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经典段落翻译—英汉互译


经典段落翻译——英汉互译 第一部分 汉译英
1.丝绸之路(the Silk Road)是历史上连接中国和地中海的一条重要 贸易路线。 因为这条路上的丝 绸贸易占绝大部分,所以在 1877 年它 被德国的一位地理学家命名为“丝绸之路” 。这条古道从长 安开始, 经过河西走廊(the Hexi Corridor),到达敦煌后分成三条: 南部路线, 中部路线和北部路线。 这三条路遍布新疆维吾尔自治区 (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) ,然后扩展到巴基斯坦 (Pakistan),印度, 甚至罗马。 The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and the Mediterranean. Because silk comprised a large proportion of trade along this road, in 1877, it was named the Silk Road by an eminent German geographer. This ancient road begins at Chang’an, then by way of the Hexi Corridor, and it reaches Dunhuang, where it divides into three, the Southern Route, Central Route and North? ern Route. The three routes spread all over the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and then they extend as far as Pakistan, India and even Rome.

2.—个标准的四合院通常由一个位于中心的院子和四侧房屋构成。 门通常漆成红色,并有大的 铜门环。通常情况下,全家人住在大院。 北端的正房由长辈居住,年轻_代生活在两侧的房子,朝南 的房子里, 通常是家庭客厅或书房。 A standard siheyuan usually consists of houses on its four sides with a yard in the center. The gates are usually painted red and have large copper door rings. Usually,a whole family lives in compound. The elder generation lives in the main house standing at the north end, the younger generations live in the side houses, and the south house is usually the family sitting room or study.

3.秦始皇陵墓(the Mausoleum of the Emperor Qin Shihuang)坐落在 陕西省西安市临潼区以东 5 公 里的骊山北部,是中国历史上第一个 皇帝的最终休眠之地。它于公元前 246 年开始建造,工程持续 了 38 年。它占地面积 56.25 平方公里, 是中国历史上最大的陵墓。 The Mausoleum of the Emperor Qin Shihuang, located at the northern foot of the Lishan Mountain five kilometers east of Lintong District, Xi’ an City, Shanxi Province, is the final resting place of the first emperor in the history of China. Its construction lasted for 38 years, commencing in 246BC. With an area of 56.25 square kilometers, it’s the largest mausoleum in China’s history.

4.景德镇,中国瓷都(ceramic metropolis),是世界瓷器艺术花园的 耀眼明珠。它位于长江南部, 是江南一个有活力的城镇。它制造瓷 器(porcelain)的历史已经有 1700 多年,已经形成了丰富的瓷 器文化。 稀有的瓷器文物,一流的瓷器工艺,瓷乐器的优雅表演,以及优美 的田园风光组成了景 德镇特别的旅游文化,而且让景德镇成为中国 唯一一个以瓷器旅游文化为特色的旅游城市。 Jingdezhen known as the ceramic metropolis of china is a brilliant pearl in the world’s art garden of ceramics. It is located on the south of the Yangtze River as a powerful tTown on the south of the Yangtze
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River. It has a porcelain making history of over 1700 years,which has been crystallized into its rich cultural tradition of ceramics. Rare ceramic rel? ics, superb ceramic craftsmanship , unique ceramic customs, graceful perform?ance of ceramic musical instruments and beautiful rural scenery make up the peculiar tourist culture of Jingdezhen and hence make Jingdezhen the only Chinese tourist city featuring ceramic culture.

5.说到筷子(chopsticks)的起源,中国是世界上第一个使用筷子的 国家,用筷子吃饭已经有至少 3000 年的历史了。筷子看起来很简单, 只有两根小细棒,但它有很多功能,比如挑选,移动,夹, 搅拌或 者挖。此外,它便于使用,价格便宜。而且筷子也是世界上独有的 餐具(tableware)。使用 複子的人,无论是中国人还是外国人,都无 不钦佩筷子的发明者。 As the origin of chopsticks, China is the first country in the world to use chopsticks and has a history of at least 3,000 years to have meals with chopsticks. Chopsticks seems quite simple with only two small and thin sticks, but it is in possession of many functions, such as picking, moving, nipping, mixing and digging; moreover,it is convenient for use and cheap in price. Besides, chopsticks are also unique tableware in the world. Anyone using chopsticks,no matter Chinese or foreigners, would without exception admire the inventor of chopsticks.

6.2008 全球经济衰退导致中国的新毕业生的就业市场显著下降。 2009 年毕业的学生将加入到 2008 年毕业仍在找工作的 300 万学生 之中。毕业生过剩(glut)也可以归因于大学入学率的提高和教 育机构 的增加。虽然大学的学生人数增加了,但是他们的质量并没有明显 地提高。在大多数情况 下,毕业生无法在 2008 年找到合适的就业机 会是因为他们没有行业所需的技能。 The 2008 global recession resulted in a significant drop in the job market for China’s new graduates. Students graduating in 2009 will join around three million students who graduated in 2008 and are still seeking job opportunities. The graduate glut can also be attributed to a rise in the number of college enrollments and educational institutions. Although the number of college students has increased, there has not been any significant improvement in their quality. In most cases, graduates were unable to find suitable employment in 2008 because they did not have the skills required by the industry.

7.对于世界上很多国家来说,中国正迅速成为他们最重要的双边 (bilateral)贸易伙伴。然而,中 国和世界其他国家之间贸易不平衡的 问题已经引发了关注。尤其是美国对中国的贸易赤字是最大 的,达 到了 3150 亿美元,这个数字是十年前的三倍还多。贸易纠纷(trade dispute)也越来越多,主 要是关于倾销(dumping)、知识产权和人民 币的估价。 For many countries around the world, China is rapidly becoming their most important bilateral trade partner. However,there have been concerns over large trade imbalances between China and the rest of the world. The US in particular has the largest trade deficit in the world with China at $315 billion, more than three times what it was a decade ago. There have also been a growing number of trade disputes brought against, mainly for dumping, intellectual property and the valuation of the yuan.

8.中国人民依法享受超过 115 天的假期,其中包括 104 天的周 末和 11 天的节假日。中国一年
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中有 7 个法定假日,包括元旦(New Year’s Day),春节(Spring Festival),清明节(Qingming Festival), 五一劳动节(May Day),端午节(Dragon Boat Festival),中秋节(Mid- Autumn Day)和国庆节(National Day)。员工有 5 至 15 天的带薪年假。学生和老师有大约三个月的寒暑假。在中国,暑假_般约在 7 月 1 日开始,8 月 31 日左右结束,寒假是根据春节的日期,通常是在 1 月或 2 月。 Chinese people legally enjoy over 115 days off including 104 days of weekends and 11 days of festivals. China has seven legal holidays in a year,including New Year’s Day, Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, May Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Day and National Day. Employees have 5 to 15 days of paid annual leave. Students and teachers have summer and winter vacations for about three months. The summer vacation in China generally starts around July 1st and ends around August 31st,and the winter vacation usually falls on January or February according to the date of the Spring Festival.

9.中国扇子的历史可以追溯到 3000 多年前的商朝(the Shang Dynasty)。第一种扇子叫作“扇汗” (Shanhan),是拴在马车上用来 挡住强烈的阳光,给乘客遮雨的。 “扇汗”有点像现在的雨伞。后来 “扇汗”变成了由薄但是结实的丝绸或者鸟的羽毛做成的长柄扇,称 为中山扇(Zhangshan fan), 它主要用于皇帝的仪仗(honour guard)装 饰。 The history of Chinese fan can be dated to over 3,000 years ago,around the Shang Dynasty. The first type of fan, known as Shanhan, was tied to a horse-drawn carriage to shut out the strong sunshine and shelter the passengers from the rainfall. The Shanhan was a bit like today’s umbrella. Later this Shanhan became a long-handled fan made of thin and tough silk or birds5 feathers, called a Zhangshan fan, which was mainly used by the emperor’s honour guard as decoration.

10.中国是茶的故乡。据说早在五六千年前,中国就有了茶树(tea- shrub),而且有关茶树的人类文 明可以追溯到两千年前。来自中国的 茶和丝绸、瓷器(porcelain)—样,在 1000 年前为世界所知, 而且一 直是中国重要的出口产品。目前世界上 40 多个国家种植茶,其中亚 洲国家的产量占世界 总产量的 90%。其他国家的茶树都直接或间接 地起源于中国。 China is the homeland of tea. It is believed that China has tea- shrubs as early as five to six thousand years ago,and human cultivation of teaplants can date back two thousand years. Tea from China,along with her silk and porcelain, began to be known the world over more than a thousand years ago and has since always been an important Chinese export. At present more than forty countries in the world grow tea with Asian countries producing 90% of the world’s total output. All tea trees in other countries have their origin directly or indirectly in China.

11.信用卡(credit card)是银行所创造出来的最便捷同时也是最危险 的信用工具。通过信用卡, 人们可以先用银行付账的方式购买那些 负担不起的物品,同时,银行也将对此征收比_般贷款要高 的利率 (interest rate)。遗憾的是,信用卡现巳成为资本主义体制(capitalist system)的重要组成部分, 而该体制就得依赖消费(consumption)的持 续增长。 Credit cards are one of the most convenient devices ever cre ated by the banking system but, at the same time, one of the most danger? ous. They allow people to buy things they, otherwise, couldn’ t afford, with money created by the banks and, charged out at much higher interest rates than normal loans. Unfortunately, credit cards have become an es? sential part of the capitalist system which only survives on
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the continued growth in consumption.

12.都江堰中兴镇发生山体滑坡(landslide)——这是 2008 年四川地 震时受灾最严重的地方。 山体 滑坡覆盖了大约两平方公里,摧毁了 至少 11 所房子。到目前为止,已有 200 多名居民被疏散。山 体滑 坡几个小时后, 巡逻队员到达现场时, 一切都已经是一片汪洋。 目 击者描述石头和残骸 (debris) 从山上滚下来,不到三分钟就把八座 房屋吞没了。 The landslide occurred in the town of Zhongxing is Dujiangyan —one of the places badly hit by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The landslide, which covered about 2 sq km, damaged at least 11 homes. So far more than 200 residents have been evacuated. By the time patrol members arrived at the scene, a few hours after the landslide,everything was already a vast expanse of water. Eyewitnesses described stones and debris running down the hill and covering around eight homes in less than three minutes.

13.国家体育总局(the General Administration of Sport)在一项调查中 发现, 自 2010 年以来, 20-39 岁的中国人体重增加更多——1.9 千克。 这个年龄段中超过 11%的人属于肥胖,这在三年的时间里 就上涨了 两个百分点。 China’ s young adults are gaining more weight and exercising less than their elders. Chinese from ages 20 to 39 have put on more kilograms — 1.9 kg —— than other adults since 2010 , the General Administration of Sport found in a survey. More than 11% from the age group were obese, up two percentage points in only three years.

14.星期四这天,围观者们聚集在一起观看暴风的时候,台风“潭美” (Typhoon Trami)引发的 60 英尺高的海水,在海宁市附近的海岸 突然落下。当时并没有立刻弄清楚人们伤势有多严重,也没 有任何 死亡的报告。这场台风是由于浙江省东部的暴雨和时速 80 英里的风 引起的,它迫使 40 万 人离开家园,造成了数百万美元的损失。 The 60-foot wall of water — triggered by Typhoon Trami — crashed on the shore near the city of Haining,where onlookers gathered to watch the storm on Thursday. It was not immediately clear how bad the people were injured. There were no reports of any deaths. The typhoon — which caused heavy rain and 80-mph winds along the eastern Zhejiang Province — forced over 400,000 people to be evacuated from their homes and caused millions of dollars of damage.

15.秧歌是农历正月的主要的民族花市形式。在这种活动中,两人 都盛装打扮,轮流唱歌跳舞, 其他人作为唱歌和跳舞的搭档。锣(gong) 鼓按照节奏敲打;唢呐(suona)或其他传统的弦乐器、木管 乐器作为 背景音乐。 Yangge, which is one of the main forms of folk flower fair actions in the first month of the lunar year. In this activity, two people are dressed up, singing and dancing in antiphonal style, others act as singing and dancing partners. The gong and drum are beaten in rhythm; suona or other traditional stringed and woodwind instruments are dubbed in background music.

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16.根据全国老龄工作委员会(the China National Committee On Aging)的数据来看,到 2053 年, 中国 60 岁及以上的老人数量预计 会从目前的 1.85 亿一跃变为 4.87 亿, 或者说是占总人口的 35%。 扩 张的比例是由于寿命的增加和计划生育政策(family planning policies) 限制大部分城市家庭只生 一个孩子。快速老龄化对社会和经济稳定 造成了严重威胁。

17.自从 1978 年经济改革以来,中国已经完成了从中央计划经济 (centrally planned economy)向 市场经济(market based economy)的转变。超过 6 亿人已经脱离了贫困,但是仍然有超过 1.7 亿人生 活在 国际贫困线以下 天少于 1.25 美元。2012 年,中国的人均 GDP 为 12405.67 美元,这是 30 年 前的 37 倍。到 2018 年,中国的人均 GDP 将从世界第 90 位上升到第 75 位。然而,这仍然是低于 预计的 世界平均水平。 Since initiating market reforms in 1978,China has shifted from a centrally planned to a market based economy. More than 600 million citizens have been lifted out of poverty, but over 170 million people still live below the $1.25-a-day international poverty line. In 2012, China’s GDP (PPP) per capita was $12,405.67. This is 37 times higher than what it was just 30 years ago. By 2018,China’s GDP per capita will climb from the 90th to 75th highest in the world. This however will still be below the forecasted world average.

18.灵隐寺(Lingyin Temple)位于浙江省杭州市西湖的西北部。它是 江南著名古刹。该寺建于公 元 326 年,有 1600 多年的历史。传说, 印度一个叫作慧理的和尚来到杭州,被这美丽的山区景色深 深地吸 引了。他认为这里有神佛,所以建了一座庙宇,取名“灵隐” ,意思 是隐藏的灵魂。据说 著名的济公和尚也是在这座寺庙皈依的,这使 灵隐寺更加有名。 Lingyin Temple is located in the northwest side of West Lake in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. It is a famous ancient temple in the south of the Yangtze River. The temple was built in 326 AD and has a history of over 1,600 years. Legend has it that an Indian monk named Huili came to Hangzhou and was deeply attracted by the beautiful mountainous scenery. He thought there lived immortals and then he built a temple and named it “Lingyin” ,which means hidden souls. It is said that the famous monk Jigong also took vows in the temple, which made Lingyin Temple even more famous.

19.洛阳是地处中原的河南省西部一个地级市(prefecture-level city)。 它东部舭邻省会郑州,南接 南阳, 西连三门峡(S_enxia), 北邻济源。 在唐代(the Tang Dynasty),洛阳是东都(Dongdu), 东部首都, 其人 口最多的时候有 100 万左右,仅次于当时世界上最大的城市——长安。 在短暂的五代(Five Dynasties)时期, 洛阳是后梁(Later Liang), 后唐 (Later Tang)和后晋(Later Jin)的首都, 后来。 北宋(the North Song Dynasty)时期,洛阳是西部首都,也是宋朝的建立人赵匡胤的出生地。 Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, and Jiyuan to the north. During the Tang Dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu (东都),the “Eastern Capital' and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang, an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world. During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang was the capital of the Later Liang, Later Tang, and Later Jin. During the North Song Dynasty, Luoyang was the “Western Capital” and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of Song Dynasty.
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20.中国的保健食品 (health food)市场首次出现于 20 世纪 80 年代。 保健食品是指具有特定保健 功能或补充维生素或矿物质的食品。保 健食品适用于特定人群消费,具有调节人体功能的效果, 但不用于 治疗疾病的目的。保健食品有两种。一种是具有特定保健功能的食品, 另外一种是营养 补充剂。 China’s health food market first emerged in the 1980s. Health food refers to food products which claim to have specific health functions or supplement one’s vitamins or minerals. Health food is suitable for the consumption by specific groups of people and has the effect of regulating human body functions, but is not used for the purpose of treating diseases. There are two kinds of health food. One is food with specific health func? tions, the other is nutritional supplements.

21.就像向中国出售商品的公司会看到收益有损失一样,中国经济 活动放缓有着世界性的影响。 包括澳大利亚、巴西和东南亚在内的 其他国家近年来都看到了巨大的利润,因为中国对自然资源 有需求。 中国的需求下降巳经对很多商品的价格有了影响。上周,中国财政 部长楼继伟表示,今年 的经济增长可能为 7%,而这不一定是“底线” 。 A slowdown in economic activity in China has a global impact as companies that sell to China may see revenues suffer. Countries includ? ing Australia, Brazil and others in South East Asia have seen huge profits in recent years because of Chinese demand for natural resources. The fall in demand from China has already had an impact on the prices of many commodities. Last week,China’s Finance Minister Lou Jiwei indicated that economic growth could be 7% for the year, and that this may not be the “bottom line”.

22.少林功夫(Shaolin Kungfii)是河南登封少林寺信奉佛教文化的和 尚们练习的_种武术(martial arts)。少林寺,建于北魏(the Northern Wei Dynasty)太和期(Taihe Period)十九年,是少林功夫发展的 文化 空间。少林功夫最初是佛教僧侣练习的,他们的职责是保护寺庙。 现在经过 1500 多年的发 展,少林功夫已逐步发展成为一种完美技术 和丰富含义相融合的艺术,在全世界享有声誉。 Shaolin Kungfu is a kind of martial arts practiced by monks under the special Buddhist culture of the Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng City, Henan Province. The Shaolin Temple, built in the Nineteenth year of Taihe Period during the Northern Wei Dynasty, is a cultural space for the development of the Shaolin Kungfu. The Shaolin Kungfii, which is originally practiced by the Buddhist monks whose duties were to protect the temple, has been gradually developed into an art of perfect technology, abundant meanings and high reputation in the whole world after more than 1500 years of development.

23.这周颁布的一项新法律要求子女必须经常探望年龄超过 60 岁的 父母,并确保他们经济和精 神上的需求得到满足。星期二,新华社 报导了_条新闻,来自江苏市无锡市的一位 77 岁的老太太 起诉她的 女儿忽略她。这是新法律生效后的第一起案件,当地法院规定她的 女儿至少每月探望母 亲两次,并提供财力支持。但是这项法律引发 了争议。有人说这给了那些因为工作、学习或者其 他原因搬离家乡 的人更多压力。 A new national law introduced this week requires the offspring of parents older than 60 to visit their
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parents “frequently” and make sure their financial and spiritual needs are met. On Tuesday, Xinhua reported a news that a 77-year-old woman from Jiangsu city of Wuxi sued her daughter for neglecting her. In the first case after the new law came into effect, the local court ruled that her daughter must visit her at least twice a month and provide financial support. But the law’s introduction has proved controversial. Some say it puts too much pressure on those who move away from home for work, study or other opportunities.

24.四合院是从明代的北京延续下来的古典建筑风格的住宅。四合 院之间的狭窄的街道被称为 “胡同” 。_个四合院有园林包围着四个 房子,有高高的围墙保护。四合院与胡同都是人们常见到 的,有超 过 700 多年的历史,但是由于现在的城市改造和中国经济的发展, 四合院慢慢地从北京 消失。 Si He Yuan is a classical architecture style of residential hous? ing of Beijing citizens dated from the Ming Dynasty. The narrow streets between the Si He Yuan are called “ Hutong , ’ s. A single implementation of Si He Yuan comprises of garden surrounded by four houses and protected by high walls. Si He Yuan with Hutong which have been very familiar to people, having a history of more than 700 years now suffer from the ur? ban renovation and economic development of China, and they are slowly disappearing from Beijing.

