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Unit


The Tapestry of Friendship

Ellen Goodman

Contents
? Ⅰ.

Speaking Activities ? Ⅱ. Listening Activities ? Ⅲ. Background Information ? Ⅳ. Structural Analysis ? Ⅴ. Language Work ? Ⅵ. Important and Difficult Sentences ? Ⅶ. Rhetorical Analysis

Ⅰ. Speaking Activities

1.

2.
3. 4.

Do you keep in touch with your childhood friends? What do you need friends for? What makes a good friendship? How to make friends?

What can friendships give us?
? Fun ? Ways

To Share Feelings ? Learn New Skills ? Find Understanding and Support ? Ways To Feel Needed And Useful ? You Can Be Yourself

?Proverbs on

Friendship

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A man dies often as he loses a friend. But we gain new life by new contacts, new friends. — Bacon ? In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. — C.Collins ? -My friends are my estate. - Emily Dickinson, American Poet
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To preserve a friend three things are required: to honour him present, praise him absent, and assist him in his necessities.

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Chinese Sayings about Friendship:
-近朱者赤,近墨者黑。 -Keep good men company and you shall be of the number. -亲兄弟,明算账。 -Even reckoning makes long friends. -物以类聚,人以群分。 -Birds of a feather flock together. -君子之交淡如水。 -A hedge between keeps friendship green. -海内存知己,天涯若比邻。 -A bosom friend afar brings a distant land near. -有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎! -Isn’t it great when friends visit from distant places?

What Makes A Good Friendship?
? Shared ? Reliability ? Support

Interests ? Shared Values ? Trust ? Honesty ? Respect ? Cooperation

? Understanding
? Sensitivity

? Forgiveness
? Tolerance

How to make friends?
? Go

where people are most friends you make who have the same interests you do. ? Be a friend to yourself- don’t put yourself down. ? Be cheerful- smile, don’t always wait for the other person to speak first.

Be yourself- no one is perfect. Your friends won’t expect you to be, so it is best to just be yourself. ? Don’t expect perfection in your friends -like you, your friends will make mistakes now and then. Laugh with them about it, but don’t put them down. ? Friendship is to give and takefriendship is sharing things like feelings, plans, and dreams. To make and keep a friend, you have to give as well as take. Learn to compromise.
?

?

Realize you will sometimes disagree with your friend- nobody agrees all the time. Disagreements don’t have to mean the end of a relationship. ? Give your friend space- almost everyone likes to be alone sometime. Give your friend space to have other friends, too. ? Be choosy about your friends- real friends will not ask you to do things that are harmful and against the law. ? Let people know that you are interested in them. Don’t just talk about yourself; ask questions about them.

So----? TO HAVE A FRIEND…BE A FRIEND! ? Remember the Golden Rule of Friendship…TREAT OTHERS AS YOU’D LIKE TO BE TREATED! ? SOMEWHERE OUT THERE, A FRIENDSHIP IS WAITING TO START!
?

?

So, make sure that you are familiar with the recipe of friendship!

Background information
Friendship is a relationship which involves mutual
knowledge, esteem, and affection. Friends will welcome each other's company and exhibit loyalty towards each other, often to the point of putting the other's interests before one's own. Their tastes will usually be similar and may converge, and they will share enjoyable activities. They will also engage in mutually helping behavior, such as exchange of advice and the sharing of hardship. A friend is someone who may often demonstrate reciprocating and reflective behaviors. Yet for many, friendship is nothing more than the trust that someone or something will not harm them.

Ⅱ. Listening Activities

1. Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. Please write the whole passage on your answer sheet.

?

I once said that a friend is a friend all the way, but now I believe that's a narrow point of view. For the friendships I have and the friendships I see are conducted at many levels of intensity, serve many different purposes, meet different needs and range from those as all-the-way as the friendship of the soul sisters mentioned above to that of the most casual playmates.

?

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The best of friends, I believe, totally love and support and trust each other, and bare to each other the secrets of their souls, and run - no questions asked- to help each other, and tell harsh trust to each other when they must be told. But we needn't agree about everything to tolerate each other's point of view, to accept without judgment, to give and to take without ever keeping score, and to be there, as I am for them and as they are for me, to comfort our sorrows, to celebrate our joys.

