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Effect of annealing on the characteristics of Au-Ni80Fe20 and Au-Ni30Fe70 bilayer films


Thin Solid Films 472 (2005) 302 – 308 www.elsevier.com/locate/tsf

Effect of annealing on the characteristics of Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films grown on glass
Yan Huanga, Hong Qiua,b,*, Hao Qiana, Fengping Wanga,b, Liqing Pana,b, Ping Wua,b, Yue Tiana,b, Xiaoling Huanga
a

Department of Physics, School of Applied Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China b Beijing Keda-Tianyu Microelectronic Material Technology Development Co. Ltd, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China Received 29 May 2003; received in revised form 28 May 2004; accepted 13 July 2004 Available online 11 September 2004

Abstract Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films obtained by electron beam evaporation and sputtering were annealed in a vacuum of 5?10?4 Pa from 100 to 350 8C for 15 and 30 min, respectively. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to analyze the composition inside the Au layers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the structural characteristic of the bilayer films. The sheet resistance of the bilayer films was measured using four-point probe technique. No impurity such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and chlorine was detected inside the Au layers. As the annealing temperature and time changed from 150 8C, 15 min to 350 8C, 30 min, the Ni atoms in the Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer films diffuse preferentially into the Au layer while a significant diffusion of Fe atoms in the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film into the Au layer was observed. The diffusion of Ni and/or Fe atoms into the Au layer results in an increase in the resistivity of the bilayer film. Large numbers of Ni atoms diffusing into the Au layer of the Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer film result in a remarkable decrease in the lattice constant of the Au layer. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Au/Ni80Fe20; Au/Ni30Fe70; Bilayer film; Annealing; Diffusion

1. Introduction As well known, both bilayer and multilayer films formed by magnetic and non-magnetic metals have been actively investigated. The thermal stability of the bilayer or multilayer films is one of the most important research topics. Chang [1] investigated electron-beam evaporated Au/Ni bilayer films annealed in nitrogen and oxygen using Rutherford backscattering. The outdiffusion of Ni atoms to the Au surface happens at annealing temperature of 300 8C in oxygen and 400 8C in nitrogen. It was concluded that the outdiffusion of Ni atoms to the Au surface is enhanced by oxygen. Bigault et al. [2] grew Au/Ni multilayers at room temperature on Cu(100) surface using molecular beam
* Corresponding author. Department of Physics, School of Applied Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China. E-mail address: qiuhong@sas.ustb.edu.cn (H. Qiu). 0040-6090/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2004.07.056

epitaxy technique. The Ni/Au interface was mixed, whereas the Au/Ni interface was chemically abrupt. Hecker et al. [3] have reported that for sputtered Ni81Fe19/Cu multilayers annealed at temperature higher than 250 8C Ni atoms diffuse preferentially into the Cu layer, leading to a degradation of the giant magnetoresistance of the multilayers. Kitada et al. [4] have found that for sputtered Ta/Ni82Fe18 bilayer films annealed at over 300 8C Ni atoms diffuse preferentially into the Ta layer, resulting in an increase in the coercivity of the NiFe layer and a change of the magnetostriction towards a positive value. Stavroyiannis [5] deposited Ni81Fe19/Ag multilayers on Si(100) substrates using magnetron sputtering. After annealing the as-deposited multilayers at 400 8C, granular films of Ni81Fe19 nanoparticles embedded in the non-magnetic Ag matrix were obtained as a result of the diffusion between Ni81Fe19 and Ag layers. Sakamoto et al. [6] studied the thermal stability of Au/Fe multilayers by using conversion electron Mfssbauer spectroscopy and found Fe atoms diffusing into the Au layer at annealing

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temperature above 200 8C. The aim of the present work is to study, using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sheet resistance measurements, the compositional, structural and electrical properties of Au/ Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films prepared on unheated glass substrates as a function of annealing temperature and time. The effect of annealing on the characteristics of the bilayer films will be briefly discussed.