25.中国一个幅员辽阔、资源丰富、历史悠久的多民族国家,每个 民族都有其独特的丰富菜肴。 地域菜系在地理环境、气候、文化传 统、民族风俗和其他因素的影响下经过悠久历史的发展已经 成形。 最有影响力、最具代表性的是鲁、川、粵、闽、苏、浙、湘、徽菜系, 这八种被人们称为 “八大菜系” 。中国的“八大菜系”是以多种多样 的烹饪方法区分的,各有其长处。 China is a time-honored multi-ethnics nation with a vast territory and abundant resources, and every ethnic group has its unique abundant dishes. Regional cuisines have taken shape after long-history evolution under the influence of geographical environment, climate, cultural tradition, folk customs and other factors. The most influential and representative ones are Lu, Chuan,Yue, Min, Su,Zhe, Xiang and Hui Cuisines, which are commonly known as “Eight Major Cuisines”. Dishes in the “Eight Major Cuisines” in China are characterized by diversified cooking skills, with each having its strong points.

26.联合国下属机构世界旅游组织(World Tourism Organization)公 布的数据显示,中国游客对全 球旅游业的贡献最大。中国人去年花 在出境游上的支出膨胀至 1020 亿美元,同 2011 年相比增长 了 40%。 联合国世界旅游组织在其网站上发布的一份声明中说, 这一增幅令 中国迅速超越德国和 美国。 后两者在之前是出境游支出最高的两个 国家。 2012 年德美两国出境旅游支出均同比增长 6%, 约 840 亿美元。 The figures from the United Nations World Tourism Organiza? tion show that Chinese travelers are making the most contributions to the global tourism industry. Chinese travelers spent a record $102 billion on outbound tourism last year, a 40% rise from 2011. That surge sent China screaming past Germany and the U.S. — the former No. 1 and No. 2 spenders, respectively 一 which both saw tourist outlays increase 6% year- on-year to around $84 billion in 2012, the UNWTO said in a statement on its website.

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27.茶马古道(Tea-horse Ancient Road)两边, 生活着 20 多个少数 民族。 不同的地方有着各自美丽 而神奇的自然风景和传统文化,比 如:大理,丽江古城,香格里拉(Shangrila),雅鲁藏布江大峡谷和 布 达拉宫(Potala Palace)。古道的两旁有庙宇、岩石壁画、骚站(post house),古桥和木板路,还有少 数民族舞蹈和民族服装。时至今天, 虽然这条古道的踪迹都消失了,但它的文化和历史价值仍然 存在。 Along the Tea-horse Ancient Road lived more than 20 minori? ties. Concentrations of beautiful and mysterious natural landscapes and traditional cultures developed in various sites,including Dali old city, Lijiang old city, Shangrila, Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon, Potala Palace. The road features temples, rock paintings, post houses, ancient bridges and plank roads. It is also home to many national minorities and their dances and folk customs. Today, although the traces of the ancient road are fading away, its cultural and historic values remain.

28.现代人类约公元前 50000 年第一次从中亚或印度来到中国。这 些石器时代(Stone Age)的人, 居住在洞穴中,穿着毛皮。公元前 4000 年左右,这些人开始种植水稻,并饲养羊和鸡。约公元前 3000 年, 他们开始使用陶器(pottery)并住在房子里。到公元前 2000 年,中国 人已进入青铜时代 (Bronze Age),并开始用于写字。约公元前 700 年, 中国的金属工人学会制作铁器工具和武器。 Modem humans first came to China from Central Asia or India about 50,000 BC. These were Stone Age people, who lived in caves and wore fur and leather. By around 4,000 BC, these people were starting to farm rice and keep sheep and chickens. By about 3,000 BC, they were using pottery and living in houses. By 2,000 BC,Chinese people had entered the Bronze Age and had begun to use writing. By about 700 BC, Chinese metal-workers learned to make iron tools and weapons.

29.目前,全球变暖是一个热门话题,但是有关全球变暖的各项证 据似乎还有些不同的声音。 人们现在已经知道,地球的发展经历了 很多周期(cycle),尽管在历史上还未出现过像今天这样的时 代,即 高度工业化(industrialization)产生如此多的污染。全球变暖主要是由 于二氧化碳气体(carbon dioxide)的增多。 Global warming is the hot topic around the world at this time but, there is also dissention about the evidence being presented to support the argument. The earth is known to go through cycles; although the past has never produced an age of so much industrialization causing the pollution currently being experienced. A major source of the problem is the increase in carbon dioxide levels.

30.中国城市化(urbanization)将会充分释放潜在内需(domestic demand)。一些经济学家指出,在 中国几乎所有的发展中城市都面临 着城市化的进程。这使得许多人的生活水平有所提高,也为人 们提 供更多的就业机会。随着越来越多的人向城市迁徙,住房及城市基 础设施建设(infrastructure construction),包括水源等能源的供应将会 成为城市发展的焦点问题。商品与服务的自由、快速流通 是城市化 社会的一项基本特征。逐渐扩张的城市需要更多的零售店来满足消 费者的需求。 China’s urbanization will release the full potential of domestic demand. Some economists point out that urbanization is a process that is occurring in nearly every developing city in the country. It will lead to
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a better quality of life for many people,and provide individuals with more job opportunities. The construction of housing and city infrastructure, in? cluding water and energy supplies, will be a focal point of urban develop? ment as more people migrate to cities. Urbanization means better access to educational and medical resources in the city. But it also predicts less use of personal vehicles and more use of public transportation. The fast, free flow of goods and services is a basic trait of an urbanized society. Ex-panding cities require more retail outlets to serve customers.

31.京剧(Beijing Opera)是中国的国粹。 作为一门古老的艺术, 京 剧的服装 (costume)、 脸谱(facial mask)更易被人喜爱。不同的服装 类型反映不同的人物身份特征。富贵者的服装缀满精美的刺绣 ; 穷困 者的服装则简单朴素,少有装饰(elemental)。脸谱是京剧中塑造人物 形象的重要手段,它是 用不同的颜色在脸上勾画出来的。脸谱的颜 色让人一看便知角色(portray)的善恶。比如白色代表奸 诈(treachery), 黑色代表正直不阿,黄色是骁勇,蓝、绿色多用于绿林好汉(rebellious fighters),金、 银色多用于神佛(divinity and Buddhism)等。 Beijing Opera is the cream of the Chinese culture. As a tradi? tional art form, its costumes and facial mask are more popular with peo? ple. Different styles of costumes are used to reflect the status of different characters. There are more decorations in the costumes of nobles, while those of the poor tend to be simple and less elemental. Facial masks can reflect qualities of different characters. Facial masks using different colors are important ways to portray a character. People can tell a hero from a villain by the colors of the masks. In general,white usually represents treachery, black represents righteousness, yellow represents bravery, blue and green represent rebellious fighters,while gold and silver represent di? vinity and Buddhism.

32.中国经济的高速发展,带来了消费文化的曰益流行,同时也催 生了一批具有高学历,充分 享受资本主义消费模式的年轻人, 他 们习惯于当月工资当月花。 因而被称为 “月光族” (the moonlight group)。 “月光族”一词出现于 20 世纪 90 年代后期,是用来讽刺那 些出身富裕、接受高等教育、 充分享受快餐文化(fast food culture)的 年轻人。 China’s economy is developing very quickly, and has brought with it a culture of consumption more prevalent with each passing day. At the same time, it has brought into being an educated group of young people who enjoy capitalist consumption way. They’re used to spending money as soon as they get it every month, and so are called t6the moon? light group”. This word came into being during the 1990s, to make fun of those bom into wealth,who have received a high education, and who ap? preciate fast food culture.

33.许多刚毕业的大学生找不到工作,在校学生则担心他们的未来。 多个调查显示,三分之二 的中国毕业生想在政府或者国有企业工作, 而不是为中国令人瞩目的经济增长提供动力的民营企 业。政府和国 有企业被认为能免受经济萧条的影响。如今几乎没有大学生愿意放 弃政府的铁饭碗 而下海、加入初创企业或自己创业。 Many recent college graduates can’t find a job and students are fearful about their future. Two-thirds of Chinese graduates say they want to work either in the government or state-owned firms,which are seen as recession-proof, rather than at the private companies that have powered China’s remarkable economic
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climb, surveys indicate. Few college stu? dents today, according to the surveys, are ready to leave the safe shores of government work and jump into the sea to join startups or go into business.

34.孔子(ConfUcius)是一位思想家、政治家,教育家,也是中国儒 学(the Ru School)思想的创始 人。儒学(Confucianism),这个道德和 宗教哲学的大系统建立在孔圣人(Master Kung)的教学上。冯 友兰, 中国思想史上 20 世纪伟大的的权威之一,把孔子在中国历史上的影 响比作西方的苏格拉 底。 Confucius was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. Confucianism, the great system of moral and religious philosophy built upon the teachings of Master Kung. Fung You-lan, one of the great 20th century authorities on the history ofChinese thought, compares Confucius9 influence in Chinese history with that of Socrates in the West.

35.过去的七年,中国的房地产(real estate)业经历了前所未有的高速增长。对于那些月薪较低却 渴望在大城市 拥有一套属于自己的体面、舒适的栖身之所的人来说,高昂的房价是他们无法承受 的负担。鉴于这一状况,政府近来采取了一系列的措施来防止房价过快增长,包括提高利率及增加 房产税等。目前,这些措施在部分城市已经 取得了初步的成效。 In the past seven years, China’s real estate industry has developed in a record high speed. For those who earn less but are eager to own a decent and comfortable place of their own in a big city, the high housing price is a heavy burden that they cannot afford. For this reason, the government has taken a series of measures to prevent the housing price from rising too fast, including raising interest rates and increasing taxes on real estate etc. Presently, these measures have achieved initial effects in some cities.

36.中国新年是中国最重要的传统节日,在中国也被称为春节。新年的庆祝活动从除夕开始一直 延续到元宵节(the Lantern Festival),即从农历(lunar calendar)最后一个月的最后一天至新年第一个月 的第十五天。各地欢 度春节的习俗和传统有很大差异,但通常每个家庭都会在除夕夜团聚,一起 吃年夜饭。 为驱厄运、 迎好运, 家家户户都会进行大扫除。 人们还会在门上粘贴红色的对联(couplets), 对联的主题为健康、发财和好运。其他的活动还有放鞭炮、发红包和探亲访友等。 Chinese New Year is the most important traditional Chinese holiday. In China, it is also known as the Spring Festival. New Year celebrations run from Chinese New Year’s Eve, the last day of the last month of the lunar calendar, to the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month. Customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place. However, New Year’ s Eve is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner. It is also traditional for every family to thoroughly clean the house in order to sweep away ill fortune and to bring in good luck. And doors will be decorated with red couplets with themes of health, wealth and good luck. Other activities include lighting firecrackers, giving money in red envelopes, and visiting relatives and friends.

37.剪纸(paper cutting)是中国最为流行的传统民间艺术形式之一。中国剪纸有一千五百多年的历 史,在明朝和清朝时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)特别流行。人们常用剪纸美化居家环境,特别
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是在春节和婚庆期间, 剪纸被用来装饰门窗和房间,以增加喜庆的气氛。剪纸最常用的颜色是红 色,象征健康和兴旺。中国剪纸在世 界各地很受欢迎,经常被用作馈赠外国友人的礼物。 Paper cutting is one of China's most popular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper cutting has a history of more than 1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings. During the Spring Festival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cuttings are used to decorate doors, windows and rooms in order to enhance the joyous atmosphere. The color most frequently used in paper cutting is red, which symbolizes health and prosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it is often given as a present to foreign friends.

38.如今,越来越多的大学生抱怨很难找到好工作。造成这一现象的原因如下:首先,大学生把 在校的大多数 时间都用在了专业学科学习上,只有当他们开始找工作的时候,才意识到自己缺乏 必要的职业培训。其次,大学生之间的竞争也越来越激烈,这导致任何一名大学生找到工作的机会 都变小了。因此,强烈建议大学生在 课余时间做一些兼职工作,以积累相关的工作经验。 Nowadays, more and more university students complain about having great difficulties in finding a good job. The reasons for this phenomenon are as follows: First, college students spend most of their time at school studying academic subjects and it is only when they start looking for a job that they realize they lack necessary job training. Second, competition among graduates has become more and more fierce. And this results in a decreased chance for any individual graduate to find a job. Therefore, it is highly suggested that college students should do some part-time jobs in their spare time to accumulate relevant working experience.

39.对龙图腾的崇拜在中国大约已绵延了八千多年。中国龙是古人将鱼、蛇、马、牛等动物与云 雾、雷电等自然天象集合而成的一种神物。 中国龙的形成与中华民族的多元融合过程同步。在中 国人的心目中,龙具有振奋腾飞、开拓变化的寓意和团结凝聚的精神。 Dragon totem worship in China has been around for the last 8,000 years. The ancients in China considered the dragon (or loong) a fetish that combines animals including the fish, snake, horse and ox with cloud, thunder, lightning and other natural celestial phenomena. The Chinese dragon was formed in accordance with the multicultural fusion process of the Chinese nation. To the Chinese, the dragon signifies innovation and cohesion.

40.秧歌舞是中国汉族的一种民间传统舞蹈,通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者通常穿上明亮多彩 的表演服装,他们的表演动作有力迅速。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期间,人们一旦听到锣鼓声, 不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上看秧歌舞表演。近年来,中国东北某些城市的老年人自 发组织了了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳秧歌舞来保持健康,同事他们也乐在其中。 Yangko is one of tradition folk dance of Han in China.It is usually performed in northern provinces. The dancers usually wear colorful and light costumes, and the performance is powerful and rapid. During some festivals such as Spring Festival, Lantein Festival, if people hear the sound of drum and gong, no matter how cold the weather is , they will come to street and appreciate the Yangko. Recent years, the old
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people in city of east-northern of China organized the team of Yangko by themselves, the teamers keep their health by dancing Yangko the whole year.

41.长城是人类创造的世界奇迹之一。如果你到了中国却没去过长城,就想到了巴黎没有去看看 菲尔铁塔,或者就像到了埃及没有去看金字塔一样。人们常说: “不到长城非好汉。 ”实际上,长城 最初只是一些断断续续的城墙,直到秦朝统一中国后才将其连城长城。然而,今天我们看到的长城 ——东起山海关,西至嘉峪关——大部分都是在明代修建的。 The Great Wall is one of the wonders of the world that created by human beings! If you come to China without climbing the Great Wall, it's just like going Paris without visiting the Eiffel Tower; or going to Egypt without visiting the Pyramids! Men often say, "He who doest not reach the Great Wall is not a true man."In fact, it began as independent walls for different states when it was first built, and did not become the "Great Wall" until the Qin Dynasty. However, the wall we see today, starting from Shanhaiguan Pass in the east to Jiayunguan Pass in the west, was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty.

42.饺子是深受中国人民喜爱的传统食品。 相传为古代医圣张仲景发明。 饺子的制作是包括: 1) 擀皮、2) 备馅、3) 包馅水煮三个步骤。其特点是皮薄馅嫩,味道鲜美,形状独特,百食不厌。 民间有“好吃不过饺子”的俗语。中国人接亲待客、逢年过节都有包饺子吃的习俗,寓意吉利。对 崇尚亲情的中国人来说, “更岁交子”吃饺子,更是欢度除夕、辞旧迎新必不可少的内容。 Dumplings are one of the Chinese people’s favorite traditional dishes. According to an ancient Chinese legend, dumplings were first made by the medical saint---Zhang Zhongjing. There are three steps involved in making dumplings: 1) make dumpling wrappers out of dumpling flour; 2) prepare the dumpling stuffing; 3) make dumplings and boil them. With thin and elastic dough skin, fresh and tender stuffing, delicious taste, and unique shapes, dumplings are worth eating hundreds of times. There’s an old saying that claims, “Nothing could be more delicious than dumplings”. During the Spring Festival and other holidays, or when treating relatives and friends, Chinese people like to follow the auspicious custom of eating dumplings. To Chinese people who show high reverence for family love, having dumplings at the moment the old year is replaced by the new is an essential part of bidding farewell to the old and ushering in the new year.

43. 针灸是中医学的重要组成部分。按照中医的经络理论,针灸疗法主要是通过疏通经络、调 和气血,来达到阴阳归于平衡,使脏腑趋于调和之目的。其特点是“内病外治” 。主要疗法是用针 刺入病人身体的一定穴位,或用艾火的温热刺激烧灼病人的穴位,以达到刺激经络。治疗病痛的目 的。针灸以其独特的优势,流传至今并传播到了世界,与中餐、功夫、中药一起被海外誉为中国的 “新四大国粹” 。 Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In accordance with the “main and collateral channels” theory in TCM, the purpose of acupuncture is to dredge the channel and regulate qi and blood, so as to keep the body’s yin and yang balanced and achieve reconciliation between the internal organs. It features in traditional Chinese medicine that “internal diseases are to be treated with external therapy”. The main therapy of acupuncture involves using needles to pierce certain acupoints of the patient’s body, or adopting moxibustion to stimulate the patient’s acupoints so as to stimulate the
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channels and relieve pain. With its unique advantages, acupuncture has been handed down generation after generation and has now spread all over the world. Nowadays, acupuncture, along with Chinese food, kung fu (otherwise known as Chinese martial arts), and traditional Chinese medicine, has been internationally hailed as one of the “four new national treasures.”

44.中国功夫即中国武术,是将技击寓于搏斗和套路运动之中的中国传统体育项目,承载着丰富 的中国民族传统文化。其核心思想是儒家的中和养气之说,同时兼容了道家、释家的思想。中国武 术源远流长、流派林立、拳种繁多,讲究刚柔并济、内外兼修,蕴含着先哲们对生命和宇宙的参悟。 后世所称十八般武艺,主要指:徒手拳艺,如太极拳、形意拳、八卦掌等;器械功夫,如刀枪剑戟、 斧钺钩叉等。 Chinese kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defence in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese king fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both “the mean and harmony” and “cultivating qi” (otherwise known as nourishing one’s spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It contains the ancient great thinkers’ pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Taijiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, kooks, prongs and so on.

45.汉字是从原始人用以记事的简单图画,经过不断演变发展最终成为一种兼具音、形、意韵的 独特文字。现存中国古代最早成熟的文字是甲骨文,被认为是现代汉字的初形。此后,汉字又经历 了金文、隶书、楷书、草书、行书等不同的阶段。汉字结构“外圆内方“, 源于古人”天圆地方 “的观念。汉字有五种基本笔画,即:横、竖、撇、捺、折。 Chinese characters were initially meant to be simple pictures used to help people remember things. After a long period of development, it finally became a unique character system that embodies phonetic sound, image, idea, and rhyme at the same time. The writing system, which was extremely advanced in ancient times, began with inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells, and these are regarded as the original forms of Chinese characters. Afterwards, Chinese characters went through numerous calligraphic styles: bronze inscriptions, official script, regular script, cursive script, running script, etc. Chinese characters are usually round outside and square inside, which is rooted in ancient Chinese beliefs of an orbicular sky and a rectangular Earth. The five basic strokes of Chinese characters are “---“ (the horizontal stroke) “│” (the vertical stroke), “/” ( the left-falling stroke), “\” (the right-falling stroke), and “乙” (the turning stroke).

46.中国人使用筷子就餐的方式在世界上独树一帜。有史记载用筷的历史已有三千多年。筷子古 时称为箸,它看似简单,但却同时具有夹、拨、挑、扒、拌、撮、戳、撕等多种功能。中国民间视 筷子为吉祥之物,如婚俗中将筷子隐喻为快生贵子的祝福等。与使用刀叉以及手抓的 方式不同,

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成双结对的筷子含有“和为贵“的意蕴。西方人赞誉筷子是古老的东方文明。 The Chinese way of eating with chopsticks is unique in the world. The recorded history of chopsticks started more than three thousand years ago. Chopsticks were named zhu in ancient Chinese. They look deceptively simple to use, but possess multi-various functions, such as clamping, turning over, lifting up, raking, stirring, scooping, poking, tearing, and so on. Chopsticks were taken as an auspicious mascot by ordinary people in ancient China. For example, the partial tone of chopsticks is often used by people as a metaphor at weddings to indicate a blessing or benediction for the couple to have a baby soon. Unlike using a knife and fork or one’ s own hands, a pair of chopsticks also implies the meaning of “Harmony is what matters”. Chopsticks are highly praised by Westerners as a hallmark of ancient oriental civilization.

