当前位置:首页 >> 高考 >>

三年(2017-2019)高考真题英语分项汇编:专题02代词、介词和介词短语

三年(2017-2019)高考真题英语分项汇编:专题 02 代词、介词和介词短语

三年(2017-2019)年高考真题分项汇编

专题 02 代词、介词和介词短语

一、2019 年高考真题

1.【2019·天津卷·单项填空】3.A study shows the students who are engaged in after-school

activities are happier than _________who are not. A. ones

B. those

C. these 【答案】B

D. them

【解析】考查代词。句意:一项研究表明,参加课外活动的学生比不参加课外活动的学生更

开心。空格处代词与 the students 是对应关系,可以用 the ones 或者 those 替代。“them”指代

的是前边提到的复数名词,不能与 the students 形成对应关系。“these”一般不用定语从句修

饰。故选 B。

2.【2019·江苏卷·单项填空】27.Favorable policies are ___________ to encourage employees'

professional development.

A. in effect

B. in command

【答案】A

C. in turn

D. in shape

【解析】考查介词短语。句意:好的制度政策实际上都会激发员工的专业水平的提升。A. in

effect 实际上;B. in command 指挥;C. in turn 轮流,依次;D. in shape 在外形上,处于良好

的状态。故选 A。

3【. 2019·新课标 I 卷·语法填空】Modem methods ___63___ tracking polar bear populations have

been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive to perform (perform) consistently

over a large area. 【答案】of/for

【解析】考查介词用法。此处 tracking polar bear populations 作 Modern methods 的定语,用

of 连接,“methods of doing sth.”,意为“……的方法”,构成固定结构。或者意为“对于跟踪北极

熊的方法”用 for。故填 of/for。

4.【2019·新课标 I 卷·语法填空】Scientists have responded by noting (note) that hungry bears

may be congregating(聚集) around human settlements, leading to the illusion(错觉) that

populations are ___68___ (high) than they actually are. 【答案】of/for

4.【2019·新课标 III 卷·语法填空】We were first greeted with the barking by a pack ___63___

dogs,seven to be exact.

【答案】of

【解析】考查介词。“a pack of”意为“一群”。故填 of。

5.【2019·浙江卷·语法填空】But can uniforms help improve school standards? The answer

___61___ this question is not clear.

【答案】to

【解析】考查介词。句意:这个问题的答案不清楚。the key/answer to ...这是固定搭配,“……

的答案是……”。故填 to。

二、2018 年高考真题

1.【2018·北京】14. —Good morning, Mr. Lee’s office.

—Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.

A. for B. on C. in D. at

【答案】A

【解析】考查介词。句意:——早上好,Lee 先生办公室。——早上好。我想预约下周三下

午(和 Mr. Lee 见面)。make an appointment for 意为“为……预约”,是固定搭配,故 A 选项正

确。

点睛:make an appointment with sb.和某人预约;make an appointment for 为……预约。

2.【2018·天津】11. Bob thought he couldn't go to the party because he had to write a report, but

he went ___________.

A. at first

B. after all

C. above all 【答案】B

D. at random

【解析】句意:鲍勃认为他不能去参加聚会,因为他不得不写一份报告,但它毕竟还是去了。

at first 首先;after all 毕竟,终究;above all 首先;at random 随便地。根据前面的转折连

词可知,与前面的情况相反,所以选 B。

点睛:本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析短语的能力。对于短语而言,没有捷径可言,只有

老老实实的记忆。考生除了要充分利用特定语境理解词义,还需要重点关注他们用法上的区

别。

3.【2018·江苏】33. China’s soft power grows _______

the increasing appreciation and understanding of China globally.

A. in line with B. in reply to

C. in return for 【答案】A

D. in honour of

【解析】考查介词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:中国的软实力增长与日俱增全球对中国

的赏识和理解相一致。A. in line with 按照;与...一致;B. in reply to 答复;C. in return for 作

为 ... 的报酬;D. in honour of 为纪念。故选 A。

点睛:本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析介词短语的能力。考生平时在学习中多积累之外还

需要充分利用特定语境理解词义,还应注意多辨析意思相近的介词短语,重点关注他们用法 上的区别。 4.【2018·新课标 III 卷·语法填空】I was searching ___67___ these three western lowland gorillas I'd been observing. 【答案】 for 【解析】考查动词短语搭配。search for 是固定搭配,表示“寻找”,表示“我”在寻找“我”研究 的三只西部低地大猩猩。

三、2017 年高考真题

【2017·天津卷】12. When you drive through the Redwood Forests in California, you will be _____

trees that are over 1,000 years old.

A. among B. against C. behind D. below

【答案】A

【解析】

试题分析: 句意:当你开车穿过加州的红木森林时,你将会位于超过百年历史的树木之间。

be among 位于之间; be against 反对; be behind 在后面; be below 在之下。根据

句意,故选 A。

考点:考查介词辨析。

【名师点睛】对于介词辨析题目,首先可以从句意着手,看懂句意是解答此类题目的关键,

其次四个选项的意思也要了如指掌。这对于平时学生的基本知识进行考查,学生在平时的学

习中要勤积累,多记忆,多多积累,以便在考试时能够迅速准确的答出,还有的是一些固定

搭配,需要了如指掌。

【2017·天津卷】13. We offer an excellent education to our students. ________, we expect

students to word hard.

A. On average B. At best

C. in return D. After all

【答案】C

考点:考查介词短语辨析。 【名师点睛】辨析介词短语没有捷径,只有加强平时的背诵,包括词组本身的含义,一词多 义,做题时要弄懂句意和上下文的逻辑关系,进行判断。学生平时要特别注意这方面的积累。 【2017·江苏卷】32.Determining where we are _______ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival.

