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2 Problem Solving Tools


Problem Solving Tools
Week 2

Problem solving tools
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Desingning a new work center or improving an existing operation… What do you do? Idendification of the problem in a clear and logical form Problem solving tools. These tools are used for determining the process feaures.

The principal steps in a methods engineering program

Problem solving tools
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Exploratory Tools ? Pareto Analysis ? Fish Diagrams ? Gantt Chart ? Pert Charting ? Job/Worksite Analysis Guide Recording and Analysis Tools ? Operation process chart ? Flow process chart ? Flow Diagram ? Worker and Machine Process Charts ? Gang Process Charts Quantitative Tools, Worker and Machine Relationships ? Synchronous Servicing ? Random Servicing ? Complex Relationships ? Line Balancing

Pareto Analysis
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Problems can be defined by this technique. In pareto analysis, items of interest are identified and measured on a common scale are then ordered in descending order, as a cumulative distribution. Typically 20 percent of the ranked items account for 80 percent or more of the total activity. %80 total inventory is found only %20 of the inventory items. %20 jobs account for approximately %80 of the accident.

Fish Diagrams
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Fish Diagrams, also known as cause and effect diagrams, were developed by ISHIKAWA while working quality control project.

Gantt Chart
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The Gantt chart was the first prohect planning and control technique. A Gantt chart smply shows the anticipated completion times for various project activities as bars plotted against time on the horizontal axis. Actual completion times are shown by shading the bars.

Example of a) project based Gantt chart b) machine or process based Gantt chart

Pert Charting
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Pert stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique. A PERT chart , also referred to as a network diagram or critical path, is a planning and control tool taht graphically portrays the optimum way to attain some predetermined objective, generally in terms of time.

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In using Pert for scheduling, analysts generally provide two or three time estimates
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How much time is required to complete aspecific activity if everthing works out ideally (optimistic estimate)? Under average conditios, what would be the most likely duration of this activity? What is the time required to complete this activity if almost everthing goes wrong (pessimistic estimate)?

An example (Niebel, page 28)

Job/Worksite Analysis Guide

Operation Process Chart (recording and analysis tools)
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Shows the the chronological sequence of all operations inspections, time allowances and materials used in manufacturing or business process, from the arrival of raw material to the packaging of the finished product.

Operation Process Chart

Flow Process Chart
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The flow process chart contains considerably more detail than the operation process chart. The flow process chart is especially valuable in recording nonproduction hidden costs, such as distances traveled, delays and temporal storages.

The ASME standard set of process chart symbols

Flow process chart (material) for preparation of direct mail

Flow process chart (worker) for field inspection of LUX


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