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Chapter Four
Techniques in Reading and Understanding English Newspapers and Magazines

What students can learn from this chapter:

The stylistic features of ■ News Headlines (Lexis; Grammar; Rhetoric)
■ Content

structure (News lead; Inverted pyramid )

2. 3.

Some practical skills in reading news stories The usage of punctuations in English news

4.0 Linguistic features of news stories: tabloids vs. broadsheets (p54-56) (p54■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Headlines Paragraphs Punctuations Rhetorical patterning Modifiers Lexis

■ Headlines of tabloids: an example
■ Bold print and capitalized letters ■ Inverted commas

■Paragraph length: contrastive examples
Daily Mirror, November 19, 2005 Mirror,

ROOKIE WPC SHOT DEAD Robbery victim had been cop for only 8 WEEKS
By Lucy Thornton AN unarmed policewoman shot dead by hooded raiders yesterday had been in the force for only a few months. A second WPC who was seriously wounded in the shoulder was also believed to be a probationer. The two brave officers, both in their 30s, were blasted by three thugs after they answered an alarm call from a travel agent's in Bradford. …… (61words in 3 sentences =20.3 Ws/S)

Life After Gaza
Sept.5, 2005, US News and World Report

The mutual anguish of Jewish families in Gaza and the Israeli military forcing their removal from their long-cherished homes longwas intensely moving to witness, even as it was an inspiring demonstration of democracy and the rule of law. Nearly 10,000 Israeli citizens from two dozen thriving towns and agricultural villages in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank now have to start their lives all over again. Their prime minister, Ariel Sharon, shares the anguish and deserves the congratulations he has received for his bold but risky attempt to change the political dynamic of the region. But will it? The response of the Palestinians to a heroic act of statesmanship is contemptible. Not only have their leaders been demanding more, but they have endorsed the bald-faced bald(露骨的) lie of the extremist Hamas group that "the blood of our martyrs" drove the Israelis out of the Gaza settlements.
(146 words in 5 sentences = 29.2 Ws/S)

■ Alliteration: examples from broadsheets ① The Lost City
What Went Wrong: Devastating a swath of Wrong: the South, Katrina plunged New Orleans into agony. The story of a storm—and a storm— disastrously slow rescue. (TIME)

② African Statesman Still Sowing Seeds

for Future

(New York Times)

③ Pei’s Pyramid Puzzles Paris (TIME)

■ Colloquialism of tabloids:
An example from Daily Mirror ( November 12, 2005) …… If a community feels confident in the fairness, openness and even-handedness of our security and intelligence evensystem it will let the authorities know its concerns about certain individuals or strange goings-on. goingsThis is what human intelligence is. And this is why detaining men and women without trial for up to 90 days was mistaken - it would have increased suspicion and reduced the flow of intelligence. THIS is not just theory - this is what we actually did in the 1970s in Northern Ireland. ......

■ Modifiers
PostPost-modification vs. Pre-modification Pree.g.

a statement that is to be verified
→ a yet-to-be-verified statement yet-to-be-

the books that are often referred to → the often-referred-to books often-referred-

■ Inventive lexis
The story of “-gate”: gate” Watergate (1970’s) IranIran-gate (1980’s) ZipperZipper-gate (1990’s) AgentAgent-gate (2003)

Two more examples of new words: diet, ① The ape diet, heavy in whole grains, nuts, soy, fruits and vegetables, has fewer side effects. (Salt Lake Tribune, July 26, 2003) 2003) ② It was not until the latter part of the 1980s, when several high-ranking business executives who were still highin their prime years suddenly died without any previous sign of illness, that the news media began picking up on what appeared to be a new phenomenon. This new phenomenon was quickly labeled karoshi (kah-roe(kah-roe-she), or “death from overwork”, and once it had a name and its symptoms were broadcast far and wide, it just as quickly became obvious that Japan was experiencing a virtual epidemic.

4.1 The Structure of News Headlines
The general structure of headlines: Headline (the most important information) Over line (strap line) supplementary information SubSub-headline

Example ① (Sub-headline) (Sub-

Bush’s Battle of New Orleans The president stumbles in his initial handling of Katrina’s aftermath. But he has a history of righting himself.