A. in contrast to

B. in defense of

C. in face of

D. in relation to

【答案】D

【解析】

试题分析:考查介词短语的辨析。A. in contrast to 对比,截然不同;B. in defense of 为……

辩护;C. in face

of 面对;D. in relation to 与……有关。句意:根据周围的环境辨别方位仍然是我们生存的一

项极其重要的

技能。故选 D。

考点:考查介词短语的辨析

【2017·北京卷】35. Many people who live along the coast make a living _______ fishing industry.

A. at B. in C. on D. by

【答案】B

试题分析:许多住在海边上的人都是靠渔业来谋生的。此处用介词 in,不用 by,因为 by 后面

通常接做什么事情来谋生,此处是指在捕鱼这个行业里,在这个行业里谋生,用 in,故选 B。

2016 年高考真题

1【. 2016·天津】2. The dictionary is ______: many words have been added to the language since it

was published.

A. out of control

B. out of date C. out of sight

D. out of reach

【答案】B

考点:考查介词短语。 【名师点睛】介词短语的考查通常是一些易混的相似的介词短语,这题的介词短语都是 out of+名词搭配,但是意思都是大相径庭,学生在平时要注意积累这些相似短语的搭配和含义, 做题时结合具体的语境代入各个选项确定答案。由 many words have been added to the language since it was published.可以确定是“过时的”。

2.【2016·浙江】3. In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from ____in

the UK.

A. that

B. this

C. one

D. it

【答案】A

【解析】

试题分析:句意:在很多方面,美国的教育体系和英国的教育体系很不相同。指代上文的名

词 education system,用 that,而且后面有介词短语作后置定语。This 表示“近指”,one

是泛指可数名词单数,it 是特指上文提到的名词。故选 A。

考点:考查代词。

【名师点睛】本题着重考查指示代词:用来指示或标识人或事物的代词。它们主要有:this

这个;that 那个;these 这些;those 那些;it 它。指示代词所指的对象取决于谈话双方都熟

悉的语境。指示代词在句中可用做主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语。that 指代上文的可数或

不可数名词,后面有后置定语;those 指代上文的可数名词复数,后面有后置定语;one 是

泛指上文的可数名词单数;it 指同类同物。

3.【2016·浙江】6.That young man is honest , cooperative , always there when you need his

help .______, he's reliable.

A. Or else

B. In short

C. By the way

D. For one thing

【答案】B

考点:考查介词短语。

【名师点睛】介词短语的考查通常是一些易混的相似的介词短语,这题的介词短语都是 out

of+名词搭配,但是意思都是大相径庭,学生在平时要注意积累这些相似短语的搭配和含义,

做题时结合具体的语境代入各个选项确定答案。这句话很明显,前后两句话意思一样,就是

后面简短写,可以确定是“简言之”。

4.【2016·浙江】7. The study suggests that the cultures we grow up _______influence the basic

processes by which we see world around us.

A. on

B. in

C. at

D. about

【答案】B

【解析】

试题分析:句意:研究表明我们成长的文化影响我们看周围世界的基本过程。The cultures

后面是定语从句,省略 that,定语从句中 cultures 作宾语,那么还缺少一个介词,和

cultures 搭配用介词 in,故选 B。

考点:考查介词。

【名师点睛】这道题与其说是考查介词,还不如说是考查定语从句,因为介词 in 不是和后

面的 influence 搭配,而是通过分析发现这是定语从句,和前面的先行词 culture 搭配需要什

么介词。

5.【2016·浙江】18. I have always enjoyed all the events you organized and I hope to attend

in the coming years

A. little more 【答案】D

B. no more C.much more D.many more

【解析】

试题分析:句意:我一直很喜欢你组织的所有的活动并且希望在未来的几年里参加更多的活

动。A.没有这个搭配;B.不再;C.多得多(修饰不可数名词);D. many more 更多(修饰

可数名词)。这里修饰的是上文的 activities。故选 D。

三年(2017-2019)高考真题英语分项汇编:专题 20 完形填空说明文、议论文
三年(2017-2019)高考真题英语分项汇编
专题 20 完形填空说明文、议论文
一、2019 年高考真题(无) 二、2018 年高考真题(无) 三、2017 年高考真题(无)
2016 年高考题 【2016·上海】Reading Comprehension Section A
Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.
In any case, despite so much evidence to the 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe, 53 , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from 54 without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.
Different cultures have different ways of 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without 59 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing: 60 the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be 61 with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has 62 been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management control to 63 that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.

Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail

and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the 65

of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time

they spend on them.