2. Experimental procedure Ni80Fe20 layers with a thickness of about 80 nm were deposited on unheated glass substrates by a conventional electron beam evaporation using a Ni80Fe20 target (99.99% in purity). The base pressure was 3?10?4 Pa. The acceleration voltage of electron beam was 8 kV and the electron beam current was 0.08 A. On the other hand, Ni80Fe20 and Ni30Fe70 layers with a thickness of about 100 nm were deposited on unheated glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. The background pressure was 3?10?4 Pa and the Ar gas pressure was 0.8 Pa during sputtering. The electron-beam evaporated Ni80Fe20 layer is called e-Ni80Fe20 layer while the sputter-deposited Ni80Fe20 layer is called s-Ni80Fe20 layer. Compositions of the NiFe layers were confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Au layers with a thickness of about 110 nm were deposited on unheated substrates coated with the Ni80Fe20 and Ni30Fe70 layers by using a SBC-12 type dc sputtering system [KYKY] [7]. Prior to deposition, the chamber was evacuated to a pressure of 2 Pa using a rotary pump for 1 min. The sputtering was started at an Ar gas (99.9995% in purity) pressure of 4 Pa. The sputtering power was 1000 V?10 mA. The distance between the target and the substrate was 25 mm. Before depositing Au layers, the substrates coated with the Ni80Fe20 and Ni30Fe70 layers were exposed to air. The glass substrates were ultrasonically rinsed in acetone, distilled water and ethanol. Thicknesses of Ni80Fe20, Ni30Fe70 and Au films were measured by using multiple beam interferometry. The Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer films were annealed in a vacuum of 5?10?4 Pa from 100 to 350 8C for 15 and 30 min. The annealing temperature was controlled with a deviation of F1 8C using SR73 type temperature controller [Shimaden]. Composition inside the Au layer was analyzed using AES [Perkin Elmer] with a background pressure of 1?10?8 Pa at an Ar particle sputtering voltage of 3 kV. AES measurements were respectively carried out after sputtering off the surface of the Au layer for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 min. The sputter etching rate was about 0.6 nm/s. An average composition inside the Au layer can be obtained by calculating the average value of relevant elements for the four-time measurements. Besides, for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films annealed at 150 and 300 8C for 15 min, a depth composition profile of the Au layers was also obtained by sequential sputter etching and AES measurement. XRD

[Rigaku] was used to investigate the crystalline orientation and lattice constant of the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films. The XRD experiments were performed in a standard h–2h scan using a CuKa radiation filtered by a crystal monochromator ? (wavelength k=0.15417 nm). X-ray source was operated at power of 45 kV?150 mA. A scan speed was 0.18/s and a scan step was 0.028. The measuring accuracy of diffraction angle is F0.018. After and before annealing, sheet resistances of the bilayer films were measured at room temperature using four-point probe technique. In order to explain the effect of annealing on the characteristics of the bilayer films, the FE-SEM of XL30S-FEG type [Philips] was used to analyze the structure of Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer films.

3. Results 3.1. Composition 3.1.1. Au/e-Ni80Fe20 Fig. 1 shows depth composition profiles in the Au layers of the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films annealed at 150 and 300 8C for 15 min. As can be seen from Fig. 1, impurities such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cannot be detected inside any of the Au layers. For the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film annealed at 150 8C, no Ni and Fe atoms are detected inside the Au layer while a few Ni atoms are detected on the Au surface. Furthermore, for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film

Fig. 1. Depth composition profiles of the Au layers for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 annealed at (a) 150 8C and (b) 300 8C for 15 min.

