.× 他终日吃喝玩乐。b.He eats and drinks and plays all day long.√ (3) I neither lend money nor borrow money.√ 我既不借钱给人,也不向人借钱。 4.不要把从句的主语或谓语当作主句的主语或谓语。 主句与分句都要具备主语与谓语已如前述。但:主句与从句均各有其主语与谓语,二者绝不可合用同一个主语和谓语。例如: (1) a.Those eat too much will easily get sick.× (2) a.A man who is diligent. (不是句子) 二、句子的成分 主语 必须的成分 句子成分 可能有的成分 谓语 宾语 补语 修饰语 1. 必须的成分——主语与谓语 Birds can fly. 鸟会飞。 主语 谓语 The birds in the cage can fly high in the sky. 这个笼子的鸟能在天空高飞。 主语 定语 谓语 状语 状语 b. Those who eat too much will easily get sick.√(吃得太多的人容易生病) b.A man who is diligent to succeed.×

1)主语:主语是一个句子的主题,一般位于句首。单词、短语、从句均可用作主语。 No one knows for sure, and making predictions is a risky business. 谁也说不准,并且预测也是件冒险的事。 2)谓语: 谓语一般位于主语之后,由动词充当。 We don’t have to put up with pollution. 我们不必去忍受污染。 2.可能的成分——宾语、补语(表语、主语补足语和宾语补足语)与修饰语(定语和状语) 1)宾语:宾语是动作的承受着,只有及物动词才有宾语,不及物动词没有宾语,所以宾语并非所有的句子都必须有的成分。名 词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、从句等均可以作宾语。如: In pairs, discuss the fares and decide where to go. 两人一组讨论路费问题并决定去哪里。 2) 表语:表语表述主语的特征、状态、身份等。表语位于系动词之后,与之构成系表结构。名词、代词、数词、形容词、副词、 介词短语、不定式、动名词、分词、从句等均可用作表语。例如:
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My name is Jane. My ideal job is to be a journalist. 我的名字叫简。我理想的工作是当一名记者。 3) 主语补足语:用来补充说明主语的,可由形容词、名词、数词、不定式、分词、介词短语等充当。例如: No one is known to have escaped. 据说无人逃脱。 4) 宾语补足语:用来补充说明宾语的,可由名词、形容词、数词、不定式、分词、介词短语等充当。例如: Of course, I expect you to take me! 当然,我期待着你带我去! 5) 定语:用来说明人或事物的品质或特征。形容词、名词、数词、代词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语、从句等均可作定 语。单个单词作定语常位于被修饰的名词前,短语或从句作定语常位于被修饰的名词之后。例如: Everything he said was pure nonsense. 他说的每一样事情纯属无稽之谈。 6) 状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句。副词、介词短语、分词、不定式、从句等均可作状语。状语的位置很灵活,可位 于句首、句中或句末。按其用途,状语可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、方式、伴随情况等。例如: Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。 英语句子结构认识 句子的五种基本型式: 英语的句子必须含有动词,但是,由于动词有五个不同种类,因而构成了五种不同的基本句型。英语中 千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下这五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的: 基本句型一: S V (主+谓) 基本句型二: S V P (主+谓+表) 基本句型三: S V O 基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: S V O C (主+谓+宾)

(主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型 一:有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复 合谓语, 才能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做连系动词。 系动词分两类: be, look, keep, seem 等属一类, 表示情况; get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义, 只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。 S(主语) V(系动词) P(表语)

1. This 2. The dinner 3. Everything 4. He 5. The trouble 6. Our well 7. He 8. His face

is smells looks is growing is has gone became turned

an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。 good. 午餐的气味很好。 different. 一切看来都不同了。 tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮。 that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。 dry. 我们的井干枯了。 a teacher when he was 21. 他二十一岁时做了老师。 red. 他的脸红了。

基本句型 二: 有一个共同特点, 即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。 这类动词叫做不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、 介词短语、 状语从句等。 S(主语) V(不及物动词)
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1.The sun 2.The moon 3.Who 4.We all 5.What he said 6.They 7. The pen 8.The plane which started from Hongkong at noon

was shining. rose. cares? breathe, eat, and drink. does not matter. talked for half an hour. writes smoothly arrived here at four p.m.

1.太阳在照耀着。 2. 月亮升起了。 3.管它呢? 4.我们大家都呼吸、 吃和喝。 5.他所讲的没有什么关系。 6. 他们谈了半个小时。 7. 这支笔书写流利。 8.中午由香港起飞的那架飞 机下午四时到达了这里。

基本句型三: 共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的 承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。 S(主语) V(及物动词) O(宾语)

1.Who 2.She 3.He 4. He 5. They 6. He 7. I 8. He

knows smiled has refused enjoys ate said want admits

the answer? 谁知道答案? her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 to help them. 他拒绝帮他们的忙。 reading. 他喜欢看书。 what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。 "Good morning." 他说:“早上好!” to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型四:有一个共同特点:谓语动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者即直接宾 语,另一个是动作的间接承受者即间接宾语。 直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,多指物,间接宾语多指动作的所向者,多指人。通常间接宾语置于直接宾语之前,若放在直 接宾语之后,一般须加介词 to 或 for。直接宾语与间接宾语对调时,间接宾语前加介词 to 的动词有:give, tell , lend , sell, teach, send( write, show , return, bring, pass, leave, offer, hand, etc. 间接宾语前加介词 for 的动词有:buy, choose, get , make, order, sing , do , play, fetch, find。 S (主语) V (及物) O(多指人) O(多指物)