Extended Information

The kinds of friendships
? Same

Gender

? Male-female ? Groups

(Ethnic; Existential)

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Gender Patterns in Friendship Women’s Friendship Female friendships are often seen as having elements of intimacy and support. Women typically describe their friendships in terms of closeness and emotional attachment. What characterizes friendships between women is the willingness to share important feelings, thoughts, experiences, and support. Women devote a good deal of time and intensity of involvement to friends. Friendships between women, more so than between men, are broad and less likely to be divided.

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Men’s Friendships Unlike women, men are typically socialized by society to be less social and have more difficulty with friendships; they are often raised to compete with other men and not cooperate with them, to hide their vulnerabilities and not share their inner experiences. However, like women, men can benefit from the social bonds of friendship. The great friendships recorded in history have been between men, and friendships among men have often been romanticized and idealized. Men’s friendships have typically been described in terms of bravery and physical sacrifice in providing assistance to others. Despite this historical romanticization of the

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

male friendship, researchers have found that men have significantly fewer friends than women, especially close friendships or best friends.

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Friendship between Men and Women There is much debate about the possibilities of male and female friendships. Much of this debate has had to do with the idea that sexual attraction will prevent men and women from forming a strong platonic bond. There can be many challenges to female-male friendships. For instance, in a society where men have typically had more power and dominance, equality can be an issue. Both genders may benefit from these interactions: Men may learn more about sharing and establishing emotional support, while women might enjoy interactions that are less emotionally challenging.

Ⅲ. Background Information

1. About the Author

About the author
? ?

Ellen Goodman
She is an American original. Her abundant talents--intellect, wit, style, news judgment--set her apart with an élan uniquely her own. Her Pulitzer Prize winning commentary appears in more than 375 newspapers.

?

Ellen Goodman, is a Boston Globe Online columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing touch on any issue, public or personal. She is widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and readers depend on her to help them make sense of their changing lives and relationships.

Bibliography:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?

Turning Points (1979) Close to Home (1979) At Large (1981) Keeping in Touch (1985) Making Sense (1989) Value Judgments (1993) Paper Trail (2004)

Co-author, with Patricia O'Brien:
? I Know Just What You Mean : The Power of Friendship in Women's Lives (2000)

2. About the text
This text is taken from Close to Home, which was published by The Boston Globe Company / Washington Post Writers Group in 1979. ? This text distinguishes two kinds of friendship: that between men and that between women. It can be divided into four parts.
?

Ⅳ. Structural Analysis

The text can be divided into four parts.

Para1-2
The Tapestry of Friendship

The author reveals what kind of film the woman has seen.

The author advances Para 3- 6 the double standard of friendship on the basis of the It summarizes the personally observed fundamental difference shift of focus of between the male cinema lens. Para 7-18 companionship and the female friendship. The distinctions of the two types of Para 19 friendship are detailed.

General analysis

Structural features

Rhetorical features

To show the differences between buddiness and friendship effectively, the author of the text coordinates sentences in various ways. Sometimes he uses conjunctions such as but, yet and while. And sometimes he simply puts two clauses together without using any conjunction at all. For examples: Well, she thought, on the whole, men had buddies, while women had friends. Buddies bonded, but friends loved. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. There was something palpably different in the way they spent their time. Buddies seemed to “do” things

General analysis

Structural features

Rhetorical features

together; friends simply “were” together. (paragraph 8) Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other. (paragraph 11) Practice: Please find more examples of coordinating sentences without using any conjunction.

tapestry

Tapestry
A heavy cloth woven with rich, often varicolored designs or scenes, usually hung on walls for decoration and sometimes used to cover furniture. ? tapestry carpet用染色经线织成图案的地毯 ? tapestry satin 织锦缎

? Ⅴ. Language Work

Language study(paragraph 1&2-1)
? In this part the author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen and what attitude she had to it. ? questions: ? 1) What kind of film did the woman see? ? It was a movie that portrayed all aspects of the friendship between two women: its fragility, its resiliency and its connecting function. It was quite an ordinary film, without thrilling scenes like the long-time car chase or the fierce gunfight. The end was of no great significance either. ? 2) What did she think of it? ? The movie was gentle and moving to the woman, because, as the following paragraphs show, with the other two movies it brought about a new definition of friendship that stood against traditional view of friendship.

