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Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile compounds of apricot during storage and post


Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

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Food Chemistry
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Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile compounds of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Bergeron) during storage and post-harvest maturation
Christophe Aubert *, Philippe Bony, Guillaume Chalot, Virginie Hero
Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes (Cti?), route de Mollégès, F-13210 Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The effects of storage and post-harvest maturation on the physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of Bergeron apricot were investigated during the 2007 season over two experiments. Fruits, harvested at two distinct stages of maturity, in two different experimental orchards, were stored in cold chambers at +1 °C for up to 3 weeks and then subjected to a post-harvest maturation in ripening chambers at 20 °C and 60–70% RH up to 7 days. Firmness, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and the levels of the main volatiles were determined. Physicochemical changes included a signi?cant decrease of ?rmness during both storage and post-harvest maturation whereas the levels of SS and TA were found to be very similar. The results also indicated that, whatever their initial stage of maturity at harvest, the rates of softening of apricots during storage and/or post-harvest maturation were very comparable. During post-harvest maturation, the levels of C6-compounds decreased drastically whereas, at the same time, those of esters, lactones and terpenic compounds greatly increased. During storage at 1 °C, a decrease of C6-compounds was also observed. As regards other compounds, there were some statistically different results between samples but the changes observed for lactones, esters and terpenic compounds were relatively small in comparison to those observed during post-harvest maturation at 20 °C. The results also showed that, at the end, qualitative and quantitative differences can be observed in the ‘‘ready-to-eat” apricots according to their initial stage of maturity at harvest. On average, apricots harvested at the most advanced stage of maturity have, on average, the highest levels of soluble solids and the highest levels of volatile compounds of interest. ? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 13 February 2009 Received in revised form 24 July 2009 Accepted 7 September 2009

Keywords: Apricot Volatile compounds Aroma Storage Post-harvest maturation

1. Introduction Like peach, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) originates from China and was introduced into Europe at the beginning of the Roman era (Crouzet, Etievant, & Bayonove, 1990). A member of the Rosaceae family, along with pear, strawberry, apple, cherry, and peach, apricot belongs to the subfamily Prunoideae and the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. Botanically, apricots are drupes or ‘‘stone fruits” – like peaches, plums, cherries, and mangoes – in which an outer ?eshy part (exocarp and mesocarp) surrounds a hard stone (endocarp) with a seed inside. In 2007, the world production was $3.1 Mt with $55% in Asia and $26% in Europe (http://faostat.fao.org). With $17% of the world production, Turkey is the main producer and provides $85% of the world’s dried apricot and apricot kernels. In Europe, production remains concentrated in Mediterranean-type areas, and the four main producers are Italy (6.9%), France (5.9%), Greece (3.1%), and Spain (2.8%). In France, the production is mainly located
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 490 92 05 82; fax: +33 490 92 48 87. E-mail address: aubert@cti?.fr (C. Aubert). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter ? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.018

in Languedoc-Roussillon and in Vallée du Rh?ne, and ?ve cultivars represent $65% of the production. Among them, Bergeron is the main variety and accounts for $50% of the French production (Lichou, Vaysse, Jay, & Lespinasse, 2003). It is generally agreed that apricot quality is highly dependent on the maturity stage at harvest. Nevertheless, for commercial reasons (handling, long-distance transport), Bergeron apricot is generally harvested at an early stage of maturity and stored at low temperature (1–2 °C) for up to 3 weeks. Because the formation of the volatile compounds in this fruit is a dynamic process, the typical ?avour of apricot is generally not present at harvest but develops after a ripening process. Nevertheless, this post-harvest maturation stage is rarely carried out under optimal conditions and, generally, consumers often complain about the poor quality of Bergeron, incriminating its lack of both sugar and aroma (Bruhn et al., 1991; Guillot et al., 2003; Mencarelli, Botondi, De Santis, & Vizovitis, 2006). Although the ?rst comprehensive studies on apricot volatiles were performed about 40 years ago by Tang and Jennings (1967 and 1968), little work has been done on the ?avour of this fruit in comparison to other fruits, such as apple, strawberry or peach (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007; Bitteur