1. She 2. She 3. He

ordered cooked brought

herself her husband you

a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一餐美馔。 a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。

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4. He 5. I 6. I 7. I 8. He

denies showed gave told showed

her him my car him me

nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 my pictures. 我给他看我的照片。 a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。 that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。

基本句型五:共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语, 才能使意思完整。宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。常见的接复合宾语的动词有:ask, tell, want, wish, like, hate, see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, have, let, consider, think, believe, discover,judge, suppose 等。 S (主语) V(及物) O(宾语) C(宾补)

1. They 2. They 3. This 4. They 5. What 6. We 7. He 8. I

appointed painted set found makes saw asked saw

him the door them the house him him me them

manager. 他们任命他当经理。 green. 他们把门漆成绿色。 thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。 deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。 think so? 他怎么会这样想? out. 我们送他出去。 to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。 getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公 共汽车。

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短, 这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一 些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是 介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。 第四章 语法衔接 英语的时态 动词时态是谓语动词所表示的动作或情况发生时的各种形式。英语动词有 16 种时态,但是常见的只有九种:一般现在时、 一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时;现在完成时;过去完成时;过去将来时;现在完成进行时。 一、一般现在时态 1.一般现在时的用法 1)表示经常性、习惯性的动作。这时句中常用 always,usually,often, every day,sometimes,on Sundays,once a week,how often 等时间状语。 He sweeps the floor every day. 他每天打扫地板。 We always care for each other and help each other. 我们总是互相关心,互相帮助。 2)表示现在的状态、特征,所以表示状态和感觉的动词,如 be,like,hate,think,remember,find,sound 等常用一般现在时。
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Are you afraid of snakes? 你害怕蛇吗? What is your mother? 你妈妈是做什么工作的? 3)描述自然现象或客观真理。 The earth goes round the sun. 地球绕太阳转。 In autumn, leaves change from green to brown. 4) 书报的标题,小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。 5) 代替将来时。 (1) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。 If you come this afternoon,we’ll have a meeting.如果你今天下午来的话,我们就开个会。 (2) 表示按计划、时间表要发生的动作。这时句中都带有时间状语,但限于下列情况。 A. 往返移动的动词:come,leave,go,move, ride, sail, arrive,return 等。 B. 表示开始结束的动词:begin,stop,start,open, close,end 等。 The train starts at nine in the morning.早上火车九点钟开。 2. 与一般现在时连用的时间状语常见的有:always,usually,often,sometimes,on Sundays,once a week,how often 等。 3. 一般现在时的四个基本句型 谓语动词是 be 主语是:第三人称单数 特别词 肯定句 否定句 am/ is/ are He is a teacher. He is not a teacher. does He goes to school every day. He doesn’t go to school every day. 谓语动词是 do 主语是:非第三人称单数 do They go to school every day. They don’t go to school every day. 一般疑问句 Is he a teacher? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. 特殊疑问句 What is he? Does he go to school every day? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. What does he do every day? Do they go to school every day? Yes, they do. No, they don’t. What do they do every day?

4. 动词第三人称单数构成规则 ① 一般在动词尾加 s play→ plays

② 以 s. x.. ch.. sh 结尾的动词在词尾加 es watch → watches ③ 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,先改 y 为 i, 再加 es ④ 特殊的有 be→ is have→ has go → goes study→ studies

巩固练习:用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. —________________(be) Tom and I in the same class? 2. Three years________________(be)a long time.
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—Yes , you _______________.(be)

3. Your new book________________(be)over there. 4. Here________________(be)a flower for you. 5. There is a book on it, but there________________(be)a ball and two cats under it. 6. This pair of trousers________________(be)short. 7. There________________(be)much milk in this glass. 8. The woman________________(look)like our teacher. 9. Jim’s sister________________(do)her homework every day. 10. ________________he________________(go)to bed at 7 every night? 二、一般过去时 1. 一般过去时的用法 1)表示过去某个时间发生的且已完成的动作, 常与表过去的时间状语连用。 I tried to telephone you last night, but the line was out of order and I couldn’t get through. 昨晚我想打电话给你,但线路出了毛病。 2) 表示在过去存在或持续了一段时间的状态,亦常与表过去的时间状语连用。 Jim was 12 years old when I first met him. 当我初次见吉姆时,他 12 岁。 3) 表示过去经常发生的动作或多次反复的行为。 Whenever I went to the movies, I sat in the cheapest seats. 我每次看电影都坐最便宜的 比较:He often goes to the park with his friends.(现在经常去,用一般现在时) He often went to the park when he was in the college.(过去经常去,用一般过去时) 2. 与一般过去时连用的时间状语常见的有:yesterday/ last night/ in 1990/ once/ two days ago/ the day before yesterday 4. 动词的过去式和过去分词的规则变化 ①一般在动词词尾加 ed 例: want →wanted ②以 e 结尾的动词,只加 d 例: study →studied 例: stop →stopped 例: live →lived

③以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,改 y 为 i,再加 ed

④以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这一辅音字母,再加 ed 3. 一般过去时的四个基本句型 谓语动词是 be 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 He was in the room yesterday. He was not in the room yesterday. Was he in the room yesterday? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t. 特殊疑问句 巩固练习:改错 1. We was in the factory yesterday. Where was he yesterday? 谓语动词是 do

They watched TV yesterday. They didn’t watch TV yesterday. Did they watch TV yesterday? Yes, they did. No, they didn’t. What did they do yesterday?

