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Chapter2 vocabulary and nomenclature-02


Nomenclature of compounds
化合物的命名

1

Inorganic compounds
1 Element (元素与单质)

“元素”和“单质”的英文意思都是“element”, 有时为了区别,在强调“单质”时可用“ free element” 。因此,单质的英文名称与元素的英 文名称是一样的。

2

S-block Element
IA H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr IIA
Hydrogen Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Cesium Francium Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Beryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium
3

P-block Element
IIIA B Boron Al Aluminium Ga Gallium In Indium Tl Thallium VIA O S Se Te Po Oxygen Sulfur Selenium Tellurium Polonium IVA C Si Ge Sn Pb

Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead

VA N P As Sb Bi 0 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn

Nitrogen Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony Bismuth Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon

VIIA F Cl Br I At Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine

4

Common Transition Elememt
Fe : iron Mn : manganese Cu: copper Zn: zinc Hg: mercury Ag: silver Au: gold
5

2

Compounds (化合物)
化合物的命名顺序都是根据化学式从左往右读,这 与中文读法顺序是相反的。表示原子个数时使用前 缀 (1) mono- , (2) di- , (3)tri- , (4) tetra– , (5)penta(6) hexa- , (7) hepta- , (8) octa- ,(9) nona- ,(10) deca- , 但是在不会引起歧义时,这些前缀都尽可能被省去。

Na2SO4
6

Naming metal ions (cations) for metal oxides, bases and salts
1. Single valence ions
Cation’s name = Element for example: Na+ Sodium K+ Potassium Al3+ Aluminum Ca2+ Calcium
7

2. Multivalence ions
Cation’s name = Element(N)

For example:
Fe2+ Fe3+ Cr2+ Cr3+ Mn4+ Mn2+ Iron(II) Iron(III) Chromium(II) Chromium(III) Manganese(IV) Manganese(II)
8

? 对于有变价的金属元素,除了可采用罗马数字

来表示金属的氧化态,也可以用后缀-ous表示 低价,-ic表示高价。
? 如

?
?

?

FeO: ferrous oxide Fe2O3: ferric oxide Cu2O: cuprous oxide CuO: cupric oxide

或 或 或 或

iron(II) oxide iron (III) oxide copper(I) oxide copper(II) oxide

9

Naming nonmetal ions (anions)
1. Monatomic anions
Anion’s name = Element’s root -ide
For example: ClBrISChloride Bromide Iodide Sulfide OOxide

OH- Hydroxide CN- Cyanide HHydride
10

2. Polyatomic oxyanions
(1). Acid radicals for normal salt (正酸根 -ate ) Anion’s name = Central Element’s root -ate for example: ClO3- Chlorate PO43- Phosphate SO42Sulfate IO3NO3Iodate Nitrate

CO32- Carbonate
11

(2). Acid radicals for meta-salts (亚酸根 -ite )
Anion’s name = Central element’s root -ite for example: ClO2- Chlorite PO33- Phosphite SO32- Sulfite
12

IO2- Iodite NO2- Nitrite

(3). Acid radicals for hypo-salts (次酸根 Hypo - ite )
Anion’s name = Hypo- Central element’s root -ite for example:

ClOIO-

Hypochlorite
Hypoiodite

PO23-

Hypophosphite
13

(4). Acid radicals for persalts (高酸根Per - ate ) Anion’s name = Per-central Element’s root -ate
for example: ClO4IO4MnO4Perchlorate Periodate Permanganate
14

Naming compounds
1. Metal oxide (金属氧化物)
Metal oxide = Cation + oxide

for example:
FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Pb3O4 Na2O2 Iron(II) oxide (Ferrous oxide) Iron(III) oxide (Ferric oxide) Ferroferric oxide Trilead tetroxide Sodium peroxide
15

2. Nonmetal oxide (非金属氧化物)
Nonmetal oxide = n-Nonmetal element + n-oxide

for example:
CO CO2 SO3 N2O3 P2O5 N2O4 Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Sulfur trioxide Dinitrogen trioxide Diphosphorus pentoxide Dinitrogen tetroxide

dioxide SO2 = Sulfur ? (tetra-, mono- 后缀中的a, o在后一o之前省去)
16

3. Bases (碱)
Base = Metal cation + hydroxide
for example:

Al(OH)3
NaOH

Aluminum hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2
Ba(OH)2 Co(OH)2
Fe(OH)3 =

Calcium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide Cobalt(II) hydroxide
? Iron(III) hydroxide
17

