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II. Basic Listening Practice
1. Script
W: What’s that? Is it a toy? Did it get chewed by a dog? M: Hey, that’s my mascot! My uncle gave it to me when I was five, and it’s been with me ever since. It brought me luck in all my college exams. I can’t bring myself to part with it. Q: What does the man say about his lucky charm?

2. Script
W: Wish me luck; I’ve got a job interview this afternoon. I’m really nervous. M: Stay calm, best of luck! I’ve got my finger crossed for you. Q: What does the woman say he has crossed his fingers for the woman?

3. Script
W: Oh no! Did you see that black cat walk right in front of me? That’s unlucky! M: Really? I guess it depends on where you come from. In my hometown it’s the opposite: It’s lucky to see a black cat cross your path. So no need to worry! Q: What do the man and the woman think about a black cat crossing their path?

4. Script
M: Guess what I did this morning? I smashed my mirror. A great way to start the day! W: Oh no, seven years’ bad luck, isn’t it? Q: What happened in the morning?

5. Script
M: I can’t believe this rain; it’s been pouring for hours! Where can I dry my umbrella? W: Not in here please! It’s unlucky to open an umbrella indoors. You can put it on the porch. Q: Where does the woman ask the man do to open his umbrella?

Keys: 1.C2.C3. A 4.D 5.B

III. Listening In
Task 1: David Copperfield is coming.


W: M: W: M:


M: W: M: W: M: W: M:

My brother is going to pick up some tickers for the David Copperfield show. You interested in coming with us? I don’t know. I’ve been card tricks before, and rabbits from hats. I even do tricks myself—watch me change this coin into an ice cream cone. Very funny. David Copperfield is the world’s greatest magician; he’s certainly worth a look. Actually, I have seen him on television. He pulls off some pretty amazing stunts. I wish I knew how he performed his tricks. Then I could also make a person float in the air. I could pull a rabbit out of my hat. I could escape from a straitjacket and handcuffs—all underwater. And I could saw a woman in half. A magician never tells his secrets. David attempts the impossible and no one has any idea how he does it. I saw him on TV when he walked through the Great Wall of China. How could he do that? I have no idea, but I know what I saw: He entered a canvas shelter on one side of the wall, and he came out of a canvas shelter on the other side. yes, bur was he always in full view of the camera, or did they cut to a commercial or something else? Not only was the camera running all the time, but he was hooked up a heart monitor, and you could track his progress as he moved through the wall. It’s difficult to know what to believe. I know it’s not possible for him to do that, but… It sounds to me like it’s a show worth watching. Count me in. Instead of an ice cream cone, I’ll turn my money into a ticket.

1. What is the dialog mainly about? 2. Which of the following DOESN’T the man mention? 3. What did David Copperfield do at the Great Wall of China, according to the woman? 4. Under what condition did David Copperfield go through the Great Wall? 5. What does the man finally decide to do?

Keys: 1C 2.B 3.A 4.D 5.C

For Reference 1. He could make a person float in the air, pull a rabbit out of his hat, escape from a straitjacket and handcuffs—all underwater, and saw a woman in half. 2. She thinks Davis Copperfield in the world’s greatest magician and he’s certainly worth a look.

Task 2: Is it really bad luck? Script
Are you worried because you have just broken a mirror? Some people believe that breaking a mirror is a (S1) terrible thing to do. They say it will bring you seven years of (S2) misfortune. The reason behind this belief stems the old idea that a person’s soul is in their (S3) reflection, so that if you smash your mirror, you soul will be (S4) damaged too, dooming you do an early death, and not giving you entry to (S5) heaven. Is there any way to reverse this bad luck? Yes—if you very carefully (S6) pick up all the broken pieces of the mirror and throw them into a river or stream, then the bad luck will be”(S7) washed away”.. Of all number, 13 is the most associated with bad luck. (S8) Some people claim that the number is bad luck because thirteen people sat down for the Last Supper before Jesus was crucified, and with this in mind few hosts will serve dinner with thirteen at the table. And according to an ancient Norwegian tale, twelve gods had gathered for a feast when a thirteenth, Loke, entered. After the meal, Loke killed Balder, who was the most beloved of all the gods. (S9) Friday the thirteenth of any month is considered especially bad or unlucky, and Friday the thirteenth of March is the worst of the all. The number seven also has some superstition connected to it. It is said that God created the world in seven days, and any association with the number is luck. The seventh son of the seventh son is said to be the luckiest of men, and (S10) When people talk about the “seven-year itch” they mean that every seven years a person undergoes a complete change in personality.