48.印章就是图章。中国历代官、私所用的印章有印信、朱记、合同、符、契等等不同的称谓, 而帝王所用的印章古时称玺、印、宝、章等。据史料记载,印章在战国时代已普遍使用。印章的制 作是将篆隶等字体、图像用阴、阳的形式雕刻而成,形状以圆、方为主。印章用朱色 钤盖,除 日常应用外,又多用于书画题识,逐渐成为中国特有的艺术形式之一。 A seal can also be defined as a stamp. Both the Chinese official and private seal of various dynasties have different titles, such as stamp, zhu note, contract, fu, lease and others. The seals used by the emperors of ancient China were called xi, yin, bao, etc. According to historical records, seals were widely used during the Warring States Period (475BC-221BC). The making of a seal is to engrave fonts, such as seal characters and official script and so on; or images in the form of intaglio and embossment into the seal, basically shaped as round or square. Covered with a vermilion overlay, the Chinese seal is not only used in daily life, but it is also used to represent signatures on paintings and calligraphies. It is gradually becoming one of China’s unique artworks.

49.天干地支是中国历法中用以记录和命名年岁的方法。十天干为:甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、已、 庚、辛、壬、癸;十二地支为:子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戊、亥。古人观测朔 望月,发现月亮圆缺 12 次大体上是一年的天数,而两个朔望月约是 60 天。古人以十天干与十二地 支的顺序依次相配,记录不同年份,60 年为一个轮回。干支纪年法从古沿用至今。按干支纪年法, 2011 年便是辛卯年。 The Chinese era is the symbol that the Chinese calendar uses for recording and naming years. The ten Heavenly Stems are: jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, gui. The twelve Earthly Branches are: zi.chou, yin, mou, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai. After observing the lunar month, the ancients found that the moon always wazes and wanes roughly 12 times a year, and two lunar months account for about 60 days, so the order of the ten Heavenly Stems and the order of the twelve Earthly Branches are properly matched in turn. In terms of recording date, 60 years is considered to be a full time cycle. The Chinese era chronology was first invented in ancient times and is still in use now. according to the chronology of the “ten Heavenly Stems,” 2011 is the year of “the seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems” and “ the fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches”.

50.京剧被誉为“东方歌剧” , 是地道的中国国粹。它起源于中国多种古老的地方戏剧,特别是 南方的“徽班” 。到了 19 世纪末,京剧形成并成为中国最大的戏曲剧种。京剧是综合性表演艺术,
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集唱(歌唱) 、念(念白) 、做(表演) 、打(武) 、舞(舞蹈)为一体,通过程式化的表演手段,叙 述故事,刻画人物。角色主要分生(男性) 、旦(女性) 、净(男性) 、丑(男性女性皆有)四大行 当。 Praised as “Oriental Opera” , Beijing Opera is a genuine national quintessence of China. It originated from many kinds of ancient local operas, especially huiban in southern China. At the end of the 19th Century, Beijing Opera evolved and took shape, becoming the greatest kind of opera in China. Beijing Opera is a blend of performing arts---song, speech, performance, acrobatix fighting and dance. Beijing Opera portrays and narrates the plot and characters through stylized acting. The main types of roles in Beijing Opera are sheng(male), dan (young female), jing (painted face, male), and chou( clown, male or female).

51.道教是中国土生土长长的宗教。创始人是春秋末期的哲学家、思想家老子。道教以老子所著 的《道德经》为主要经典。道教主张“重人贵生” 。崇尚清静无为,修身养性。 “道可道,非常道。 名可名,非常名。无名天地之始;有名万物之母。故常无,欲以观其妙;常有,欲以观其徼”便是 老子的至理名言。 Taoism first originated in China. The founder of Taoism is Laozi, a philosopher and thinker who lived in the late Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC). Tao Te Ching whose authorship has been attributed to Laozi, is considered to be the main Taoist classic. Taoism advocates the value of a human being’s life, recommends the discarding of all desires and worries from one’s mind, and encourages the cultivation of moral character and the nourishment of human nature. The following is an example of Laozi’s golden saying: The way that can be told of is not an unvarying way; The names that can be named are not unvarying names. It was from the nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang; The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind. Truly, only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the secret essences; He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the outcomes.

52.中国成语是汉语中意义完整的表示一般概念的固定词组或短语。 “成语”中的“成”既是约 定俗成。成语是比词大而语法功能又相当于词的语言单位。绝大多数的中国成语由四个汉字组成, 例如:自强不息、青出于蓝、厚积薄发。成语主要从民间谚语、古代文学作品、诗歌、寓言、典故、 名言警句等方面提炼而成,是汉语语言中精炼而又富有生命力的一部分。 Chinese idioms refer to comprehensive and integrated fixed phrases and expressions. Idioms are established and accepted by constant usage and common practice. An idiom is a language unit that is larger than a word, but has the same grammatical function as a word. Most Chinese idioms consist of four characters. For example, ziqiangbuxi ( make unremitting efforts to improve oneself), qingchuyulan(bluer than indigo), and houjibofa (success comes with time and effort). Idioms are extrated from folk proverbs, ancient works of literature, poems, fables, allusions, and well-known sayings. Idioms are a part of the Chinese language that are concise and have great vitality.

53.中国是丝绸的故乡。栽桑、养蚕、缫丝、织绸是中国古代人民的伟大发明。商周时期丝绸的 生产技术就已发展到相当高的水平。西汉时张骞通西域,把中原与波斯湾、地中海紧密联系起来, 开辟了中外交流贸易的新纪元。从此中国的丝绸以其卓越的品质、精美的花色和丰富的文化内涵闻
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名于世,成为中国文化的象征。东方文明的使者。 China is the home of silk. Mulberry planting, sericulture, silk reeling and thickening are all great inventions of the ancient Chinese. As early as the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600BC-256BC), the Chinese people’s silk-weaving techniques had reached an extremely high level. During the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-25AD), Zhang Qian, an outstanding diplomat, travelled around central Asia and connected China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, opening up a new era of Sino-foreign trade, exchange and communication. From then on, China’ s silk became well known for its extraordinary quality, exquisite design and color, and abundant culture connotations. Hitherto, Chinese silk has been accepted as a symbol of Chinese culture and the emissary of oriental civilization.

54.中国园林是把人造的山水、植物、建筑等与自然地貌有机结合的环境艺术,是我国古代建筑 艺术的珍宝。其建造原则是“妙极自然,宛自天开” 。游赏中国古典园林,能充分领略“假自然之 景,创山水真趣”的园林意境。在世界三大园林体系中,中国园林历史悠久、内涵丰富,被誉为世 界造园史上的渊源之一。 The Chinese classical garden is a precious treasure of our ancient Chinese architecture. It is a kind of environment art, which systematically combines artificial mountains and rivers, plants and buildings with the natural landscape. The construction standard of a Chinese classical garden is “artificial as it is, the garden must look ingenious and natural.” When you go sightseeing in a Chinese classical garden, you should be able to appreciate its artistic concept which “makes use of the natural landscape to create the real fun of mountains and rivers for viewers.” Of the world’s three major garden systems, the Chinese classical garden is hailed as one of the origins of the world’s garden due to its long history and abundant connotations.

55.笔墨纸砚是中国古代文人书房当中必备的宝贝,被称为“文房四宝” 。用笔墨书写绘画在中 国可追溯到五千年前。秦时已用不同硬度的毛和竹管制笔;汉代以人工制墨替代了天然墨;有了纸 张以后,简牍锦帛逐失其用;砚台则随笔墨的使用而发展。 “文房四宝”到宋朝以后特指湖笔、 徽墨、宣纸、端砚。可以说文房四宝书写了整个中华文明。 The writing brush, ink stick, ink stone, and paper were requisite treasures in the study of the scholars of ancient China, and they are often referred to as the “Four Treasures of the Study.” The writing brush and ink stick have been used by the Chinese to write and paint since 5,000 years ago. In the Qin Dynasty (221BC---206BC), people already used feathers of different hardness and bamboo trunks to make brushes. During the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), man-made ink was used instead of natural ink. After paper was invented by the Chinese, bamboo slips, wooden tablets, brocade and silk, which originally functioned as writing surfaces, gradually faded out. The ink stone was first developed with the use of writing brushes and ink. After the Song Dynasty (960AD---1279AD), the “Four Treasure of the Study” particularly referred to hubi, the writing brush produced in Huzhou, Zhejiang province; huimo, the ink stick produced in Huizhou, Anhui province; xuan paper, a kind of paper produced in Xuanzhou, Anhui province; and duanyan, the ink stone made in Zhaoqing, Guangdong province (Zhaoqing was earlier called Duanzhou). Indeed, the Four Treasures of the Study” have writtin the whole Chinese civilization, as it is.

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56.每年农历七月初七的七夕节,简称七夕,俗称乞巧节,是中国传统节日中最具浪漫色彩的一 个节日。传说每年的七月初七是牛郎、织女相会的日子。在这一天,人间的喜鹊(magpie)要飞到 天上去,为牛郎和织女搭一座鹊桥,好让二人渡过天河相见。在这一天的晚上,如果静静地躲在葡 萄架下,就能听到牛郎、织女说的悄悄话。 The Double-Seventh Festival, called Qi xi for short, falls on the seventh day of the seventh month on the Chinese lunar calendar. It is also known as “the Begging Festival”, and it is a traditional Chinese festival full of romance. According to the legend, Niu lang(Cowherd) and Zhi nv(Weaver Maid) get together on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month every year. On this day, all the magpies will fly into the heaven and form a bridge so that these two loving birds might come together, people can hear the loving whispers between Niu lang and Zhi nv if they hide quietly under the grape trellis.

57.人口老龄化已经成为一个全球性的现象。这种现象不仅已成定局,还将随着时间的推移愈演 愈烈,发展中国家尤其如此。它的社会影响广泛且表现形式多样,如若忽视,社会必将为此付出巨 大代价。为了保证老年人口的可持续发展,国家、非政府组织、社区、家庭成员、特别是老年人自 己,都要扮演重要的角色。 Population aging has become a world-wide phenomenon. It has not only come to stay but, especially in the developing countries, it will become more acute with the passage of time. Its influences are so wide-ranging and manifold that they can only be ignored at a tremendous cost to society. In order to ensure a sustainable development for the elderly population, be it the state, non-government organizations, the community, the family members and last but not least, the older persons themselves, each has a very important role to play.

58. 中国将进一步发展经济、扩大开放,这对海外企业 (enterprises)意味着更多的商机。改革开 放以来,中国企业与海外企业一直积极开展经济技术合作,并取得了巨大成就。海外企业不仅帮助 中国企业的成长,而且也在合作中取得了收益。中国政府将继续提供有力的政策和条件,推动中国 企业与国外企业进一步开展合作。 China will develop its economy further and open itself wider to the outside world, which offers more business opportunities to overseas enterprises. Since China’s reform and opening up, Chinese enterprises have been cooperating with overseas enterprises in terms of economy and technology, and have scored great/ tremendous achievement. Overseas enterprises have not only helped Chinese enterprises with their growth, but also benefited from the cooperation. Chinese government will continue to offer favorable policies and conditions to promote the further cooperation between Chinese and overseas enterprises.

59.假日经济的现象表明:中国消费者的消费观正在发生巨大变化。根据统计数据,中国消费者 的消费需求正在从基本生活必需品转向对休闲、舒适和个人发展的需求。同时,中国人的消费观在 蓬勃发展的假日经济中正变得成熟。因此产品结构应作相应调整,来适应社会的发展。另一方面, 服务质量要改善,以满足人们提高生活质量的要求。 The phenomenon of holiday economy shows that Chinese people ’ s consumption concept is undertaking great changes. According to statistics, the demands for Chinese consumers are shifting from
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the basic necessities of life to leisure, comfort and personal development. (Chinese consumers’ demand for basic necessities of life has given way to leisure, comfort and personal development.) Therefore, the structure of products should be adjusted accordingly to adapt to social development. On the other hand, services should be improved to satisfy people’s demand for an improved quality of life.

60.2013 年 6 月 20 日在中国各地,据估计 60 万儿童和他们的老师观看了由宇航员(astronaut) 王 亚平在距离地球 300 公里的上空所讲授的科学课。王亚平与两个同事乘坐天宫一号实验舱 (the Tiangong-1 laboratory module) 执行为期两周的任务。她在课上进行了一系列太空中的物理演示。在 有些展示中还对比了在地球重力(one-gravity)环境下同样的实验。 这堂物理课不仅让孩子们享受了一 堂知识与乐趣兼具的物理课,也显示了我国通信科技的前进。 On June 20, 2013, an estimated 600 thousand school children and their teachers across China watched a science lesson from 300km above the Earth by astronaut Wang Yaping. Wang is aboard the Tiangong-1 laboratory module with two crewmates, for a two-week mission. Her lessons were a series of physics demonstrations under the one-gravity environment on Earth. The lesson has not only offered children a physics lesson with knowledge and interest, but also shows the advance in communication technology of China.

61. 文化节是不同国家的人们互相理解的最佳媒体。通过举办文化节,许多中国城市在海外被 越来越多的人所认识。在文化节上,精彩的民间歌舞和美味的当地食品,是最吸引人的部分。事实 证明,这是促进中国人民和世界其他地方人民之间的交流的最有效的途径之一。这种交流不仅仅限 于文化方面,还扩大到了经济和其他领域。 Culture festival is the best medium for people of different countries to understand each other. Through culture festivals, many cities in China have become known overseas. Wonderful folk singing and dancing and delicious local food are the most effective ways to promote the communication between Chinese people and people from other parts of the world. This kind of communication is not only confined to culture, but extends to economy and other fields.

62. 端午节,又叫龙舟节,是为了纪念爱国诗人屈原。屈原是一位忠诚和受人敬仰的大臣 (minister),他给国家带来了和平和繁荣。但最后因为受到诽谤(vilify)而最终投河自尽。人们撑船到 他自尽的地方,抛下粽子,希望鱼儿吃粽子,不要吃屈原的身躯。几千年来,端午节的特色在于吃 粽子(glutinous dumplings)和赛龙舟,尤其是在一些河湖密布的南方省份。 The Duanwu Festival, also called the Dragon Boat Festival, is to commemorate the patriotic poet Qu Yuan. Qu Yuan was a loyal and highly esteemed/respected minister, who brought peace and prosperity to the state but ended up drowning himself in a river as a result of being vilified. People got to the spot by boat and cast glutinous dumplings into the water, hoping that the fishes ate the dumplings instead of Qu Yuan’s body. For thousands of years, the festival has been marked by glutinous dumplings and dragon boat races, especially in the southern provinces where there are many rivers and lakes.

63. 中秋节对中国人来说是最重要的节日,仅次于春节。每年中秋节,人们从全国和世界的各
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个角落回到家中,与家人团聚、赏月和吃月饼。如今,在中秋节到来前的一个月,就有各种各样的 月饼出售。中国人相信满月象征着和平、繁荣(prosperity)和家庭团聚(reunion) 。中秋节当晚的月亮 被认为是最明亮圆满的,这也是为什么也被称为是“重逢日”和“月亮节” 。 The Mid-Autumn Festival is the second most important festival after the Spring Festival to Chinese people. Every year, when the festival comes, people go home from every corner of the country and the world to meet their family, admire the full moon and eat moon cakes. Nowadays, there is a large variety of moon cakes on sale a month before the arrival of the festival. Chinese people believe a full moon is a symbol of peace, prosperity and family reunion. The moon on Mid-Autumn Festival night is believed to be the brightest and fullest. That is why the festival is also known as / called the “Day of Reunion” and the “Moon Festival”. 65、每年的4月4日、5日或6日是清明节(the Qingming Festival) 。清明节后气温升高,雨水增多。 清明节既是中国的传统节日,也是最重要的祭祀(commemorative)节日。在这一天,汉族和少数 民族都会供奉祖先,为逝去的人扫墓。清明节也是阳光明媚、草木吐绿的时节。自古以来,人们就 有清明踏青(Spring outings)的习俗。人们还会在清明节放风筝。这时植树树苗存活率高,之后长 得也快,因此清明节也是植树的好时候。 The Qingming Festival falls on April 4,5,or 6 each year.after the festival,the temperature rises up and rainfall increases.the Qingming Festival is not only a traditional festival in china,but also the most important festival of commemorative.both the Han nationality and minority nationality offer sacrifices to their ancestors and sweep the tombs of the deceased at this time.the Qingming Festival is a time when the sun shines brightly, the trees and grass become green.since ancient times people have followed the custom of spring outings.people love to fly kites during the Qingming Festival.the Qingming Festival is also a good time to plant trees,for the survival rate of saplings is high and trees grow fast later.

66、中国结(Chinese knot)是中华古老文明的一个缩影,是中国特有的民间手工艺术。中国结 有着悠久的历史,在明清时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)尤为盛行。在现代,它通常被用作室内 装饰、亲友间的馈赠礼物及个人的随身饰物。其因外观对称(symmetrical)精致,符合中国传统装 饰的习俗和审美观念,故被命名为中国结。在北京申办2008年奥运会的过程中,中国结作为中国传 统文化的象征,深受各国朋友的喜爱。 Chinese knot is a miniature of the ancient chinese civilization,and it is unique to chinese traditional manual art.chinese knot has a long history ,and is especially prevalent in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.in the modern times , it usually functions as interior decoration, gift among relative and friends, and personal ornament.it is possessed of delicate and symmetrical appearance and accords with the conventions of chinese traditional decoration and aesthetic,therefore,it is named chinese knot.Chinese knot,which symbolizes chinese traditional culture,is well received by people all over the world in the course of the china's bid for hosting the 2008 olympics. 67、中国烹饪(Chinese cuisine)文化是中国文化中有关烹饪和休闲的重要组成部分。中国悠久 的历史、广袤的疆土、好客的习俗孕育了这一独特艺术。中餐以其―色、香、味、形‖俱全而著称。 它讲究原料的选配、食物的质地、佐料(seasonings)的调制、切菜的刀功、适时地烹调以及装盘艺 术。最负盛名的菜系有南方粤菜、北方鲁菜、东部淮扬菜和西部川菜,以―南淡北咸,东甜西辣‖见 称。

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Chinese cuisine culture is an important part of chinese culture in the aspect of cooking and leisure.this unique art owes itself to the long history,vast territory and hospitable tradition of china.chinese food is famous for its perfect combination of―color,aroma,taste and appearance‖.it gives emphasis to the selection of raw materials, the texture of food, the blending of seasonings, slicing techniques, the perfect timing of cooking and the art of laying out the food on the plate.among the best-known schools of cuisine are the cantonese cuisine of the south , the shandong cuisine of the north, the huai-yang cuisine of the east and the sichuan cuisine of the west, noted as―the light flavor of the south, the salty flavor of the north, the sweet flavor of the east and the spicy-hot flavor of the west‖. 68、狮舞(Lion Dance)是中国最广为流传的民间舞蹈之一。狮为百兽之首,在中国传统中, 狮子被视为是能带来好运的吉祥物(mascot) 。古人将狮子视作是勇敢和力量的化身,能驱赶邪恶、 保护人类。据记载,狮舞已拥有了2,000多年的历史。在唐代(theTang Dynasty) ,狮舞就已经被引 入了皇室。因此,舞狮成为元宵节(the Lantern Festival)和其他节日的习俗,人们以此来祈祷好运、 平安和幸福。 The Lion Dance is one of the most widespread folk dances in China.The lion is the king of animals. InChinese tradition, the lion is regarded as a mascot, which can bring good luck.Ancient people regarded the lion as a symbol of braveness and strength, whichcould drive away evil and protect humans. The dance has a recorded history ofmore than 2,000 years. During the Tang Dynasty, the Lion Dance was alreadyintroduced into the royal family of the dynasty. Therefore, performing the liondance at the Lantern Festival and other festive occasions became a custom wherepeople could pray for good luck, safety and happiness. 69、中国将进一步发展经济、扩大开放,这对海外企业(enterprises)意味着更多的商机。改革 开放以来,中国企业与海外企业一直积极开展经济技术合作,并取得了巨大成就。海外企业不仅帮 助了中国企业的成长,而且也在合作中获得了收益。中国政府将继续提供有利的政策和条件,推动 中国企业与国外企业进一步开展合作。 Chinawill develop its economy further and open itself wider to the outside world,which offers more business opportunities to overseas enterprises. Since China’s reformand opening up, Chinese enterprises have been cooperating with overseasenterprises in terms of economy and technology, and have scored greatachievement. Overseas enterprises have not only helped Chinese enterprises withtheir growth, but also benefited from the cooperation. Chinese government willcontinue to offer favorable policies and conditions to promote the furthercooperation between Chinese and overseas enterprises. 70、假日经济的现象表明:中国消费者的消费观正在发生巨大变化。根据统计数据,中国消费 者的消费需求正在从基本生活必需品转向对休闲、舒适和个人发展的需求。同时,中国人的消费观 在蓬勃发展的假日经济中正变得成熟。 因此产品结构应做相应调整, 来适应社会的发展。 另一方面, 服务质量要改善,以满足人们提高生活质量的要求。 The phenomenon of holiday economy showsthat Chinese people’s consumption concept is undertaking great changes.According to statistics, the demands of Chinese consumers are shifting from thebasic necessities of life to leisure, comfort and personal development.Therefore, the structure of products should be adjusted accordingly to adapt tosocial development. On the other hand, services should be improved to satisfypeople’s demand for an improved quality of life.