Example② Example② (Over line/strap line )

Business groups say move to ban discrimination on basis of race, gender and disability is bureaucratic threat to free enterprise

South Africa National Assembly backs backs “equality bill”
Example③ Example③ (Key words)

ROMANIA AND BULGARIA EU may drop need for visas Your examples…

4.2 The lexical features of headlines
■ Small words and abbreviations instead of big, complete ones (Why?) (Why?) ban / bar → prohibit(ion), prevent(ion) slam → criticize quiz → question, interrogate boost → promote/promotion, increase back → support, approve of PM → Prime Minister MP → Member of Parliament Your examples……

■ Choice of words in headlines —
style and purpose
An example (p57) :


(The Sun) Sun)


MP’s death shocks Tories Fears of fresh scandal after senior party sources talk of “murder” (The Guardian) Guardian)


Nightmare for Major in tragedy of Tory high flier MP’S MACARBRE DEATH SCANDAL
(The Daily Telegraph) Telegraph)

4.3 Grammatical Features of News Headlines

Omission of link verbs such as BE

Example ①

US carmakers ready to cut output Fears that sales of new vehicles may have dropped 15%
Example ②


Example ③ U.S. airborne units on Afghan frontier preparing to strike Example ④ Thames approaching danger level Your examples… examples…

■ Infinitives for future events
Example ①

Republicans to push farm housing
Example ②

Japan to help elderly jobless
Example ③

Hurricane to hit Gulf Coast Your examples…

■Phrases as headlines
Example ① (prepositional phrase)

In Search of “Enemies” Violence over the farm invasions intensifies and the president mounts a fierce fight for his political survival
Example ② (participial phrase)

Going beyond traditions Gu blends Chinese calligraphy with Western art

Example ③ (noun phrase)

Hype and Hope for a Royal Baby The media go manic over rumors of an imperial pregnancy. Could an heir revive the dynasty?
Example ④ (noun phrase)

A generation under academic pressure Parents urged to reconsider stress on children Your examples…

■ Present tense for past events
Example ①

Foreign ministers stress key issues Korean Peninsula, Iraq high on the agenda during weekend discussions
Example ②

Brussels sets urgent agenda to pass e-commerce elaws
Example ③

Bush taps Roberts as chief justice Your examples…

■ Pre-modification PreExample ①

U.S. plans more Taiwan sales
Example ②

Foreign automakers rush to oil-rich Russia oilExample ③

Shotgun Death Riddle Drama Your examples…

4.4 Basic sentence types of news headlines
1. Narrative headline Man jailed for murder Chief Justice Rehnquist dies Move puts pressure on Bush 2.Quotation headline “We owe our lives to our pilot” German summit urgent —— Schmidt President: US-China relationships matter US3.Interrogative headline Will Clinton and Putin get along? How Did This Happen? (Sep. 06, 2005, TIME) TIME) Your examples…

4.5 Rhetorical features of headlines
■ Parody (仿拟): (仿拟 仿拟):

Temporary transformation of allusions, proverbs, famous sayings, ...
→New wine in an old bottle

Parody---《吉祥三宝》 Parody---《吉祥三宝》之中国研究生版
师兄! 哎! 论文出来老板看过了吗? 看啦! 老板看完发到哪里去啦? 烂刊! 我怎么找也找不到它? 没人看啦! 论文、烂刊、学生就是吉祥 的一家! 师姐! 哎! 论文完成就能毕业吗? 等项目结了! 项目结了就能答辩吗? 等老板批啦! 干完这些老板会多发money吗? 干完这些老板会多发money吗? 你会知道的! 老板、项目和money就是吉祥的 老板、项目和money就是吉祥的 一家! 师妹! 啊? 学校像太阳照着大家! 那老板呢? 老板是向日葵紧跟朝令夕改的太 阳! 那我们呢? 我们是绿叶老实工作衬托红花! 噢!明白啦! 学校、老板和我们就是吉祥如意 的一家!