Task3: The Status on Easter Island
One of the greatest mysteries on Earth is the statues on Easter Island. The island is one of the most remote places on Earth, located in the southern Pacific Ocean. It was almost uninhabited when it was discovered on Easter Day in 1722 by a Dutch captain, but it is covered with hundreds of giant statues, each weighing several tons and some standing more than 30 feet tall. Who carved these statures, and how and why were they put there? Nobody knows the answer for sure, but many ate trying to find out. There are many

theories to explain this mystery. It has even been suggested the space aliens may have played a role regarding these giant statues. Another theory relates to the fact that Easter Island was inhabited by Polynesian seafarers, who traveled thousand of miles in their canoes, guided by the stars, the color of sky and the sun , the shapes of clouds, and the presence of birds making flights out to sea seeking food. The Polynesians first arrived on the island in 499A.D.However, the ocean currents which carried them there would mot take them back. They were trapped and, having arrived there, could not leave. The Polynesians probable cared the statues themselves, perhaps as religious symbols. To date, 887 statues have been discovered on the island. However, only a few statues were carried intended destination. The rest were abandoned along the way. The statues appear to have been carved out of the top edge of walls of a volcano on the island. After a statue was carved, it may have been rolled or dragged down to the base of the volcano. Then it was put upright, and ropes were tied around it. Using a pulley system, the statue was moves to its intended destination. At its peak, the population of Eater Island is believed to have reached 11,000. Eventually, the resources of the island were exhausted, and the people resorted to cannibalism, eating one another. Work on the statues stopped and the statues were knocked over. When the first Europeans finally arrived on the island, most of the people lad died out.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

When and by whom was the island discovered? Who are mentioned in the passage as possible builders of the statues? What is true of the Polynesians on the island according to the passage? How many statues ere carried to their intended destination? Which of the following would be the most suitable title for the passage?

Keys: 1A 2.B3. D 4.D 5B

For Reference The resources of the island were exhausted, and the people resorted to cannibalism, eating each other. When the first Europeans finally arrived on the island, most of the people lad died out.

IV. Speaking Out

This is a custom that dates back to the ancient Celts.
Chris: Sue, do you know why people say, “knock on wood” when they want to avoid bad luck? Susan: It sounds a bit funny. As far as I know, it has a lot to do with ancient Celtic people. They worshipped trees. Chris: Sounds interesting. Susan: They thoughts trees would suck demons back into the ground. Chris: Well, when you think about the deep roots, their belief seems to make some senses. Susan: What’s more, knocking on wood was a way to brag without being punished. People once thought that evil spirits would become jealous if good fortune was pointed out to them Chris: Uh, yes, go on. Susan: well, by knocking on wood three times, the noise could frightened away the evil spirits, and they couldn’t have to rob the braggart of that good fortune Chris: I’m afraid those who don’t know this superstition might be frightened away as well. Susan: Now here’s a test. Do you know how the custom of kissing under the mistletoe originated? Chris: I haven’t the slightest idea, but I’m all ears. Susan: Again this is a custom that dates back to the ancient Celts. Since they worshipped trees, they conducted many of their ceremonies in the woods in the shade of trees. Chris: Now I see. Probably it’s under these mistletoe trees that weddings took place. Susan: I wish you were standing under some mistletoe right now. Chris: Luckily I’m not. Touch wood.

MODEL2 Is there any relationship between superstitions and real life? Script
Chris: It’s strange that so many people are superstitious. There must be some relationship between superstitions and real life. Susan: You know, Richard Wiseman, a British psychologist researched the relationship between superstition and luck. Chris: What did he find? Most people would be interested. At least I would Susan: He polled ,000 people and fond that people who believe themselves to be lucky tend to go for positive superstitions .They may wear a ring as a talisman

or often say,” touch wood” for good luck. Chris: Then, what about the unlucky people? Do you mean if they think they ate unlucky, they tend to believe in superstitions abut bad luck. Susan: Yeah. They worry a lot about a broken mirror, a black cat running across their path, and so on. Chris: So what is his point? Susan: His point is that people make their own luck by their attitude to life. So, 49 percent of lucky people regularly cross their fingers, compared to 30 percent of unlucky people. And only 18 percent of lucky people are anxious if they break a mirror. Chris: So, our fate is linked to our attitude rather than to our superstitions. Susan: I think that’s what he is suggesting. Chris: This research seems too complicates. If I were a psychologist, I would conduct a survey to find whether 13 really is an unlucky number. I f there ere traffic accidents or murders on the 13th than on other days, then we have to believe in superstitions. Susan: What if there weren’t? Chris: Then I wouldn’t be superstitious. Susan: What a brilliant idea! I never expected you to be as wise as Solomon. Chris: Well as long as you don’t think I’m a fool.