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71 、端午节,又叫龙舟节,是为了纪念爱国诗人屈原。屈原是一位忠诚和受人敬仰的大臣 (minister),他给国家带来了和平和繁荣。但最后因为受到诽谤(vilify)而最终投河自尽。人们撑 船到他自尽的地方,抛下粽子,希望鱼儿吃粽子,不要吃屈原的身躯。几千年来,端午节的特色在 于吃粽子(glutinous dumplings)和赛龙舟,尤其是在一些河湖密布的南方省份。 The Duanwu Festival, also called the DragonBoat Festival, is to commemorate the patriotic poet Qu Yuan. Qu Yuan was aloyal and highly esteemed minister, who brought peace and prosperity to thestate but ended up drowning himself in a river as a result of being vilified.People got to the spot by boat and cast glutinous dumplings into the water,hoping that the fishes ate the dumplings instead of Qu Yuan’s body. Forthousands of years, the festival has been marked by glutinous dumplings anddragon boat races, especially in the southern provinces where there are manyrivers and lakes. 72、2013年6月20日在中国各地,剧估计60万儿童和他们的老师观看了有宇航员( astronaut) 王亚平在距离地球 300 公里的上空所讲授的科学课。王亚平与两个同事乘坐天宫一号实验舱 (theTiangon-1 laboratory module) 执行为期两周的任务。她在课上进行了一系列太空的物理演示。在 有些演示中还对比了在地球上重力(one-gravity)环境下同样的实验。这堂物理课不仅让孩子们享 受了一堂知识与乐趣兼具的物理课,也显示了我国通信科技的前进。 On June 20, 2013, an estimated 600 thousandschool children and their teachers across China watched a science lessontaught from 300km above the Earth by astronaut Wang Yaping. Wang is aboard theTiangong-1 laboratory module with two crewmates, for a two-week mission. Her lessonswere a series of physics demonstrations in the space. In some demonstrations,she compared with the same experiment under the one-gravity environment onEarth. The lesson has not only offered children a physics lesson with knowledgeand interest, but also shows the advance in communication technology of China. 73、朝气蓬勃,充满活力,丰富多彩的上海是现代中国的缩影。虽然上海的文化遗迹不能与北 京媲美,但是上海迷人的城市风貌,风格各异的万国建筑为这座城市注入了无限的魅力。今日之上 海,已经成为享誉中外的国际大都市。漫步在这座日新月异的现代大都市里,你会发现许多精彩的 历史亮点,隐现在众多摩天大楼背后的是上海发展变化的轨迹。它们记述了上海自十九世纪末开埠 以来,尤其是新中国成立以后,是如何迅猛发展的。 Shanghai is a dynamic, diverse and stimulating city - the very epitome ofmodern China.Though Shanghai cannot rival Beijing in cultural heritage, its varied architecturalstyles and cosmopolitan feel give it a charm of its own. Today's Shanghai has become aworld-famous international metropolis. A walk through this booming city revealsmany glimpses of its colorful past. Hidden amongst the skyscrapers are remains of theoriginal Shanghai.They keep on showing how Shanghai has beendeveloping fast and enormously since its opening as a commercial port in thelate 19th century, especially after the founding of new China. 74、近代以来,亚洲经历了曲折和艰难的发展历程。亚洲人们为改变自己的命运,始终以不屈 的意志和艰辛的奋斗开辟前进道路。今天,人们所看到的亚洲发展成就,是勤劳智慧的亚洲人民不 屈不挠、锲而不舍奋斗的结果。亚洲人民深知,世界上没有放之四海而皆准的发展模式,也没有一 成不变的发展道路,亚洲人民勇于变革创新,不断开拓进取,探索和开辟适应时代潮流,符合自身 实际的发展道路,为经济社会发展打开了广阔前景。 In modern times, Asiaexperienced twists and turns in its development. To change their destiny, thepeople of Asia have been forging ahead in anindomitable spirit and with hard struggle. Asia'sdevelopment achievements today are the result of the persistent efforts of theindustrious and talented
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Asian people. The people of Asiaare fully aware that there is no ready model or unchanging path of developmentthat is universally applicable. They never shy away from reform and innovation.Instead, they are committed to exploring and finding development paths that arein line with the trend of the times and their own situations, and have openedup bright prospects for economic and social development. 75、吸烟之危害,可谓大矣,其严重性是不能低估的。吸烟污染空气,损害健康,使肺癌发病 率大大增加。为了使各国人民关注烟草的盛行及预防吸烟导致的疾病和死亡,世界卫生组织已将每 年的5月31日定为―世界无烟日‖。瘾君子们说,一天饭不吃可以,一个时辰不抽烟就难捱了,不能 戒。只要真正意识到吸烟有百害而无一利,于人于己都是一种祸害,就有可能下决心摆脱烟草的诱 惑。戒烟贵在坚持,坚持下去就是收获。 Smoking does great harm to human and itsgravity should not be underestimated. Smoking pollutes air, damages health, andincreases the incidence of lung cancer. To arouse the awareness about theprevalence of tobacco in all the countries and to prevent smoking-induceddiseases and deaths, the WHO (World Health Organization) has defined May 31stin every year as World No-Tobacco Day. The tobacco addicts say that smoking isimpossible to quit because they could do without meals in a day but would feeltortured without tobacco in two hours. However, when one realizes that smokingis harmful in many ways but beneficial in no way and that it is a curse toothers as well as to he himself, he will be determined to resist the temptationof tobacco. To quit smoking requires persistence and so long as one persists,he’ll be rewarded. 76、越来越多受英文教育的海外华人父母,已经认识到孩子在掌握不可或缺的英文的同时,也 通晓中文的重要性。中国的崛起,让他们充分认识到孩子掌握双语的好处——既能增加他们的就业 机会,也能让他们接触和熟悉东西方两种不同的文化。这些人对中文的态度几乎没有完全改变。曾 几何时,他们还非常骄傲地宣称自己只懂英文。现在,他们已开始积极支持孩子学习中文和中国文 化,而且还不时走访中国,欣赏壮观的自然风光,认识丰富的文化遗产。 An increasing number of English-educatedChinese parents overseas have come to the realization that while Englishlearning is indispensable to their children, it is essential that their kidshave a good command of Chinese. China’srise has fully awakened their awareness of the fact that their kids can benefitfrom their bilingual ability which can not only enhance their competitivenessin the job market, but also facilitate their exposure to and familiarity withthe two different cultures between the East and the West. They have hardlychanged their attitudes towards Chinese. At one time they proudly declared thatthey knew English only. Now, they have begun to give full support to their kidslearning Chinese and its culture, and they also make occasional visits to China,where they can enjoy its magnificent natural landscape and get to know its richcultural heritage. 77、我赞同许多东亚学者的观点,东方文明可以医治盛行于西方世界的一些顽疾。西方世界个 人自由主义泛滥导致了极端个人主义、 性关系混乱以及过度暴力行为, 对此我们不能视而不见。 // 相 反, 东方社会的自我约束力, 集体责任感以及温厚儒雅的传统倒可以消除西方社会的许多恶疾。 // 在 这个信息时代,世界已缩小成一个地球村。这个地球村里,不再有什么泾渭分明的东方世界和西方 世界,我们是生活在同一个社区里的邻里。// 因此,我们彼此之间无须冲突。我们之间的关系应该 是一种友好合作,平等互补的关系。我们应该相互理解,相互学习,和睦共处。 I share the same view with many East Asianscholars that the Oriental civilization can heal some of the prevailing ,stubborn Western ills. We should not turn a blind eye to the fact thatindividual freedom has gone overboard in the West, resulting in extremeindividualism, sexual promiscuity and excessive use of violence.// By contrast,self-discipline, corporate responsibility and the pacific tradition of East Asiacan
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offset many Western vices.// At this age of information, the world has shrunkas a global village in which there will be no clear-cut worlds of the East and theWest any more, but a world of one community with neighboring families.// Therefore,we do not necessarily have to come into clash with each other. Our relationshipis one of friendly cooperation, equality and mutual complementarity and therefore,we should understand and learn from each other, and live in harmony.// 78、国际贸易的基本原则是平等互利,各国追求各自的利益是正常的,出现一些摩擦和纠纷也 是不可避免的。关键要以冷静而明智的态度正确对待和处理摩擦和纠纷。// 就中美贸易而言,互利 共赢的经贸关系给两国人民带来了实实在在的经济利益。今天,美国在华投资设立的企业已超过4 万家,投资额达450 亿美元。// 美国500 强企业有400 多家进入中国,大多数企业获利丰厚。与此 同时, 在美国市场上, 许多中国商品受到美国消费者的青睐。 中国在美国投资设立的企业已超过1000 家。// 我们可以预见,中美贸易摩擦将随着经贸关系的深化而凸显,但是中美经贸合作的总体发展 是不可逆转的。主要有两个原因,其一:中美贸易具有很大互补性。其二:中国产品具有明显的劳 动力成本优势。// Equality and mutual benefit is thefundamental principle of international trade. Therefore, it is normal thatcountries will seek to protect their own interests, which may lead to trade frictionsand disputes. The key lies in how to cope with these issues correctly in a cooland wise manner.// As for China-US trade, mutually beneficial and win-win tradeand economic ties have delivered tangible economic benefits to the two peoples.Now, with over 40,000 U.S.- invested enterprises, the total investment in Chinastands at $45 billion.// Of the top 500 U.S companies, more than 400 have theirbusiness in China, and most of them are making handsome profit. At the sametime, many Chinese commodities have become favored choices of American consumers.Meanwhile, the number of Chinese-invested enterprises in the United Sates hassurpassed 1,000.// We predict that trade disputes between China and the United Stateswill become more acute along with the further development in bilateral trade andeconomic cooperation. The overall development in bilateral trade and economic cooperationis, however, irreversible. There are two factors contribute to this trend.Firstly, the Sino-U.S. economic and trade relations enjoy complementarities in vastfields. Secondly, Chinahas an outstanding labor cost advantage.// 79、中国国际出版集团是中国最大的、最权威的外语出版发行单位,其前身是中央人民政府新 闻出版署国际新闻局。// 我集团坚持―让中国走向世界,让世界了解中国‖的出版原则,全心致力于 中国外语教育与研究事业的发展,全心致力于中外文化交流事业的拓展。// 为了加强对出版人才队 伍的建设,为了满足日益增长的特殊出版业务的需要,我集团每年都要选派一些青年员工到国内外 知名高等学府和研究机构进修,// 根据我们的发展战略,我们会将前进的步伐迈出国界走向世界, 瞄准海外读者群,这一战略已取得了良好的开局。// The China International Publishing Group isthe largest and the most authoritative foreign language publishing anddistribution establishment, its predecessor being the International PressBureau of the Central People's Government Press and Publication Administration.//Adhering to the publishing philosophy of ―assisting China's march to the worldand facilitating world's understanding of China‖, the Group commits itselfentirely to promoting foreign language education and research in China and advancingcultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.// In order to build upa strong team of publishing staff, as well as to meet the growing need of more technicallydemanding business, the Group makes it a rule that young staff be selected andsent to noted universities and research institutions, both domestic and overseas,for further studies.// As is clearly spelled out in our new development strategy,we will go beyond our national boundaries and wedge ourselves into the worldcirculation market, aiming at
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the international readership. Our initial effortshave been very rewarding.// 80、改革开放30 年来,随着中国逐渐崛起成为政治经济强国,海外人士学习汉语的现象与日 俱增,海外孔子学院也成了人们学习中国语言和中国文化的首选之地。// 通过学习汉语,他们对这 个和自己文化大相径庭的古老文明产生了浓厚的兴趣,而且有机会了解中国的哲学、艺术、医学、 饮食文化,亲身体验这个文明古国的风采。// 作为第二文化,中国文化也丰富了他们的生活和世界 观。可以说,这个潮流方兴未艾。越来越多的学习汉语的美国人除了对中国菜肴赞不绝口之外,也 在尝试针灸,草药和武术。//他们也看功夫电影,学习东方时装潮流和手工艺,不知不觉的在日常 生活中谈及中国的点心,人参、银杏,乌龙茶等。目前在美国最热门的中国文化是道家学说和有着 神秘色彩的风水学。 As China is rising as a political andeconomic world power, thanks to its three-decade reform and opening up, moreand more people in overseas countries start to learn Chinese and turn to aConfucius Institute in their own countries as their first choice learningChinese language and Chinese culture.// During the learning process, thelearners concurrently develop their interest in this ancient land, whose civilizationis so vastly different from theirs. And the learners have opportunities tolearn about Chinese philosophy, art, architecture, medicine and cateringculture and experience first-hand the splendors of this venerablecivilization.// As the second culture, Chinese culture has enriched the lifeand world outlook of the learners. This trend, so to speak, is gathering momentumand is there to stay. Apart from their love for Chinese cuisine, more and moreAmerican learners of Chinese language are turning to Chinese acupuncture ,herbal medicines, martial arts.// They are also interested in kongfu films,fashions and crafts. Seemingly outlandish words such as dim sum, ginseng,gingko, oolong cha have crept into their everyday language. The latest Chinesecultural icons to make its impact there are Taoism, and ancient school ofthought, and fengshui, an ancient art of placement.//

81、上海菜系是中国最年轻的地方菜系,通常被成为―本帮菜‖,有着400多年的历史。同中国其 他菜系一样,―本帮菜‖具有―色,香,味‖三大要素。//上海菜的特点是注重调料的使用,食物的质地 和菜的原汁原味。 其中最著名的有特色点心―南翔小笼‖和特色菜―松鼠鲑鱼‖。 //―南翔小笼‖是猪肉馅, 个小味美,皮薄汁醇。―松鼠鲑鱼‖色泽黄亮,形如松鼠,外皮脆而内肉嫩,汤汁酸甜适口。//在品 尝过―松鼠鲑鱼‖之后,我们常常惊讶于―松鼠‖的形状,觉得在三大评价标准上在添加―形‖这个标准 才更合适。// Shanghai cuisine , usually called Benbang cuisine, is the youngest among themajor regional cuisines in China,with a history of more than 400 years. Like all other Chinese regional cuisines,Benbang cuisines takes ―color, aroma and taste‖ as its essential qualityelements.//Shanghai cuisine emphasizes in particular the expert use ofseasonings, the selection of raw materials with quality texture, and originalflavors. Shanghaicuisine is famous for a special snack known as Nanxiang Steamed Meat Dumplingsand a special dish called ―Squirrel-Shaped Mandarin Fish‖.//Nanxiang SteamedMeat Dumplings are small in size, with thin and translucent wrappers, filledinside with ground pork and rich tasty soup. Squirrel-Shaped Mandarin Fish isyellow-colored and squirrel-shaped, with a crispy skin and tender meat, allcovered with a sweet and sour source.//After tasting Squirrel-Shaped MandarinFish, we are always amazed by the squirrel shape and think that it is moreappropriate to plus ―appearance‖ as the fourth element.