Detailed reading

slight: a. of no importance or consideration; trifling e.g. There was a slight increase in her weight after the winter holidays. 寒假结束后,她好像有点儿发胖。 Translation: 他是个高个子德国人,讲一口漂亮的英语,只带一丁点 口音。 He was a tall German who spoke perfect English with ___________________________________________________ only a slight trace of accent. _________ ___________________________________________________ _________

? 2. big-budget chase scene ? budget: the amount of money needed or available for a particular purpose. ? chase: [U] the act of pursuing someone or something. – Pp. a car-chase scene that costs a lot of money ? 3. shoot-out: a decisive gun battle.

* 1. cosmic
adj.

1) limitless; vast

he earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale.
2) relating to the universe

It is presumed that the universe was created in a giant cosmic explosion.

Detailed reading

It was, in many ways, a slight movie. Nothing actually happened. There was no big-budget chase scene, no bloody shoot-out. The story ended without any cosmic conclusions.

Paraphrase: In many aspects it was a simple, ordinary movie. It was quite an ordinary scene, without the spectacle of cars chasing each other and bloodshed gunfight. The end was of no great significance.

Girlfriends
?

It is a believable relationship story of a young Jewish woman who is trying to make it on her own, coping with work, romance and friendship at the same time and has to accept the marriage of her best friend and roommate. It seemed almost revolutionary in 1978 when it was first released. It is a small movie that made a big splash with its focus on women's’ interior lives.

Language study(paragraph 1&2-4)
? 6. affecting: adj. inspiring strong emotion: moving.
– E.g. Departure is an affecting scene.

affect vt.
effect n.



to influence; to do something in order to produce an effect on someone or something

affect vt.
affectation n.



to pretend to have a particular feeling, way of speaking, etc.

? 7. Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship ... – Pp. Step by step it gave an all-sided view of the complex structure of friendship ... ? pan: vt/i. swing (a video or film camera) to follow an object to have a n all-round view of it 摇动(镜头)拍全景.

Language study(paragraph 1&2-5)
? 8. fragility: [U] (of an object) being easily broken or damaged.
– E.g. Older drivers are more likely to be seriously injured because of the fragility of their bones.

? Adj. Fragile
– E.g. The thin glass is fragile. – I'm feeling rather fragile after all that beer last night. – fragile happiness

Language study(paragraph 1&2-6)
? 9. resiliency: [U] the ability to recover readily
– E.g. Do your muscles have the strength and resilience that they should have?

? Adj. Resilient: are able to recover easily and quickly from unpleasant or damaging events.
– E.g. Rubber is more resilient than wood. – the Japanese stock market was resilient.

? 10. tissue: network; web
– E.g. Her whole story was a tissue of lies.她的整个 故事是一套谎言。 – The text is a tissue of mocking echoes这本书充满 了一连串讽刺性的模仿

Language study(paragraph 3-6-1)
? This part describes the woman's observation of the shift of focus of the cinema and advances the argument for the distinction between the two types of friendship: that between men and that between women. ? The following questions may help students to better understand this part: ? 1) Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen? ? Because the three movies share the same theme: the friendship between women.

Detailed reading

What led the woman to think that the cinema has drastically shifted its focus? (paragraph 3) It was the fact that at present there were many more movies about Female Friendship than movies about Male Buddiness. In contrast, in the past, the friendship between men had dominated the movies, giving a false impression that only men were capable of making friends. What was the shift? (paragraph 4) On the surface, it was a shift from the friendship between men to that between women; but in nature the shift highlighted a different type of friendship: Male Buddiness is subtly distinct from Female Friendship.

Detailed reading

shift one’s focus (onto/to): move one’s attention from one thing to another e.g. It was not until the last year that we began to shift our focus onto the drive for modernization. That is why I insisted that the focus of our work should be rapidly shifted to the economic development.

Detailed reading

flick: (slang) n. a movie Symonyms: movie, film, motion picture, moving picture, picture, picture show, show

5. binge
?

n. a short period when you do too much of something, especially drinking alcohol

? ?

a week-long binge of shopping and theatregoing

When she was depressed, she went on an ice-cream binge. ? During Christmas, Canadians spent a whopping $40.3 billion as they went on a spending binge.