4. Salts (盐)
(1). Normal salt (正盐) :根据化学式从左往右分 别读出阳离子和阴离子的名称。 Normal salt = Cation + anion
for example: HgSO4 Hg2SO4 KNO3 Na2CO3 NaClO FeSO4 KMnO4 Mercury(II) sulfate Mercury(I) sulfate Potassium nitrate Sodium carbonate Sodium hypochlorite iron(II) sulfate potassium permanganate18

(2) Acidic salts(酸式盐):同正盐的读法,酸根 中的H读做hydrogen,氢原子的个数用前缀表示。 Acidic salt = Cation + hydrogen + anion

for example:
NaHSO4 Sodium hydrogen sulfate

Na2HPO4
NaH2PO4

Disodium hydrogen phosphate
Sodium dihydrogen phosphate

Ca(HSO4)2 Calcium bisulfate
NaHCO3 Sodium hydrogencarbonate 或 Sodium bicarbonate
19

(3). Basic salts(碱式盐)
Basic salt = Cation + hydroxy-anion
for example:

Cu2(OH)2CO3 Dicopper(II) dihydroxycarbonate
Ca(OH)Cl Calcium hydroxychloride

Mg(OH)PO4

Magnesium hydroxyphosphate

20

(4). Mixed salts (复盐):同正盐的读法

Mixed salt = Cation + cation’ + anion
for example: NaKSO3 CaNH4PO4 AgLiCO3 NaNH4SO4 KNaCO3 Sodium potassium sulfite Calcium ammonium phosphate Silver lithium carbonate Sodium ammonium sulfate potassuim sodium carbonate

NaNH4HPO4 sodium ammonium hydrogenphosphate21

(5). Salt hydroates (水合盐):
-----结晶水读做water或hydrate
for example:
AlCl3 ? 6H2O:

aluminum chloride 6-water 或
aluminum chloride hexahydrate AlK(SO4)2 ? 12H2O: aluminium potassium sulfate 12-water
22

5. Acids (酸)
(1). Per-, hydro-,normal acid (its salt-ate,-ide)
Acid = Central element’s root -ic + acid
for example:

H2CO3 H2SO4 H3PO4 HNO3 HClO4 HCl

Carbonic acid Sulfuric acid Phosphoric acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid Hydrochloric acid

23

(2). Meta- and hypo-acid ( its salt-ite)
Acid = Central element’s root -ous + acid
for example: H2SO3 H3PO3 HNO2 HClO HClO2 Sulfurous acid Phosphorous acid Nitrous acid Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid
24

Hydrogen Acid (无氧酸)
Hydrogen acid = hydro- element’s root -ic acid for example: HCl: hydrochloric acid H2S : hydrosulfuric acid hydrofluoric acid HF = ?

25

Exercise
H2SO4 HCl HNO3 HNO2

HCN
HClO4

Na2S
KCN

CuSO4
NH4Cl

Fe(NO3)3
NaClO

NaOH
H 2O 2

Mn(OH)2
K2Cr2O7

Fe2O3

P2O5

Cu2(OH)2CO3

CaHPO4

PtCl4226

Organic Compounds
1 Alkanes (烷烃)
烷烃英文名称除了含1到4个碳原子以外,其余均

用希腊文和拉丁文的数词加上相应的词尾(-ane)
来命名,10个碳原子以上的则在数词前加前缀un、

do、tri、tetra、penta等。

27

Alkane = Number prefix-ane
for example:
CH4
CH3CH2CH3

Methane
Propane

CH3CH3
CH3(CH2)2CH3

Ethane
Butane

CH3(CH2)3CH3 Pentane
CH3(CH2)5CH3 Heptane

CH3(CH2)4CH3
CH3(CH2)6CH3

Hexane
Octane

CH3(CH2)7CH3 Nonane

CH3(CH2)8CH3

Decane

28

Prefix used in the IUPCA system to indicate one to 20 carbon atoms in a chain
meth eth prop but pent hex hept

Prefix number of carbon atoms 1 oct 8 pentadec 2 non 9 hexadec 3 dec 10 heptadec 4 undec 11 octadec 5 dodec 12 nonadec 6 tridec 13 eicos 7 tetradec 14

15 16 17 18 19 20

29

Univalent radicals
Radical = Alk -yl
for example:
CH3CH3CH2-

Methyl
Ethyl

CH3CH2CH2CH3(CH2)2CH2-

Propyl
Butyl

30

Saturated branched-chain hydrocarbon
branched-chain hydrocarbon = n-Radical+alkane for example:
C C C C
C C C C C C C C C C C C 4-Ethyl-2,5-dimet hylheptane C C C 31 C C 2,2-Dimet hylpropane 2-Methylbutane