51. A. desire

B. seek

C. lose

D. dislike

52. A. contrary

B. expectation

C. degree

D. extreme

53. A. vice versa

B. for example

C. however

D. otherwise

54. A. outside

B. inside

C. below

D. above

55. A. replacing

B. assessing

C. managing

D. encouraging

56. A. refer

B. contribute

C. object

D. apply

57. A. agreement

B. practice

C. election

D. impression

58. A. bossy

B. experienced

C. western

D. male

59. A. asking

B. training

C. warning

D. firing

60. A. doubling

B. maintaining

C. reducing

D. estimating

61. A. honored

B. left

C. crowded

D. compared

62. A. economically B. traditionally C. inadequately

D. occasionally

63. A. deny

B. admit

C. assume

D. ensure

64. A. virtual

B. ineffective

C. day-to-day

D. on-the-scene

65. A. opinion

B. risk

C. performance

D. attractiveness

【文章大意】本文是说明文,作者在第一段中提出道格拉斯·麦克雷戈所提出的人性假设

理论中的X理论和Y理论,并介绍了现代社会中一种新型管理理论:授权管理及其作用。

51.D 考查上下文串联。根据后半句…will do anything to avoid it可知很多人为了避免工作而

愿意做任何事情,说明那些人大多数人生性都是懒惰的,都不愿意工作,他们尽可能

地逃避工作。故D项正确。

52.A 考查上下文串联。短语 to the contrary 相反的;to the degree 在某种程度上;to the

extreme 走向极端;在文章第一段中提到了 X 理论,大多数人都缺乏进取心和责任心,

不愿对人和事负责,没有什么雄心壮志,不喜欢负责任,宁可被领导。而 Y 理论认为

大多数人愿意对工作、对他人负责,人们愿意实行自我管理和自我控制来完成应当完

成的目标。这是两种完全相反的理论,尽管对于这两种完全相反的理论有很多的证据,

很多管理人仍然同意 X 理论。故 A 正确。

53.B 考查上下文串联。本句中 for example 表示举例说明;这些管理人仍然同意 X 理论,例

如他们认为如果要员工效率高,就需要给与他们不断的监督。这属于 X 理论的举例说

明。故 B 正确。

54.D 考查上下文串联。根据后句“...makes for authoritarian managers....”可知这属于专制的管

理方法,他们的决定是来自上而下的,没有任何商量的余地。故 D 项“above 上面的”正

确。 55.C 考查上下文串联。根据前段可知本文讨论的管理学的理论,使用本句使用动词 manage
管理”,不同的文化中有不同的管理人的方法。而且和下文中亚洲、西方的管理方法形 成呼应。故 C 正确。 56.B 考查动词短语辨析。短语 refer to 提到,谈到;contributeto 做贡献;导致;object to 反对;apply to 适用于;亚洲人使用的是协商式的管理方法,所有人都被要求对管理的 过程做出自己的贡献。故 B 正确。 57.A 考查上下文串联。名词 agreement 同意;practice 练习,做法;election 选举;impression 印象;亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的协议基础之上的,西方 人也想学习这样的管理方法。故 A 正确。 58.D 考查上下文串联。根据前半句“....women will become more effective managers than men....”可知有些专家认为女性比男性管理更高效。因为女性更有亲和力,比男性管理 人更容易与别人达成一致的目标。故 D 正确。 59.A 考查上下文串联。根据前句“... encourage employees to use their own initiative...鼓励员工 使用自己的首创精神”,也就是说在做出决定的时候不要请示上级经理,自己做出决定 即可。故 A 项正确。 60.C 考查上下文串联。根据前句“the trend towards downsizing 缩小规模的趋势”,也就是要 减少管理层的数量,可以直接做出决定而不需要请示上级。故动词“reduce 减少”符合上 下文串联。 61.B 考查短语辨析辨析。动词 be honored with 被授予;be left with 留下,剩下;be crowded with 挤满;be compared with 与.……相比;通过这种方法,公司只剩下高层管理者和前 线的与公众直接联系的一线管理人。省略了很多中央环节,提高了管理的效益。故 B 正确。 62.B 考查副词辨析。副词 economically 经济地;traditionally 传统地;inadequately 不充分地; occasionally 偶 尔 地 ; 根 据 后 句 “Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management...”可知授权管理是一个新型的管理方法,与传统的管理模式不一样。故 B 正确。 63.D 考查动词辨析。动词 deny 否认;admit 承认;assume 假定,设想;ensure 保证,确保; 授权管理是一种新型的管理方法,省略了中央管理环节,保证了整个商业计划被采用。 根据句意可知 D 正确。 64.A 考查上下文串联。形容词 virtual 虚拟的;ineffective 低效的;day-to-day 日常的; on-the-scene 现场的;根据后句“where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses”可知在这种新型的管理方法中,人们都是通过邮 件和网络联系,说明这种一种新型通过虚拟网络进行的管理方法。故 A 正确。

65.C 考查名词辨析。名词 opinion 观点;risk 冒险;performance 表现;attractiveness 魅力; 根据后半句中“
in terms of what they produce for projects,rather than the amount of time they spend on them"可知我们评价员工的表现是根据他们的产品而不是工作的时间。故 C 项正确。 【名师点睛】 本篇完形填空对于上下文串联及词汇的复现进行了集中考查,占到了三分之二。由于完形 填空的文章是一个意义相关联的语篇,围绕一个话题论述,因此在行文中词语的重复、替代、 复现和同现现象是不可避免的。根据这个原则,某一个空格所对应的答案很可能就是在上下 文中复现或同现的相关词,考生可以根据这些词之间的有机联系来确定答案。所以,解题时 应联系上下文寻找相关线索,如某一个词的原词、指代词、同义词、近义词、上义词、下义 词和概括词等。但由于我们在做题时不可能总是重复地阅读文章,因此,在做完形填空时要 培养一种捕捉并记忆相关信息的能力。 如本文 57 题考查上下文串联。亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的 协议基础之上的,西方人也想学习这样的管理方法。故 A 项名词“agreement 同意、协议”正 确。学@科网
2015 年高考试题议论文类 【2015·广东】
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1~15 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选 项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
How long can human beings live? Most scientists who study old age think that the human body is ___1___ to live no longer than 120 years. However, 110 years is probably the longest that anyone could hope to live — if he or she is ___2___ healthy and lucky. Some scientists even say we can live as long as 130 years! Yet, our cells simply cannot continue to reproduce ___3___. They wear out, and as a result, we get old and ___4___ die.
Even though we can’t live forever, we are living a ___5___ life than ever before. In 1900, the average American life span (寿命) was only 47 years, but today it is 75 years! When does old age begin then? Sixty-five may be out-of-date as the ___6___ line between middle age and old age. After all, many older people don’t begin to experience physical and mental ___7___ until after age 75.
People are living longer because more people ___8___ childhood. Before modern medicine changed the laws of nature, many children died of common childhood ___9___. Now that the chances of dying ___10___ are much lower, the chances of living long are much higher due to better diets and health care.
On the whole, our population is getting older. The ___11___ in our population will have lasting effects on our social development and our way of life. Some people fear such changes will

be for the worse, while some see ___12___, not disaster, many men and women in their “golden

years” are healthy, still active, and young in ___13___ if not in age.