MODEL3 Script

I believe ETs have visited the earth before.

Nora: Hey, what’s this picture of yours? It looks like a flying saucer. Chris: It is. I was visited by aliens last week and this is a picture of their spacecraft. Nora: When I look closer, it resembles a liver Frisbee. Chris: But it could have been aliens. I believe ETs have visited the earth before. What do you think? Nora: It would be hard to believe otherwise. Projects like the pyramids are difficult to explain away, given the level of technology that was available at the time Chris: That’s for sure. They are mysterious. Nora: When you consider all those “impossibilities, it’s tempting to infer that some highly advanced civilization assisted humans in their construction. Chris: Think about this: if you were abducted by aliens and taken up to their spaceship or something …well… Nora: What do you mean? Chris: I mean, who would believe you? You’d go nuts telling everyone: “It’s true! I was abducted by aliens!” Nora: And everyone would think you were crazy, or just making up a story to get

attention. Chris: From what I understand, sometimes these people do go crazy, trying to convince people about their experiences. Nora: I believe that in some cases they offer pretty good evidence. Chris: So, take a closer look at this picture. Do you still think it’s a Frisbee?

Now Your Turn Task 1
Simon: Eliza, do you know why people say” keep your fingers crossed” when they want to wish others luck? Eliza: It sounds a bit funny. As far as I know, it’s a lot to do with an ancient Christian belief. Simon: Uh, go on. Eliza: In the Christian belief “making the sign of the cross” would keep away evil spirits and bad luck. Simon: I see. When you think about the cross, sign of Christianity, that belief seems to make some sense. Eliza: That’s true. That’s why children often cross their fingers when they tell a small lie. They want to keep bad luck away, or to avoid being punished. Simon: Sounds interesting. So, I’ll cross my fingers for you before you take the final examination. Eliza: Thank you. Simon: But those who don’t understand this superstition might be puzzled Eliza: With interesting communications among nations, more and more people can understand it now.

V. Let’s Talk
Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and unrest in the Middle East, Britons have become even more superstitious than usual, according to a report published today. “There has been a significant increase in superstition over the last month, possible as a result of current economic and political uncertainties,” stated Dr. Dick Armstrong. He launched an Internet Survey of national superstition, and found it to be surprisingly high, even among those with a scientific background. Only more in ten of those surveyed claimed not to be superstitious at all. Three out of four people in Britain feel the need to touch wood, and 65% cross their fingers.

It is interesting to note that lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, superstitious people tended to regard themselves as among the less lucky, worried about life, had a strong need for control, and could not tolerate ambiguity. The survey also revealed some unexpected beliefs. For example, one respondent could not stay in the bathroom once a toilet had been flushed. There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even, when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. They didn’t feel any luckier or more stratified with their lives at the end of that week than when they started. Armstrong attempted to explain this phenomenon: “When students are preparing for exams with a lucky charm, they may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision.” Reasons foe More Superstitions Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and unrest in the Middle East, Britons have become even more superstitious than usual Lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, superstitious people tended to regard themselves as among the less lucky There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even, when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. They didn’t feel any luckier or more stratified When students are preparing for exams with a lucky charm, they may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision.

Who are more superstitious?

Do superstitions work? Explanation

VI. Further Listening and Speaking
Task1: Horseshoes as a Sign of Good Luck Script
Horseshoes are a traditional sign of good luck. Most people believe this comes from the fact that the horseshoe is shaped like the crescent moon, a period of prosperity and good fortune. One legend has it that the Devil was in disguise and wandering at large, looking for trouble. He happened to call on St. Dunstan, who ea skilled in shoeing horses. St. Dunstan recognized the Devil and tied him to a wall with only his feet free to move. He then set to work shoeing him as though he were a horse, but with such roughness the Devil cried out for mercy. St. Dunstan stopped his work and released the Devil after making him promise never to enter a home on which a horseshoe was

fixed. Witches fear horses, so they are also turned away by a door with a horseshoe mounted on it. The big issue regarding horseshoes is whether they should be hung points up or points down. The original superstition was that the horseshoe is points up to keep the luck from pouring out. Despite this view most buildings with horseshoes in their sign hang them the opposite way. The Horseshoe Casino in Las Vegas hangs its horseshoe with the arc on top. They may be hoping their customers’ luck runs out, but this is usually not something you advertise in your sign. Finger rings made of horseshoe nail are said to keep away bad luck. Also, robbing two horseshoes together is said to bring good luck. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. According to the passage, what does the crescent moon represent? What did St. Dunstan do to the Devil? What did the Devil promise? What is the big issue concerning the horseshoe? Why is the arc of the horseshoe up at the casino in Las Vegas?