82、美国人强调效率、竞争和独创性,而中国人则将严谨规划放在首位,鼓励团队成员之间的
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密切合作和无私奉献。//在美国学校,讨论享有至高无上的地位,讨论是课堂教学的主旋律;而中 国教师喜欢讲课,喜欢考试,编写千篇一律的标准教案,培养整齐划一的高材生。//美国人的政治 观,经济观以及社会观的核心是个人道德自治观。中国传统的思想体系是以儒家学说为基础的,这 种思想强调整体和谐。//现在,中美联系比以往更加紧密,中国人学英语,玩保龄球,吃肯德基, 美国人学汉语,练功夫,吃北京烤鸭, 《泰坦尼克》驶进中国, 《牡丹亭》也在百老汇上演。// American people emphasize efficiency,competition and originality while Chinese people give priority to carefulplanning and encourage close cooperation and altruistic dedication among teammembers.//In American schools, discussion is given top priority while Chineseteachers like to lecture in class,and a lot of them are obsessed withexaminations. They write consistent and standardized teaching plans, and arehappy with bringing up identical and standardized talents.//Central to Americanpolitical, economic and social thought is the concept of individual moralautonomy. Traditional Chinese philosophical systems are based on Confucianism,which sings high praises for communal harmony.//Nowadays, the relation of China and America become closer than ever. Chineselearn English, play bowling, enjoy KFC, while Americans learn Chinese, exerciseKung Fu, like Peking Duck. And Titanic sailed into China, while The Peony Pavilion hasbeen performed on Broadway.// 83、武术在我国源远流长,是中华民族传统文化的瑰宝。我们知道,一个民族的优秀文化遗产, 不仅仅属于一个民族,它会逐渐传播到世界而成为人类的共同财富。// 为了更好的推广武术运动, 使其与奥运项目接轨,中国武协和国际武联做了大量的艰苦卓绝的工作。现在武术运动已被列为一 种具有与保龄球运动和国际标准舞同等地位的奥运表演项目。//武术的蓬勃发展,除得益于其项目 本身的吸引力之外,早期移居海外的一代武术大师功不可没。//老一代武术家在海外播种下了武术 的种子,使武术这门既可以自卫又可以健身的运动很快就在新的土地上扎下了根。今天高超的武术 大师已遍布世界各地,武术爱好者也与日俱增。// Wushu, or Chinese martial art, can betraced back to ancient times. It is a gem of Chinese traditional culture. As weall know, the fine culture of a nation doesn’ t belong to the nation alone andit will be spread to the rest of the world and shared by all humanity.// TheChinese Wushu Association and International Wushu Federation (IWUF) have beenworking very hard to popularize wushu and make the Chinese martial art closerto the Olympic Movement. Wushu was accepted to join bowling and internationalstandard dance as an Olympic demonstration event.// The booming of wushu isattributed not only to the attractiveness of the sport but also to emigrantChinese wushu masters over the years.// Martial artists of the older generationshave sown wushu seeds in foreign countries. Weshu, which can be used as selfdefense and can keep practitioners fit and strong, soom became popular on newlands. Today sperb wushu masters are active all over the world, and amateursare on the increase with each passing day. 84、香港中文大学,简称―中大‖,成立于1963年。中大是一所研究型综合大学,以―结合传统与 现代,融汇中国与西方‖为创校使命。//40多年来,中大一直致力于弘扬中华传统文化,坚持双语教 育,并推行独特的书院制度,在香港教育界卓然而立。中大校园占地134 公顷,是世界上最美丽的 校园之一。//中大的师生来自世界各地。有教职员工 5200多人,近万名本科生、约2000多名研究生, 其中约2500多人来自45个不同的国家和地区。//中大实行灵活的学分制,不仅有助于培养有专有博 的人才,而且还赋予学生更大的学习自主权。中大的多元教育有助于充分发挥每一个学生的潜能。 // The ChineseUniversity of Hong Kong, CUHK for short, was founded in 1963. It is aresearch-oriented comprehensive university with a mission to combine traditionwith modernity and bring together China and the West.//For more than40 years, we have been distinguished from other local universities by virtue ofour
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rich Chinese cultural heritage, bilingual education, and our unique collegesystem. 134-hectare campus is one of the most beautiful campuses in the world.//CUHK’ s faculty and students come fromall corners of the world. It has more than 5200 staff members,approximately10,000 undergraduates, and 2000 postgraduate students. Of these students, some2,500 are from 45 countries and regions outside Hong Kong.//The flexible creditunit system allows a balance between depth with breadth, and a high degree offree choice of students in designing their own learning. The multi-facetededucation at CUHK helps to bring out the best in every student. 85、过去10年,海平面升高和森林看法的速度都是前所未有的;生态恶化、物种灭绝、臭氧层 被破坏、温室效应、酸雨等一系列环境问题已经严重影响到人类的生存环境。// 环境恶化造成的问 题之一就是缺水。 目前全世界 40%以上的人口, 即 20 多亿人, 面临缺水问题。 据预测, 未来 25 年 全球人口将有 60 亿增长到 80 亿,环境保护面临更大的压力。// 中国作为一个发展中国家,面临 着发展经济和保护环境的双重任务。从国情出发,中国在全面推进现代化的过程中,将环境保护视 为一项基本国策。// 众所周知,对生态环境和生物多样性的保护是环保工作的重点。我国野生动植 物物种丰富,仅脊椎动物就有 6000 多种左右,高等植物 3 万多种。// Sea level rose and forest were destroyed atan unprecedented rate during the last decade. A series of environmentalproblems such s the deterioration of ecosystem, the extinction of bio-species,damage to the ozone layer, the green-house effect, acid rain, have posed aserious threat to human living conditions.// Environmental crisis leads to oneof the serious problems, namely, water shortage. Presently, more than 40% ofthe world’s population, more than 2 billion people, now face water shortage. Itis predicted hat with the global population expected to increase from sixbillion to eight billion over the next 25 years, more pressure on environmentalprotection stress is expected.// As a developing country, china is confrontedwith the dual task of developing the economy and protecting the environment.Proceeding from its national conditions, china has, in the process of promotingits overall modernization program, made environmental protection one of itsbasic state policies.// It is known to all that protection of the ecologicalenvironment and biodiversity is the focal point of environmental protectionwork. Chinais rich in wildlife species. There are about 6,000 vertebrates alone and 30,000species of higher plants.//

86、为了切实保护儿童权益,中国的立法、司法、政府各有关部门以及社会团体都建立了相应 的机制,以监督、实施和促进保护儿童事业的健康发展。// 中国政府动员社会采取多种方式关心和 帮助残疾儿童的成长, 大力弘扬残疾儿童自强不息的精神, 倡导团结、 友爱、 互助的道德风尚。 // 中 国民族素有―携幼‖,―爱幼‖的传统美德,中国古语―有无有以及人之幼‖了流传至今。// 我们要在全 社会倡导树立―爱护儿童、教育儿童、为儿童做表率、为儿童办实事‖的公民意识,并努力为儿童事 业的发展创造良好的社会条件。// To effectively protect children’s rightsand interests, china’s legislation, judicial and government departmentsconcerned as well as non-governmental organizations have set up correspondingmechanisms to supervise, facilitate and promote the healthy development of thework on protecting children.// The Chinese government has done a great deal tomobilize various circles in society to care for, in various manners , thedevelopment of disabled children, to greatly encourage the spirit of unceasingself-improvement among physically disadvantaged children and to advocate thevalued social virtues of unity, friendship and mutual aid.// The Chinese nationhas long cultivated the traditional virtues of ―bring up the young‖ and caringfor the young‖. An old Chinese saying that ―love our children and love others’children in the same manner‖ is still very popular.// We should urge thesociety at large to raise the
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awareness of importance of ―protecting andeducating children, and setting a good example and doing practical thing forchildren‖. We will spare no efforts to create favorable social conditions forthe progress of child development programs.// 87、泰山的每个季节都有独特的魅力。春天,绿茵茵的山坡上,争奇斗妍的花朵到处可见。夏 天泰山的雷暴雨堪称奇观。秋天,枫树叶漫山遍野,蔚蓝色的河水川流不息。冬天,雪盖群峰松披 霜,景观素雅悲壮,别有一番情趣。喜逢艳阳日,极目远眺,重峦叠嶂,尽收眼帘。 但遇天阴时,环顾四周,苍茫大地,尽入云海。泰山的日出与日落,闻名遐尔。壮观的自然风 景以及不可计数的历史名胜,激发了古代文人墨客,为之舞文弄墨,创作了无数经典 佳作。泰山 历来是画家骚客所钟情的聚集地。 Each season here hasits beauty: bright flowers in full bloom covering the green slopes in spring,spectacular summer thunderstorms which are rarely seen elsewhere, blue riversrunning across the mountains overlaid with red maple leaves in fall, andsnow-capped mountains and frosted pine trees in winter that stage a quietsolemn spectacle of particular interest. On a clear day one can see the peaks risingone after another. When the sky is overcast, the horizon disappears into asea of clouds. Mount Tai is most famous forits spectacular sunrise and sunset. Its landscape and numerous historical siteshave inspired many great classics of ancient writers, scholars andcalligraphers. Mount Tai has long been thepreferred gathering place of artists and poets. 88、对龙图腾他的崇拜在中国大约已绵延了八千多年。中国龙是古人将鱼、蛇、马、牛等动物 与云雾、雷电等自然天象集合而成的一种神物。 中国龙的形成与中华民族的多元融合过程同步。 在中国人的心目中,龙具有振奋腾飞、开拓变化的寓意和团结凝聚的精神。 Dragon totem worship in China has been around for the last 8,000 years. The ancients in China considered the dragon (or loong) a fetish that combines animals including the fish, snake, horse and ox with cloud, thunder, lightning and other natural celestial phenomena. The Chinese dragon was formed in accordance with the multicultural fusion process of the Chinese nation. To the Chinese, the dragon signifies innovation and cohesion. 89、秧歌舞是中国汉族的一种民间传统舞蹈,通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者通常穿上明亮多 彩的表演服装,他们的表演动作有力迅速。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期间,人们一旦听到锣鼓声, 不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上看秧歌舞表演。近年来,中国东北某些城市的老年人自 发组织了了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳秧歌舞来保持健康,同事他们也乐在其中。 Yangko is one of tradition folk dance of Han in China.It is usually performed in northern provinces. The dancers usually wear colorful and light costumes, and the performance is powerful and rapid. During some festivals such as Spring Festival, Lantein Festival, if people hear the sound of drum and gong, no matter how cold the weather is , they will come to street and appreciate the Yangko. Recent years, the old people in city of east-northern of China organized the team of Yangko by themselves, the teamers keep their health by dancing Yangko the whole year. 90、长城是人类创造的世界奇迹之一。如果你到了中国却没去过长城,就想到了巴黎没有去看 看菲尔铁塔,或者就像到了埃及没有去看金字塔一样。人们常说:―不到长城非好汉。‖实际上,长 城最初只是一些断断续续的城墙,直到秦朝统一中国后才将其连城长城。然而,今天我们看到的长 城——东起山海关,西至嘉峪关——大部分都是在明代修建的。
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The Great Wall is one of the wonders of the world that created by human beings! If you come to China without climbing the Great Wall, it's just like going Paris without visiting the Eiffel Tower; or going to Egypt without visiting the Pyramids! Men often say, "He who doest not reach the Great Wall is not a true man."In fact, it began as independent walls for different states when it was first built, and did not become the "Great Wall" until the Qin Dynasty. However, the wall we see today, starting from Shanhaiguan Pass in the east to Jiayunguan Pass in the west, was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty. 91、 长沙是一个有 3000 多年历史的美丽古城。 城市的西边是秀美的岳麓山, 山下有千年书院―岳 麓书院‖等众多古迹。市区中心的古城楼天心阁,距今有 1000 多年的历史。千百年来水质清纯,终 年不断的白沙古井也坐落在长沙城中。 今天的长沙市民还常常在这里打水饮用。 湘江中的橘子洲头, 是当年毛泽东先生经常漫步思考的地方,后来还写了一首非常著名的诗来赞美她。 Changsha is a beautiful ancient city with a history of over 3,000 years. West of the city is the beautiful Yuelu Hill, at the foot of the hill, are many historic sites such as Yuelu Academy. In the center of the city is the ancient city gate tower --Tianxin Tower, which was first built 1000 years ago. Also located in the city is the ancient Baisha Well, from which clear and pure water has been gushing out nonstop throughout the year for thousands of years. Inhabitants in Changsha today still come here to fetch water for drinking. Orange Island in the Xiang River was where Mr. Mao Zedong often rambled and meditated. Later he wrote a very famous poem in its praise. 92、洞庭湖是中国第二大淡水湖。洞庭湖畔的岳阳楼,是中国三大名楼中唯一保持原址原貌的 国家重点保护文物。岳阳楼所处的位置极好,它屹立于岳阳古城之上,背靠岳阳城,俯瞰洞庭湖, 遥对君山岛,北依长江,南通湘江。自古以来,就是人们观光旅游的好地方。 Lake Dongting is China’s second largest freshwater lake. Yueyang Tower, which is located on its shores, is a national key cultural relic for protection as the only one of China’s famous towers that is kept in its original condition at its original site. The tower is very favorably located, standing as it does on Yueyang’s ancient city wall with the city behind and overlooking Lake Dongting to the distant Junshan Isle; to its north is the Yangtze River and to the south the Xiang River. Since ancient times, the tower has been a good place for sightseeing and touring. (Picture) 93、四合院是从明代的北京延续下来的古典建筑风格的住宅。四合院之间的狭窄的街道被称为 ―胡同‖。一个四合院有园林包围着四个房子,有高高的围墙保护。四合院与胡同都是人们常见到的, 有超过 700 多年的历史,但是由于现在的城市改造和中国经济的发展,四合院慢慢地从北京消失。 Si He Yuan is a classical architecture style of residential hous?ing of Beijing citizens dated from the Ming Dynasty. The narrow streets between the Si He Yuan are called ―Hutong, ’s. A single implementation of Si He Yuan comprises of garden surrounded by four houses and protected by high walls. Si He Yuan with Hutong which have been very familiar to people,having a history of more than 700 years now suffer from the ur?ban renovation and economic development of China, and they are slowly disappearing from Beijing. 94、中国经济的高速发展,带来了消费文化的日益流行,同时也催生了一批具有高学历,充分 享受资本主义消费模式的年轻人, 他们习惯于当月工资当月花。 因而被称为―月光族‖ (the moonlight group)。―月光族‖一词出现于 20 世纪 90 年代后期,是用来讽刺那些出身富裕、接受高等教育、充 分享受快餐文化(fast food culture)的年轻人。 China’s economy is developing very quickly, and has brought with it a culture of consumption more prevalent with each passing day. At the same time, it has brought into being an educated group of young
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people who enjoy capitalist consumption way. They’re used to spending money as soon as they get it every month, and so are called the moon light group‖. This word came into being during the 1990s, to make fun of those bom into wealth,who have received a high education, and who ap?preciate fast food culture. 94、茶马古道(Tea-horse Ancient Road)两边,生活着 20 多个少数民族。不同的地方有着各自美 丽而神奇的自然风景和传统文化,比如:大理,丽江古城,香格里拉(Shangrila),雅鲁藏布江大峡谷和 布达拉宫(Potala Palace)。古道的两旁有庙宇、岩石壁画、骚站(post house),古桥和木板路,还有少数 民族舞蹈和民族服装。 时至今天, 虽然这条古道的踪迹都消失了, 但它的文化和历史价值仍然存在。 Along the Tea-horse Ancient Road lived more than 20 minori?ties. Concentrations of beautiful and mysterious natural landscapes and traditional cultures developed in various sites,including Dali old city, Lijiang old city, Shangrila, Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon, Potala Palace. The road features temples, rock paintings, post houses, ancient bridges and plank roads. It is also home to many national minorities and their dances and folk customs. Today, although the traces of the ancient road are fading away, its cultural and historic values remain. 96、丝绸之路(the Silk Road)是历史上连接中国和地中海的一条重要 贸易路线。因为这条路上的 丝绸贸易占绝大部分,所以在 1877 年它 被德国的一位地理学家命名为―丝绸之路‖。这条古道从长 安开始, 经过河西走廊(the Hexi Corridor),到达敦煌后分成三条: 南部路线, 中部路线和北部路线。 这三条路遍布新疆维吾尔自治区 (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) ,然后扩展到巴基斯坦 (Pakistan),印度, 甚至罗马。 The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and the Mediterranean. Because silk comprised a large proportion of trade along this road, in 1877, it was named the Silk Road by an eminent German geographer. This ancient road begins at Chang’an, then by way of the Hexi Corridor, and it reaches Dunhuang, where it divides into three, the Southern Route, Central Route and North? ern Route. The three routes spread all over the Xinjiang Uygur Autono? mous Region, and then they extend as far as Pakistan, India and even Rome. 97、中国结最初是由手工艺人发明的,经过数百年不断的改进,已经成为一种优雅多彩的艺术 和工艺。在古代,人们用它来记录事件,但现在主要是用于装饰的目的。―结‖在中文里意味这爱情 丶婚姻和团聚, 中国结常常作为礼物交换或作用饰品祈求好运和辟邪。 这种形式的手工艺代代相传, 现在已经在中国和世界各地越来越受欢迎。 "The Chinese knot was originally invented by the craftsmen. After hundreds of years of continuous improvement,has become a kind of elegant and colorful arts and crafts. In ancient times,people use it to record the event, but now used mainly for decorative purposes. The knot means love, marriage and reunion in Chinese,knot is often used for jewelry as a gift exchange or pray for good luck and ward off evil spirits,This form of handicrafts from generation to generation, it has become increasingly popular in China and around the world。 98、景德镇,中国瓷都(ceramic metropolis),是世界瓷器艺术花园的 耀眼明珠。它位于长江南 部,是江南一个有活力的城镇。它制造瓷 器(porcelain)的历史已经有 1700 多年,已经形成了丰富 的瓷器文化。 稀有的瓷器文物,一流的瓷器工艺,瓷乐器的优雅表演,以及优美 的田园风光组成 了景德镇特别的旅游文化,而且让景德镇成为中国 唯一一个以瓷器旅游文化为特色的旅游城市。 Jingdezhen known as the ceramic metropolis of china is a brilliant pearl in the world’s art garden of ceramics. It is located on the south of the Yangtze River as a powerful tTown on the south of the Yangtze River. It has a porcelain making history of over 1700 years,which has been crystallized into its rich
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cultural tradition of ceramics. Rare ceramic rel? ics, superb ceramic craftsmanship , unique ceramic customs, graceful perform?ance of ceramic musical instruments and beautiful rural scenery make up the peculiar tourist culture of Jingdezhen and hence make Jingdezhen the only Chinese tourist city featuring ceramic culture. 99、很多人喜欢中餐,在中国,烹饪不仅被视为一种技能,而且也被视为一种艺术。精心准备 的中餐既可口又好看。烹饪技术和配料在中国各地差别很大。但好的烹饪都有一个共同点,总是要 考虑到颜色、味道、口感和营养(nutrition)。由于食物对健康至关重要,好的厨师总是努力在谷物, 肉类和蔬菜之间取得平衡。所以中餐美味又健康。 Most people like Chinese food. In China, cooking is considered as not only a skill but also an art. The well-prepared Chinese food is both delicious and good-looking. Although cooking methods and food ingredient vary wildly in different places of China, it is common for good cuisine to take color, flavor, taste and nutrition into account. Since food is crucial to health, a good chef is insistently trying to seek balance between cereal, meat and vegetable, and accordingly Chinese food is delicious as well as healthy. 100、改革开放 30 年来,随着中国逐渐崛起成为政治经济强国,海外人士学习汉语的现象与日 俱增,海外孔子学院也成了人们学习中国语言和中国文化的首选之地。通过学习汉语,他们对这个 和自己文化大相径庭的古老文明产生了浓厚的兴趣,而且有机会了解中国的哲学、艺术、医学、饮 食文化,亲身体验这个文明古国的风采。 As China is rising as a political and economic world power, thanks to its three-decade reform and opening up, more and more people in overseas countries start to learn Chinese and turn to a Confucius Institute in their own countries as their first choice learning Chinese language and Chinese culture. During the learning process, the learners concurrently develop their interest in this ancient land, whose civilization is so vastly different from theirs. And the learners have opportunities to learn about Chinese philosophy, art, architecture, medicine and catering culture and experience first-hand the splendors of this venerable civilization. 1.中国政府高度重视人口与发展问题,将人口与发展问题作为国民经济和社会发展总体规划的 重要组成部分列入议事日程,始终强调人口增长与经济社会发展相适应,与资源利用和环境保护相 协调。二十世纪九十年代以来,中央政府每年召开一次关于人口与发展问题的座谈会,研究分析重 大问题,制定重大决策和措施。 The Chinese government pays great attentionto the issue of population and development and has placed it on the agenda asan important part of its overall plan for national economic and socialdevelopment. The government consistently emphasizes that population growthshould be compatible with socio-economic development and with resourceutilization and environmental protection. Since the 1990s, the centralgovernment has held a forum on the issue of population and development once ayear for the sake of discussing and analyzing major problems and adoptingimportant decisions and measures. 2.现在的大学生的学习压力相当重。除了大四,他们开始找工作了,其余的学生总是忙于学习, 而不愿意参加校园团体和俱乐部,不愿参加体育锻炼和其他课外活动,不愿关心和学习没有关系的 事。总之,他们就像一个机器人。他们为分数所累,几乎没有时间好好体验生活,并成长为一个全 面发展的人。 College students now bear heavy academicpressure. You will find them –except seniors who are beginning to look for a job—alwaystoo busy with studies to join campus organizations and clubs, too busy to take partin sports and other extracurricular activities, too busy to pay attention toanything that is not
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connected with their studies. In short, they have becomenothing but a robot. They have been so obsessed with grades and marks that theyhave hardly had time to experience the life and grow as well-rounded people. 3.大多数的有机食品似乎有一个共同点,即它们的价格高于以常规方式种植的食物。但在许多 情况下,如果消费者认为有机食品能预防疾病且营养价值高于以常规方式生产的食品,那么他们是 被误导了。如果消费者们,尤其是那些收入有限的消费者们,怀疑传统食品而只购买更昂贵的有机 食品,那就值得担忧了。 One thing that most organically grown foodproducts seem to have in common is that they cost more than conventionallygrown foods. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organicfoods can maintain health and provide better nutritional quality thanconventionally grown foods. So there is a real cause for concern if consumersparticularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food supply andonly buy more expensive organic foods instead. 4.我们中国是世界上最大的国家之一,她的领土和整个欧洲的面积差不多相等。在这个广大的 领土之上,有广大的肥田沃地给我们以衣食之源;有纵横全国的大小山脉,生长了广大的森林,贮 藏了丰富的矿产;有很多的江河湖泽,给我们以舟揖和灌溉之利;有很长的海岸线,给我们以沟通 海外各民族的方便。 China is one of the largest countries in theworld, her territory being about the size of the whole of Europe.In the vast country of ours there are large areas of fertile land which provideus with food and clothing, mountain ranges across its length and breadth withextensive forests and rich mineral deposits, many rivers and lakes whichprovide us with water transport and irrigation, and a long coastline whichfacilitates communication with nations beyond the seas. 5.不同的人对退休持不同的态度。有些人认为退休后可以好好享受晚年的生活。但真的退下来 了,他们则有点失望。看到自己就要被抛到废物堆里,他们不甘认命,设法另找事干来发挥自己的 余热,以继续得到收入。另一些人则对一生中这样一个重大变动早有准备。他们一生为工作操劳, 现在筋疲力尽了,渴望退休后能放松拉紧的弦,好好休息。 Attitudes towards retirement vary fromperson to person. Some people think that they will enjoy their time inretirement, but when it comes they may feel a little disappointed. Unwilling toresign themselves to the prospect of being put on the scrap heap, they try toseek alternative outlets for their energies and alternative sources of incomethat employment can provide. Others have already prepared themselves for thesignificant change in their lives. Tired out after all exhausting liferevolving around work, they are anxious to relax in retirement with all thestrains relieved. 6.如果我们想要变得高兴,为什么要像小孩子那样呢?我们可以积极主动地在我们生活中设定 目标,然后向着目标进发。想想吧,如果你停止抱怨的话你会变得多么的快乐。反正那些事情又无 力改变, 整天想着那些你无力改变的事情有有什么意义呢?当你意识到自己在抱怨的时候, 停下来, 问问自己是要变得快乐还是继续这样抱怨下去。 If we really want to be happy, why do weact like such babies? We can claim to be proactive in our life by settingsgoals and going after what we want. Imagine how much happier you would be ifyou simply stopped complaining. Much of what you complain about is outside ofyour control anyway. What’s the point of brooding about something you have nopower to change? When you recognize that you’re complaining, stop and takenotice of it. Ask yourself if you would rather complain, or be happy.
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7.结婚是人生中的一件大事。传统的中式婚礼古朴而又热闹,隆重、喜庆并且礼节周全,场面 的铺陈颇具特色,不过在现代,尤其是在城市里,已经很少见了。 花轿是传统婚礼的核心内容之一。结婚时,新娘要坐在花轿里从娘家被抬到男方家中。花轿一 般分四人抬,八人抬两种。一般的轿队最少也有十几人,很是壮观。 Marriage is the most important thing in thelife. In China,a traditional wedding is simple and lively, ceremonious, and joyful. There aresome unique features in this ceremony, but in modern society, especially in thecity, it is hardly seen any more. The bridal sedan is the core of thetraditional wedding. In wedding, the bride should sit in the sedan, and then belifted from her mother’s home to her husband’s home. Generally there are twokinds of sedan, that is, four-lifter and eight-lifter. In group, there are morethan ten people at least, and the occasion is very magnificent. 8.随着世界经济趋于一体化,城市作为对外开放的窗口,不可能封闭于国家范围之内进行经济 建设;如果城市经济不能和同际接轨,我国在世界市场竞争中就会处于被动。我国既要发展传统第 三产业,又要跟上世界潮流,发展科技开发、信息服务、国际金融贸易等新兴第三产业。 Withthe globalization of the world economy, cities as windows of opening-up to theoutside world can not undertake economic construction behind closed doors. If China’surban economy can not join the international market, our country will be in adisadvantaged situation in the world. Therefore, China should not only develop itstraditional third industries, but also keep up with the world trend bypromoting the development of newly emerged third industries, that is, thedevelopment of science and technology, information service, internationalfinancial trade and etc. 9.中国是一个发展中国家,人口多,农村地区经济不发达。穷困地区较为集中的西部地区公路、 铁路等基础设施比较薄弱。这些地区的教育、卫生等基本社会服务水平低,农业生产条件差。中国 政府在全国范围内实施的扶贫开发,极大的缓解了贫困现象。 China is a developing country with a largepopulation and an underdeveloped economy in the rural areas. The westernregion, where most of the poverty-stricken areas are located, has a weakinfrastructure such as highways and railways. The level of education, publichealth and other basic social services is low in these areas. Besides,agricultural production conditions are poor. The Chinese government hasimplemented nationwide a large-scale program for development-oriented povertyrelief, alleviating poverty considerably. 10.许多专家指出,教育改革的关键在于使全社会认识到中、小学教育的目的不只是让学生掌握 必要的知识,更应该提高学生整体素质,特别是他们对于人生意义和社会责任这些根本的问题要有 比较深入的思考。学校要在这些方面深入研究,选择合适的内容和方式引导和帮助学生形成正确的 观点。 Many experts pointed out that the key ofthe reform in the education system is a well-shared awareness that the high andprimary educations are there, instead of simply offering the knowledgeimportant to the students, to improve the students in an all-round way, andespecially to guide them to a careful pondering over such fundamental issues aslife itself and social responsibility. As to the schools, they try their bestto get a better way to gradually guide the students to an appropriate view overthe world around them. 11.改革开放 30 年来,随着中国逐渐崛起成为政治经济强国,海外人士学习汉语的现象与日俱 增,海外孔子学院也成了人们学习中国语言和中国文化的首选之地。通过学习汉语,他们对这个和
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自己文化大相径庭的古老文明产生了浓厚的兴趣,而且有机会了解中国的哲学、艺术、医学、饮食 文化。 As china is rising as a political andeconomic world power, thanks to its three-decade reform and opening up, more andmore people in overseas countries start to learn Chinese and turn to aConfucius Institute in their own countries as their first choice learningChinese language and Chinese culture. During the learning process, the learnersconcurrently develop their interest in this ancient land, whose civilization isso vastly different from theirs. And the learners have opportunities to learnabout Chinese philosophy, art, architecture, medicine and catering culture. 12.春节期间的娱乐活动多种多样,丰富多彩。耍龙灯和舞狮子是春节期间的传统项目。现在, 随着生活水平的不断提高,人们采用了新的方式庆祝新年。但不管庆祝方式怎么变,春节的精华不 会变,那就是为了祈求新年吉祥如意。春节是一个合家欢聚的日子,出门在外的人总要想方设法在 除夕夜到来之前赶回家,吃上一年中最重要的一顿饭——“团圆饭” 。 The recreational activities during theSpring Festival are varied and colorful. The Dagon Dance and Lion Dance aretraditionally performed during the festival. Nowadays, with the improvement ofliving standards, people have taken up new ways to celebrate the New Year. Nomatter what changes there might be, the highlights of the Spring Festival willremain the same: hoping for a propitious and happy new year. The SpringFestival is the occasion for a family reunion. People away from home forvarious reasons will always try their best to come back before the New Year’s Eve,in order to have the most important dinner in the year, family reunion dinner. 13.剪纸是中国最为流行的传统民间艺术形式之一。中国剪纸有一千五百多年的历史,在明朝 和清朝时期特别流行。人们常用剪纸美化居家环境,特别是在春节和婚庆期间,剪纸被用来装饰门 窗和房间,以增加喜庆的气氛。剪纸最常用的颜色是红色,象征健康和兴旺。中国剪纸在世界各地 很受欢迎,经常被用作馈赠外国友人的礼物。 Paper cutting is one of China’s mostpopular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper cutting has a history of more than1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings. During the SpringFestival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cutting are used todecorate doors, windows and rooms in order to enhance the joyous atmosphere. Thecolor most frequently used in paper cutting is red, which symbolizes health andprosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it isoften given as a present to foreign friends. 14.过去的七年,中国的房地产业经历了高速增长。对于那些月薪较低却渴望在大城市拥有一套 属于自己的体面、舒适的栖息之所的人来说,高昂的房价是他们无法承受的负担。鉴于这一状况, 政府近年来采取了一系列的措施来防止房价过快增长,包括提高利率及增加房产税等。目前,这些 措施在部分城市已经取得了初步的成效。 In the past seven years, China’s real estate industry hasdeveloped in a high speed. For those who earn less but are eager to own adecent and comfortable place of their own in a big city, the high housing priceis a heavy burden that they cannot afford. For this reason, in recent years, thegovernment has taken a series of measures to prevent the housing price fromrising too fast, including raising interest rates and increasing taxes on realestate etc. Presently, these measures have achieved initial effects in somecities. 15.北京有无数的胡同。平民百姓在胡同里的生活给古都北京带来了无穷的魅力。北京的胡同不 仅仅是平民百姓的生活环境,而且还是一门建筑艺术。通常,胡同内有一个大杂院,房间够 4 到 10
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个家庭的差不多 20 口人住。所以,胡同里的生活充满了友善和人情味。如今,随着社会和经济的 飞速发展,很多胡同被新的高楼大厦所取代。 In Beijing,there are numerous hutongs. The life of common people in hutongs brings endlesscharm to the ancient capital, Beijing.The hutong in Beijingis not only the living environment of common people but also a kind ofarchitecture. Usually, there is a courtyard complex inside hutong, with roomsshared by 4 to 10 families of about 20 people. Therefore, life in hutongs isfull of friendliness and genuine humanity. Nowadays, with the rapid social andeconomic development, many hutongs are replaced by new tall buildings. 16.文房四宝(The Four Treasures of the Study)是中国古代书画用具的总称,指纸、墨、毛笔与 砚台(ink stone) 。文房四宝的质量对绘画和书法(calligraphy)起着决定性的作用。因此进行中国 传统书法和绘画的文人都很注重这些用具的选择。唐宋时期(The Tang and Song Dynasties)的文房 四宝因其质量优良与制作精美,为后世学者高度称颂。在某种程度上来说, “文房四宝”是促进中 国传统文化发展的一个重要因素。 The Four Treasures of the Study is a general term for a set of tools for painting and writing in ancient China, namely paper, ink, brush pen and ink stone. The quality of the Four Treasures of the Study plays a decisive role in one’s painting and calligraphy. Therefore, scholars engaging in traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy attached much importance to the choice of the tools. The products of ―the Four Treasures of the Study‖ elaborately made during the Tang and Song Dynasties are highly praised by later scholars for their superior quality. To some extent, the Four Treasures of the Study is an important factor which has promoted the development of traditional Chinese culture. 17.五行学说(the theory of five elements)是中国古代的一种物质观。五行包括金、木、水、火 和土五种要素。五行学说强调整体概念,描绘了事物的结构关系和运动形式。五行学说认为宇宙万 物都是基于这五种要素的运行和变化。这五个要素相互作用,不但影响到人的命运,同时也使宇宙 万物循环不已。 五行学说成熟于汉代 (the Han Dynasty) , 之后广泛应用于中医、 建筑和武术 (martial arts)等领域。 The theory of the five elements is a concept of matter in ancient China. The five elements include metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. The theory of five elements emphasizes on an overall concept, describing the structural relationships and forms of movements of matters. The theory holds that everything in the universe is based on the movement and change of these five elements. These five elements interact with each other, affecting a person’s fate as well as making the universe move in endless cycles. The theory got mature in the Han Dynasty and was widely employed in the fields like traditional Chinese medicine, architecture, and martial arts. 18. 国画(Chinese painting)是世界上最古老的艺术传统之一。绘画时用毛笔蘸黑墨或彩墨在纸 张或丝绸上作画。 根据表现手法, 国画可分为写意派 (the Xieyi school) 和工笔派 (the Gongbi school) 两大类。写意派以自由表达和形式夸张为特点;工笔派则注重以精细的笔法描绘细节。山水画被公 认为国画的最高形式。纵观历史,不同时期的国画都相应地反映出人们的社会意识。 Chinese painting is one the oldest artistic traditions in the world. The painting is done on paper or silk with a brush dipped in black or colored ink. According to the means of expression, Chinese painting can be divided into. two categories which are the Xieyi school and the Gongbi school. The Xieyi school is characterized by free expression and exaggerated forms, while the Gongbi school attaches importance to detail with fine brush work. Landscape painting is widely regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting.
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Throughout history, the Chinese paintings at different times mirror people’s social consciousness accordingly. 19.京剧脸谱(the facial makeup of Beijing Opera)是具有民族特色的一种独特的化妆方法。它最 大的特点在于借助不同的色彩来展示人物的性格。脸谱的颜色使观众对人物的善恶美丑一目了然。 通常红色代表忠诚;黑色象征正直;紫色意味公正;黄色喻示残暴(brutality) 。此外,脸谱还常常 带有图案(design)来表述某个故事,比如后羿脸谱上有九个太阳,表明他曾经用箭射掉了九个太 阳。 The facial makeup of Beijing Opera is a unique makeup method with Chinese national characteristics. It has the best feature of showing the characters with various colorful facial paintings. The audience knows the good of evil character of a role directly based on the color of the face. Usually, red represents loyalty; black integrity; purple justice, and yellow brutality. In addition, the facial makeup often comes with designs to tell some story. For instance, Hou Yi has nine suns painted on his face, indicating that he has ever shot nine suns from the sky. 20. 敦煌莫高窟(Dunhuang Mogao Caves)坐落于中国西部甘肃省。这些石窟刻于距离敦煌东 南方向 25 公里处鸣沙山的悬崖上。敦煌莫高窟是规模最大、保存时间最长的佛教(Buddhist)艺术 宝库,现存 735 个洞窟,壁画(frescoes)4 万 5 千多平方米。这些壁画展现了佛(Buddh)的形象 和活动以及人与神之间的关系。敦煌壁画中的舞蹈人物是全人类的一颗璀璨的宝石。敦煌莫高窟在 1987 年被列入世界遗产名录(World Heritage List) 。 Dunhuang Mogao Caves are located in western China’s Gansu Province. These caves were cut on a cliff 25 kilometers southeast to Dunhuang, on a mount called Mingsha. Dunhuang Mogao Caves are regarded the biggest and the longest preserved Buddhist art treasures, with more than 45,000 square meters of frescoes in 735 caves. Dunhuang frescoes display Buddha’s images and behavior, and the relationship between Buddha and men. Dancing images in Dunhuang frescoes are a brilliant jewel for all human beings. Dunhuang Mogao Caves was on the World Heritage List in 1987.