As the society grows old, we need the ___14___ of our older citizens. With long lives ahead

of them, they need to ___15___ active and devoted.

1. A. designed

B. selected

C. improved

D. discovered

2. A. completely

B. generally

C. apparently

D. extremely

3. A. rapidly

B. harmlessly

C. endlessly

D. separately

4. A. eventually

B. hopelessly

C. automatically

D. desperately

5. A. busier

B. longer

C. richer

D. happier

6. A. finishing

B. guiding

C. waiting

D. dividing

7. A. stress

B. damage

C. decline

D. failure

8. A. survive

B. enjoy

C. remember

D. value

9. A. problems

B. fears

C. worries

D. diseases

10. A. poor

B. young

C. sick

D. quiet

11. A. changes

B. recovery

C. safety

D. increases

12. A. dreams

B. chances

C. strengths

D. choices

13. A. mind

B. appearance

C. voice

D. movement

14. A. protection

B. suggestions

C. contributions

D. permission

15. A. sound

B. appear

C. turn

D. stay

【文章大意】这篇短文讲述的是人的寿命是有限的,但是随着社会的发展,生活水平的

提高,人们的寿命比以前更长了,而且老龄化已经成为了社会的一个趋势。我们的社会需要

这些老年人们继续保持积极的心态,为社会做贡献。

1.A 考查动词及语境的理解。句意:大多数研究年龄的科学家们认为人体被设计的不会活过

120 岁。designed 设计;selected 选择,挑选;improved 提高,改善;discovered 发现。

根据句意可知,科学家们认为人体的结构设计决定了人类最多不会活过 120 岁,故应选

A。

2.D 考查副词及语境的理解。句意:然而 110 岁可能是人们希望能活的最长的寿命-如果他非

常的健康和幸运。completely 完全地;generally 一般地;apparently 显然地;extremely

极其,非常。根据句意可知,如果一个人非常的健康而且很幸运,人们希望能活到 110

岁。故选 D。

3.C 考查副词及语境的理解。句意:然而我们的细胞不会一直无止境的再生。rapidly 快速

地;harmlessly 无害地;endlessly 无止境的;separately 分离地,分开地。根据文意可

知,因为人体的细胞不会无止境的再生,因此人的寿命是有限的。因此应选 C。

4.A 考查副词及语境的理解。句意:他们(细胞)慢慢消耗尽,结果我们就会变老最终死

亡。eventually 最终;hopelessly 没有希望地;automatically 自动地;desperately 绝望

地,自暴自弃地。根据句意可知选 A。 5.B 考查形容词及语境的理解。句意:尽管我们不能永久的活着,我们的寿命比以前是更长
了。busier 更忙的;longer 更长的;richer 更富有的;happier 更开心的。根据这一段 的内容可知,现在人的寿命比以前更长了。故选 B。 6.D 考查形容词及语境的理解。句意:作为中年和老年的分界线,65岁可能已经过时了。 finishing完成;guiding 指导,指引;waiting 等待;dividing划分。根据文意可知,把65 岁当做中年和老年的分界线,这已经不适合现在的形势了。dividing line分界线,故选D。 7.C 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:毕竟,很多老年人直到75岁之后才开始经历身体和精神 的衰落。stress压力,压迫;damage损坏;decline 衰落,衰弱;failure失败。根据句意 可知,现在很多老年人是在75岁之后身体和精神才开始衰弱的,故选C。 8.A 考查动词及语境的理解。句意:现在人们活得更长因为更多的人从童年中幸存下来。 survive 幸存;enjoy 喜欢,欣赏;remember 记得;value 价值,估价。根据这一段的 内容和 the chances of living long are much higher due to a better diets and health care 可 知,现在的人平均寿命比以前更长的一个原因是人们从童年的疾病中幸存了下来,故选 A。 9.D 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:在现代医学改变了自然的法则之前,很多孩子死于常见 的儿童疾病。problems 问题;fears 恐惧,害怕;worries 担心;diseases 疾病。根据 句意可知,以前的人们因为很多普遍的儿童疾病而死,所以导致平均寿命比较低。故选 D。 10.B 考查形容词及语境的理解。句意:既然年少夭折的可能性更低了,那么活得更长的机 会就更高了,因为有了更好的饮食和医学护理。poor 穷的;young 年轻的;sick 病的; quiet 安静的。根据这一段的意思可知,以前人们在小的时候就因为生病死去了,dying young 就是年少死去。故选 B。 11.A 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:人口结构的改变会对我们社会的发展和我们的生活方 式有持续的影响。changes 改变;recovery 恢复;safety 安全;increases 增长,增加。 根据下文中 Some people fear such changes will…可知,我们现在的人口结构改变了,故 选 A。 12.B 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:一些人担心这个改变将会带来一些坏处,然而还有一 些人看到的是机会,而不是灾难。dreams 梦想;chances 机会;strengths 力量;choices 选择。根据句意可知,这句话中的 while 表示对比,即跟前一种人不一样的看法,故选 B。 13.A 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:现在,很多处在“黄金年龄”的男士和女士,身体都非常 健康,仍然积极,心态也很年轻。mind 心态;appearance 外表;voice 声音;movement 移动。根据句意可知,这里应该是说虽然年龄老了,但是心态依然年轻,故选 A。