近日,在350亿美元的股票市值灰飞烟灭5 近日,在350亿美元的股票市值灰飞烟灭5年之后,美国 安然公司的前董事长和首席执行官终于被送上了审判台,但 追究他们的刑事责任并非易事———难就难在两位老大没有 追究他们的刑事责任并非易事———难就难在两位老大没有 留下亲笔批示,命令手下造假。这是一场考验耐心和智慧的 控辩,也是一次对人性贪婪的审判

撼山易,撼董事长难——谈安然两位老大受审 ——谈安然两位老大受审 撼山易,
在一个接一个的公司丑闻中,我们常常会看到这样一种状 况:高超的斗争艺术,被美国公司高管运用到自保中。包括券 商在内的许多美国大公司,干了许多坏事和丑事,但倒霉受罚 的都是下面的普通工作人员,很少触及高管,董事长更是高高 在上,非常安全。 确实,撼山易,撼董事长难。究其原因,是公司高管层层 设防,有许多绝缘层。更何况,

《南方周末》2006.05.11 南方周末》

Example ①:

A Tale of Two Debtors
“There is no practice more dangerous than that of borrowing money”, advised George Washington. The great man couldn't tell a lie, yet while his saying is true, if it were taken too literally capitalism would grind to a halt. For the Japanese government to borrow money, pots of it, to try to revive the world’s second largest economy has surely made sense. …. And in America, the world’s largest economy, it has surely made sense for America’s new private caped crusaders to borrow money, pots of it, to invest in search of profit. … →A

Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

Example ②:

Candidate in the Wind
How a wavering Hillary Rodham Clinton finally decided to declare Well, it’s about the time. Yesterday, Hillary Rodham Clinton turned the longestlongest-running unofficial campaign in political soapsoap-opera history into something real. She is now an actual, for the record, read-my-lips candidate for read-mythe U. S. Senate from New York.

→ Candle in the Wind by Elton John in memory of Lady Diana Spencer

Example ③:

Uncle Sam sends the wrong message. Why is the personal savings rate in the U. S. so low? Conventional wisdom says it’s because many people earn just enough to get by.


The Immigrants’ Dilemma: To Boycott or Not to Boycott?
A split is growing over how militant the upcoming ‘Day Without Immigrants’ should be.
(TIME April 18, 2006) 2006)



Do as the Maoris do
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan does the Secretary“hongi”, a traditional Maori greeting with Maori Affairs Minister Dover Samuels while meeting the cabinet in Wellington yesterday. Annan is on an official visit to New Zealand. (Feb24, 2000 China Daily) Daily)

■ Metaphor (隐喻): (隐喻 隐喻):
Example ①:

AFP under fire over Vietnam drug arrest
From The Sydney Morning Herald.

Australian Federal Police are facing fresh controversy over their policy of giving information to foreign police in cases that could end in the death penalty. Sydney gambler Huu Trinh faces death by firing squad for heroin trafficking after being arrested by Vietnamese police working in co-operation cowith the AFP.

Example ②:

Colin Powell’s swan-song view of the world swanA winter storm greeted Colin Powell on Monday as he made his last trip to Israel and the occupied territories as US secretary of state. His was the first visit in a string of Western foreign ministers, all eager to seize "the new opportunity to advance the peace process" caused by the death of Yasser Arafat. Unlike so often in the past, Powell realised the limited goals set for him.
Your examples……

4.6 News leads and summary sentence
News leads ——
the first a few paragraphs which indicate the five Ws and an H (WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW ) of the news story

Two types of news leads
Direct lead Delayed lead

Direct lead A direct lead tells readers the most important aspect of the story (the five Ws) in a direct and straightforward way, and is often used in “hard news” news”

Example ①:

NPC passes laws on rural land China’s top legislative body yesterday passed a law on rural land contracts — a system that has been in place for more than two decades as a major reform in rural areas.
(What are the five “Ws”?) “Ws”?)

Example ②:

Pinter awarded Nobel
Playwright, poet and political activist LODON: Harold Pinter, the English playwright, poet and political campaigner whose work uses spare and often menacing language to explore themes like powerlessness, domination and the faceless tyranny of the state, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature on Thursday. …… (What are the five “Ws”?) “Ws”?)

■ Delayed lead
A delayed lead attracts readers by hinting the content of the story. It is usually found in news features and other “soft stories” that put more emphasis on human interest rather than timeliness of an event. A delayed lead usually sets a scene or evokes a mood with an incident, anecdote, or example.

Example ① (Incident: contrast)(P62): contrast)(P62)

When Buster Jones took over the little bar on Main Street in Wellston, his hair was the color sometimes referred to as “fire in the woodshed”. Now there’s “snow on the rooftop”, and next January Buster will celebrate his 40th year in business at the same little bar. He took a little time Wednesday to reflect on some of the changes in Buster’s Old Inn since Jan.1, 1946, when he went into business for himself.