21. 传统中医(traditional Chinese medicine)可以不借助任何仪器给病人治病,堪称奇迹。 “望” 、 “闻” “问” “切” (pulse taking)为传统中医诊断的四个方法。 “望”指通过直接观察病人体表来了 解情况。 “闻”就是听声音、闻气味(odour) ,病人的发声和气味有助于医生收集诊断信息。 “问” 为咨询症状及先前的治疗情况。 “切”即医生给病人“把脉”从而得知病人体内的变化。 It is a wonder that traditional Chinese medicine could cure patients without any assistant equipment. The four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine consists of observing, listening and smelling, inquiring and pulse taking. Observing indicates that doctors directly watch the outward appearance to find out a patient’s condition. Listening and smelling refers to listening the sound and smelling the odour of the patient, which is helpful for doctors to collect messages to diagnose. Inquiring suggests that doctors question the patient so as to know the symptoms and previous treatments. Pulse taking refers that doctors measure the pulse condition of patients to know their internal change. 22. 清明节(Tomb Sweeping Day)是中国最重要的传统节日之一。它起源于周朝( the Zhou Dynasty) ,有 2500 多年的历史。清明节是中国人扫墓祭祖的日子。扫墓时,人们携带酒食果品和纸 钱到墓地,将食物供祭在亲人墓前,为坟墓添加新土、焚烧纸钱、行礼祭拜、最后吃掉酒食回家。 除了扫墓,人们还参与包括荡秋千、放风筝等各种活动。

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The Tomb Sweeping Day is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. It started from the Zhou Dynasty with a history of more than 2,500 years. The Tomb Seeping Day is an important occasion for people to sweep the tombs and offer sacrifices to their ancestors. When visiting tombs, people carry wine, food, fruits and paper money. They put the food in front of the tombs, add some fresh soil to the tombs, burn paper money, kneel down in prayer and worship their ancestors, and finally eat up the food and drink the wine before going back home. Apart from sweeping the tombs, people also take part in a variety of activities, such as playing on a swing, flying kites, etc. 23. 科举制(imperial examination system)是中国古代朝廷(imperial government)选拔官员的 制度。它始于隋朝(the Sui Dynasty) ,历时 1300 多年直到清朝(the Qing Dynasty) 。科举考试在中 国古代教育史上长期占有主导地位。在古代社会,因为阶级意识很强,下层民众很少有机会在朝廷 谋职。 “科举”评价体系让来自贫困家庭的孩子有机会参加政府考试,并为家庭带来荣誉。科举制 被证明是比它之前的任何考试制度都更公平、影响更深远。 The imperial examination system is the one that the imperial government adopted to select officials in ancient China. It was first put into practice in the Sui Dynasty and lasted more than 1,300 years until the Qing Dynasty, enjoying a long and dominant position in the history of ancient Chinese education. In the ancient society, because of the strong class consciousness, few people from lower classes had the chance to get any position in the government. The ―Keju‖ evaluation system offered opportunities to children from poor families to attend the government exams and bring honor to their families. This system proved to be fairer and more far-reaching than any other examination system existing before it. 24. 中国古建筑具有悠久的历史和辉煌的成就,是中国传统文化的重要组成部分。中国古建筑 包括宫殿、民居、寺庙和园林等。它们具有明显的地域性、民族性与时代性。中国古建筑不仅仅是 一门技术科学, 同时也吸收了中国绘画和雕刻 (carving) 等传统艺术。 北京故宫 (the Forbidden City) 就是其中的典型代表。它是规模最大、最精美、保存最完整的古建筑群。 As an important part of Chinese traditional culture, Chinese ancient architectures bears a long history and splendid achievements. Chinese ancient architecture includes palaces, dwelling houses, temples, gardens, and so on. They are of distinctive characteristics in different regions, ethnic groups, and times. More than a technical science, Chinese ancient architecture absorbs traditional arts, including Chinese painting and carving, etc. The Forbidden City in Beijing is a representative, which is the largest, finest and best-preserved ancient architecture complex. 25. 太极拳(Taijiquan)是中华民族的宝贵财富,是东方文化的重要组成部分。作为中国古老的 武术(martial arts)之一,其主要功能是武术攻防、锻炼身体和修身养性(self-cultivation) 。太极拳 在演练时,动作柔缓,但能以突然爆发的力量将对手击退。经过几个世纪的发展,太极拳已发展为 多个分支,每个分支都有自己的特点。如今,太极拳在中国乃至世界受到越来越多人欢迎。 Taijiquan is precious wealth of Chinese nation and an important part of the eastern culture. As one of the ancient martial arts in China, it is usually used for attacking and defending, body building and self-cultivation. When Taijiquan is being practiced, the movements are gentle and slow, which, however, can defeat the opponent with sudden strength. Through centuries of development, Taijiquan has developed into several branches, and every one has its features. Now Taijiquan has become increasingly popular both in China and abroad. 26. 算盘(abacus)是中国古代的一项伟大发明。在古代,人们用小木棍进行计算。随着社会的 发展,需要计算的数目越来越大,用小木棍已无法完成计算。于是,人们发明了更为高级的计算工
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具-算盘。由于算盘操作方便、简单易学,因此在中国被广泛使用。在算盘的基础上,有人发展了珠 心算(mental abacus) ,即把算盘的形象描绘再脑海中来计算数字。 The abacus is a great invention in ancient China. In the old times, people used small rods to count. With the social development, numbers needed to calculate were increasingly greater, which made it impossible for the rods to fulfill the task. Thus, people invented a more advanced calculating device-the abacus. Since it was convenient to use and easy to learn, the abacus was widely used in China. On the basis of the abacus, there came the mental abacus with the image of an abacus in mind to calculate the figures. 27. 昆曲(Kunqu)是中国最古老的戏曲剧种之一,起源于元朝末年(the late Yuan Dynasty)江 苏昆山地区。昆曲得表演有它独特的体系和风格。它最大的特点就是感情丰富,歌唱和舞蹈巧妙结 合。许多昆曲剧目都是歌颂浪漫的古代爱情故事。昆曲代表作《牡丹亭》 (the Peony Pavilion)是中 国戏曲文学中的不朽之作。如今人们对保护传统文化的呼吁将有助于昆曲重新走向繁荣。 Kunqu is one of the oldest Chinese operas. It was born in Kunshan area, Jiangsu Province. The performance of Kunqu has its unique system and style. It is most characterized by its rich emotion and skillful combination of singing and dancing. Many works of Kunqu praise the romantic ancient love stories. The Peony Pavilion, the representative work of Kunqu, is ever lasting in Chinese drama literature. Now, the appeal for protecting traditional culture would help Kunqu back to its prosperity again. 28. 《史记》 (Record of the Grand Historian) 是一部伟大的史学著作, 为西汉时期 (the Western Han Dynasty)司马迁所著。 《史记》记载了我国从黄帝(Yellow Emperor)到西汉时期长达 3000 年左右 的历史。 《史记》全书共 52 万字,取材广泛,内容丰富。特别值得一提的是,司马迁不仅参考皇家 的历史纪录,还走遍全国求证信息的真伪。 《史记》也是一部优秀的文学著作,对中国后世文学有 着深远的影响。 Written by Sima Qian in the Western Han Dynasty, Records of the Grand Historian is a great historical work. It records Chinese history of about 3,000 years from the time of Yellow Emperor to his own time. With a total of 520 thousand Chinese characters, the book includes a wide range of materials and is rich in contents. What is particularly worth mentioning is that Sima Qian not only referred to imperial historical records, but also travelled around China to verify the information. Records of the Grand Historian is also an excellent literary work, exerting a far-reaching influence on Chinese literature of later generations. 29. 道教(Taoism)是中国土生土长的宗教,已经影响了中国人两千多年。道教有三个起源, 最古老的是“黄帝” (Yellow Emperor)传说。第二个来源是庄子的作品。但最著名的是老子的《道 德经》 。道家强调自由、自然、修身养性(self-cultivation) ,甚至追求永生(immortality) 。道教对中 国文化的许多领域都产生了深刻而持久的影响,包括艺术、哲学、医学和美食,并在东亚地区广泛 流传。 Taoism is a Chinese native religion that has shaped Chinese life for more than 2,000 years. There are three sources of Taoism’s origin, with the oldest being the legend of ―Yellow Emperor‖. The second source is Zhuangzi’s works, while the most famous one is Laozi’s Dao De Jing. Taoism emphasizes freedom, nature, self-cultivation and even pursues immortality. Taoism has had a deep and lasting influence in many fields of Chinese culture, including the arts, philosophy, medicine, and cuisine. It also spread widely throughout East Asia.