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2. Did the twins make any paper flowers? ------Yes, they do. 3. Every day she went shopping with us. 4. They stoped to have a rest after walking so far. 5. They didn’t went on a picnic last week. 6. What did they made last Sunday. 7. She was went to school early yesterday. 8. The students were make many paper kites yesterday afternoon. 9. Who did went to the park yesterday? 10. She reads the book yesterday and listened to the radio. 三、现在进行时

1. 现在进行时的用法 1) 表示现在(说话时)正在进行的动作或某些体感动词的持续状态。 I am reading an English book now. 我现在正在读一本英语书。 2) 当前一段时期内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作, 有可能此动作说话时没在进行。 He is writing a novel(小说) this year. 今年他在写一部小说。 3)表示根据安排在最近的将来要发生的动作,常伴有时间状语。此用法常用于下列表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词: arrive, begin, close, come, die, drive, end, fall, fly, go, land, leave, open, move, return, start, stop, travel, take off 等。 We are leaving here tomorrow. 我们明日离开这里。 I am coming. 我马上就来(将会来) 。 他将离开武汉去北京。 (将离开) 吉姆度假打算做什么?(将做什么)

He is leaving Wuhan for Beijing. What is Jim doing on vacation?

4) 与 always, constantly, continually, forever 等连用时表示某种感情色彩,如不耐烦、不满意、令人恼火的习惯性的事情。 My car is always breaking down just when I need it most. 我的车老是在我最需要时出毛病。 5)表示“关切、礼貌、强调、赞美”等。 Are you feeling better today? (表关切) I’m telling you the truth. (表强调) 6) 用于解释或归纳前面说的话。 When I say somebody is lazy, I’m not referring to you. 当我说某人懒惰时,不是指的你。 注意:1)表示感觉,愿望和状态的动词如 have,be,hear,see,like 等词一般不用进行时。 2) 进行时表示动作的进行,不关注整个动作过程,不关注动作是否完成。 2.与现在进行时连用的时间状语 常见的有:now ,these days,或有 look,listen 等的提示。
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I’m hoping you’ll come.(表礼貌) You are doing fine work at school.(表赞美)

3. 现在进行时的构成及四个基本句型 构 成 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 be +现在分词→ am / is / are+ doing He is watching TV now. He is not watching TV now. Is he watching TV now? What is he doing now? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.

4. 动词现在分词的构成 ① 一般在动词尾加 ing 例:play →playing 例:make →making

② 以不发音字母 e 结尾的动词,去 e 加 ing

③ 以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写这一辅音字母,再加 ing。 ④ 特殊的有 lie→lying tie →tying die→ dying babysit→babysitting hiccup→ hiccupping

巩固练习:写出下列动词的现在分词 be________work__________hike ___________smell _________ take ____________ run __________be __________put ___________ do ____________ lie _____________ get _________ listen ___________study _________ go ___________ die ___________ 四、过去进行时 1. 过去进行时的用法 1) 过去某个时间正在发生的动作。 When I came into the room, they were watching TV. 我走进房间时,他们正在看电视。 2) 过去某段时间正在发生的动作。 I was staying here from March to May last year. 去年从 3 月到 5 月,我一直呆在这里。 3) 过去进行时可与一般过去时一起使用,用于描述一个动作进行过程中另一个动作发生。 Jim was reading when the teacher came in. 当老师进来的时候,吉姆正在读书。 注意下面句子的区别: Jim came in while Kate was watching TV. 在凯特正在看电视的时候,吉姆进来了。 Jim was reading while Kate was watching TV. 在凯特正在看电视的同时,吉姆正在读书。 4) 也能与 always, constantly, continually, forever 等连用时表示某种感情色彩。 My brother was always losing his key. 我弟弟总是丢失钥匙。 5)也用于解释或归纳前面说的话。 —Why didn’t you answer the door? —Sorry, I didn’t heard the bell. I was watching TV. 2. 与过去进行时连用的时间状语 过去进行时表示过去某一阶段、某一时刻正在进行的动作。常与时间状语或状语从句连用。但有时需要根据上下文语境来判断。 常见的有 at nine last night/ at that time= then/at this time yesterday 或有 when the teacher came in/ while he was reading 的提示。
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3. 过去进行时与一般过去式的区别 1)过去进行时表示短暂的动作,而一般过去式可用于较长时间或永久性的情况。 请比较:He watched TV last night. (过去时间 last night, 用一般过去时)

He was watching TV at nine last night. (过去时间 last night + 点时间 at nine, 用过去进行时) 2)过去进行时表示过去正在进行的动作,而一般过去时表示一个已经完成的动作。 请比较:He was writing a book last year. (此书可能尚未写完) He wrote a book last year. (此书已经写完) 4. 过去进行时的构成及四个基本句型 构 成 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 巩固练习: 填空 1. Now Jim’s sister ______________(read) newspapers. 2. He ____________(watch)TV at nine last night. 3. He ________________(watch)TV last night. 4. What ______________the twins ____________(do) then? 5. ____ Lily ______(draw) a cat when the teacher came in ? —No, she ______. 6. ______you _________(have) supper at that time? 7. Jack ___________(not read) a book at nine yesterday evening. 8. Now Jim ___________(play) basketball on the playground. 9. What ___________ he __________ (do) at nine o’clock last night. 10. They ___________ (listen) to the music at that time. 五、现在完成时 1. 现在完成时的用法 现在完成时的使用有下列两种情况: 1) 现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,而对现在有影响.句中没有具体时间状语,但是可以与不明确指出具体时间的 状语连用,如:already, yet, ever, never, just, recently, before 等。这种情况主要是指过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果:强 调结果。 I have never seen such a beautiful girl before. 2) 现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去。常用 for 和 since 表示一段时间的状语或 so far,up to now, now,today, this week( month,year), in the past few years, how long, how many times 等表示包括现在时问在内的状语。这种
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was / were + 现在分词(doing) He was cooking at six last night. He was not cooking at six last night. Was he cooking at six last night? Yes ,he was. What was he doing at six last night? No, he wasn’t.