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et al., 1990; Bolzoni, Careri, & Mangia, 1990; Botondi, DeSantis, Bellincontro, Vizovitis, & Mencarelli 2003; Chairote, Rodriguez, & Crouzet, 1981; Crouzet, Chairote, Rodriguez, & Seck, 1983; Crouzet et al., 1990; Genovese et al., 2004; Greger & Schieberle, 2007; Guichard, Schlich, & Issanchou, 1990; Guichard & Souty, 1988; Guillot et al., 2003; Guillot et al., 2006; Gómez & Ledbetter, 1997; Gómez, Ledbetter, & Hartsell, 1993; Issanchou, Schlich, & Guichard, 1989; Mencarelli et al., 2006; Riu-Aumatell, Castellari, Lopez-Tamames, Galassi, & Buxaderas, 2004; Takeoka, Flath, Mon, Teranishi, & Guentert, 1990; Tang & Jennings, 1967, 1968; Tóth-Marcus, Boross, Blazsó, & Kerek, 1989a, 1989b) but variability in aroma compounds has been previously reported to depend on cultivars (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007; Bitteur et al., 1990; Crouzet et al., 1983; Issanchou et al., 1989; Takeoka et al., 1990; Tóth-Marcus et al., 1989a, 1989b), maturity (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007; Gómez et al., 1993; Issanchou et al., 1989), or processing and storage conditions (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007; Bitteur et al., 1990; Chairote et al., 1981; Gómez & Ledbetter, 1997; Tóth-Marcus et al., 1989b). Concerning the variety Bergeron, most work has been done on its aroma composition (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007; Bolzoni et al., 1990; Crouzet et al., 1983; Greger & Schieberle, 2007; Issanchou et al., 1989; Tóth-Marcus et al., 1989a). The evolution of volatiles during storage and/or post-harvest maturation has, to our best knowledge, been scarcely studied (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007). The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in physicochemical properties and volatile constituents of Bergeron apricot harvested at two stages of maturity in two experimental orchards, stored at +1 °C for up to 3 weeks and then ripened under controlled conditions at 20 °C for up to 7 days. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Solvent and chemicals Analytical grade chloroform (Chromasolv Plus, 99.9%) was obtained from Sigma (Saint Quentin Fallavier, France). Ethanol (HPLC gradient grade, 99.8%) and n-propyl gallate (P98%) were from Fluka (Saint Quentin Fallavier, France). Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 (P99%), and n-alkane standards (C8–C40) were from Riedel-de Ha?n (Saint Quentin Fallavier, France). Reference compounds were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich (Saint Quentin Fallavier, France) (butyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, butanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, 6methyl-5-hepten-2-one, benzaldehyde, linalool, a-terpineol, coctalactone, c-nonalactone, and c-decalactone), Interchim (Montlu?on, France) (c-hexalactone, d-octalactone, d-decalactone, and c-dodecalactone), and Fluka (acetic acid, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1ol, and c-jasmolactone). 2-Octanol (98%) was from Sigma (Saint Quentin Fallavier, France). Deionized water (0.050 lS cm?1), used in all experiments, was obtained from Milli-Q system (Millipore, Molsheim, France). 2.2. Samples Apricots (P. armeniaca L. cv. Bergeron), provided by the Groupement d’Intérêt Economique (GIE) of Tain l’Hermitage (France), were collected in July 2007, in two experimental orchards, namely Torras (experiment 1) and Gaec du Bergeron (experiment 2), located in Larnage (Dr?me, France). In both experiments, the fruits were harvested at two stages of maturity, respectively, 3 and 5, determined by the measurement of the external colour of the skin, using the Cti? apricot colour chart, that provides 10 shades from 1 (green) to 10 (red-orange). Fruits ($150 kg for each experiment) were hand-picked and immediately transported to the laboratory.