Univalent branched radicals Radical = Alk -yl
for example:
C C C C
C C C C C 2-Met hylpropyl
4 3 2 1

3-Met hylbut yl

C C C C C C C C C

sec-Butyl t ert-Butyl

32

Polyside chain hydrocarbon
Butyl>Ethyl>Isopropyl>Methyl>Propyl for example:
C
7

C

6

C C
5

C C C

4

C

3

C

2

C

1

C 4-Et hyl-3,3-dimethylhept ane C C C
6

C

7

C C

5

C C C

4

C C C

3

2

C

1

4-Et hyl-3-methyl-4-propylhept ane

33

2 Alkenes and Alkynes(烯烃和炔烃)
烯烃和炔烃命名时将相应的烷烃的词尾 “烷”(ane)改为“烯”(ene)或“炔”(yne), 名称前加上不饱和键的编号即可。当所带的 双键或叁键不止一个时,可在前边加上di、 tri、tetra等数字来表示。

34

Alkene (烯烃)
2.1 Unbranched acyclic alkene
Alkene = Number prefix-ene for example: C-C-C-C=C-C 2-Hexene C-C=C Propene C-C=C-C 2-Butene C-C-C-C=C 1-Pentene
35

Poly-ene
n-Alkene =Alk-a-n-ene
n=2 -adiene n=3 -atriene n=4 -atetraene for example: C-C=C-C=C-C=C 1,3,5-Heptatriene C=C-C=C 1,3-Butadiene C-C=C-C=C 1,3-Pentadiene
36

C C C C 2-M ethyl-2-butene C C C C C C 2-M ethyl-2,4-hexadiene C C C C C C C C C C C C 3-Ethyl-4-M ethyyl-1,5-heptadiene C C C C C C C C C 2-M ethyl-2,4,6-octatriene
37

Alkyne (炔烃)
Alkyne = Alk-yne (-a-n-yne) n=2 -adiyne n=3 -atriyne for exanmple:
C C C C C C C C C C Propyne 2-Pentyne Ethyne (acetylene) 1,3-Butadiyne
38

C C C C

Unsaturated hydrocarbon with both double and triple bonds
Alkenyne = Number prefix-en-yne Two ene + one yne -adien-?-yne Three ene + one yne -atrien-?-yne One ene + two yne -en-?-diyne for example:
C C C C C C C C C C C 3-Penten-1-yne 1,3-Hexadien-5-yne
39

C C C C 7-Octene-1,3-diyne C C C C

Alkene radical=Alken-yl Alkyne radical=Alkyn-yl for example:

C

C

Ethynyl 2-Propynyl 1-Propenyl 1,3-Butadienyl 2-Penten-4-ynyl
40

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

3 cyclic hydrocarbons (环烃)
Saturated monocyclic hydrocarbons Cyclic alkane = Cyclo- alkane
for example:
Cyclopropane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane
41

Saturated branched-chain monocyclic hydrocarbons

1-Ethyl-3-methylcyclopentane
CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

1-Cyclobutylpentane

CH2CH2

1,2-Dicyclohexylethane
42

Univalent radicals of cyclic hydrocarbon
Cyclic radical = Cyclo-R for example:
2- Cyclopropyl 2,4-Cyclopentadien-1-yl 3-Cyclohexen-1-yl

CH3

2-Methyl-2,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl
43

Aromatic hydrocarbons (芳烃)
苯环上连有烃基时,苯环和烃基都可作为母 体,决定于烃基的大小。 for example:
CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Pentylbenzene

CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

1-Phenylheptane

44

苯环上连有不饱和取代基时,将苯环作为链的衍生 物命名,但当不饱和链不超过三个碳原子时,通常 都作为苯的衍生物命名。

C CH3

CHCH3

2-Phenyl-2-butene

C CH3

CH2

Isopropenylbenzene

45

邻、间、对的英文名称分别用o、m、p表示 for example:
CH3 CH3

O-Dimethylbenzene

CH 3

p-Dimethylbenzene
CH 3
46

CH3 CH3 CHCH3 CH2=CH

CH=CH2

3-Isopropyl-1-Methylbenzene 1,4-Divinylbenzene
CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3CH2 CHCH 3 2

1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene

m-Diethylbenzene
47

CH3 CH3 benzene toluene xylene CH3

CH2

phenyl

benzyl

48

4 Alcohols and Phenols (醇和酚) Alcohols(醇)
System: Alcohol = Alkan-ol for example:
CH2CH2CHCH2CH2 OH OH OH 1,3,5-Pentanetriol CH3OH Methanol OH