情况主要是指过去已经开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态:强调继续。 He has studied English for 5 years.他学习英语已经五年了。 注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如 come,go,die,marry,buy 等的完成时不能与 for,since 等表示一段时间的词连用。 2. 现在完成时的构成和四个基本句型 构 成 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 have/has 十过去分词(done) He has finished the work. He has not finished the work. Has he finished the work? Yes ,he has. What has he done? No, he hasn’t.

3. 在下列情形下用现在完成时 1)与现在完成时连用的:already ,yet, ever, never, just, before, so far, how long, how many times 2)for 与 since 的区别: for two months since last year since 3 years ago since 1990 since he came here since +过去时态句子 He has been in China since he came here. (去了北京) (去过北京) for +一段时间 since +过去点时间 Jim has lived here for 2 months. Lucy has been in Beijing since 3 years ago.

3)have<has>gone to 去了某地 have<has>been to 去过某地

例:He has gone to Beijing

例:He has been to Beijing.

4)如果句子里面没有时间状语,汉语意思能够加“已经”,往往用现在完成时态。 例:Have you lost your library book? 你已经弄丢了从图书馆借的那本书吗? 5)现在完成时态还常常用于下列句型: They have planted many trees in the last few years. 在过去的几年,他们已经种了很多树。 This is the best book I have ever read. 这是我曾经读过的最好的一本书。 It is the first time I have played the computer games. 这是我第一次玩电脑游戏。 4.在现在完成时中,一次性动词不能和一段时间状语连用 例:He has bought the book for 3 years.(错) 因 buy 这个一次性动词不能和一段时间 for 3 years 连用, 改正的办法有五种: ① He has had the book for 3 years. (用延续性动词 have 代替 buy)

② He bought the book 3 years ago (改为一般过去时,使句子的意思不变) ③ It’s 3 years since he bought the book. = 3 years has passed since he bought the book. (改为固定句型 It is ---since---) ④ He has not bought the book for 3 years.(改为否定句)
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⑤ He has bought the book.

(去掉一段时间 for 3 years)

注意: 还有其他一次性动词也是这种情况,可参照前面的五种办法改正,后四种改法都一样,第一种改法各不相同,举例如下: ①come/arrive/get to/reach → be here 例:I have come here for 3 years.(错) ②leave/go →be away 例:He has left for 3 hours.(错) ③begin/start →be on 例:The film has begun for 3 minutes.(错)改为:The film has been on for 3 minutes. ④open →be open / close → be closed 例:The shop has opened for 3 years.(错) ⑤die →be dead 例:His father has died for 3 years.(错) ⑥finish/end→ be over 例:He has finished the work for 3 days.(错) 改为:The work has been over for 3 days ⑦join 例:I have joined the army for 3 years.(错) 改为:His father has been dead for 3 years. 改为:The shop has been open for 3 years. 改为:He has been away for 3 hours. 改为:I have been here for 3 years.

改为:I have been in the army for 3 years. 或 I have been a soldier for 3 years. ⑧buy /catch →have 例:I have bought the bike for 3 years.(错) 例:He has caught a cold for 3 days.(错) ⑨borrow → keep 例:I have borrowed the book for 3 years. (错)改为:I have kept the book for 3 years. 还有其它的归纳如下:break → be broken marry → be married become → be get up → be up lose → be lost \ 改为:I have had the bike for 3 years. 改为:He has had a cold for 3 days.

5. 延续性动词和终止性动词 ①延续性动词:表示的动作是能延续的动作,这种动作可以延续下去或产生持久的影响。如:learn\ work\ stand\ lie\ know\ walk\ keep\ have\ wait\ watch\ sing\ read\ sleep\ live ②终止性动词:也叫非延续性动词,瞬间动词,一次性动词。表示的动作不能延续,即动作发生后立即结束,产生某种结果。在 有了某种结果后,动作就不能再继续下去。如:leave\ start\ set out\ arrive\ reach\ get to\ begin\ stop\ shut\ turn off\ marry\ put\ put on\ get up\ wake\ fall\ join\ meet\ receive\finish\ end\ complete\ become\ come\ go\ die\ open\ close\ break\ give\ jump\ buy\ borrow 6. 终止性动词不能和一段时间状语连用。 He has died for three days. (错,终止性动词 die 不能和一段时间 for three days 连用) 巩固练习:用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. Thanks a lot. It’s sunny again. It _______________(rain) for a long time.
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2. _____________Mr. Li _______________(live) here since 8 years old? 3. Since Mr. Li came here, he _______________(teach) in this school. 4. It’s the third time that I _______________(see) him this month. 5. Is your mother at home? ------No, she _______________(go) to work. 6. Her mother _______________(become)a doctor in 1970. She _______________(work) in the hospital since 26 years old. 7. He _______________(teach) English here since we _______________(see) him 5 years ago. 8. —How many times _______________you _______________(be) to Beijing? —Only once. I _______________(go) there two years ago. 9. I’ve lost my cat. _______________you ever _______________(see) it anywhere? 10. My parents are not at home. They _______________(leave) for Shanghai. 六.过去完成时 1. 过去完成时的用法 过去完成时通常指过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。过去完成时经常以“过去”为背景,表达比这一背景更早 的动作:即过去的过去。其使用有下列两种情况: l) 表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。句中常用 by,before,until,when等引导的时间状语。例如: By the end of last year we had built five new houses.到去年年底,我们已经建起了无所新房子。 2) 还可表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个时间或持续下去。 Up until then we had covered nearly half the distance. 直到那时我们几乎已经走了一半的路程。 2. 过去完成时的构成和四个基本句型 构 成 肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句 had 十过去分词(done) By the end of last week, he had learnt 1000 words. By the end of last week, he hadn’t learnt 1000 words. Had he learnt 1000 words by the end of last week? Yes , he haa. No, he hadn’t. 特殊疑问句 巩固练习:改错 1.When she was at the middle school,she often reads in the library. 2.When she got home,the children went to bed. 3.He said he didn't see his uncle for many years. 4.I didn't go to see the firm because I saw it before. 5.The wind was still blowing,but the rain has stopped. 6.By the end of last term we learned about 1,500 English words.
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How many words had he learnt by the end of last week?