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Table 1 Ni and Fe contents in the Au layers as well as ratios of resisitivity q A of the annealed bilayer film to that q B of the unannealed bilayer film under the different annealing conditions Bilayer film Au/e-Ni80Fe20 Au/e-Ni80Fe20 Au/e-Ni80Fe20 Au/e-Ni80Fe20 Au/s-Ni80Fe20 Au/s-Ni80Fe20 Au/s-Ni80Fe20 Au/Ni30Fe70 Au/Ni30Fe70 Au/Ni30Fe70 Annealing (8C/min) 100/15 150/15 250/15 300/15 250/30 300/30 350/30 250/30 300/30 350/30 Ni content (at.%) Surface – 13.1 19.5 33.2 – – 33.2 – – 16.6 Inside – No 2.5 8.3 – – 5.5 – – No Fe content (at.%) Surface – No No No – – No – – 41.0 Inside – No No No – – No – – 10.7 1.0F0.1 1.1F0.1 1.7F0.2 2.3F0.2 1.0F0.1 1.4F0.1 1.8F0.2 2.0F0.2 4.6F0.4 11F1 q A/q B

annealed at 250 and 300 8C, Ni atoms are detected inside the Au layer and on the Au surface while Fe atoms are not detected inside the Au layer and on the Au surface. Therefore, it can be concluded that for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film a preferential diffusion of Ni atoms into the Au layer happens at these annealing temperatures already discussed. The average contents of Ni atoms inside the Au layer and on the Au layer surface obtained using AES are summarized in Table 1.

3.1.2. Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 Fig. 2 shows Auger electron spectra of the surfaces of the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films annealed at 350 8C for 30 min. Fig. 3 shows typical Auger electron spectra inside the Au layers of the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer films annealed at 350 8C for 30 min after sputtering off the surface of the bilayer film for 1.5 min. As can be seen from Fig. 2, except for impurities such as

Fig. 2. Auger electron spectra on the surface of the Au layers annealed at 350 8C for 30 min; (a) Au/s-Ni80Fe20, (b) Au/Ni30Fe70.

Fig. 3. Typical Auger electron spectra inside the Au layers annealed at 350 8C for 30 min; (a) Au/s-Ni80Fe20, (b) Au/Ni30Fe70.

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carbon, oxygen, sulphur and chlorine, only Ni atoms are detected on the surface of the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film while both Ni and Fe atoms are detected on the surface of the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film. Then, it can be considered that for the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film only Ni atoms diffuse through the Au layer and arrived at the Au surface while for the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film both Ni and Fe atoms diffuse through the Au layer and arrived at the Au surface. Also, as can be seen from Fig. 3, no impurities such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and chlorine can be detected inside any of the Au layers. Ni atoms are detected inside the Au layer of the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film annealed at 350 8C for 30 min while Fe atoms are detected inside the Au layer of the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film annealed at 350 8C for 30 min. The contents of Ni and Fe inside the Au layers and on the Au layer surfaces obtained using AES measurements are also summarized in Table 1. Therefore, it can be concluded that a preferential diffusion of Ni atoms into the Au layer happens in the annealed Au/s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film while a significant diffusion of Fe atoms into the Au layer happens in the annealed Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film although a few Ni atoms also diffuse into the Au layer. 3.2. Orientation and structure Fig. 4 shows XRD spectra of the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films as-deposited and annealed at 150, 250 and 300 8C for 15 min. As can be seen in Fig. 4, the XRD spectra show Au(111), Au(200), Au(220) and Au(311) diffraction peaks while the Au(111) peak intensity is much stronger than the others. No Ni80Fe20 diffraction peak from the Ni80Fe20 layer is observed. Using the measured X-ray peak intensity, the texture coefficient b(hkl) of a plane (hkl) for the Au layer can be calculated using b?hkl ? ? P I ?hkl ?=Ib ?hkl ? ?1=N ? ? ? I ?hkl ?=Ib ?hkl ?? ?1?

where I(hkl) is the measured X-ray peak intensity of the plane (hkl) of the Au layer, I b(hkl) is the standard X-ray peak intensity of the plane (hkl) of the Au bulk and N is the number of the reflection diffraction peak [8]. Table 2 is the summary of the calculated b(hkl) values of the Au layers. As shown in Table 2, the Au layers retain mainly crystalline orientation of [111] in the direction of the layer growth. Also, the crystalline orientation of [111] increases with increasing annealing temperature. Besides, the intensity of the diffraction peaks increases with annealing temperature and reaches a maximum at 250 8C. It indicates that the annealing could improve the crystalline quality of the Au layer but the severe diffusion of Ni atoms at higher annealing temperature could also degrade the crystalline quality. According to the Au plane distances obtained using the XRD measurements, the lattice constant of the Au layer in the direction of the layer growth can be calculated and then is also listed in Table 2. As shown in Table 2, for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20