Healthy fruits were then immediately selected on the basis of skin colour, uniformity and size, and divided into two batches according to their maturity stage. For each maturity stage, 60 kg-batches of apricot ($900 fruits) were divided into sub-samples of 10 fruits and placed in trays. Physicochemical measurements and analyses of volatiles were performed on apricots after a period of storage at +1 °C for up to 3 weeks (0, 7, 14 and 21 days), followed by a period of maturation at 20 °C and $70% RH for up to one week (0, 48, 72, and 168 h). All measurements were performed in triplicate (3 replications of 10 fruits). 2.3. Firmness determination Firmness was determined on two opposite sides of apricots (N = 10) using an electronic Durofel (licensed by Copa-Cti?) with a 0.10 cm2 tip. Durofel is a non-destructive dynamometer that provides a measure of the force used to press a spring-loaded pawl against the fruit surface (Aubert & Chanforan, 2007). The measurements are expressed in ID10 on a scale ranging from 0 (very soft) to 100 (very hard). 2.4. Soluble solids content and titratable acidity For each sample, and after ?rmness determination, apricots (N = 10) were sliced and pitted and ?esh cubes ($1 cm3) were prepared. Cubes were then immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen, and stored at ?25 °C prior to analysis. About one hundred grammes of frozen tissues were then thawed for $30 min at ambient temperature, and homogenized in a blender (Waring, US). Soluble solids (SS) were then determined on the purée with an Atago PR-101 digital refractometer. Titratable acidity (TA) was determined by diluting 5 g of the purée with 50 ml of deionized water and titrating to pH 8.1 with 0.1 N NaOH, using a Crison Compact II automatic titrator with autosampler (Barcelone, Spain). 2.5. Isolation of volatiles Isolation of volatiles was performed according to the liquid–liquid microextraction (LLME) method previously described by Aubert, Baumann, and Arguel (2005) with some modi?cations. One hundred grammes of frozen tissues (see above), 90 ml of deionized water and 100 ll of 2-octanol (401 lg/ml) (internal standard) were allowed to stand at room temperature for 3 min longer and homogenized in a blender for 90 s (Waring, US). Ten millilitres of n-propyl gallate (100 mM in EtOH) were then added, and the mixture was blended again for 15 s. The mixture was centrifuged (14,000g, 5 min, 4 °C) and the supernatant was ?ltered through a Whatman (Maidstone, UK) paper ?lter (grade 113v). Forty millilitres of supernatant, treated with 12.8 g of (NH4)2SO4 (32%; w/v), were agitated until complete salt dissolution occurred and ultracentrifuged (21,000g, 5 min, 4 °C). The supernatant was then introduced into a 50 ml screw-capped conical centrifuge tube (34 ? 98 mm glass borosilicate) containing a magnetic stir bar (15 ? 6 mm); 200 ll of chloroform were added, and the mixture was extracted for 30 min under magnetic stirring at room temperature. After removing the magnetic stir bar, the tube was sonicated for 1 min in a Branson Ultrasonic Cleaner 5510 (Danbury, US), and centrifuged (2000g, 3 min, 4 °C). Chloroform extract was then recovered with a 50 ll syringe, transferred to a 100 ll vial and immediately injected into the GC–MS and GC–FID apparatus. Concentrations of volatiles (Tables 3–5) are given as averages and min–max ranges for the two experiments (3 replications of homogenized apricot pulp of 10 fruits). The average standard deviation was 23.3% for concentrations lower than

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Table 1 Physicochemical characteristics of the different samples of apricot. Stage of maturity Post-harvest maturation at 20 °C (h) Storage at 1 °C (days) 0 Mean Firmness (ID10) 3 0 48 72 168 0 48 72 168 76 dC 66 cD 61 bC 50 a 454.3(***) 72 dD 61 cD 53 bC 43 a 264.7(***) Range 75–77 64–68 59–62 47–51 71–73 59–64 50–57 39–44 7 Mean 73 59 54 bD aC aB Range 72–74 55–64 47–61 14 Mean 69 55 50 cA bB aB Range 66–73 53–56 47–55 21 Mean 67 48 40 cA bA aA Range 65–68 46–50 37–44 38.9(***) 76.6(***) 29.7(***) F (p)a

F (p) 5

29.5(***) 68 55 50 cC bC aC 67–70 48–59 45–54

109.2(***) 66 48 42 cB bB aB 65–67 47–49 39–46

380.8(***) 62 41 35 cA bA aA 59–64 38–46 33–37 62.1(***) 46.7(***) 50.5(***)

F (p) Soluble solids (%Brix) 3 0 48 72 168 F (p) 5 0 48 72 168

41.2(***)

340.3(***)

220.6(***)