6. Vé rité
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n. a genre of film, television, and radio programmers emphasizing realism and naturalism

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It is a style of documentary filmmaking, combining naturalistic techniques with stylized cinematic devices of editing and camerawork, staged set-ups, and the use of the camera to provoke subjects. It is also known for taking a provocative stance toward its topics.

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始于50年代欧洲的一种电影制作风格。由 让· 卢什和社会学家莫兰为首的一批纪录电影工 作者组成。他们主张用采访报道的形式拍摄纪 录片,因此在拍摄过程中会出现一些由拍摄者 人为诱导的情节发展,通常会表达出强烈、甚 至激进的思想倾向。由于当时已出现轻便型无 杂音同期录音的摄影机、微型话筒及高感光度 胶片,使得创作人员有可能在任何条件下都自 如地进行拍摄。尽管它流行的时间并不长,但 其拍摄手法所产生的影响却不仅仅局限于纪录 电影之中。

Detailed reading

This wasn’t just another binge of trendiness, but a kind of cinema verité.
Paraphrase: This was not simply a shift from one fashion to another, but a truthful description of friendship.

Detailed reading

Americans are suckers for action flicks that are famous for senseless explosions, car chases, bar brawls and shoot-outs. What kind of movies are they? Please translate the following into English. 言情片 romance/love story 动作片 恐怖片 惊悚片 动画片 悬疑片 贺岁片 action film horror film thriller

cartoon/animation
mystery New Year greetings pictures / New Year blockbuster

Language study(paragraph 3-6-4)
? 8. across millions of miles of celluloid ? in large numbers of movies ? celluloid:1) a kind of plastic that cinema film used to be made of.赛璐珞,明胶一种由硝酸 纤维和樟脑制成的无色、易燃材料,用以制 作照相胶卷 ? 2. motion-picture film: ? There are no heroes but in celluloid

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid虎豹小霸王/ 神枪手与智多星
? 轻喜剧风格的西部片。 两位主 人公都是反英雄类的典型,是令 人愉快的个人主义者。特别是保 罗· 纽曼,自命不凡,永远乐观, 从没杀过人,整天幻想着全世界 的银行都已时机成熟待他轻取, 实实的一个空想家。他与搭档神 枪手罗伯特· 雷福德爱着同一个 女人,他们最擅长的就是在打抢 或逃亡时还一路诙谐打趣,这与 传统西部片里的歹徒绝对两样。 影片温情而饶有趣味,因纽曼和 雷福德的表演而大放光芒。两位 男星英俊迷人无疑是主要吸引力, 但他们确实也得益于编剧威 廉· 高曼的机智诙谐和导演的超 一流水准。该片最终获得奥斯卡 最佳剧本、最佳摄影、最佳音响、 最佳音乐项大奖。人们把它推为 首席非主流西部片

Language study(paragraph 3-6-5)
? 10. atavistic: adj. Relating to or characterized by reversion to something ancient or ancestral. 返祖性的 ? [C] atavist: 呈现返祖现象的人/ ? [U] atavism:返祖性 ? 11. attachment: If you have an attachment to someone or something, you are fond of them or loyal to them. ,如爱戴或忠诚;爱慕
– E.g. As a teenager she formed a strong attachment to one of her teachers...

7. cull
?

v. to select from a large quantity; obtain from a variety of sources

?

Here are a few pictures I’ve culled from the week’s papers.

13. anthropology:[U] The scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of human beings. ? 14. bonding: the formation of a close relationship especially through frequent or constant association.亲密关系的形成 形成亲近的特别的人际关系,如配偶之 间或朋友之间:
?

portrayal



portrait



Ernest Hemingway
? Ernest Hemingway is one of the most famous American writers of the 20th century. He wrote novels and short stories about outdoorsmen, expatriates, soldiers and other men of action, and his plainspoken no-frills writing style became so famous that it was (and still is) frequently parodied.

? His dashing machismo was almost as famous as his writing: he lived in Paris, Cuba and Key West, fancied bullfighting and big game hunting, and served as a war correspondent in WWII and the Spanish Civil War. Hemingway sealed his own notoriety when he killed himself with a shotgun in 1961. His books include The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929) and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). His short novel The Old Man and the Sea (1952) won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953, and Hemingway was given the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.