14.C 考查名词及语境的理解。句意:随着我们的社会老龄化,我们需要这些老年公民们的贡 献。protection 保护;suggestions 建议;contributions 贡献;permission 允许。根据文 意可知,现在的社会逐渐老龄化,因此老年人也要继续给我们的社会做贡献,故选 C。
15.D 考查动词及语境的理解。句意:前面还有很长的寿命,他们需要保持积极的心态和奉 献的精神。sound 听起来;appear 好像;出现;turn 转,变成;stay 保持。根据文意可 知,现在人们的寿命更长了,因此老年人也要继续保持积极心态,为我们的社会做贡献。 故应选 D。
【名师点睛】这篇短文是一篇议论文,讨论了人类寿命增加这个话题,主要考查学生名词、 形容词、动词、副词等实词在具体语言环境下的使用和词义辨析,同时考查学生的语篇理解 的能力。学生要在理解短文大意的基础上,对每个题目中设置的选项进行辨析,同时还需要 注意上下文的暗示,选出最符合文意的一项。
2014 年高考试题议论文类 【2014·广东卷】完形填空
Parents feel that it is difficult to live with teenagers. Then again, teenagers have 1 feelings about their parents, saying that it is not easy living with them. According to a recent research, the most common 2 between parents and teenagers is that regarding untidiness and daily routine tasks. On the one hand, parents go mad over 3 rooms, clothes thrown on the floor and their children’s refusal to help with the 4 . On the other hand, teenagers lose their patience continually when parents blame them for 5 the towel in the bathroom, not cleaning up their room or refusing to do the shopping at the supermarket.
The research, conducted by St. George University, shows that different parents have different 6 to these problems. However, some approaches are more 7 than others. For example, those parents who yell at their children for their untidiness, but 8 clean the room for them, have fewer chances of changing their children’s 9 . On the contrary, those who let teenagers experience the 10 of their actions can do better. For example, when teenagers who don’t help their parents with the shopping don’t find their favorite drink in the refrigerator, they are forced to 11 their actions.
Psychologists say that 12 is the most important thing in parent-child relationships. Parents should 13 to their children but at the same time they should lend an ear to what they have to say. Parents may 14 their children when they are untidy but they should also understand that their room is their own private space. Communication is a two-way process. It is only by listening to and 15 each other that problems between parents and children can be settled.

1.A. natural

B. strong

C. guilty

D. similar

2.A. interest

B. argument C. link

D.knowledge

3.A. noisy

B. crowded

C. messy

D. locked

4.A. homework

B. housework C. problem

D. research

5.A. washing

B. using

C. dropping

D. replacing

6.A. approaches

B. contributions C. introductions D. attitudes

7.A. complex

B. popular

C. scientific

D. successful

8.A. later

B. deliberately C. seldom

D. thoroughly

9.A. behavior

B. taste

C. future

D. nature

10.A. failures

B. changes

C. consequences D. thrills

11.A. defend

B. delay

C. repeat

D. reconsider

12.A. communication B. bond

C. friendship

D. trust

13.A. reply

B. attend

C. attach

D. talk

14.A. hate

B. scold

C. frighten

D. stop

15.A. loving

B. observing

C. understanding D. praising

【文章大意】本文是一篇议论文。讨论了家长和孩子如何相处的问题。一味的责备会使

得亲情疏远。父母也应该倾听孩子的心里话。沟通是一个双向的过程。做一个聪明的善解人

意的家长更受孩子的欢迎。

1.D 考查形容词词义辨析及语境理解。父母觉得很难与青少年生活。然后青少年也有和父

母相似的感受,说和他们一起生活不容易。此处 natural 自然的;strong 强壮的;guity

犯罪的;similar 相似的。

根据空前、空后的提示可知,父母和孩子有着相似的感觉。故选 D。

2.B 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。根据最近的一项研究,父母与青少年之间的最常见的争

吵是关于邋逼和每日的例行任务。此处 interest 兴趣;argumet 争论,争吵;link 联系;

nowledge 知识。根据下文可知,因为父母不满意孩子不能保持自己房间的干净、整

齐、卫生而发生争吵。故选 B。

3.C 考查形容词词义辨析及语境理解。 根据:扔在地板上的衣服,可知房间很凌乱。 此

处 noisy 喧闹的;crowded 拥挤的;messy 杂乱的;locked 上锁的。故选 C。

4.B 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。凌乱的房间,扔在地板上的衣服等这些都是家务方面

的事。此处 homework 作业;housework 家务;problem 难题;research 研究,调查。

故选 B。

5.C 考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。另一方面,青少年认为父母因为仅仅是把浴室里的毛

巾掉在地上等一些小事而责怪他们而不耐烦。 此处 washing 洗;using 使用;dropping

落下;replacing 更换,替代。drop the towel 把毛巾掉在地上。故选 C。

6.A 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。圣乔治大学的研究表明不同的父母对这些问题有不同