Example ② (Incident: quotation)

The Lost City
What Went Wrong: Devastating a swath of the South, Katrina plunged New Orleans into agony. The story of a storm—and a disastrously slow storm— rescue. It wasn’t exactly a surprise. “This ain't gonna last,” New Orleans City Council President Oliver Thomas told his security guard as they watched the waters of Lake Pontchartrain rising and racing and eating away at the dirt levee beneath the concrete floodwall built to protect New Orleans from disaster. ……
Your examples……

■ Summary sentence
Why and when is a summary sentence used? Some news stories, especially those quite long ones on magazines, employ “summary sentences” immediately after the headline to indicate the main content of the story, since the headlines tend to be very brief and even vague. Summary sentences may also be used inside a long story to summarize the main ideas of each part.
See examples on pages 64-65 of your textbook. 64-

4.7 News summary and news briefs
News summary is usually placed on the front page or the second page, or the opposite page of the first page, serving as a summary of major news and an index of their pages. News briefs are usually less important news providing a very brief account of certain events (time, place, people, etc).
In-class Exercise: InFind a copy of any English newspaper available, and try to locate the pages of news summary and news briefs.

4.8 The body structure of a news story
■ Inverted pyramid (also called “inverted triangle”)
—— the most important aspect of a story is higher up in the body of the story, while other information is written lower down in order of importance.

■ Advantages:
1. 2. 3.

Easy for journalists to write, since the structure is clear. Easy for editors to modify, since the lower parts are less important thus can be readily cut off if necessary. Easy for readers to grasp the main idea and decide whether to read on --- time is money!

■ Conventional Pattern of the Inverted Pyramid


3. 4.

Explicit statement of the theme: this is the real lead (This part must finish before the seventh paragraph.) Statement of the significance of the theme: this is usually supported by the remarks of witnesses, authoritative people or solid statistics. Details: further evidence, statistics are provided in this part to confirm the previous statement. Relevant facts: this part serves as the background of the story.

An example

Bank Robbers make the first Portuguese euro heist
LISBON, Dec 29 (AFP) — Three armed men wearing wigs held up a Portuguese bank and made off with an undisclosed sum in escudos and euros, the country’s first such robbery, the daily 24 Horas (hours) said on Saturday. The robbers tied up employees and clients at a bank in the small town of Barroselas on Friday and got away with crisp euro notes due to be stocked in cash machines for the single currency’s launch on January 1.

“They left with three full sacks,” said a bank customer who witnessed the heist, which 24 Horas said was the first euro bank robbery in Portugal. In early December, Portuguese authorities arrested two men who were charged with stealing 1,795 one-euro coins from the national onemint in Lisbon. Euros have already been stolen in heists, in Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, and on Friday France joined the list when an armed man fled with euro notes after robbing a bank in the southern town of Mougins.

In-class exercise
Find an example of the invertedinverted-pyramid structure from the English newspaper that you have at hand.

4.9 The stylistic features of news stories
■ Words in special fields:
Example ① (politics):

president, congress, parliament, senator, majority leader, scandal, general election, Speaker of the House, vote, bill, veto, impeach, peace talk, referendum, demonstration, lobbyist, weapons of mass destruction, peace-keeping forces, six-party peacesixtalk, oil-for-food program oil-forSecretarySecretary-General, the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, APEC, etc.

Example ② (economy): (economy): Dow Jones Industrials Average (DJIA), Nasdaq, NYSE (New York Stock Exchange), bonds, securities, investment, stock exchange bull, bear, trade embargo, exchange rates, budget, deficit, takeover, merge, acquisition, retail, wholesale, interest-free loan, interestIMF (International Monetary Fund), OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), etc.

In-class Exercise: InPlease choose a special field in journalism and try to list some common words in that field from your newspaper. Exchange your findings with your desk mate.

Rhetorical feature: an example of Euphemism
the old: the graying hair the senior citizens the aged the aging the sunset years getting on in years past one’s prime one’ ……

4.10 Basic skills in reading news stories
Browse the headline and lead first, predict what further information the story is to supply, and decide whether to continue reading. Or you may start from the news summary, or browse each page to find stories that you are interested in. When reading a news story, first grasp “the five Ws and the H” before moving to details. Dealing with new words in a clever way (The more reading, the larger vocabulary!) Dealing with culture in an enlightened manner (Context is important.)