Fig. 4. XRD spectra of Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films; (a) as-deposited, (b) annealing of 150 8C, (c) annealing of 250 8C and (d) annealing of 300 8C.

bilayer films, the lattice constants of the Au layers are smaller than that of the Au bulk (0.40788 nm). Also, the lattice constant of the Au layer of the bilayer film annealed at 300 8C is markedly smaller than that of the as-deposited Au layer. 3.3. Resistivity Sheet resistances of the Au/e-Ni80Fe20, Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films before and after annealed

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Table 2 Texture coefficients and lattice constants of the Au layers of the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 films annealed at different temperatures Temperature (8C) No 150 250 300 Texture coefficient [111] 1.73 1.94 1.89 2.57 [200] 0.55 0.67 0.66 0.42 [220] 1.08 0.81 0.91 0.50 [311] 0.64 0.59 0.55 0.51 0.40716F0.00007 0.40600F0.00007 0.40737F0.00007 0.40278F0.00007 Lattice constant (nm)

4. Discussion 4.1. Diffusion of Ni and Fe atoms In the present work, when the Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer film was annealed at temperature higher than 150 8C for time longer than 15 min, Ni atoms diffuse preferentially into the Au layer. It is similar to those cases of the annealed Ni81Fe19/Cu bilayer films and the annealed Ta/Ni82Fe18 multiplayers, in which the preferential diffusion of Ni atoms into the Cu and Ta layers was observed [3,4]. However, when the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film was annealed at 350 8C for 30 min, a significant diffusion of Fe atoms into the Au layer happens although a few Ni atoms also diffuse into the Au layer. As previously reported, oxygen could enhance a diffusion of Ni atoms to the Au surface for the annealed Au/Ni bilayer film [1]. However, in the present work, the annealing was carried out in vacuum. Therefore, the effect of oxygen on the diffusion of Ni atoms to the Au layer surface, i.e., on the diffusion of Ni atoms into the Au layer, can be negligible. On the other hand, for a polycrystalline bilayer film, an atom diffusion along grain boundaries, i.e., grain boundary diffusion, was observed and some theoretical models were established for explaining the grain boundary diffusion [10–13]. Fig. 5 shows FE-SEM microphotographs of the unannealed and annealed Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films. As can be seen from Fig. 5, the Au layers deposited on the two

were measured, using four-point probe technique, at room temperature. The resistivity q of the film can be given by [9] q ? ?p=ln2? ? R ? d ?2?

where (p/ln2)?R is the sheet resistance of the film and d is the thickness of the film. According to Eq. (2), it can be said that the ratio of resistivity of the annealed bilayer film to that of the unannealed bilayer film is equal to the ratio of sheet resistance of the annealed bilayer film to that of the unannealed bilayer film. The ratios of resistivity of the annealed bilayer films to that of the unannealed ones are summarized in Table 1. As shown in Table 1, for the Au/eNi80Fe20, Au/s-Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films, the ratios increase mainly with increasing annealing temperature. Besides, under the same annealing condition, the ratio of the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film is larger than that of the Au/ s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film.

Fig. 5. The FE-SEM microphotographs of the unannealed and annealed bilayer films; (a) Au/s-Ni80Fe20, unannealed, (b) Au/Ni30Fe70, unannealed, (c) Au/s-Ni80Fe20, annealed at 350 8C for 30 min, (d) Au/Ni30Fe70 annealed at 350 8C for 30 min. The bar on the photograph represents a scale of 500 nm.