9.7 10.1 10.2 10.6 4.4(*) 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.3 5.2(**)

aA abA abA b aA abA abA b

9.2–10.0 9.6–10.6 9.7–10.8 10.1–11.3 10.4–10.7 10.5–11.3 10.4–12.0 10.9–11.8

10.3 10.6 10.3 0.8 (ns) 10.6 11.0 11.3

aA aA aA

9.5–11.5 10.1–11.1 10.0–10.4

10.2 10.3 10.7 1.5 (ns)

aA aA aA

9.3–11.4 9.9–10.7 10.2–11.4

10.5 10.5 10.7 0.1 (ns)

aA aA aA

9.9–11.8 10.1–11.0 10.1–11.5

2.0 (ns) 2.1 (ns) 1.8 (ns)

aA bA cA

10.3–10.9 10.6–11.4 11.2–11.8

10.6 11.3 11.1 8.2(**)

aA bA bA

10.3–10.8 10.9–11.6 10.5–11.7

11.4 11.2 11.1 0.5 (ns)

aB aA aA

10.6–12.1 10.8–11.7 10.7–11.6

7.9(**) 2.5 (ns) 0.8 (ns)

F (p) Titratable acidity (mequiv/100 g) 3 0 48 72 168 F (p) 5 0 48 72 168

11.9(***)

29.5 aA 29.0 aA 28.8 aA 28.8 a 0.1 (ns) 28.7 aA 28.8 aA 28.4 aB 28.6 a 0.1 (ns)

27.5–32.8 26.1–32.5 27.1–30.8 26.8–31.2 26.6–31.2 27.3–30.5 26.8–30.5 26.4–30.6

29.1 29.2 28.2 0.3 (ns) 28.7 28.2 28.6 0.2 (ns)

aA aA aA

26.3–32.3 26.5–30.9 25.0–30.3

28.9 26.9 27.5 1.7 (ns)

aA aA aA

26.6–31 25.7–28.3 25.0–30.7

28.5 28.0 26.4 1 (ns)

aA aA aA

25.8–31.6 24.8–31.3 23.6–29.6

0.2 (ns) 1.2 (ns) 1.4 (ns)

aA aA aB

26.4–30.7 26.3–29.5 26.5–30.1

28.3 27.9 26.9 1.2 (ns)

aA aA aAB

26.2–31.3 26.1–29.8 25.4–28.6

28.0 26.3 26.3 2.2 (ns)

aA aA aA

26.5–29.8 22.7–28.9 25.0–27.3

0.2 (ns) 2.7 (ns) 4.3(*)

F (p)

For a given stage of maturity, means within the same storage time followed by the same small letters are not signi?cantly different (F(0.05; 2,15) = 3.7; F(0.05; 2,15) = 6.4; F(0.05; 2,15) = 11.3 or F(0.05; 3,20) = 3.1; F(0.01; 3,20) = 4.9; F(0.001; 3,20) = 8.1, respectively, for 3 and 4 levels). For a given stage of maturity, means within the same post-harvest maturation time followed by the same capital letters are not signi?cantly different (F(0.05; 3,20) = 3.1; F(0.01; 3,20) = 4.9; F(0.001; 3,20) = 8.1). a ns, not signi?cant. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001.

10 ppb, 21.3% from 10 to 50 ppb, and 23.7% for higher concentrations. 2.6. GC–FID conditions A Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a DB-Wax Etr (J&W Scienti?c) capillary column (30 m ? 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 lm ?lm thickness) was used. The ?ow of hydrogen 5.7 (Linde) carrier gas was 1.3 ml/min. The oven temperature was kept at 40 °C for 3 min, then programmed to 250 °C at 5 °C/min, and kept at 250 °C for 15 min. Injections (1 ll) were performed using a 1079 Programmable Temperature Vaporizing (PTV) injector from Varian, using the following injection programme: initially 20 °C for 0.1 min, then programmed to 250 °C at 200 °C/min, and kept at 250 °C. Injections were performed using a CombiPAL autosampler equipped with a Peltier cooling rack at 4 °C (CTC Analytics, Switzerland). The FID detector was kept at 250 °C. The levels of the volatile compounds were expressed as 2-octanol equivalents (assuming all of the response factors were 1). The concentrations are to be considered as relative data because recovery factors (after extraction and calibration) related to the standard were not determined.

2.7. GC–MS conditions A Varian 3800 gas chromatograph was used with the same DBWax Etr capillary column as above. The oven and injector temperature programmes were as above. Injections (1 ll) were performed using a CombiPAL autosampler (CTC Analytics). The ?ow of helium 6.0 (Linde) carrier gas was 1 ml/min. A Saturn Ion-Trap mass spectrometer was used. Mass spectra were recorded in electronic impact (EI) ionization mode. The ion trap, the manifold, and the transfer line temperatures were set, respectively, at 150, 45, and 250 °C. Mass spectra were scanned in the range m/z 30–350 amu at 1 s intervals. Compounds were ?rst identi?ed using NIST/EPA/ NIH MS Search 2.0 and our own mass spectra libraries. Identities of most of them were then con?rmed by comparison of their linear retention indices and EI mass spectra with those of reference compounds. 2.8. Statistical analysis Analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed using Statbox 6.7 (Grimmersoft, Paris).