7.Lu Xun had spocken to the youth about the study of the foreign language. 8.Yang Mei learn some English before she came to this school. 七、一般将来时 1. 一般将来时的用法:一般将来时表示将来某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。主要有以下两种表示方式:1)will 或 shall 十 动词原形。除了可以表示“将来的事实”,还可以表示“预测的将来”和“意志的将来”。 I’ll be sixteen years old next month. (将来的事实) It will rain tomorrow. (预测的将来) You look tired. I’ll cook dinner tonight.( 意志的将来) We’ll die without air or water. 没有空气和水我们将要死亡。 2)“ to be going to 十动词原形”,表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。例如: We are going to have a meeting today.今天我们开个会。 注意:以下形式也可表示将要发生的动作: 1) go,come,start,move,sail,leave 等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。例如:I’m leaving for Beijing. 我要动身去 北京。 Jim is babysitting his sister this weekend. Jim 这个周末要照看他的妹妹。 2) 表示按计划、时间表要发生的动作,常用一般现在时表示将来。下列动词 come,go,leave,arrive,start 等常用于此用法。 The meeting starts at five o’clock.. 会议五点钟开始。 3) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。 If you come this afternoon,we’ll have a meeting.如果你今天下午来的话,我们就开个会。 4) “ be about to 十动词原形”意为“正要;即将”,表示眼下就要发生的事,因此后面一般不接将来时间状语。Ladies and gentlemen. Please take your seats. The performance is about to start. 5) “be to 十动词原形”表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见.例如: Are we to go on with this work? 你要继续这项工作吗? / next week / soon / in the year 2020 等。

2. 与一般将来时连用的时间状语常见的有:tomorrow / the day after tomorrow 巩固练习:用所给动词的适当形式填空

1. Li Lei tells me he _________________(visit)the Great Wall(长城) this weekend. 2. My mother _________________(buy)me a pair of new trousers tomorrow. 3. She says she _________________(leave)soon. 4. We _________________(go) skating if it doesn’t rain next Sunday. 5. There _________________(be)an English evening next week. 6. Think over, and you _________________(get)a good idea. 7. ___________Jim ___________(have)a picnic next Monday?------No, he __________.

8. I _________________(miss 想念)you after you leave here.
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9. Who _________________(teach)you English next year 10. He ____________ (be) back in three hours. 8.过去将来时 1)用法:过去将来时表示从过去的某时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态,常用于宾语从句。 2)构成:过去将来时由“ should 或 would 十动词原形”构成。第一人称用 should,其他人称用 would。例如: They were sure that they would succeed.他们确信他们会成功。 John said that he would come the next day if he was free. (构成:would+ 动词原形) 9.现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时由“ have(has)十 been 十现在分词”构成,表示现在以前一直在进行的动作。有些词,如 work,study、live,teach 等用现在完成进行时与用现在完成时意思差不多。 I have worked here for three years.我在这里工作三年了。 I have been working here for three years. 我在这里工作三年了。 但多数动词在这两种时态中表示不同意。例如: I have written a letter. (已写完) I have been writing a letter.(还在写)

注意:表示短暂动作的动词,如 finish,marry,get up,come,go 等不能用这种时态 时态综合练习: 单项填空 1. Don’t turn on the TV. Grandma ________ now. A. is sleeping B. will sleep C. slept D. sleeps

2. We were in Beijing last week and ________ great fun there. A. will have B. have had C. had D. have

3.— Hello! Can I speak to Alice? —Sorry. She isn’t here right now. She ________ to the shop. A. goes B. will go C. has gone D. was going

4. Look! Jane’s grandmother ________ with some aged(老年的) people in the park. A. dances B. danced C. is dancing D. was dancing

5. Tom ________ to work in his hometown after he graduated(毕业) from university. A. goes B. went C. will go D. had gone

6. —________ you ________ the film Harry Potter 5? —Not yet. I’ll see it this Sunday. A. Did, see B. Are, seeing C. Have, seen D. Do, see

7. The children ________ a P.E. class on the playground(操场) when it suddenly began to rain. A. have B. are having C. had D. were having

8. Jim ________ a new camera(照相机). He has taken lots of pictures with it. A. buys B. is buying C. bought D. will buy

9.— Please bring your homework to school tomorrow, Steven. —OK. I ________.
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A. will