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30. 甲骨文(oracle bone script)是中国现存最早的文字。这些刻在龟甲(tortoise shell)或兽骨 上的文字已相当成熟。没认识甲骨文之前,人们都把这些甲骨当作药材。清代(the Qing Dynasty) 学者王懿荣偶然发现了这些龟甲和兽骨。在仔细研究之后,他认为这些刻在甲骨上的符号是 3000 多年前商代(the Shang Dynasty)的文字。从这些文字中可以大致了解商代统治者的日常生活情况。 甲骨文为研究汉字起源提供了重要的资料。 The oracle bone script is the earliest existing characters in China. These characters carved on tortoise shells or animal bones are quite mature. Before recognizing the oracle bone script, people regarded the shells and bones as medical materials. Accidently, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, Wang Yirong, discovered these tortoise shells and animal bones. After careful study, he believed that these signs were the characters of the Shang Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago. From these characters, people can roughly understand the daily life of the rulers at that time. The oracle bone script provides important materials for research into the origin of Chinese characters. 31. 庙会( temple fair )是中国一种传统的节日活动。它源于古代人们的祭祀仪式( sacrificial ceremony) ,逐渐演变成物品交流的集市和文化表演的场所。庙会一般在寺庙里或寺庙附近的空地 上举行。虽然各地举办庙会的日子有所不同,但活动内容都差不多。老百姓从四面八方赶来,买卖 物品、观看表演、品尝小吃。近几年来,庙会已经成为人们欣赏民间艺术和体验传统文化的首选之 地。 The temple fair is a kind of traditional festival activity on China. It originated from the ancient sacrificial ceremonies and gradually evolved into a marketplace for people to exchange articles and a place for cultural performance. The temple fair is usually held on the open ground in or near a temple. Although temple fairs in different places are held on various dates, their activities are alike. People come form far and wide to the temple fair to buy and sell goods, watch performances and taste snacks. In recent years, temple fairs have become a priority place for people to appreciate folk arts and experience traditional culture. 32.成吉思汗(Genghis Khan) ,原名铁木真(Temujin) , 出生于 1162 年。他是中国史和世界史 上杰出的政治家和军事家(strategist) 。1206 年春天,成吉思汗建立大蒙古国(Mongol Empire) 。此 后他多次发动战争以征服其他国家。 他带领的军队占领了许多地方, 并给这些地域造成了巨大破坏。 成吉思汗是著名的历史人物,同时又是最有争议的人物之一。几百年来,中外学者从不同角度研究 成吉思汗的功过是非。 Genghis Khan, originally named Temujin, was born in 1162. He is an outstanding politician and strategist in both Chinese history and world history. In the spring of 1206, Genghis Khan established the Mongol Empire. After that he had launched many wars in order to conquer other countries. His army had captured many places, to which serious damage was also brought. Genghis Khan is not only a famous figure in history, but also one of the most controversial characters. For hundred of years, scholars at home and overseas have been studying Genghis Khan on his rights and wrongs from various angles. 33.孙武是春秋末期 (the late Spring and Autumn Period) 杰出的军事家 (strategist) 。 他所著的 《孙 子兵法》 (Sun Zi’s Art of War)是中国古代最著名的兵书。 《孙子兵法》现存 13 篇,共 6000 字。 在这不长的篇幅中,孙武全面论述了自己对战争的看法,提出了诸如知己知彼、集中优势兵力打败 敌人等许多作战思想。 《孙子兵法》已被译为多种文字,在世界上也享有很高的声誉。 Sun Wu was an outstanding strategist in the late Spring and Autumn Period. His work, Sun Zi’s Art of War, was the most famous work of military science in ancient China, also the earliest one existing in
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the world. Sun Zi’s Art of War consists of 13 chapters, amounting to 6,000 Chinese characters. In this limited space, Sun Wu elaborated his wide-ranging views on war. He put forward many military philosophies, such as knowing yourself and knowing your enemy, and concentrating a superior force to thoroughly defeat the enemy. Sun Zi’s Art of War gas been translated into many different languages and enjoys a high international reputation. 34.中国的重阳节(Double Ninth Festival)由来已久。人们普遍认为重阳节源于“辟邪” (warding off evil) 。这一天的活动,包括登山、赏菊(chrysanthemum) 、喝菊花酒等。随着时间的推移,它变 成了一个庆祝的节日。这天,家人团聚在一起,也会纪念家族的祖先。1989 年,我国把这一天定为 老人节(Seniors’ Day) ,表达我们对老人的尊敬与爱戴,使这个节日在新的历史时期继续发挥文 化传承的作用。 The Double Ninth Day in China has a long history. It is widely believed that the festival came from the activities of ―warding off evil,‖ on that day, people’s activities usually including climbing hills, appreciating chrysanthemums and drinking wine. Over time it became a day of celebration. On this day, people come together for family reunion and remember their ancestors. In 1989, the Chinese government made this day Seniors’ Day to show respect and love to the elder people. This festival, therefore, continues to play a role in carrying on culture in the new era. 35.为了让人们更好地记住年份,我们的祖先用 12 只动物来代表年份,即“十二生肖” (Chinese Zodiac) 。每一年有一种动物代表,每隔 12 年进行一个循环,从鼠开始,以猪结尾。每一种动物还 有其独特的文化内涵(cultural connotation) 。例如,牛年出生的人据说“勤奋、冷静、可靠” ,虎年 出生的人则“强大、勇敢、但又急躁” 。十二生肖在亚洲的其他国家,如韩国和日本也很流行。 In order to remember the years more easily, our ancestors used twelve animals to represent the years, which is called the ―Chinese Zodiac‖. Every year is represented by an animal and every 12 years comes in a circle beginning with Rat and ending with Pig. Each animal has its unique cultural connotations. For example, a person born in the Year of Ox is said to be hard working, calm, and reliable, while the person born in the Year of Tiger is powerful, brave, and impatient. The Chinese Zodiac remains popular as well in other Asian countries, such as Korea and Japan. 36.风水(Fengshui)是使人与环境达到和谐的艺术,是中国哲学在环境上的反映。人们相信自 然环境影响人的命运。他们期望通过调整建筑的设计与布局,达到人与环境和谐,并使人得益于环 境。风水也有迷信(superstitious)的一面。如今风水在中国城市的年轻人中已不太时兴,但在中国 的农村、香港、台湾地区以及新加坡和马来西亚,风水依然流行。 Fengshui, an art of harmonizing people with their environment, is the reflection of Chinese philosophy in environment. People believe that the natural environment affects people’s fortunes. They expect to achieve harmony with the environment, and benefit from it through adjusting the design and layout of their houses. Fengshui is also of superstition on its side. Nowadays it is not much popular with young Chinese in the cities, but it is still welcomed in Chinese rural areas, Hong Kong and Taiwan as well as countries like Singapore and Malaysia. 37.京杭大运河(the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal)是中国古代劳动人民创造的一项伟大工程。 有着 2500 多年历史的大运河是世界上最古老、 工程最大、 里程最长的运河。 春秋时期 (the Spring and Autumn Period) ,吴国(the State of Wu)开凿了从扬州到淮安的运河。后来历经几个朝代的翻修扩 建,才形成现今的京杭大运河。运河北通北京南至杭州,全长约 1794 公里。它对中国南北地区经 济、文化发展与交流起了巨大作用。
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The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is a great project created by working people in ancient China. With a history of more than 2,500 years, it is the longest, largest, and the most ancient canal in the world. In the Spring and Autumn Period, the State of Wu dug a canal from Yangzhou to Huai’an. Later on, the canal had been successively restored and expanded in several dynasties to the existing Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The Grand Canal reached Beijing in the north and extended to Hangzhou in the south with a length of 1,794 km. It has been playing a very important role in promoting the economic and cultural developments and exchanges between the north and the south areas in China.

38.舞狮(lion dance)是中国的一种传统舞蹈形式,在重大节日和隆重活动中经常可以看到。舞 狮起源于三国时期 (the Three Kingdoms Period) , 至今已有 1000 多年的历史。 舞狮一般由两人表演, 一人舞狮头,另一人舞狮身和狮尾。表演者在锣鼓(gongs and drums)音乐的伴奏下,表演狮子的 各种动作。舞狮随着华人移居海外而闻名世界,尤其是在东南亚国家,但每一个国家和地区都有自 己的舞狮风格。 Lion dance is a form of traditional dance in China, which can be often seen in important festivals and great events. With a history of over 1,000 years, lion dance can date back to the Three Kingdoms Period. There are usually two performers in lion dance, one handling the lion’s head, and the other playing the body and the tail. They perform all kinds of lion’s movements to the music played by gongs and drums. As the Chinese migrants abroad, lion dance is famous all over the world, especially in Southeast Asian countries; however, each country and region has its own dancing style. 39.在中国, 风筝具有独特的艺术价值。 风筝首先出现在春秋时期 (the Spring and Autumn Period) 的战争中。随着时代的发展,现在风筝已经成为一项世界性的体育和休闲活动。风筝的主要材料为 竹子和纸,并加以各种绘画来装饰。风筝具有各种形状,如昆虫、金鱼(goldfish)和云彩等,大的 可达数百平方米,最小的甚至可以放在信封里。这些富有魅力的风筝反映了手工艺人(craftsman) 的高超技艺。 The kite is considered to have unique artistic value in China. First appeared in the wars of the Spring and Autumn Period, now with the development of times, it has become a worldwide sport and leisure activity. It is mainly made of bamboo and paper and decorated with various kinds of paintings. With different shapes such as insects, goldfish and cloud, a large kite can measure hundreds of square meters while the smallest can even be out into an envelope. These attractive kites show the superb skills of the craftsmen. 40.很多人将烟花(fireworks)和节庆联系起来。放烟花是是中国庆祝新年重要的一部分。在中 国传统文化中,烟花被用以驱赶邪恶的灵魂。烟花在中国的发展历史悠久,其发明可以追溯到 2000 年前。 传说有个厨师在烹饪时偶然弄出了有趣的火花, 通过数代人的努力, 最终把烟花发展了起来。 如今,由于燃放烟花污染环境,环保烟花的研究和开发已经展开。 Many people associate fireworks with festivals and celebrations. Fireworks are an important part of Chinese New Year celebration. In traditional Chinese culture, fireworks are used to drive away evil spirits. The development of fireworks in China is a long story dating back to more than 2,000years ago. A legend tells of a cook who accidentally produced an interesting flame when cooking. Finally fireworks were developed through the efforts of generations of Chinese people. Nowadays, because fireworks pollute the environment, the research and development of environmentally friendly fireworks are on the go.
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41.年画(New Year Picture)是中国特有的一种绘画体裁。贴年画的习俗源于在房子的大门上贴 门神(Door Gods)的传统。传统年画以精美的木刻(block print)和鲜艳的色彩闻名。主题主要是 花鸟、可爱的婴儿、神话传说与历史故事等,表达人们祈望丰收的愿望和对幸福生活的憧憬。随着 印刷技术的提高,制作年画的材料也不断增多。这种传统的艺术形式如今仍充满生机,深受人们喜 爱。 New Year Picture is a unique type of painting in China. The custom of pasting New Year Pictures came from the tradition of pasting Door Gods on the external doors of houses. The traditional New Year Pictures are well-known for their elaborate block print and bright colors. Their subjects are mainly flowers and birds, lovely babies, myths and legends, and historical stories, etc., conveying people’s wishes for a good harvest and a happy life. With the improvement of printing technologies, there are more and more new materials for New Year Pictures. This traditional artistic form is still full of vigor today and deeply loved by people. 42.灯笼(lantern)是中国传统的手工艺品(handicraft) ,是中国的象征。它源于汉代(the Han Dynasty) ,在唐宋时期(the Tang and Song Dynasties)最为繁盛。起初,人们在门口悬挂灯笼只是 用来辟邪。后来在节假日时也悬挂灯笼以增添喜庆的气氛。灯笼的样式很多,除了圆形和方形外, 还有花、鸟、鱼的形状,通常以纸和丝绸为主要制作原料。每年的元宵节(the Lantern Festival) , 全国各地的人们制作出漂亮的灯笼来欢庆节日。 Lantern, a symbol of China, is a Chinese traditional handicraft. In came into being in the Han Dynasty, and its popularity peaked in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Originally, people hang the lanterns in front of their doors only to drive away evil spirits. Later, lanterns are also hung on holidays and festivals to add joyous atmosphere. The designs of lanterns are various. Apart from round and square, the lanterns can be shaped into flowers, birds, and fish, and they are mainly made of paper and silk. On Lantern Festivals, people all over the country make beautiful lanterns to celebrate the festival. 43.中国的茶文化可以追溯到周朝(the Zhou Dynasty) ,约有 4000 年的历史。 “一日三餐茶饭” 成为中国人的一种日常习惯。有客人来访时,通常递上的也是一杯茶。饮茶在中国既是一种艺术也 是一门学问。在中国的许多地方,沏茶的方法很复杂。中国的茶叶以独特的色、香、味、形而闻名 于世。在中国各种茶叶中,最著名的是绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶(oolong tea)和花茶(scented tea) 。 With a history of 4,000 years, tea culture in China can be traced back to the Zhou Dynasty. It is a daily habit for the Chinese to have meals and drink tea three times a day. When guests come, it is often a cup of tea that the host serves. Tea-drinking is both an art and learning in China. In many places of China, the way of making tea is very complicated. Chinese tea leaf is famous throughout the world for its unique color, fragrance, taste and appearance. Among the various kinds of Chinese tea, the most famous are green tea, black tea, oolong tea and scented tea.

44.吉利数字(auspicious number)在中国文化里一直起着重要的作用。不少人认为数字 6、8、9 吉利,因为它们跟一些具有积极含义的汉字发音相同或相近。如 8 与“发”的发音相似,象征着繁 荣和财富; 9与 “久” 发音一样, 意为 “长长久久” 。 因此, 很多人在选择手机号码和车牌号码 (license plate number)时会不惜花钱去选取这些数字。相反,没人会选 4,因为 4 与“死”发音一致,是不 吉利的数字(inauspicious number) 。 Auspicious numbers have long played an important part in Chinese culture. Many people
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consider numbers six, eight and nine as the auspicious ones because they have the same or similar sounds to the Chinese characters of positive meanings. For example, the pronunciation of the number―eight‖is similar to the character―fa‖ symbolizing prosperity and wealth. The number―nine‖ has the same pronunciation with the character―jiu‖ which means ―long lasting‖. Therefore, many people are willing to pay out for these numbers to be included in their phone numbers and license plate numbers. On the contrary, no one will choose the number 4 because it bears the same pronunciation with the character―si‖ (die) and is considered to be inauspicious number. 45.中国古代的四种发明是对中国乃至世界都具有重大影响的四种发明。这四种发明是指南针, 火药,造纸和印刷。这四种发明对推动世界文明发挥了重要作用。但可惜的是西方人用火药制造武 器而古代中国人则用于生产烟花。现在人们意识到科技只有用于发展生产,社会才能进步。 The four great inventions of ancient China are four inventions that had an enormous impact on the development of Chinese and a far- ranging global impact .They are: the Compass, Gun powder, Papermaking and Printing. These four inventions played a major role in advancing the world civilization. But it is pitiful that the western people used gun powder to produce the arms, while ancient Chinese used it to make fireworks. Now people have realized that only when science and technology is used in developing the production will the society advance. 46.在中国,喝茶是一种仪式(ritual),一种精致品味(refined taste)的展示。人们在饮茶的同时, 也领略着品茶的情趣之意。喝茶聊天是中国人中最流行的打发时间的方式。过去,他们是以进有名 的茶馆而开始一天的生活的。中国的茶馆相当于法国的咖啡馆和英国的酒馆。人们到这里不仅是为 了喝茶,也是为了议论当地的新闻或就政治话题进行激烈的争论。 Tea drinking in china is a ritual and a demonstration of the refined taste. While dinking tea, people also take delight in the essence of tea itself. Chatting over a pot of tea is a very popular way of pastime among Chinese. In the past, they would start the day with a visit to a well-known teahouse. Chinese teahouse would be the equivalent of French cafes and English pubs. People come here not just for tea, but also to discuss local news or to have furious political debates. 47.在媒介文化高度发展的今天,年轻人接触外来文化的方式越来越多。根据中国互联网信息中 心(CNNIC)的统计,截止到 2004 年 6 月 30 日,中国上网用户总数达到 8700 万人,其中多数是 年轻人。现代社会的开放性和多样性使得年轻人不得不在西方文化的冲击中寻找自己的文化定位。 实际上,现在很多年轻人在很多生活方式上已经很难分清它是来自西方还是东方。 In the era of highly developed media culture, young people have more contact than ever with foreign culture. According to CNNIC statistics, by June 30,2004, china had had 87 million Iinternet users, most of which are young people. Coupled with openness and diversity of modern society, young Chinese people now have to seek their culture orientation within the ambit of western culture. On the surface, many aspects of the western or eastern lifestyle are so blended that many young people find it difficult to make those lifestyle distinguishable. 48.过去的七年,中国的房地产(real estate)业经历了前所未有的高速增长。对于那些月薪较低却 渴望在大城市 拥有一套属于自己的体面、舒适的栖身之所的人来说, 高昂的房价是他们无法承受的 负担。鉴于这一状况,政府近来采取了一系列的措施来防止房价过快增长,包括提高利率及增加房 产税等。目前,这些措施在部分城市已经 取得了初步的成效。 In the past seven years,China’s realestate industry has developed in a record high speed. For those wh
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o earn less but are eager to own a decent and comfortable place of their own in a big city, the high housing price is a heavy burden that they cannot afford. For this reason, the government has taken a series of meas ures to prevent the housing price from rising too fast, including raising interest rates and increasing taxes o n real estate etc. Presently, these measures have achieved initial effects in some cities. 49.中国新年是中国最重要的传统节日,在中国也被称为春节。新年的庆祝活动从除夕开始一直 延续到元宵节(the Lantern Festival),即从农历(lunar calendar)最后一个月的最后一天至新年第一个月 的第十五天。各地欢 度春节的习俗和传统有很大差异,但通常每个家庭都会在除夕夜团聚,一起吃 年夜饭。为驱厄运、迎好运,家家户户都会进行大扫除。人们还会在门上粘贴红色的对联(couplets), 对联的主题为健康、发财和好运。其他的活动还有放鞭炮、发红包和探亲访友等。 Chinese New Year is the most important traditional Chinese holiday. In China, it is also known as the Spring Festival. New Year celebrations run from Chinese New Year’s Eve, the last day of the last month o f the lunar calendar, to the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month. Customs and traditions conc erning the celebration of the Chinese New Year varywidely from place to place. However, New Year’ s Ev e is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner. It is also traditional fo r every family to thoroughly clean the house in order to sweep away ill fortune and to bring in good luck. And doors will be decorated with red couplets with themes of health, wealth and good luck. Other activitie s include lighting firecrackers, giving money in red envelopes, and visiting relatives and friends.