How to deal with new words
1. Try to find some help from the author
Example ①:

These memoirs, including books by reporters, activated National Guardsmen and a female soldier, evoke the classic tradition of the war memoir as bildungsroman, or novel of education. education. Combat is seen as a proving ground for character, competence and even masculinity(男性气概), masculinity(男性气概), a way of transitioning from na?ve adolescence to wise or disillusioned maturity. ……

Example ②:

Thawing permafrost threatens northern hemisphere LONDON, April 18 (Reuters) --- Global warming is thawing permafrost in the northern hemisphere and making large areas vulnerable to subsidence, American researchers said on Wednesday. The disappearance of permafrost, soil that has been below freezing point for long periods, periods, has accelerated in recent decades and is threatening infrastructure in northern regions, including nuclear power stations.

How to deal with new words (continued) 2. Try to find some help from word formation
Example ①:

Still, all the challenges she faces — including a request to participate in degrading Iraqi detainees — aid her in detainees "coming into a fuller sense of my own disabilities and strengths," she writes. ……

Example ②:

After decades of censorship, social conditioning and reports of fraud in lower-level lowerelections, the idea that voters could oust the iconic man who has ruled them for almost a quarter of a century is beyond the imagination of many analysts, not to mention ordinary Egyptians. "This has gone into the consciousness of the Egyptian people: that the president of the republic is a demigod, the demigod, bringer of good to everybody," said Mounir everybody," Fakhri, a legislator with the opposition Wafd Party.
Source: http:// www.latimes.com/ news/ nationworld/ world/la-fg-egypt6sep 06,1,7041487. story? coll =la-headlines-world

■ How to deal with new words

3. Try to find some help from context and common knowledge
Example ①:

The lack of urgency he (President Bush) conveyed in the first days after the hurricane and his administration's fumbling response to desperate human needs have brought scathing bipartisan criticism. (Background: Hurricane Katrina)
Source: USA TODAY 2006-09-06 2006-09-

Example ②:

The South has a sordid history when it comes to poor blacks and hurricanes. In 1927, when the Mississippi flooded, blacks were herded as virtual prisoners upriver in Greenville, Mississippi. As a steamboat, halfhalf-filled with whites, took off to safety, the band played "Bye-Bye, Blackbird." "ByeBackground: the American South, slavery
Source: Newsweek 2005-09-12 2005-09-

Example ④:

In India, Going Global Means Flaunting Flaunting It

THIRTY years ago, luxury in India meant having a phone connection at home, an IndianIndianmade Ambassador car parked out front, a bar of Toblerone chocolate carted home by an uncle visiting from abroad. In the India that President Bush will visit this week, an extravagant ethos of bling has arrived. Gone is a half-century legacy of independent halfIndia — stubbornly socialist, avowedly nonaligned, deeply anti-American — in which antithe consumer culture was largely homehomeproduced.

A new euphoria can be tasted, on the lips of the small but growing upper crust, as India's crust, new rich begin to welcome the priciest products from abroad, as well as designer brands made at home, and flaunt them, too. home, flaunt Tikka Shatrujit Singh, scion of the Maharajah of Kapurthala, in western Punjab State, and today an adviser to the Louis Vuitton brand in India, described the new attitude this way:

"There is no need to feel offended. Why hide it? Show your success." The Vuitton success." stores here and in Mumbai, the commercial capital that is also known as Bombay, scored what he said were record sales on Valentine's Day. He declined to be more specific. His products are often priced higher here than in Europe. ……
Source: New York Times, February 26, 2006

Example ①:

■ Dealing with culture

Reid blasted those who have blamed state officials. “This is a huge federal issue,” he said. "The buck stops at 1600 "The Pennsylvania Avenue. Avenue. Background: to pass the buck (to sb.) “The buck stops here.”
(Former U.S President Truman’s motto)
From: USA TODAY , Posted 9/6/2005

Example ②:

In the mid-20th century, the American perspective darkened. "When you look at war narratives going back to Homer, particularly 'The Iliad,' war had some purpose, some meaning, some higher benefit," Kohn says. "It brought out the emotions — it did lots of positive things.“ Background: Greek epics, heroism in war

Example ③
Natalie Maines is one of those people born middle finger first. She’s truly notorious, first. having told a London audience in 2003, on the eve of the Iraq war, “Just so you know, we're ashamed the President of the United States is from Texas,” “I apologized for disrespecting the office of the President,” says Maines. “But I don’t feel that way anymore. I don't feel he is owed any respect whatsoever.”
Source: TIME 2006-05-29 2006-05-