B. won’t

C. do

D. don’t

10. How’s Annie? I ________ her for a long time. A. don’t see B. won’t see C. didn’t see D. haven’t seen

11. —Look! The light is still on in Mr. Zhang’s office. —I’m afraid he ________ his work yet. A. doesn’t finish B. didn’t finish C. hasn’t finished D. won’t finish

12. —What did the teacher say just now? —Sorry. I didn’t catch it. I ________ something else. A. think B. will think C. was thinking D. had thought

13. Happiness(幸福)________ in her grandfather’s eyes every time he hears her voice. A. shines B. is shining C. has shone D. was shone

14. She ________ the same song so many times. I’m getting sick of it! A. sings B. sang C. will sing D. has sung

15. —Did you see a girl in white pass by just now? —No, sir. I ________ a newspaper. A. read B. was reading C. would read D. am reading

第五章 预习篇 Module 1 My First Day at Senior High 夯基固本 重点单词聚焦— 1.New__ methods ___(方法) of teaching foreign languages have been adopted in our school.

2.His__ attitude __(态度) towards me shows that he doesn’t like me. 3.He was chosen as an_ assistant __(助手) to help Mr Brown finish his research. 4.Much__information__(信息) about Mars has been sent back to earth. 5.We have received__instructions__(指示) to hand in all our baggage immediately. 6.They had a(n)_misunderstanding_(误解),but they have become friendly again recently. 7.Do you have any___previous____(以前的) experience of this type of job? 8.We cannot develop our national economy without science and_technology(技术). 9.The__diploma__(文凭) is very important for him to get the job. 10.There is a big underground railway__system__(系统) in London. Ⅱ.重点短语扫描 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. be similar to have fun 与……相似 玩得开心 2. nothing like 4. 6. 8. 一点也不像

in other words 换句话说 make progress at the end of 取得进步 在……结束的时候

look forward to 期待;盼望 at the start of 在……开始的时候

go to college 上大学

10. be_ divided _into 被(划)分成
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11. take part Ⅲ.课文原句突破

in

参加

12. after—school activities

课外活动

1.Ms Shen’s method of teaching is nothing like__that__ __of__the teachers at my Junior High school. 沈老师的教学方法和我初中老师的教学方法一点也不一样。 2.I_don’t_ __think_I will be bored in Ms Shen’s class! 我认为上沈老师的课我是不会感到厌倦的! 3.Ms Shen gave us instructions__and__ _then_we worked by ourselves.沈老师给我们指令,然后我们就独自学习。 4.In other words,there are_three__ times_ as _ many _ _girls__as_boys.换言之,女生人数是男生的三倍。 5.—I’ve just been to my first language class.我刚刚上了我的第一堂语言课。 —__So __have__I__.我也是。 课堂互动—探究创新 attitude n.态度;意见;想法 (教材原句 P3)I like her attitude very much,and the behaviour of the other students shows that they like her,too.我非常喜欢她的教学 态度,其他学生的表现也表明他们很喜欢她。 take an attitude to/towards 采取……态度 have a good/bad/positive/negtive attitude to sb./sth. 对某人/某物有好的/坏的/肯定的/否定的态度 ①Obama shows a very positive attitude to China when talking with the young students. 奥巴马在同年轻学生谈话时显示了对中国的积极态度。 ②As you get older your attitude towards death changes. 人随着年龄的增长,对死亡的看法也会有所改变。 ③In contrast, people who have a negative attitude to life have buried the ability to see opportunity.相比较来说, 对生活持否定态度的人 们会埋没了看到机会的能力。 ④The villagers all took a friendly attitude to/towards us. 村民们对我们都采取友好的态度。 情系考场 Despite such a big difference in ________ towards what one eats,there is no doubt that people in the west regard the Chinese food as something special. A.point B.idea C.attitude D.sight

amazing adj.令人吃惊的 (教材原句 P2)The teachers are very enthusiastic and friendly and the classrooms are amazing. 老师们非常热情友好,教室让人惊讶。 amaze v. 使惊奇,使惊愕 amazed adj. 惊奇的
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be amazed to do be amazed at/by sb./ sth. be amazed that-clause 对…很惊奇 amazement n. 惊奇 to one’s amazement 另某人惊奇的是 in amazement 惊奇地 ①It’s amazing how quickly people adapt. 人适应环境的速度之快真是惊人。 ②It amazed me that he could be so calm at such a time. 在这个时候他还能如此冷静,真让我感到惊讶。 ③We were amazed at her knowledge of Chinese literature. 她的中国文学知识之丰富使我们大为惊奇。 ④We were amazed to find that no one was hurt. 我们很惊异地发现竟没有人受伤。 ⑤We looked at each other in amazement when we heard the news. 我们听到这条消息时吃惊地互相看了看。 情系考场 ----完成句子 ①Mr Smith, ______(听烦了这个令人厌烦的演讲),started to read a novel. ②He is__________(那么令人讨厌的人) that no one wants to live with him. 4. impress vt.使印象深刻(常与 with/by 连用);使铭记(常与 on 连用) (教材原句 P4)Li Kang is very impressed with the teachers and the technology in his new school. 李康对他的新学校的老师和技术设备印象非常深刻。
?impress sb.? with sth.? ? 某事物?给某人留下印象 ? (1)? ? ?impress sth.on/upon sb.使某人铭记某事