的方法。此处 approaches 方法,途径;contributions 贡献;introductions 介绍,入门; attitudes 态度;看法。下一句有 approaches 一词。故选 A。 7.D 考查形容词词义辨析及语境理解。然而,一些方法比其他人的更成功。 此处 complex 复杂的;popular 受欢迎的;scientific 科学的;successful 成功的。接下来列举了一些 成功的父母的做法。故选 D。 8.A 考查副词词义辨析及语境理解。例如,父母先因为孩子邋遢而大吼大叫,后来又为他
们收拾房间。此处 later 后来;deliberately 故意地; seldom 很少;thoroughly 彻底。 这样的父母我们生活中不少见。故选 A。 9.A 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。例如,那些因为孩子邋遢而大吼大叫但是后来又为他 们房间打扫的的父母有更少的机会改变他们孩子的行为。此处 behavior 行为;taste 味 道;future 未来;nature 自然。孩子不改变行为是因为父母责备了他们然后又帮他们收 拾使孩子认为被批评了就可以不做了。自然行为得不到改变。故选 A。 10.C 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。根据后面可知,与此相反,那些让青少年体验他们的 行为的结果的父母可以做得更好。此处 failures 失败;changes 变化;consequences 结果;thrills 兴奋、震颤。故选 C。 11.D 考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。例如,当青少年不购物帮助他们的父母购物时,他们 在冰箱里就找不到他们最喜爱的饮料,这样他们就被迫重新考虑他们的行动。 此处 defend 防御;delay 耽搁;repeat 重复;reconsider 重新考虑。根据语境和词的意义可 知,选 D。 12.A 考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。心理学家说交流是家长和孩子关系中最重要的事。此 处 communication 交流;bond 结合;friendship 友谊;trust 信任。有沟通才会消除 隔闵和误解。故选 A。 13.D 考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。父母应和子女交谈,但同时也应该听一听他们要说什 么。 此处 reply 回答;attend 参加;atach 附加、系;talk 谈论。talk to 和.….交流。故选 D。 14.B 考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。父母责备他们的孩子当他们的房间凌乱时,但他们也 应该明白他们的房间是他们自己的私人空间。此处 hate 讨厌;scold 责备;frighten 吓 唬;stop 停止。代入四个词分析,只有 B 符合语境。故选 B。 15.C 考查动词词义辨析及语境理解。沟通是一个双向的过程。它只有通过倾听和理解对方, 父母与子女之间的问题才可以得到解决。此处 loving 爱;observing 观察;understanding 理解;praising 表扬。代入四个词分析, C 更符合语境。故选 C。
2015 说明文 1.【2015·重庆】B

Imagine the first days in a new time zone. Slow to respond to the 28 , your body clock is

confused. You’re sleepy all day, but when it’s time for bed, you can hardly fall asleep. Obviously you are 29 jet lag(时差反应).

Travelers have traditionally fought this 30 with sleeping pills or alcohol. There are

actually healthier ways that can work just as 31.

For example, the moment you get on the airplane, start 32 your biological block to the

destination’s time. If it’s daytime in your destination, try to stay 33 . Walking around the

cabin(客舱) can be of help. When it’s nighttime, try to sleep. In that case, eat before the flight,

34 an empty stomach will prevent you from sleeping. These tips will help you start a new 35of

sleep and wakefulness.

28. A. flight

B. change

C. demand

D. climate

29. A. suffering from

B. working on

C. looking into

D. leading to

30. A. danger

B. problem

C. waste

D. fear

31. A. briefly

B. slowly

C. suddenly

D. effectively

32. A. checking

B. sending

C. adjusting

D. stopping

33. A. awake

B. alone

C. hungry

D. calm

34. A. though

B. so

C. whole

D. or

35. A. understanding

B. cycle

C. research

D. trend

【文章大意】本文讲述在旅行中如何调整你的生物钟。

28.B 考查名词辨析。A flight 航班; B change 变化; C demand 要求; D climate 气候; 句

意:慢慢地对于变化做出反应,你的生物钟就要混淆。根据语境可知本文是关于对于

时差的反应,故选 B 项。

29.A 考查动词短语辨析 suffer from 遭受战争破坏的 work on 从事于;look into 调查;

lead to 导致;根据时区的变化可知很明显会导致时间反应,故选 A 项。

30.B 考查名词辨析。Adange 危险性 Bproblem 问题在于 Cwaste 浪费者 Dfear 恐惧;句意:

游客会用药片和酒精来处理这个问题。根据语境可知对待时差的问题,故选 B 项。

31.D 考查副词辨析。Abriefy 简洁地址 Bslowly 慢慢地址 Csuddenly 突然地址 Deffectively

有效地;句意:这有几种健康的方法,并且很有效。根据语境可知选 D 项。

32.C 考查动词辨析。A checking 检查员 B sending 送到 C adjusting 调整结构 D stopping

停止播送 句意:比如,在上飞机前,开始调整你的生物钟到你的目的的的时间。

Adjust to 把。。调整到,,故选 C 项。

33.A 考查形容词辨析。A awake B alone C hungry D calm 句意:如果是白天到目的地,试着

保持清醒。Stay awake 保持清醒,故选 A 项。

34.D 考查连词辨析。A Though 虽然如此 B so 因此次 C while 虽然如此 D or 否则;句意:

在这种情况下,提前吃饭,否则,空腹会让阻止你睡。Or 表示转折,故选 D 项。

35.B 考查名词辨析。A Understanding 明白的 B cycle 圈; C research 研究;D trend 趋势; 句意:这些建议能帮你开始新生物钟。根据语境可知选 B 项。
2.Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
If you studied pictures that ancient people left on rock walls and you tried to determine their meaning, you would not detect interest in romance among the artists. 51 , you would see plenty of animals with people running after them. Life for ancient people’s earned to center on hunting and gathering wild foods for meals.
In modern times, when food is available in grocery stores, finding love is more 52 in people’s lives. The 53 is all around us. It is easy to prepare a list of modern stories having to do with love. An endless number of books and movies qualify as love stories in popular culture.
Researchers are studying whether love, a highly valued emotional state, can be 54 . They ask, what is love? Toothpaste companies want us to think attraction is all about clean teeth, but clean teeth go only so far. Scientists wonder how much the brain gets involved. You have probably heard that opposites attract but that 55 attract, too. One thing is certain: The truth about love is not yet set in stone. First Impression
To help determine the 56 of attraction, researchers paired 164 college classmates and had them talk for 3, 6 or 10 minutes so they could get a sense of each other’s individuality. Then students were asked to 57 what kind of relationship they were likely to build with their partners. After nine weeks, they reported what happened.
As it turned out, their 58 judgments often held true. Students seemed to 59 at an early stage who would best fit into their lives. The 60 Knows
Scientists have also turned to nonhumans to increase understanding of attraction. Many animals give off pheromones — natural chemicals that can be detected by, and then can produce a response in, other animals of the same species. Pheromones can signal that an animal is either ready to fight or is feeling 61 to partnerships. In contrast, humans do not seem to be as 62 as other animals at detecting such chemicals. Smell, however, does seem to play a part in human attraction. Although we may not be aware of chemicals like pheromones consciously, we give and receive loads of information through smell in every interaction with other people. Face Value
Being fond of someone seems to have a number of factors, including seeing something we find attractive. Researchers had people judge faces for 63 . The participants had 0.013 seconds to view each face, yet somehow they generally considered the images the same as people who had more time to study the same faces. The way we 64 attractiveness seem to

be somewhat automatic.

When shown an attractive face and then words with good or bad associations, people responded

to 65 words faster after viewing an attractive face. Seeing something attractive seems to

cause happy thinking.

51. A. Instead

B. Therefore

C. Moreover

D. Otherwise

52. A. romantic

B. stressful

C. central

D. artificial

53. A. priority

B. proof

C. possibility

D. principle

54. A. tested

B. impressed

C. changed

D. created

55. A. appearances B. virtues

C. similarities D. passions

56. A. illustrations

B. implications C. ingredients D. intentions

57. A. predict

B. investigate

C. diagnose

D. recall

58. A. critical

B. initial

C. random

D. mature

59. A. memorize

B. distinguish

C. negotiate

D. question

60. A. Nose

B. Eye

C. Heart

D. Hand

61. A. open

B. alert

C. resistant

D. superior

62. A. disappointed B. amazed

C. confused

D. gifted

63. A. emotion

B. attractiveness C. individuality D. signals

64. A. enhance

B. possess

C. maintain

D. assess

65. A. familiar

B. plain

C. positive

D. irritating

【文章大意】古代和现代的人追求不同,现代人追求的是爱,但是科学家依然对爱还不

是很清楚。

51.A 考查副词以及对语境的理解 Instead 意为相反,Therefore 意为因此,Moreover 意为此

外,Otherwise 意为否则。观察空格前后的句式结构,可以前面用的是 you would not

detect.…,后面用的是 you would see,使用的动词不同,结构相同。由于前面有 not,

后面没有,所以可知此处表达为意思相反,所以答案为 A。

52.C 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 romantic 意为浪漫的,stressful 意为压力的,

central 意为中心的, artificial 意为人工的。根据上一句话“life for ancient people

seemed to center on hunting”及本句的“In modern times, finding love is ”,分析语境,知

道这两个句子是把古代和现代的情况进行对比。前一句用了 center ,后一句用 central,

两者的关系是同根重现。

53.B 考查名词以及对语境的理解 priority 意为优先权,proof 意为证明,possibility 意为

可能性,principle 意为原则。后两句的意思是:很容易准备一系列的有关爱的现代故

事。在当前的流行文化中,无数的故事和电影归类为爱情故事。根据这两句,的意思,

结合上下文语境可知道本句的意思就是有很多证明的例子,所以答案为 proof.

54.D 考查动词以及对语境的理解 tested 意为测试,imposed 意为强加,changed 意为 改变,created 意为创造。根据本段的最后一句话“One thing is certain: The truth about love is not yet set in stone. 确定了一件事情是:爱的真理还不确定”可以知道科学家研 究的是爱是否能够创造,而不应该是测试,改变或者是强加。其中 set in stone 就像 中文里说的“板上钉钉”,表示绝对不变。
55.C 考查名词以及对语境的理解 appearances 意为外表,virtues 意为美德,similarities 意 为相似,passions 意为激情。根据划线部分前面的连词 but 可以判断前后是转折的 意思,而 opposites 意为相反的,所以答案为相似的。
56.C 考查名词以及对语境的理解 ilustrations 意为说明,implications 意为含义;暗示;牵连, 卷入;可能的结果,影响,ingredients 意为成分,intentions 意为意图,目的。根据 小标题 First Impression(第一印象)以及后面所描述的实验方法、内容和结果,可以 知道实验的目的是决定吸引力的成分。
57.A 考查动词以及对语境的理解 predict 意为预测,investigate 意为调查,diagnose 意 为诊断, recall 意为回忆。根据 58 题后面的 judgment (判断),可以知道此处的答案 应该是和判断同义的词。又根据该句后面的句子“after nine weeks, they reported what happened. 9 周之后,报道发生了什么事情?”可以知道这一些是还没有发生的事情, 也就是预测到的东西。
58.B 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 critical 意为 批评的 ,initial 意为原始的 ,random 意 为随意的, mature 意为成熟的。根据第 57 题预测的东西,那么预测的东西相对而 言就是原始的,最初的判断。
59.B 考查动词以及对语境的理解 memorize 意为记忆,distinguish 意为区别, negotiate 意为谈判, question 意为疑问。根据前一句话的意思“结果证明他们最初 的判断是正确的”,该句要表达的意思和前一句相同,也就是说“学生似乎能够在早期 区别适合他们的生活人”。
60.A 考查名词以及对语境的理解 Nose 意为鼻子,Eye 意为眼睛, Heart 意为心 脏, Hand 意为手。空格处的词是小标题,是对本段的高度概括。它往往在句首或句 末找答案。在本段的最后两句话都提到了一个词 smell(嗅觉),四个选项中和嗅觉 有关的词只有 A。
61.A 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 open 意为开放的,alert 意为警觉的,resistant 意 为抵抗的,superior 意为优越的。根据前面的搭配 either… or…要么……,要么,表明 此处是一个反义表达。前面使用的是战争,那么后面应该是一种开放,也就是坦诚以 对。
62.D 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 disappointed 意为失望的,amazed 意为惊奇的, confused 意为困惑的,gifted 意为有天赋的。根据 In contrast(相反)以及后文