第二部分 英译汉
1、Dumplings are one of the Chinese people’s favorite traditional dishes. According to an ancient Chinese legend, dumplings were first made by the medical saint---Zhang Zhongjing. There are three steps involved in making dumplings: 1) make dumpling wrappers out of dumpling flour; 2) prepare the dumpling stuffing; 3) make dumplings and boil them. With thin and elastic dough skin, fresh and tender stuffing, delicious taste, and unique shapes, dumplings are worth eating hundreds of times. There’s an old saying that claims, ―Nothing could be more delicious than dumplings‖. During the Spring Festival and other holidays, or when treating relatives and friends, Chinese people like to follow the auspicious custom of eating dumplings. To Chinese people who show high reverence for family love, having dumplings at the moment the old year is replaced by the new is an essential part of bidding farewell to the old and ushering in the new year. 饺子是深受中国人民喜爱的传统食品。 相传为古代医圣张仲景发明。饺子的制作是包括: 1) 擀皮、2) 备馅、3) 包馅水煮三个步骤。其特点是皮薄馅嫩,味道鲜美,形状独特,百食不厌。 民间有―好吃不过饺子‖的俗语。中国人接亲待客、逢年过节都有包饺子吃的习俗,寓意吉利。对崇 尚亲情的中国人来说,―更岁交子‖吃饺子,更是欢度除夕、辞旧迎新必不可少的内容。 2、Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In accordance with the ―main and collateral channels‖ theory in TCM, the purpose of acupuncture is to dredge the channel and regulate qi and blood, so as to keep the body’s yin and yang balanced and achieve reconciliation between the internal organs. It features in traditional Chinese medicine that ―internal diseases are to be treated with external therapy‖. The main therapy of acupuncture involves using needles to pierce certain acupoints of the patient’s body, or adopting moxibustion to stimulate the patient’s acupoints so as to stimulate the channels and relieve pain. With its unique advantages, acupuncture has been handed down generation after generation and has now spread all over the world. Nowadays, acupuncture, along with Chinese food, kung
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fu (otherwise known as Chinese martial arts), and traditional Chinese medicine, has been internationally hailed as one of the ―four new national treasures.‖ 针灸是中医学的重要组成部分。按照中医的经络理论,针灸疗法主要是通过疏通经络、调和气 血,来达到阴阳归于平衡,使脏腑趋于调和之目的。其特点是―内病外治‖。主要疗法是用针刺入病 人身体的一定穴位,或用艾火的温热刺激烧灼病人的穴位,以达到刺激经络。治疗病痛的目的。针 灸以其独特的优势,流传至今并传播到了世界,与中餐、功夫、中药一起被海外誉为中国的―新四 大国粹‖。 3、Chinese Kung Fu Chinese kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defence in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese king fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both ―the mean and harmony‖ and ―cultivating qi‖ (otherwise known as nourishing one’s spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It contains the ancient great thinkers’ pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Taijiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, kooks, prongs and so on. 中国功夫即中国武术,是将技击寓于搏斗和套路运动之中的中国传统体育项目,承载着丰富的 中国民族传统文化。其核心思想是儒家的中和养气之说,同时兼容了道家、释家的思想。中国武术 源远流长、流派林立、拳种繁多,讲究刚柔并济、内外兼修,蕴含着先哲们对生命和宇宙的参悟。 后世所称十八般武艺,主要指:徒手拳艺,如太极拳、形意拳、八卦掌等;器械功夫,如刀枪剑戟、 斧钺钩叉等。 4、Chinese characters were initially meant to be simple pictures used to help people remember things. After a long period of development, it finally became a unique character system that embodies phonetic sound, image, idea, and rhyme at the same time. The writing system, which was extremely advanced in ancient times, began with inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells, and these are regarded as the original forms of Chinese characters. Afterwards, Chinese characters went through numerous calligraphic styles: bronze inscriptions, official script, regular script, cursive script, running script, etc. Chinese characters are usually round outside and square inside, which is rooted in ancient Chinese beliefs of an orbicular sky and a rectangular Earth. The five basic strokes of Chinese characters are ―---― (the horizontal stroke) ―│‖ (the vertical stroke), ―/‖( the left-falling stroke), ―\‖ (the right-falling stroke), and ―乙‖ (the turning stroke). 汉字是从原始人用以记事的简单图画,经过不断演变发展最终成为一种兼具音、形、意韵的独 特文字。现存中国古代最早成熟的文字是甲骨文,被认为是现代汉字的初形。此后,汉字又经历了 金文、隶书、楷书、草书、行书等不同的阶段。汉字结构―外圆内方―, 源于古人‖天圆地方―的观念。 汉字有五种基本笔画,即:横、竖、撇、捺、折。 5、Chinese Chopsticks The Chinese way of eating with chopsticks is unique in the world. The recorded history of chopsticks started more than three thousand years ago. Chopsticks were named zhu in ancient Chinese. They look deceptively simple to use, but possess multi-various functions, such as clamping, turning over, lifting up, raking, stirring, scooping, poking, tearing, and so on. Chopsticks were taken as an auspicious mascot by ordinary people in ancient China. For example, the partial tone of
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chopsticks is often used by people as a metaphor at weddings to indicate a blessing or benediction for the couple to have a baby soon. Unlike using a knife and fork or one’s own hands, a pair of chopsticks also implies the meaning of ―Harmony is what matters‖. Chopsticks are highly praised by Westerners as a hallmark of ancient oriental civilization. 中国人使用筷子就餐的方式在世界上独树一帜。有史记载用 筷的历史已有三千多年。筷子古时称为箸,它看似简单,但却同时具有夹、拨、挑、扒、拌、撮、 戳、撕等多种功能。中国民间视筷子为吉祥之物,如婚俗中将筷子隐喻为快生贵子的祝福等。与使 用刀叉以及手抓的 方式不同,成双结对的筷子含有―和为贵―的意蕴。西方人赞誉筷子是古老的东 方文明。 6、Chinese Seal A seal can also be defined as a stamp. Both the Chinese official and private seal of various dynasties have different titles, such as stamp, zhu note, contract, fu, lease and others. The seals used by the emperors of ancient China were called xi, yin, bao, etc. According to historical records, seals were widely used during the Warring States Period (475BC-221BC). The making of a seal is to engrave fonts, such as seal characters and official script and so on; or images in the form of intaglio and embossment into the seal, basically shaped as round or square. Covered with a vermilion overlay, the Chinese seal is not only used in daily life, but it is also used to represent signatures on paintings and calligraphies. It is gradually becoming one of China’s unique artworks. 印章就是图章。中国历代官、私所用的印章有印信、朱记、合同、符、契等等不同的称谓,而 帝王所用的印章古时称玺、印、宝、章等。据史料记载,印章在战国时代已普遍使用。印章的制作 是将篆隶等字体、图像用阴、阳的形式雕刻而成,形状以圆、方为主。印章用朱色 钤盖,除日 常应用外,又多用于书画题识,逐渐成为中国特有的艺术形式之一。 7、Chinese Era The Chinese era is the symbol that the Chinese calendar uses for recording and naming years. The ten Heavenly Stems are: jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, gui. The twelve Earthly Branches are: zi.chou, yin, mou, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai. After observing the lunar month, the ancients found that the moon always wazes and wanes roughly 12 times a year, and two lunar months account for about 60 days, so the order of the ten Heavenly Stems and the order of the twelve Earthly Branches are properly matched in turn. In terms of recording date, 60 years is considered to be a full time cycle. The Chinese era chronology was first invented in ancient times and is still in use now. according to the chronology of the ―ten Heavenly Stems,‖ 2011 is the year of ―the seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems‖ and ― the fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches‖. 天干地支是中国历法中用以记录和命名年岁的方法。十天干为:甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、已、庚、 辛、壬、癸;十二地支为:子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戊、亥。古人观测朔望月, 发现月亮圆缺 12 次大体上是一年的天数,而两个朔望月约是 60 天。古人以十天干与十二地支的顺 序依次相配,记录不同年份,60 年为一个轮回。干支纪年法从古沿用至今。按干支纪年法,2011 年便是辛卯年。 C 8 、 hinese Beijing Opera Praised as ―Oriental Opera‖, Beijing Opera is a genuine national quintessence of China. It originated from many kinds of ancient local operas, especially huiban in southern China. At the end of the 19th Century, Beijing Opera evolved and took shape, becoming the greatest kind of opera in China. Beijing Opera is a blend of performing arts---song, speech, performance, acrobatix fighting and dance. Beijing Opera portrays and narrates the plot and characters through stylized acting. The main types of roles in Beijing Opera are sheng(male), dan (young female), jing (painted face, male), and chou( clown, male or female).

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京剧被誉为―东方歌剧‖, 是地道的中国国粹。它起源于中国多种古老的地方戏剧,特别是南方 的―徽班‖。到了 19 世纪末,京剧形成并成为中国最大的戏曲剧种。京剧是综合性表演艺术,集唱 (歌唱) 、念(念白) 、做(表演) 、打(武) 、舞(舞蹈)为一体,通过程式化的表演手段,叙述故 事,刻画人物。角色主要分生(男性) 、旦(女性) 、净(男性) 、丑(男性女性皆有)四大行当。 9、Chinese Taoism Taoism first originated in China. The founder of Taoism is Laozi, a philosopher and thinker who lived in the late Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC). Tao Te Ching whose authorship has been attributed to Laozi, is considered to be the main Taoist classic. Taoism advocates the value of a human being’s life, recommends the discarding of all desires and worries from one’s mind, and encourages the cultivation of moral character and the nourishment of human nature. The following is an example of Laozi’s golden saying: The way that can be told of is not an unvarying way; The names that can be named are not unvarying names. It was from the nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang; The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind. Truly, only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the secret essences; He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the outcomes. 道教是中国土生土长长的宗教。创始人是春秋末期的哲学家、思想家老子。道教以老子所著的 《道德经》为主要经典。道教主张―重人贵生‖。崇尚清静无为,修身养性。―道可道,非常道。名可 名,非常名。无名天地之始;有名万物之母。故常无,欲以观其妙;常有,欲以观其徼‖便是老子 的至理名言。 10 、 Chinese Idioms Chinese idioms refer to comprehensive and integrated fixed phrases and expressions. Idioms are established and accepted by constant usage and common practice. An idiom is a language unit that is larger than a word, but has the same grammatical function as a word. Most Chinese idioms consist of four characters. For example, ziqiangbuxi ( make unremitting efforts to improve oneself), qingchuyulan(bluer than indigo), and houjibofa (success comes with time and effort). Idioms are extrated from folk proverbs, ancient works of literature, poems, fables, allusions, and well-known sayings. Idioms are a part of the Chinese language that are concise and have great vitality. 中国成语是汉语中意义完整的表示一般概念的固定词组或短语。―成语‖中的―成‖既是约定俗成。 成语是比词大而语法功能又相当于词的语言单位。绝大多数的中国成语由四个汉字组成,例如:自 强不息、青出于蓝、厚积薄发。成语主要从民间谚语、古代文学作品、诗歌、寓言、典故、名言警 句等方面提炼而成,是汉语语言中精炼而又富有生命力的一部分。 Chinese silk 11、China is the home of silk. Mulberry planting, sericulture, silk reeling and thickening are all great inventions of the ancient Chinese. As early as the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600BC-256BC), the Chinese people’s silk-weaving techniques had reached an extremely high level. During the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-25AD), Zhang Qian, an outstanding diplomat, travelled around central Asia and connected China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, opening up a new era of Sino-foreign trade, exchange and communication. From then on, China’s silk became well known for its extraordinary quality, exquisite design and color, and abundant culture connotations. Hitherto, Chinese silk has been accepted as a symbol of Chinese culture and the emissary of oriental civilization. 中国是丝绸的故乡。栽桑、养蚕、缫丝、织绸是中国古代人民的伟大发明。商周时期丝绸的生 产技术就已发展到相当高的水平。西汉时张骞通西域,把中原与波斯湾、地中海紧密联系起来,开 辟了中外交流贸易的新纪元。从此中国的丝绸以其卓越的品质、精美的花色和丰富的文化内涵闻名 于世,成为中国文化的象征。东方文明的使者。

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12、Chinese Classical Garden The Chinese classical garden is a precious treasure of our ancient Chinese architecture. It is a kind of environment art, which systematically combines artificial mountains and rivers, plants and buildings with the natural landscape. The construction standard of a Chinese classical garden is ―artificial as it is, the garden must look ingenious and natural.‖ When you go sightseeing in a Chinese classical garden, you should be able to appreciate its artistic concept which ―makes use of the natural landscape to create the real fun of mountains and rivers for viewers.‖ Of the world’s three major garden systems, the Chinese classical garden is hailed as one of the origins of the world’s garden due to its long history and abundant connotations. 中国园林是把人造的山水、植物、建筑等与自然地貌有机结合的环境艺术,是我国古代建筑艺 术的珍宝。其建造原则是―妙极自然,宛自天开‖。游赏中国古典园林,能充分领略―假自然之景,创 山水真趣‖的园林意境。在世界三大园林体系中,中国园林历史悠久、内涵丰富,被誉为世界造园 史上的渊源之一。 13、 The Four Treasures of the Study The writing brush, ink stick, ink stone, and paper were requisite treasures in the study of the scholars of ancient China, and they are often referred to as the ―Four Treasures of the Study.‖ The writing brush and ink stick have been used by the Chinese to write and paint since 5,000 years ago. In the Qin Dynasty (221BC---206BC), people already used feathers of different hardness and bamboo trunks to make brushes. During the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), man-made ink was used instead of natural ink. After paper was invented by the Chinese, bamboo slips, wooden tablets, brocade and silk, which originally functioned as writing surfaces, gradually faded out. The ink stone was first developed with the use of writing brushes and ink. After the Song Dynasty (960AD---1279AD), the ―Four Treasure of the Study‖ particularly referred to hubi, the writing brush produced in Huzhou, Zhejiang province; huimo, the ink stick produced in Huizhou, Anhui province; xuan paper, a kind of paper produced in Xuanzhou, Anhui province; and duanyan, the ink stone made in Zhaoqing, Guangdong province (Zhaoqing was earlier called Duanzhou). Indeed, the Four Treasures of the Study‖ have writtin the whole Chinese civilization, as it is. 笔墨纸砚是中国古代文人书房当中必备的宝贝,被称为―文房四宝‖。用笔墨书写绘画在中国可 追溯到五千年前。秦时已用不同硬度的毛和竹管制笔;汉代以人工制墨替代了天然墨;有了纸张以 后,简牍锦帛逐失其用;砚台则随笔墨的使用而发展。 ―文房四宝‖到宋朝以后特指湖笔、徽墨、 宣纸、端砚。可以说文房四宝书写了整个中华文明。 14、The silk road refers to a transport route connecting ancient China with central Asia, Wes Asia, Africa and the European continent. It appeared as early as the second century and was travelled mainly by silk merchants, hence come the name(因此得名,别的翻译也可能用上).the silk road began in Xi’an, passing through Gansu and Xinjiang to central Asia, West Asia and to land by the Mediterranean. the silk road functioned not only as a trade route, but also as a bridge that linked the ancient civilization of China, India, Egypt, Greece and the Mesopotamian plains, it also helped to promote the exchange of culture and technology between the east and the west . 丝绸之路是公元前 2 世纪开始出现的一条联系中国和欧亚大陆的交通要道,由于这条道路开始 时以丝绸贸易为主,所以人们便称之为丝绸之路,这条道路从中国长安开始,经甘肃新疆今儿到中 亚西亚,并一直连接到地中海(the Mediterranean)沿岸各国,丝绸之路不仅是古代通商的道路,他 更是连接古代中华文明、印度文明埃及文明希腊文明和美索不达米亚(the Mesopotamian plains)文 明的纽带,是东西文化和科学技术交流的桥梁。

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15、Westerners have linked the country of china with porcelain since a long time ago, because the technique of manufacturing porcelain was originally invented in China. Porcelain was developed on the basis of pottery. If calculated from the appearance of the primitive porcelain in the Shang Dynasty,it has a history of about 3000 years. The technique of manufacturing porcelain have developed rapidly since the Eastern Han Dynasty. Famous kilns producing porcelain products with unique features and new pottery and porcelain varieties constantly came forth in subsequent dynasties. Chinese porcelain wares are not only daily handy necessities, but also precious arts and crafts. From the Han and Tang dynasties, Chinese porcelains wares and their manufacturing techniques gradually spread all over the world. Today, China continues to create new varieties of precious porcelain. 西方人很早酒吧中国人和瓷器联系在一起,这是因为制瓷技术是中国人发明的,瓷器是从陶器 发展来的,如果从生产原始瓷器的商代算起,中国的瓷器大约有 3000 多年的历史,中国制瓷技术 从东汉依赖发展很快,各个历史时期都出现了别具特色的制作瓷器的名窑(kin)和瓷器新品种。中 国瓷器不仅是精美的日用品,也是珍贵的艺术品,自汉唐以来,中国的瓷器就大量销往国外,中国 的制瓷技术也主键传遍世界各地。 16、The Temple of Heaven, located on the east side of the front gate in the south city of Beijing,si a world-level artistic treasure. built in Ming Dynasty, it was the place where emperors of Ming and Qing dynasties worshiped. It has been converted into a park that is popular both with tourists and residents alike. The Temple of Heaven is a delightful and exquisite place to spend your time. In the morning, tourists can watch Taiji experts. The part is lively all day and into the evening with kite flyers, musicians, singers, dancers and game players. 天坛坐落于北京南城正门内东侧,是世界级的艺术珍品之一,天坛建于明朝,是明清皇帝用于 祭天(worship)的建筑,天坛现在已经成为对外开放的公园,深受游客和市民的喜爱,天坛是一个 优美而令人愉悦的地方,在这可以放松和消遣时间,公园一整天都充满生机,清晨游客可以看到行 家练太极,傍晚时人们则在天坛公园里放风筝、弹琴、跳舞或者玩游戏。

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