(2)be impressed by/at 为……所感动;对……有印象 (3)leave/have/make a(n)...impression on sb.给某人留下……的印象 ①She impressed me as a woman of great kindness. 在我的印象中,她一直是一个非常和蔼的人。 ②Father impressed on me the value of hard work. 父亲向我强调努力工作的重要意义。 ③We’re very impressed with the standard of the children’s work.这些儿童作品水平之高,给我们留下了深刻印象。 ④The tourist attraction made/left a good impression on us. 这个旅游胜地给我们留下了很好的印象。 5.instruction [U] 讲授;教育;指导;[C](常作复数)指示;说明(书) (教材原句 P3)Ms Shen gave us instructions and then we worked by ourselves.沈老师给我们一些指导,然后我们自学。 (1)follow instructions 服从指示 on one’s instructions 按照某人的吩咐
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under one’s instruction 在某人的指导下 (2)instruct vt.指导;教导;命令 instruct sb.to do sth.命令某人做某事 instruct sb.in sth.教授某人某方面的内容

①Follow the instructions on the bottle when taking the medicine.遵循药瓶上的说明服药。 ②Under the teacher’s instruction,we’ve made great progress in our physics study. 在老师的指导下,我们的物理学习取得了很大的进步。 ③The teacher instructed the students to come into the gym.老师命令学生到体育馆集合。 ④She arrived at 10 o’clock as instructed.她按照指示 10 点钟到达。 情系考场 The reason he gave for his faulty operation of the machine was that he failed to follow the________on the packet. A.organisations B.instructions C.expressions D.impressions

6.cover vt.盖,掩盖;行走(路程);(记者)采访/报道;占用(一段时间或空间);包含,涉及;(钱)够……用;n.封面(底);盖子 (教材原句 P9)Secondary school in the US usually covers seven years,grades six to twelve.美国中学通常包括六到十二年级这七个年 级。 (1)cover...with...用……盖住……
?with...覆盖着?强调状态? ? (2)be covered ? ? ?by...被……覆盖?强调动作?

(3)cover an area of...占地面积为…… (4)cover sth.up 遮盖;隐瞒 ①She covered her face with her hands.她双手掩面。 ②A reporter was sent to cover the accident.一名记者被派去报道那个事故。 ③Our town covers an area of 10 square kilometres.我们镇占地 10 平方公里。 ④My parents did all they could to cover my school fees.我父母尽力支付我的学费。 ⑤Do cover yourself up:it’s freezing outside.一定要穿暖一点:外面冷极了。 情系考场 —Do you have enough to________ all your daily expenses?—Oh yes,enough and to spare. A.cover B.spend C.fill D.offer

7. look forward to 期望,盼望 (教材原句 P3)I’m looking forward to doing it!我盼望着写这篇文章呢! “动词+介词 to”构成的常见短语 object to 反对 pay attention to...注意……get down to...开始认真做某事 be/get used to 习惯于 devote...to...奉献,献身于……refer to 参考;涉及;指的是 ①I’m looking forward to meeting you.我正盼着见到你。 ②The holiday we have been looking forward to is drawing near. 我们一直盼望的假期快到了。
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③I look forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. 我期待着早日收到你的来信。 ④I object to being treated like a little child.我反对像小孩似的被对待。 ⑤He always devotes himself to helping the homeless children. 他总是致力于帮助无家可归的孩子。 ⑥Isn’t it time that you got down to doing your homework? 还没到你做作业的时间吗? 8.in other words 换句话说,换言之 (教材原句 P3)In other words,there are three times as many girls as boys.换句话说,女生人数是男生的三倍。 (1)in a/one word 简言之,总之 beyond words 难以言表 word comes that...有消息传来…… (word 意为消息时,为不可数名词) (2)keep one’s word/promise 遵守诺言(word 常用单数) break one’s word/promise 食言;违背诺言 have a word with sb.与某人交谈 have words with sb.与某人吵架 ① The boss asked him to leave—in other words,he was fired.老板请他走人,也就是说,他被解雇了。 ② You’d better not be late again for the class,in other words,you are expected to be on time next time. 你最好别再迟到了,也就是说,你下次要准时点。 ③In a word,I don’t agree to your plan.总之,我不赞成你的计划。 ④Word came that the mayor would soon visit our school.消息传来,市长不久就要来我们的学校参观。 ⑤He had words with hie wife last night.昨夜他和他的妻子吵嘴了。 情系考场 Everybody was touched _______ words after they heard her moving story. A.beyond B.without C.of D.in

课文撷英---面对面
1.(教材原句 P2)We’re using a new textbook and Ms Shen’s method of teaching is nothing like that of the teachers at my Junior High school.我们使用新的教科书而且沈老师的教学方法和我初中老师的教学方法一点也不一样。 that 在此指代 method of teaching。 ①The population of China is much larger than that of Japan. 中国人口比日本人口多得多。 辨析:that,one 与 it (1)that 既可指代上文的单数可数名词,又可指代不可数名词,但 that 后常有后置定语,that 的复数形式为 those。 (2)one 只能指代可数名词的单数形式,one 前可加形容词或定冠词,它的复数形式是 ones。
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(3)it 指前面所提到的事物本身。 ②Little joy can equal that of a surprising ending when you read stories. 在读故事时,几乎没有任何乐趣能与读到一个出乎意料的结局所带来的乐趣相比。 ③I have lost my mobile phone and will have to buy a new one.我的手机丢了,要买个新的。 ④ The desk is broken so it needs repairing.桌子坏了需要修理。 情系考场 The English spoken in the United States is only slightly different from________spoken in Britain. A.which B.what C.that D.the one