Keys: 1.A 2.C 3.D 4.C5.B

Task 2: Superstitions or real bad lucks?
Joan: Pass me that mirror, would you? I’ll see if my makeup is OK. Dick: OOOPS!! Sorry I dropped it…but is it you or me that gets the seven years of bad luck? Joan: You, I hope, but probable neither of us. I wonder where that “old wives’ tale” originated anyway. Dick: There used to be a lot of superstitions: black cats, ladders, numbers. My parent and grandparents are full of them. Joan: I agree. People today are much more educated than before. These superstitions are just amusing pieced of history rather than beliefs, don’t you think so? Dick: Perhaps, but some people today still go for them. People whose livelihoods depend more on luck—like professional athletes, or fishermen—often they have superstitious routines. Joan: It’s rue. I have heard of athletes who wear lucky socks or a treasured medal to bring them good fortune. Dick: And let’s not forget lucky numbers. We all know about the number4,6, and 8 in

China. Joan: I know 4 is death and 8 is wealth, but what is the significance of 6? Dick: 6 means good luck. Some people include 6 in their e-mail address just for luck. Joan: Maybe we are not as smart as we think we are. Dick: Well, there are many things in the universe that we cannot control, and that’s why people are superstitious.



Career Transitions

There was a king in Africa who has a close friend that he grew up with. The friend has a habit of looking at every situation in his life and saying, “This is good!” One day the king and his friend were out hunting. The friend would load and prepare the guns for the king. The friend had apparently done something wrong in preparing one of the guns, for after taking the gun from his friend, the king fired it and his thumb was blown off. Examining the situation, the friend remarked as usual, “This is good!” to which the king replied, “No, this is NOT good!” and proceeded to send his friend to jail. About a year later, the king was hunting in an area that he should have known to stay clear of. Cannibals captured him and took him to their village. They tied him to a stake surrounded by wood. As they came near to set fire to the wood, they noticed that the king had but one thumb. Being superstitious, they never ate anyone that was less than whole. So they set the king free. As he returned home, he was reminded of the event that had taken his thumb off and felt badly sorry about his treatment of his friend. He went immediately to the jail to speak with his friend. “You were right,” he said, “it was good for my thumb was blown off.” Then he apologized, “I’m very sorry for sending you to jail for so long. It was bad for me to do this.” “No,” his friend replied, “this is good!” “What do you mean, ‘this is good’? How could it be good that I sent you, my good friend, to jail for all this time?” “If I had not been in jail, I would have been with you—and eaten.!”

For Reference 1. He had a habit of looking at every situation in his life and saying, “This is good!” 2. After taking the gun, the king fired it and his thumb was blown off. 3. They set the king free, because being superstitious, they never ate anyone that was less than whole 4. He felt sorry for his friend and went to the jail to apologize to him. 5. If he had not been in jail, I would have been with you—and eaten.

News Report
Egyptian Tombs Script
Archaeologist have uncovered two tombs that date back more than 2,500 years in the part of Cairo where the ancient city of Heliopolis once stood, according to Egyptian antiquity authorities. Although there is a modern suburb of Heliopolis in Cairo southeast of its ancient namesake, the original Heliopolis was known as a center of learning and academic study in ancient Mediterranean times. The 26-century-old tombs that date back to the years 664 to 625 BC were developed during a routine archaeological inspection of an empty plot of land in the Eins Shams district of northwestern Cairo. This district covers part of the ground that used to be the ancient city of Heliopolis. The owner of the land was seeking construction rights and by law, construction cannot begin without a permit certifying that the site has no historical significance. The first of the two limestone tombs to be opened contained a sarcophagus and sixteen statuettes, said the chief state archaeologist for the Cairo-Giza area, Zahi Hawass. Hawass said in a statement that the tombs were found in a downtown residential area, three meters below the ground. [SOUND BITE] Hawass went on to give a more detailed account of the important find. [SOUND BITE]

It appears that the tombs have not been raided by grave robbers, but they have been damaged by leaking sewage water. The first tomb to be uncovered belonged to a builder named Waja-Hur. His name was engraved on the statuettes, which the ancient Egyptians placed in tombs to answer questions for them in the afterlife. Te process of recovering these artifacts can be long and tedious, but the historical significance of these pieces makes the painstaking work worthwhile. [SOUND BITE] Egyptian archaeologists plan to open the second tomb on Sunday.


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