4.11 Appreciating the language of English News Some benefits —— Acquire latest information (90%) Understand the fundamentals of English journalism Know about the different styles of English newspapers and magazines Improve one’s English competence

How to improve your English competence through appreciating English news stories (1)

Possible Perspectives :
Register (formal vs. informal vs. slang) Means of communication: print vs. electronic Fields of interest: politics, economy, culture, etc. Purpose of writing: to inform, to influence, to entertain, or to advertise

An example of appreciating register:
It wasn’t exactly a surprise. “This ain’t gonna last,” New Orleans City Council President Oliver Thomas told his security guard as they watched the waters of Lake Pontchartrain rising and racing and eating away at the dirt levee (堤坝) beneath the concrete floodwall built to protect New Orleans from disaster. It was 4 o'clock on Sunday afternoon, Aug. 28. Hurricane Katrina was still 14 hours away, but the sea surge had begun. Thomas returned to the city's hurricane war room and announced, to anyone who was listening, “The water’s coming into the city.” ……
(The Lost City, Newsweek, Sept. 12, 2005 issue)

How to improve your English competence through reading English news stories (2) Possible Perspectives : Lexicon: Lexicon: formal, informal, slang Choice of words: verbs, adjectives, words: adverbs, etc. (positive vs. negative) Choice of deixis (指示语): person, space, 指示语): time, etc. (positive vs. negative)

An example of how to appreciate word choices
But after five years in charge, Bush is being called to account for shortcomings in the administration in a way he wasn't when he was new to office. There is little sense, as there was after 9/11, that criticizing the president is unpatriotic. "A "A lot of the strong part of his image is now at least temporarily tarnished — the notion of the can-do canguy," guy," says Fred Greenstein, a presidential scholar at Princeton University. ……
(Storm upheaves Bush's second-term agenda, USA TODAY, secondSept.6, 2005)

How to improve your English competence through reading English news stories (3)
Starting from the headlines: Structure of the headline: phrase, simple headline: sentence, compound sentence, or abbreviations? SubSub-headline and over line: how are they line: connected to the headline? Rhetoric features of the headline: metaphor, headline: parody, quotation or rhetorical question?

Examples of appreciating news headlines ① The Lost City (Association: The Lost Generation , The Lost World, …) ② Pei’s Pyramid Puzzles Paris

(alliteration) ③ To boycott or not to boycott? (parody)

Examining the lead and the body:
Types of news lead: direct vs. delayed (How is it delayed? Why is it so arranged?) Sentence structure : passive voice; balance between long and short sentences; changes in sentence structure (e.g. inverted sentence) Rhetorical features in the body: metaphors, puns, repetitions, rhetorical questions, etc.

Appreciating English news —— an example

Life Without Mubarak? Unimaginable
(rhetorical question serving as the headline) headline) Despite Egypt’s poverty and repression, many people are so wary of a change in leadership that they say they will vote for the status quo (现状). (choice of words: negative) (hint: poor nations vs. developing nations)

ASYUT, Egypt — She wasn’t even born when he came to power, but 22-year-old Ranya 22-yearMoheidin insists that President Hosni Mubarak should keep his job for six more years. years. “He's done too much for us,” said the Arabic literature student, wearing a Muslim headscarf and elaborate eye makeup as she lingered on the fringes of a Mubarak rally in this dreary industrial town on the banks of the Nile. “We Nile. can't have anybody in his place.” (anecdote: a place. anecdote: delayed lead) lead)
(Continued on next page)


It’s a common refrain(重复) as voters refrain(重复) prepare to cast ballots Wednesday in Egypt's first contested presidential election. election. The competitive voting is an unprecedented experiment in a country where people have repeatedly gone to the polls to vote “yes” or “no” in referendums(全民投票) referendums(全民投票) with a lone candidate: candidate: Mubarak. (contrast/irony) (contrast/irony)
(continued on next page)


Despite the political discontent often voiced in the Egyptian street about harsh aging, poverty and repression under an aging, authoritarian leader, many people are so wary of a change in leadership that they say they'll vote for the status quo. (choice (choice of words) words)
(continued on next page)


