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句子中的状语成分:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句 子(这个就叫状语,一句话 语法: 状语用副词,不用形容词),说 明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。 可由以下形式表示: Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句) 状语种类如下: How about meeting again at six?(时间状语)(表示时 间就是时间状语,那表示原因的呢? )


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Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方 式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果 状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语)

非谓语动词在句中的成分 不定式几乎可以充当除谓语以外的所有成分,动 名词起名词的作用。现在分词和过去分词起形容词和 副词的作用。
语法特征 名词特征 形容词特征 副词特征

意义特征 主 语

宾 语

同位 语


宾语补 语

表 语





动名词 现在分 词 过去分 词




副词特征作状语 意义特征 目的 时间 原因 条件 结果 让步 伴随或方式



现在分 词


过去分 词


1. to do 2.-ing 3.done

1. Tom returned from the manager’s office, telling me that the boss wanted to see me at once. 2. The news meeting, to be held in that hall, has already been crowded with reporters. 3. Having reached the very peak of the Everest, the climbers cheered against the fierce north wind. 4. He keeps buying expensive maps. He must have more than 200 by now. 5. I heard the girl singing in the classroom. 6. The man talking with my father is Mr. Wang. 7. As soon as she entered the room, the girl caught sight of the flowers bought by her mother. 8. To live is to struggle. (生活就是斗争。)

1.非谓语动词的七大经典原则 2.非谓语动词解题四大步骤

一.非谓语动词的 七大经典原则

原则一:用作目的状语,原则上要用不定式 原则二:用作伴随状语,原则上要用现在分词 原则三:用作结果状语时,可用-ing或不定式 原则四:凡是含有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语原则上应与 主句主 语保持一致 原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前时,原则上要用完成 式 原则七:用于名词后作定语时,原则是:用不定式,表示动作 尚未发生; 用-ing,表示动作正在进行; 用过去分词,表示动 作已经发生,同时表示被动意义

1. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there _____ for a space flight. (2007江西卷) A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained 【解析】由于进行航空飞行训练是他被派往那儿的目的,所以 要用不定式,因此可排除 A 和 B。另外,由于“他”与“训练” 为被动关系,故选 D。 to catch up the first bus. 如:She got up very early to catch up the first bus.

2. _____ this cake, you’ll need 2 eggs, 175 g sugar and 175 g flour.(2006广东卷) A. Having made B. Make C. To make D. Making

原则二: 用作伴随状语,原则上要用-ing.
3.As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not _____, and asked myself what I was going to do. (2007湖南卷) A. moved B. moving C. to move D. Being moved

【解析】由于与句子主语之间为主动关系,且表示当 时持续了一会 listen to … do/doing … 儿,故用-ing。句意为:当信号灯变绿时,我站在那儿一会儿没动, 心想自己该怎么办。 4. He sat _____ to her ______ the stairs. A. to listen; to climb B. listening; to climb C. listening; climb D. listening; to climbing 【解析】listen是伴随sat而同时由主语he发出的,所以用-ing 作伴随状语;listen to 后跟不带to的不定式/-ing作宾补。

-ing形式作伴随状语与 to do作目的状语的区别: 作伴随状语的-ing形式与谓语动词的动作同时发生且 前面常常带一逗号;而作目的状语的不定式的动作要比 谓语动词的动作后发生前面不能用逗号。

hoping 1.She wrote to the editor, ________ that the editor would be able to help her.( hope ) 2.She reached the top of the hill and stopped there _________ on a big rock.( rest ) to rest

3.The secretary worked late into night , preparing ______ a long speech. ( prepare ) To keep 4. ___________ warm, we shut all the windows. ( keep )

原则三:用作结果状语时,可用-ing或不定式,其原则区别是, 一般用-ing,表示一定逻辑的结果,即结果在意料之中。 不定式用作结果状语表示非逻辑的结果,即结果在意料之外。 5. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance,_____ in the natural light during the day. (2007天津卷) A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let 【解析] 此处用-ing 表示自然而然的结果。 如:It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that place. 大雨滂沱,造成了那个地方洪水泛滥。 6. Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,_____ a record US$ 57. 65 a barrel on April 4. (2005山东卷) A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching

7.He hurried to the station, only ______ that the train had left. (2005广东卷) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found 【解析】only to do sth 在此表示出人意料的结果。

8. He hurried to the booking office only _____ that all the tickets had been sold out. (2006陕西卷) A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told

原则四:凡是含有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。 但是,如果所涉及的动作尚未发生,则用不定式的被动 式;如果所涉及的动作正在进行,则用-ing的被动式. 9.The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle _____. (2007浙江卷) A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearing D. being heard

【解析】根据句意,此处指的是“被听见”,故要用被 动式,因此 可排除 B 和 C。另外,由于“设法被听见”为目的状语,动作在 当时尚未发生,故用不定式,即选 A。

10. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ______ could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed seat vt. C. being opened and closed D. to open and close

I seated myself. and close 之间存在逻辑 【解析】of 后应接-ing,desks 与open fix one’s eyes =I was seated. 上的被动关系,又因could be heard,所以选-ing的被动式表正

=I sat down


11. When she came in, she was surprised to find a stranger _______ at the back of the classroom with his eyes eyes_____upon her. A. seating; fixing B. to seat; fixing C.having seated; fixed D. seated; fixed


原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语原则上应与 主句主语保持一致.
12. Faced with a bill for $10,000,_____. (2006陕西卷) faced with A. John has taken an extra job B. the boss has given John an extra job C. an extra job has been taken D. an extra job has been given to John

(be) faced with…

13. While watching television,_____. (2005全国卷III) A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 【解析】因为 watching 的逻辑主语一定是人,排除选项 A 和 B ;又因在hear后作宾补的是省略了 to 的不定式, 所以选项 D 中的 rings 是错误的。