* 9. inherit
v. 1)receive (money, a house etc.) from
someone after they have died

When I took on the job of manager, I inherited certain financial problems. She inherited the land from her grandfather.
2) be born with (a physical or mental quality that a parent, grandparent or other relative has)

Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother.

Practice
1) 她从她父亲那里继承了一大笔财富。 ? She inherited a fortune from her father.
?

2) 这种耐心是母亲遗传给他的。 ? He has inherited his mother's patience.
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* 10. primal
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adj. connected with the earliest origins
of life; very basic

?

the primal truths of human existence

Detailed reading

pick on: (1) (Informal) criticize or blame; tease; harass

e.g. His older brother always picked on him. The older children liked to pick on the younger ones.
(2) single out; choose e.g. The professor always picks on me to translate long passages. He always picks on small points to criticize.

Language study(paragraph 7-18-1)
? This part discusses in detail the distinctions between the Male Buddiness and the Female Friendship. Generally speaking, the former is action-oriented while the latter is emotionoriented That is, the Male Ruddiness is based on the need for co-operation in the activities that men are engaged in or in the adverse situations they are confronted with. In contrast, the Female Friendship borders on love, the need for mutual emotional support.

Language study(paragraph 7-18-2)
? Q: What's the fundamental difference between buddies and friends? ? Buddies are men's companions; they are connected by common activities. Friends, in the narrow sense in the text, are women's companions; they are associated by emotional attachment. Without shared activities, there would be no buddies for men; without love there would be no true friends for women.

Language study(paragraph 7-18-3)
? Q: What are the conditions of men becoming buddies and of women becoming friends? ? Men can become buddies only when they have weathered storms in commercial or athletic or military " wars" together, while women have to exchange at least three loathsome secrets before they consider themselves as friends.

* 11. attachment
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n. the condition of being attached to

something or someone, in particular, affection, fondness, or sympathy for someone or something
? ?

He has a sentimental attachment to his birthplace. She formed a strong attachment for him.

?

attached adj.

Practice
?
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我们十分喜爱这座房子,真舍不得搬家。
We've grown so attached to this house that we would hate to move.

* 12. adversity
?
? ?

n. difficulties; misfortunes

Adversity is a good disciple. A genuine friend will not desert you in time of adversity.

【谚】烈火炼真金,逆境炼壮士 ? The fire is the test of gold; adversity of strong men.
?

* 13. confess
?

v. to admit or acknowledge something
reluctantly, typically because one feels slightly ashamed or embarrassed

? ? ? ?

?
?

confess + n. confess + doing confess that-clause confess one’s guilt I confess hating the king. He confessed that he had stolen that money.

Practice
1) 她供认犯了谋杀罪。 ? She confessed to the murder. ? 2) 我们说服她坦白她的罪行。 ? We persuaded her to confess her crime. ? 3) 他承认他偷了那笔钱。 ? He confessed that he had stolen the money.
?

* 14. restraint
?
? ? ?

n. deprivation or restriction of personal
liberty or freedom of movement

There are so many restraints in the feudal society. His rage is beyond restraint. You showed great restraint in not crying.

restrain
?

v. to stop somebody/something from
doing something, especially by using physical force

? ?

I had to restrain her from hitting out at passers-by. She couldn’t restrain herself from hitting Mark.

Practice
1) 政府正在采取措施控制通货膨胀。 ? The government is taking steps to restrain inflation. ? 2) 约翰努力压制住自己的怒气。 ? John managed to restrain his anger.
?

* 15. grievance
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n. a feeling of resentment over sth.
believed to be wrong or unfair

? Parents were invited to air

their grievances(= express them) at the meeting. ? He had been nursing a grievance against his boss for months.

Ⅵ. Important and Difficult Sentences
Innovation

Optimization

Part I. (paras. 1-2) Prelude: The author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen and what attitude she had to it. Questions:

1.What kind of film did the woman see?
Girlfriends----friendship between two young women,

fragility, resiliency and the connecting tissue
2. What’s her attitude to the movie? Slight movie------ no complex plot, no big-budget chase scene, no bloody shoot-out, no cosmic conclusion. Gentle, affecting. It panned across the tapestry of friendship.