“Although we may not be aware of chemicals 尽管我们没有意识到”, 结合上下文语境 知道在这里表达人类没有像动物那么有天赋。 63.B 考查名词以及对语境的理解 emotion 意为情感,attractiveness 意为吸引力, individuality 意为个人的 ,signals 意为信号。根据上一句话最后一个单词 attractive, 结合上下文知道此处的答案和这个单词 attractive 是同根重现,所以答案是 attractiveness. 64. D 考查动词以及对语境的理解 enhance 意为加强,possess 意为拥有,maintain 意为维 持,assess 意为评定。该句是本段的总结,前面提到的是研究者做的吸引力实验,最 后得出的结论就是我们评估吸引力的方法自动的。这是评估的方法,而不能是拥有, 维持,或者是加强,所以答案为 assess。 65.C 考查形容词以及对语境的理解 familiar 意为熟悉,plain 意为普通的, positive 意为 积极的, irritating 意为无礼的。根据最后一句的表达“Seeing something attractive seems to cause happy thinking. 看一些吸引力的事情似乎能够导致快乐的思考。”不能 得出答案的表达应该是一种快乐思考,所以答案为 positive 积极的。 【考点定位】 这是一篇说明文,阐述什么是爱? 【名师点睛】这是一篇说明文,没有生词,主要是考查上下文理解和单词理解。需要正确理 解 4 个单词的选项,尤其要注意一些一词多义的地方,如 test, open, question。也要注意题 目与题目直接的关系,如 58 题和 59 题;要关注小标题以及段落的开头和结尾。结合上下文, 留意那些涉及到重现的题目。

2014 高考题说明文

【2014·重庆卷】

Cultural differences occur wherever you go. When visiting another country, you should be

aware of those differences and 28_______ them. Here are some 29_______ on how to fit in.

Every traveler to a foreign country feels 30_______ at some point. What you do can make

locals laugh. Your best defense is a sense of 31_______. If you can laugh off eating with the

wrong hand in India, locals will warm to you as “that crazy foreigner.”

Wearing proper cloths is important too, 32_______ locals will judge by what you wear. In

some Middle Eastern countries, exposing your flesh is 33_______, especially if you are a woman.

So leave your torn jeans at home.

Also be cautious about expressing 34_______. Getting angry in Southeast Asia just makes

you look silly. In some countries it is 35_______ to kiss in public.

1. A. reject

B. recite

C. respect

D. remove

2. A. plans

B. tips

C. arguments

D. choices

3. A. unsafe

B. excited

C. satisfied

D. awkward

4. A. relief

B. belonging

C. humor

D. direction

5. A. but

B. for

C. so

D. or

6. A. forbidden

B. allowed

C. expected

D. tolerated

7. A. emotions

B. concern

C. interest

D. views

8. A. natural

B. advisable

C. unwise

D. unnecessary

【文章大意】本文就如何适应文化差异提出一些建议。只有尊重差异才能适应差异。具

体涉及情感表达、依着打扮及如何摆脱尴尬,等。

1.C 考查动词词义及语境运用。去另一个国家,要意识到这个国家的文化与本国文化之间

的差异并尊重这种差异。A.reject 排斥;B.recite 背诵;C.respect 尊重;D.remove 去除。

C 项正确。

2.B 考查名词词义及语境运用。本文接下来就如可适应化差异提出了一些具体的建议。

A.plans:方案、计划;B.tips 建议;C.arguments 争论;D.choices 选择。B 项正确。

3. D 考查形容词词义及语境运用。每一个出国人员都会有尴尬的时候,因为他们的举止可

能引发当地人的嘲笑。A. unsafe 不安全的;B. excited 激动的、兴奋的;C. satisfied 满

足的、满意的;D. awkward 尴尬的。D 项正确。

4.C 考查名词词义及语境运用。从下文“一笑了之”可知,自我防卫的最佳手段是幽默感。 A.

relief 轻松、放松;B. belonging 归属;C. humor 幽默;D. direction 方向。C 项正确。

5.B 考查连词的语境运用。衣着也很重要,因为当地人会根据衣着来判断一个人。A. but

表“转折”;

B. for 表“理由”;C. so 表“结果”;D. or 表“选择”。故 B 项正

确。

6.A 考查动词词义及语境运用。根据宗教习惯,在中东国家衣着暴露是严格禁止的。A.

forbidden 禁止;B. allowed 允许;C. expected 期待;D. tolerated 容忍。A 项正确。

7.A 考查名词词义及语境运用。在东南亚国家。生气会让自己显得愚蠢,所以表达情感时

要谨慎。A. emotions 情感;B. concern 担忧;C. interest 兴趣;D. views 观点。故 A 项

正确。

8.C 考查形容词词义及语境运用。在一些国家当众亲吻是不合适的。A.natural 自然的。本

文更多谈及的是一些禁忌,故本项排除;B.advisable 可建议(从事)的。排斥理由同

A 项;C.unwise 不明智的;D.

unnecessary 不必要的。C 项正确。