原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前时,原则上要用完成式 (根据情况可用不定式的完成式或—ing的完成式) 14._____ from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other countries in the world. (2005湖北卷) A. Being separated B. Having separated C.Having been separated D. to be separated 【解析】因为 Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,且 separate 发生在谓语动词 has 之前,所以用-ing的完成被动式作原因状语。 15. The manager,_____ it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room. (2005江西卷) left A. who has made B. having made C. made D. making 【解析】因为 The manager 与 make 是主动关系,且 make 发生在谓语 left 之前,所以用-ing的完成式作状语, having made ... 相当于 who had made... 的意思。

Sb is said to do… 据说… 16.—Li Ming is said ____ abroad. Do you know what
country he studied in ?
he will study in?


he studies in?
—Yes, In London.

A. to have studied
C. to be studying

B. to study
D. to have been studying

原则七:用于名词后作定语时,原则是: 用不定式,表示动作尚未发生; 用-ing,表示动作正在进行; 用过去分词,表示动作被动、完成。 17.There will be more than three hundred scientists

attending the meeting _____ the day after tomorrow tomorrow. the meeting
A. hold B. holding C. held D. to be held

18. There are hundreds of visitors _____ in front of visitors the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh’s paintings.

A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait

Things 19. “Things _____ never come again!”I couldn’t help talking myself. (2007湖南卷) lose vt. A. lost B. losing C. to lost losehave lost D. sb/sth

注:受 the first, the second ... the last 修饰 的名词或代词后原则上要用不定式作定语。
20. —The last one _____ pays the meal. The —Agreed!(2007全国I) A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving

You are the second to make that mistake. 你是第二个犯这错误的人。

Translate the following sentences into English.
已经 1. 这是一个已经 讨论了的问题。 正在 2. 这是一个正在 讨论的问题。 将要 3. 这是一个将要 讨论的问题。 discussed This is a problem discussed. (已经完成的被动动作) This is a problem being discussed. being discussed (正在进行的被动动作) This is a problem to be discussed. to be discussed (将要进行的被动动作)

原则一:用作目的状语,原则上用不定式. 原则一:用作目的状语,…

原则二:用作伴随状语,… 原则二:用作伴随状语,原则上用-ing.
原则三:用作结果状语,可用-ing/ to do ,原则区别是: -ing原则三:用作结果状语,… 表示一定逻辑的结果,to do 表示非逻辑的结果。 原则四:凡是有被动意义时,原则上要用过去分词。 如果动作尚未发生,则用不定式的被动形式; 原则四:凡是含有被动意义时,… 如果动作正在进行,则用-ing的被动形式。 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,原则上其逻辑 原则五:非谓语动词作状语时,… 主语应与主句主语保持一致。

原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作 原则六:强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前,原则上 要用完成式(-ing 的完成式或不定式的完成式) 之前时,…

原则七:用于名词后作定语,原则是:不定式表示动作尚未发生; 原则七:用于名词后作定语时,… -ing表示动作正在进行:过去分词表示动作完成,被动。

二. 非谓语动词解题 四大步骤

(一)分析句子结构,辨别“谓语与非谓语” 1.______many times , but he still C ___ couldn't understand it . 注意连词

A 2. ______many times , he still couldn't understand it .
A. Having been told
C. He had been told

B. Being told
D.Though he was told

C 3.It ___ a hot day, we’d better go swimming.
4. ____ a rainy day ; we decided not to E go there.

A.is D.It being

B. to be E. It was

C. being F. been


非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有动词特点,其 逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。

1.Walking along the street one day, she saw a little girl running up to her. 2.She is reading a book found on the way. 3.Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa. 4. Convinced of the truth of the reports, he told his colleagues about it. 一般来说,作状语的非谓语动词的逻辑主语是句子的主语; 作宾补的非谓语动词的逻辑主语是宾语; 作定语的非谓语动词的逻辑主语是被修饰词。

B 1._______ everything into consideration, they ought to have another chance.
D Everything 2.Everything ______ into consideration, they ought to have another chance.
A.to take C. to be taken B. taking D. taken

和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被动关系。 1. “You can’t catch me Jane !” Jane shouted,

_______ away. A. run B. running C.to run D. ran 2. _____ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing

(四)分析时态 C ____ 1. The building ____now will be a restaurant . B next year will 2. The building ____ ________ be a restaurant . D ________ 3. The building ______last year is a restaurant. A.having been built B.to be built
C.being built D. built

三. 非谓语动词解题步骤
一. 辨别“谓与非谓” 二. 找逻辑主语 三、分析语态 四、分析时态

方法总结: 谓非谓,找主语,析语态,定时态


1. A railway station is no place for a child _____ alone at night. A. leave B. leaving C. to be leaving D. to be left

2. We were warned _____ the fish which might give us a slight stomach upset. A. not to eat B. not eating C. to eat not D. eating not
3. _ themselves awake, they sat on the floor and told each other stories. A. Keep B. Keeping C. To keep D. To have kept

4. When you're learning to drive,__ a good teacher makes a big difference. A. have B. having C. and have D. and having

5. A few days after the interview, I received a letter ___ me the job. A. offered B. offering C. to be offering D. having offered

6. The plane crashed,_____ all 200 people aboard. A. killed B. having killed C. killing D. had killed 7. He was always the first _____ and the last _____ the office. A. to come, to leave B. coming, leaving C. to come, left D. coming, left 8. Robert is said _____ one of my classmates the other day, but I don’t know who she is. A. to marry B. to have married C. to be marrying D. being married
9.With everything she needed____, she left the shop. A. buying B. to buy C. bought D. to be bought

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