2. (教材原句 P3)In other words,there are three times as many girls as boys.换句话说,女生人数是男生人数的三倍。 此句式为“...倍数+as many/much+n.+as...”。 英语中倍数的表达方式还有: (1)...倍数+adj./adv.的比较级+than... (2)...倍数+as+adj./adv.+as... (3)...倍数+the size/length/width/height/depth/weight 等+of... (4)...倍数+more+n.+than... (5)...倍数+that of+比较对象... ①There are five times more books in our library than in yours. 我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆里的书多五倍。 ②He has read twice as many books as I have.他读的书是我读过的两倍。 ③Ten years ago the population of our village was twice as large as that of theirs.十年前我们村的人口是他们村的两倍。 ④Mary is now getting on well with his new job and he earns twice as much as he did last year. 玛丽现在新工作进展顺利,他挣的工资是去年的两倍。 情系考场 My uncle’s house in the downtown area is much smaller than ours,but it is twice ________ expensive. A.as B.so C.too D.very

3. (教材原句 P3)I don’t think I will be bored in Ms Shen’s class. 我认为我不会厌烦沈老师的课。 这是一个否定转移的句子。think,suppose,expect,imagine,believe 等表示心理活动的动词若带含否定意义的宾语从句,常使 用“否定转移”:否定从句谓语动词的否定式转移到主句的谓语动词之前。 ①I don’t suppose I will trouble you again.我认为我不会再打扰你了。 ②I don’t believe he was happy although he lived in a rich family. 尽管他生活在一个富裕的家庭里,但我认为他并不幸福。 4. (教材原句 P8)Oh really?So have I.噢,真的吗?我也是。
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(1)So+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语。表示前面所说的肯定情况也适合于另一个人或事。 (2)Neither/Nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语。表示前面一种否定情况也适合于另一个人或事。 (3)So it is with.../It is the same with...表示前面出现的两种或几种情况适合于另一个人或事。 情系考场 Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason,and________. A.I was neither B.neither was I C.I was either D.either was I

Grammar: 1.实义动词的一般现在时句式: 肯定句:主语(I/We/You/They)+实义动词+其他 e.g. I stay at home on Saturdays. They have sports every day.

主语(He/She/It)+实义动词三单现形式+其他 e.g. He stays at home on Saturdays. Lucy has sports every day.

否定句:主语(I/We/You/They)+do+ not+动词原形+其他 e.g. I don’t stay at home on Saturdays. They don’t have sports every day.

主语(He/She/It)+does +not+动词原形+其他 e.g. He doesn’t stay at home on Saturdays. Lucy doesn’t have sports every day.

一般疑问句: Do+主语(I/we/you/they)+动词原形+其他? e.g. Do you stay at home on Saturdays? Does+主语(he/she/it)+动词原形+其他? e.g. Does he stay at home on Saturdays? Does Lucy have sports every day? Do they have sports every day?

2.特殊疑问句:疑问词+ do/does+主语+动词原形+其他? e.g. What do you want? What time do you have lunch? What do you do? How do you spell it? Exercises: 1、Both his parents look sad. Maybe they___what's happened to him . A.knew B.have known C.must know D.will know 2、He has _____ been to Shanghai , has he ? A. already B.never C.ever D. still 3、Have you met Mr Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago 4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year . A.is writingB.was writingC.wroteD.has written
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What does she want? What time does she have lunch?

What does she do? How does he spell it?

5、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better 6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. Know B. had known C. have known D. knew

8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice . A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

9、—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really ? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone

10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . A. Did ; do ; finished C. Have ; done ; have finished B. Have ; done ;finished D. will ; do ; finish

11、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she____to the library . A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been 12、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

13、The students have cleaned the classroom,____? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they

14、_____ has Mr White been a member of Greener since he____to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived

15、 His uncle____ for more than 9 years. A. has come here 课堂专训-----权威预测 Ⅰ.用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空 1.The newspaper article gave us a________(describe) of the earthquake in Yushu. 2.The teacher’s words were a great________(encourage) to him. 3.You should look up the right________(pronounce) of this word in the dictionary. 4.She was disappointed to see her essay returned with a mass of ________(correct) in red ink. 5.So much for the________(explain) of the text.Now let’s retell it.
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B. has started to work

C. has lived there

D. has left the university

6.It needs a lot of practice to speak English with great________ (fluent). Ⅱ.易错模块 1.—I like to surf the Internet but I don’t like to watch TV. —________. A.So do I B.Nor do I C.As do I D.So it is with me

2.—I reminded you not to forget the appointment. —________. A.So you did B.So I do not C.So did you D.So do I

3.—I would never come to this restaurant again.The food is terrible. —________. A.Nor am I B.Neither would I C.Same with me D.So do I

4.—David has made great progress recently. —________,and__________. A.So he has;so you have C.So has he;so have you B.So he has;so have you D.So has he;so you have

5.—My room gets very cold at night. —________. A.So is mine Ⅲ.语法专练 1. Everyone looked________when they knew the________news that Michael Jackson was announced dead at the hospital after suffering a heart attack on June,25. A.amazing;amazed C.amazed;amazing B.amazing;amazing D.amazed;amazed B.So mine is C.So does mine D.So mine does

2.He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them________in his lectures. A.interested B.interesting C.interest D.to interest

3.Some impolite football fans,________at the game result,expressed their anger and sadness by throwing bottles and other things into the football field. A.disappointing B.were disappointed C.disappointed D.were disappointing

4.The questions the reporter asked sometimes were________and they made me________. A.embarrassed;embarrassing B.embarrassing;embarrassed C.embarrassed;embarrassed D.embarrassing;embarrassing

5.I am________with Mr Wang’s________talking;I can’t wait any longer for its end. A.boring;bored B.boring;boring C.bored;bored D.bored;boring
27


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