At a time when the Bush administration talks about democracy in the Middle East as a pillar of its foreign policy, the Egyptian election offers a haunting(unforgettable) haunting( ) view of the region's autocratic(专制的) mindautocratic(专制的) mindset. The voting might crack open the door for greater freedoms, but analysts say it will also strengthen Mubarak’s hand by easing foreign pressure for reform. (note the two metaphors here)
(continued on next page)


After decades of censorship, social conditioning and reports of fraud in lower-level elections, the idea that voters could oust the iconic man who has ruled them for almost a quarter of a century is beyond the imagination of many analysts, not to mention ordinary Egyptians.
Source: http www.latimes.com/ news/ nationworld/ world/la-fghttp:// / world/la-fgegypt6sep 06,1,7041487. story? coll =la-headlines-world =la-headlines-

Appreciating English news stories (4)
— Ideological analysis of headlines

① Police shoot 11 dead in Salisbury Riot
Riot police shot and killed 11 African demonstrators (The Guardian)

② Rioting blacks shot dead by police
Eleven Africans were shot dead and 15 wounded when Rhodesian police opened fire on a rioting crowd (The Times)

③ Racists Murder Zimbabweans
(The Tanzanian Daily)

④ Sino-US air crash talks set for today SinoChina and the United States will hold talks in Beijing today in hopes of settling a range of issues surrounding the April collision between an American reconnaissance plane and a Chinese fighter jet.

(Shanghai Daily, April 18, 2001)

⑤ US ambassador gives “very sorry” letter Joseph Prueher, US ambassador to China and the key representative of the US Government for handling the incident of a US military reconnaissance plane ramming into and destroying a Chinese military aircraft, handed a letter to Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan yesterday at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, to say “very sorry” for the incident….
(China Daily, April 20, 2001)

Appreciating English news stories (5)
— some other aspects: Plate-making Type face: bold, italicized, underlined, etc. Capitalization: small letter vs. capitalized letter (for what purpose?) Color and Picture: how many of them, for what purpose, etc. Punctuation

12. English Punctuations
Common English punctuations:

, (comma) . (period) …(ellipsis) ? (question mark) ! (exclamation mark) : (colon) ; (semicolon) “” (double quotation mark) --- (dash) ‘’(inverted comma/single quotation mark)
Different punctuations in Chinese and English
e.g. 《我的生活》 我的生活》 “My Life” My Life MY LIFE

An example of long book titles: As he contemplated his career choices, Dartmouth graduate Nathaniel Fick fretted that he had been born too late. “There was no longer a place in the world for a young man who wanted to wear armor and slay dragons,” he writes in “One Bullet Away: “One The Making of a Marine Officer.” Officer.

Punctuations in news headlines
The function of colons: to quote (= say, show, prove, have, etc.)

① WTO entry to create more jobs: experts ② Powell: N. Korea blast not nuke ③ Fidel: “We Will Do Anything” In Cuba, Castro celebrates- but knows the celebrateswar isn’t over

■ The function of colons: to classify the news type and indicate to the reader what the news is about e.g.

① Mideast: No talks despite US mission ② Muslims: Speak out in condemnation of terrorist acts

The role of commas in news leads (<35 words in hard news):

(1) To separate clauses and condense the sentence structure.

“Beauty factory” to crank up Miss Venezuela output CARACAS, Jan 25 (Reuters) — Venezuela, Venezuela, with more international beauty crowns than any other country, will hold three Miss Venezuela pageants this year.

(2)Sometimes comma is used to replace the omitted word "and". e.g.

Beckham, Figo, Raul shortlisted
— 21st Century, November22, 2001

NPC passes laws on rural land, water
— China Daily, August 30, 2002

FAW, Toyota sign co-op deal co— China Daily, June 16, 2003

(3)Sometimes comma can also be used as a substitute for the quotation mark. e.g.

African Americans Shut Out by Bush, Kerry Says
—Washington Post, September12, 2004

■ The function of quotation marks in
news The single quotation mark(`…’) is more commonly used than the double quotation mark(“…”) for saving space. (1)To indicate external authority for a ) statement and doubt. e.g.

‘Change’ Is Vital Election Theme for Bush, Kerry
— Los Angeles Times, Sept. 9, 2004

(2)To express book names, movies, and songs, etc.
An example of long book titles:

As he contemplated his career choices, Dartmouth graduate Nathaniel Fick fretted that he had been born too late. “There was no longer a place in the world for a young man who wanted to wear armor and slay dragons,” he writes in “One Bullet Away: “One The Making of a Marine Officer.” Officer.”

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