Bicyclo[3,2,0]heptan-2-ol CH2CH2CH2CH2 OH OH 1,4-Butanediol
49

CH3CHCH3 OH 2-Propanol

Phenols (酚)
for example:
OH OH OH OH phenol (benzene-1,2,-diol) pyrocatechol (benzene-1,3,-diol) resorcinol (benzene-1,4,-diol) hydroquinone OH HO OH

50

5 Ethers (醚)
Ether = R+R’+ether
for example:
CH3OCH2CH3 (CH3)2CHOCH3 CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Ethyl methyl ether Isopropyl methyl ether Diethyl ether

51

6 Aldehydes and ketones (醛和酮)
Aldehydes (醛)
Aldehyde = Alkan -al for example:
CH3 CH3CHCH2CH2CH2CHO 5-M ethylhexanal CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO Pentanal OHCCH2CH2CH2CH2CHO Hexanedial
52

Ketones (酮)
Ketone = Alkan -one for example:
O O CH3CH2CCH3 CH2 CH CH2 C CH3 2-Butanone 4-Penten-2-one O O CH3 CH2 C CH2 C CH3 2,4-Hexanedione CH3CH2 O O CH2 CH CH C CH2 C CH3 5-Ethyl-6-heptene-2,4-dione
53

7 The carboxylic acid (羧酸)
(1). -(C)OOH (The main chain involves carboxylic carbon) Carboxylic acid = Alkan-oic acid for example:
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH CH3CH=CHCH2COOH Hexanoic acid 3-Pentenoic acid

CH3CH=CCH=CHCOOH 4-Ethyl-2,4-hexadienoic acid CH2CH3 HO2CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CO2H Heptanedioic acid
54

(2). -COOH (The main chain without carboxylic carbon) Carboxylic acid = Alkane-carboxylic acid for example:
COOH COOH 3-Cyclopentenecarboxylic acid HO2C CO2H CH3CHCHCH2CO2H
55

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

CO2H HO2CCH2CH2CHCH2CH2CO2H

1,3,5-Pentanetricarboxylic acid 1,2,3-Butanetricarboxylic acid

8 Esters (酯)
Ester = Alkyl + carboxylate (alkanoate)
for example:
O CH3COCH2CH3 COOCH3 CH2COOCH2CH3 COOCH2CH3 CH2=CHCOOCHCH3 CH3 Ethyl acetate Methyl 1,3-cyclopentadienecarboxylate Diethyl malonate Isopropyl 2-propenoate (acrylate)
56

9 Anhydrides (酸酐)
Anhydride = Carboxylic + anhydride for example:
(CH2=CHCO)2O (CH3CO)2O C O O C O O CH C O CH C O Propenoic anhydride Acetic anhydride Phthalic anhydride

Maleic anhydride
57

10 Halohydrocarbon
Halohydrocarbon = Alkyl + halide or prefix-alkane For example:
CCl4 CH2Cl2 H2C=CHBr Carbon tetrachloride Methylene chloride Vinyl bromide

CH3CHCH2Cl 1,2-dichloropropane Cl CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2Cl 1-Chloropentane
58

11 Amine
Amine = Alkyl + amine for example:
NH2 ethanamine NH2 2-methylpropan-1-amine N Triethylamine NH2 cyclohexanamine

H2N

NH2

NH2 NH2 benzene-1,2-diamine

H2N

N

butane-1,4-diamine

N,N-dimethylpropane -1,3-diamine

NH2 COOH

H2N
2-aminobenzoic acid

OH
59

3-aminopropan-1-ol

Summary
meth eth prop but pent hex hept

Prefix number of carbon atoms 1 oct 8 pentadec 2 non 9 hexadec 3 dec 10 heptadec 4 undec 11 octadec 5 dodec 12 nonadec 6 tridec 13 eicos 7 tetradec 14

15 16 17 18 19 20

(1) mono- , (2) di- , (3)tri- , (4) tetra– , (5)penta(6) hexa- , (7) hepta- , (8) octa- , (9) nona- , (10) deca- 60

中文名称 烷烃 烯烃 炔烃 醇 酚 醚 酮 醛 羧酸 酯 酸酐 卤代烃

compound group Hydrocarbon Alkane -yl Alkene Alkyne Alcohol Phenol Ether Ketone Aldehyde carboxylic acid Ester Anhydride Halohydrocarbon -yl -yl -ol -ol -ether -one -al -oic acid -ate -anhydride -halide

formular -R -R -R -OH -OH -O-R -COR -COH -COOH -COOR -O(COR)2 -Hal



Amine

-amine

-NH2

Exercise

Cl

OH

O

62

Exercise
H O O O OH

Br OCH3 O NH2

Br
63


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