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different NiFe layers have almost the same structure, i.e., the grain size of the Au layers is about 80 nm and some voids can be observed in the Au layers. It can be considered that when Ni or Fe atoms diffuse into the Au layer, they may occupy two sorts of sites in the Au layer: (1) grain boundaries, vacancies, voids and interstitial sites; (2) substitution of Ni or Fe atoms for Au atoms. For the annealed Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films, the concentrations of Fe and/or Ni atoms on the Au surfaces are higher than those inside the Au layers, indicating that Fe and/or Ni atoms fast diffuse through defects such as grain boundaries, vacancies and voids and arrive at the Au surface. Furthermore, considering the two sorts of occupying sites above mentioned, the former increases the lattice constant of the Au layer while the latter reduces the lattice constant of the Au layer. Therefore, the competition between the two effects controls the lattice constant of the annealed Au layer. Since for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer films annealed at 150 and 250 8C Ni atoms diffuse into the Au layer are less, the competition may lead to a more complicated result on the Au lattice constant. However, for the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film annealed at 300 8C, larger amounts of Ni atoms diffuse into the Au layer, resulting in a formation of the Au–Ni alloy film mainly due to the substitution of Ni atoms for Au atoms. As a result, the lattice constant of the Au layer markedly decreases compared with that of the as-deposited one. In a Au–Ni alloy, a lattice constant decreases with increasing Ni content [14,15]. According to the relationship between the lattice constant and the Ni content reported in Refs. [14,15], the lattice constant of the Au layer of the Au/eNi80Fe20 bilayer film annealed at 300 8C can be calculated to be 0.40426 nm. The relative difference between the calculated and measured values, which is defined as (0.40426?0.40278)/0.40278, is 0.36%, meaning that the calculated lattice constant is near that measured by XRD. Therefore, it may be said that for the bilayer film annealed at higher temperature large numbers of Ni atoms diffuse into the Au layer as a substitutive atom, reducing the lattice constant of the Au layer. It may be considered that for the Au/NiFe bilayer films the composition of the NiFe layer can determine a sort of the diffusing atoms, i.e., the atom which has relative high content in the NiFe layer can be the significant diffusing atom. It is an interesting topic which atom is the significant atom diffusing into the Au layer for the Au/Ni50Fe50 bilayer film. Now, the reason that the Fe content in the Au layer of the annealed Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film is higher than the Ni content in the Au layer of the annealed Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer film is not clear. 4.2. Resistivity In the present work, we may simply consider that the resistivity of the bilayer film is approximately equal to that of the Au layer because the resistance of the Au layer is smaller by two orders of magnitude than those of the

Ni80Fe20 and Ni30Fe70 layers. Then the resistivity q BL of the bilayer film can be expressed as [7] qBL ? q0 ? qI ? qPD ? qG ? qNI ? qFE ?3?

where q 0 is the Au bulk resistivity. q I, q PD and q G are the resistivities caused by impurities, point defects and grain boundaries in the Au layer, respectively. q NI is the resistivity due to the diffusion of Ni atoms into the Au. q FE is the resistivity due to the diffusion of Fe atoms into the Au. Because no impurities such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and chlorine are detected inside the Au layer in terms of AES measurements, q I in Eq. (3) can be negligible. Then Eq. (3) can be reduced to qBL ? q0 ? qPD ? qG ? qNI ? qFE : ?4?

For the annealed Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer films, because no Fe is detected inside the Au layer in terms of AES measurements, q FE in Eq. (4) can be negligible. Eq. (4) can be further reduced to qBL ? q0 ? qG ? qPD ? qNI : ?5?