1. It was, in many ways, a slight movie.

? In many aspects it was a simple, ordinary

movie.

2. Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship—showing its fragility, its resiliency, its role as the connecting tissue between the lives of two young women.

Step by step it showed an all-sided view of the complex structure of friendship: How it was easily broken; how it was recovered; and how it connected the lives of the two young women.

Part II. (paras. 3-6): Introduction: The author advances the double standard of friendship on the basis of the personally observed shift of focus of cinema lens. Questions: 1. Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen? 2. What led the woman to think that the cinema has drastically shifted its focus?
At present there are more movies about female friendship than movies about male buddiness, In contrast, in the past, the friendship between men dominated the movies, giving a false impression that only men were capable of making friends. The three movies share the same theme: the friendship between women.

3. What was the shift?

3. This wasn’t just another binge of trendiness, but a kind of cinema vé rité .

binge: an occasion when an activity is done in an extreme way, especially eating, drinking or spending money
?

The shift of focus from Male Buddy movies to the Female Friendship flicks was not just a crazy trend catering to the new fashion; instead it reflected the reality of social changes and developments.

4. For once the movies were reflecting a shift, not just from men to women but from one definition of friendship to another.
? for once: used to say that something

hardly happens although it should happen
? ?

Just for once I’d like to see him cook dinner. Well, for once he’s being nice to me.

5. Across millions of miles of celluloid, the ideal of friendship had always been male .
?

In numerous movies, the ideal friendship had always been between men.

Metonymy: 借代,换喻,转喻
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated from cradle to grave

The pen is mightier than the sword.

6. There had been something almost atavistic about these visions of attachments –– as if producers culled their plots from some pop anthropology book on male bonding .
?

These stories on men’s friendship were almost like being inherited from our grandfathers. It seemed that the producers of these movies had selected their stories from some popular anthropology books on friendship between men.

7. Movies portrayed the idea that only men, those direct descendants of hunters and Hemingways, inherited a primal capacity for friendship.
?

Movies gave us an impression that only men, the posterity of hunters and Hemingway, had the instinctive ability of making friends.

Metonymy:
用Hemingway(作者的名字)代替具有他作品 主人公性格的人物,使用的也是借代的修 辞手法。

My 15 students read Emerson. 以人名借代作品。

8. That duality must have been mortally wounded in some shoot-out at the You’re OK, I’m OK Corral . The two sides must have been mortally wounded in the gunfire in the movie .

?

Part III. (paras. 7-18) Body---distinctions
?

Buddy (male)
bonded

?

Friend (female)
loved face each other

in the reflection of acts

more signs and expressions of love

face adversity together

do things together
linked to activities
become friends through ―wars‖

be together
a special category for friends
become friends after sharing some secrets

buddies hang tough together Keep the worst from each other

friends hang onto each other friends confess

buddies seek approval friends seek acceptance In restraint, die for each, never hug, not see often,

Language work:

1. border on:

to be very close to reaching an extreme feeling or quality

The two villages border on each other.
The proposal borders on the absurd.

9. Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other.
Buddies hold on together in face of adversity; friends cling tightly to each other for emotional support.

10. She had reread Babbitt recently, that extraordinary catalogue of male grievances.
?

Recently she read the novel Babbitt again. To the main character Babbitt readers may have a lot of resentment.

11. The only relationship that gave meaning to the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been with Paul Riesling.
?

George Babbitt led a claustrophobic life. The only thing that made his life meaningful was his relationship with Paul Riesling.

Part IV. Conclusion
The author summarizes the fundamental difference between the male companionship and the female friendship.
A buddy is life companion. Friends are part of the race with which one can be human.

Friendship( 超链接)
Snoopy’s friendship ? My friend Children friendship Of friendship (Bacon)
?

?Ⅶ. Rhetorical Analysis

?

To show the differences between buddiness and friendship effectively, the author of the text coordinates sentences in various ways. Sometimes he uses conjunctions such as but, yet and while. And sometimes he simply puts two clauses together without using any conjunction at all.

?

?
?

?

?

For example: 1) Buddies bonded, but friends loved. 2) Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. 3) Men affect each other in the reflection of noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer proofs and more signs and expressions of attachment. 4) Men often keep their buddies in these categories while women keep a special category for friends.

? Thanks for

Your Attention!!


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