The ratios of resistivity of the annealed Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films to that of the unannealed bilayer films increase mainly with annealing temperature as shown in Table 1. The annealing can promote the diffusion of Ni and/or Fe atoms into the Au layer, resulting in the increase in q NI and/or q FE [16]. On the other hand, as can be seen from Fig. 5, the annealing could promote the grain growth of the Au layers. Therefore, the annealing improves the crystalline quality, leading to the decrease in both q G and q PD. Then, according to Eqs. (4) and (5), when the increment of q NI and/or q FE is larger than the decrement of both q G and q PD, the resistivity q BL of bilayer film can be increased. The result is similar to that of the Au/Cr bilayer films reported previously [7]. After annealing, for the Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer films the improvement of the crystalline quality is almost the same as shown in Fig. 5. Therefore, for the two films a change of q G and q PD can be considered to be the same. AES measurements show the amount of Fe atoms diffusing into the Au layer of the Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer film is more than that of Ni atoms diffusing into the Au layer of the Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer film. Also, a value of q FE is larger than that of q NI when Au–Ni and Au–Fe alloys have the same composition [16]. As a result, in the present work q FE is larger than q NI. According to Eqs. (4) and (5), before and after annealing, the ratio of the resistivity of the Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer film is larger than that of the Au/Ni80Fe20 bilayer film. Besides, as shown in Table 1, the diffusion of Ni atoms in the Au/e-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film is more than that in the Au/s-Ni80Fe20 bilayer film. The detailed study should be done. The present work concentrates mainly on the influence of the diffusion of Ni atoms and/or Fe atoms on compositional, structural and electrical properties of the Au layers. The effect of the diffusion of Au atoms on the characteristics of

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the NiFe layer is also very important and is been studying. The results will be reported elsewhere.

X.A. Yang of the Institute of Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences for FE-SEM observations.

5. Summary The compositional, structural and electrical properties of Au/Ni80Fe20 and Au/Ni30Fe70 bilayer films were studied as a function of annealing temperature and time. No impurities such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and chlorine are detected inside any of the Au layers. As the annealing temperature and time increase, the Ni atoms in the Au/ Ni80Fe20 bilayer films diffuse preferentially into the Au layer while a significant diffusion of Fe atoms in the Au/ Ni30Fe70 bilayer film into the Au layer was observed although a few Ni atoms also diffuse into the Au layer. The diffusion of Ni and/or Fe atoms into the Au layer results in an increase in the resistivity of the bilayer film. Large numbers of Ni atoms diffusing into the Au layer of the Au/ Ni80Fe20 bilayer film result in a remarkable decrease in the lattice constant of the Au layer.

References
[1] C.A. Chang, J. Mater. Res. 2 (1987) 441. [2] T. Bigault, F. Bocquet, S. Labat, O. Thomas, H. Renebier, Appl. Surf. Sci. 188 (2002) 110. [3] M. Hecker, D. Tietjen, H. Wendrock, C.M. Schneider, N. Cramer, L. Malkinski, R.E. Camley, Z. Celinski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 247 (2002) 62. [4] M. Kitada, K. Yamamoto, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 147 (1995) 213. [5] S. Stavroyiannis, Mater. Sci. Eng., B 90 (2002) 180. [6] I. Sakamoto, K. Koguma, M. Nawate, S. Honda, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165 (1997) 208. [7] Y. Huang, H. Qiu, F. Wang, L. Pan, Y. Tian, P. Wu, Vacuum 71 (2003) 523. [8] H. Qiu, F. Wang, P. Wu, L. Pan, Y. Tian, Vacuum 66 (2002) 447. [9] A. Kinbara, H. Fujiwara, Thin Films, Syokabo, Tokyo, 1991, p. 250, in Japanese. [10] P.S. Kenrick, Nature 217 (1968) 1249. [11] L.S. Weinman, T.W. Orent, T.S. Liu, Thin Solid Films 72 (1980) 143. [12] W.L. Wang, Y.T. Chou, S. Lee, Scr. Mater. 41 (1999) 1061. [13] Z. Erdelyi, Ch. Girardeaux, G.A. Langer, L. Daroczi, A. Rolland, D.L. Beke, Appl. Surf. Sci. 162–163 (2000) 213. [14] A.F. Crawley, D.J. Fabian, J. Inst. Met. 94 (1966) 39. [15] H. Okamoto, T.B. Massalski, Phase Diagrams of Binary Gold Alloys, ASM International, Ohio, 1987, p. 193. [16] K. Schroder, CRC Handbook of Electrical Resistivities of Binary Metallic Alloys, CRC Press, Florida, 1983, p. 122, 134.

Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Ms. W.Q. Yao of the Analysis Center of the Tsinghua University for AES measurements. The authors also would like to thank Dr.


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