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398 Table 2 Volatiles identi?ed in the different samples of apricot. Compounds Butyl acetate Hexanal Butanol Pentyl acetate (E)-2-hexenal Hexyl acetate (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2one Hexanol (Z)-3-Hexen-1ol Acetic acid Benzaldehyde Linalool 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-ol a-Terpineol c-Hexalactone c-Octalactone d-Octalactone c-Nonalactone c-Decalactone c-Jasmolactone d-Decalactone (Z)-7-Decen-5-olide Dihydroactinidiolide c-Dodecalactone Code E1 C1 O1 E2 C2 E3 E4 O2 C3 C4 O3 O4 T1 O5 T2 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 T3 L9 RIa 1073 1082 1123 1154 1221 1274 1317 1347 1356 1386 1432 1521 1533 1574 1698 1703 1920 1966 2031 2146 2182 2193 2261 2296 2364 IDb A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A

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a Linear retention index on DB-Wax Etr (J&W Scienti?c) based on a series of nhydrocarbons. b A, identi?ed by mass spectrum and linear retention index of reference compounds; B, tentatively identi?ed by mass spectrum and linear retention index similar to mass libraries or published data.

3. Results and discussion The effects of maturity stage, storage, and/or post-harvest maturation on the physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of Bergeron apricot were investigated during the 2007 season over two experiments. The fruits, harvested at two different stages of maturity in two different experimental orchards, were stored for up to 3 weeks in cold chambers at 1 °C and then subjected to post-harvest maturation in a ripening chamber at 20 °C and 60–70% RH until the apricots were considered ‘‘ready-to-eat”. The maximum length of post-harvest maturation at 20 °C was set at 7 days for apricots not subjected to cold conservation at 1 °C. For the other samples, this period was limited to 3 days, in accordance with prior experiments. Firmness, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and the levels of the main volatiles were determined. Twenty-?ve volatile compounds, including 4 esters, 4 C6-compounds, 3 terpenic compounds, 9 lactones and 5 other constituents (2 alcohols and 3 carbonyl compounds), were extracted by LLME and analyzed by GC–FID and GC–MS. The physicochemical characteristics and the levels of volatiles in the different samples are given in Tables 1 and 3–5, in which the sets of results from the two orchards have been merged. The data are given as averages and minimum–maximum ranges in the two experiments. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to graphically summarize the distribution of the 28 variables (3 physicochemical characteristics and 25 volatiles) within the different Bergeron apricots (52 samples) (Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 1A, 63% of the total variance was explained by the ?rst two axes. The ?rst axis (50% of the variance explained) mainly discriminates the samples with 72 or 168 h of post-harvest maturation at 20 °C from those without the ripening process, whereas the second axis (13% of the variance explained) mainly discriminates samples of experiment 1 from those of experiment 2. The distribution of the variables is shown in Fig. 1B. Except for 8 variables out of the 28 (O1–O4, C1, C4, IR, and L9), most of them are well correlated on

the ?rst two axes, and more particularly with PC1 ($50% of the variables showed a squared factor loading on the ?rst axis >0.50). Samples with 3 or 7 days of post-harvest maturation, positively located on the ?rst axis, are characterized by high levels of esters and lactones, and particularly those of butyl acetate (E1), pentyl acetate (E2), hexyl acetate (E3), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (E4), c-hexalactone (L1), c- and d-octalactone (L2, L3), c- and d-decalactone (L5, L7), c-jasmolactone (L6), and (Z)-5-decen-5-olide (L8). Samples without the ripening process, negatively located in the ?rst axis, are mainly de?ned by high levels of ?rmness. Samples from the ?rst experiment, positively located on the second axis, are mainly characterized by higher levels of titratable acidity (TA) and (E)-2-hexenal (C2) whereas those of the second experiment, negatively located on this axis, are mainly characterized by higher levels of dihydroactinidiolide (T3). As shown in Table 1, the most signi?cant changes observed in the physicochemical characteristics were a signi?cant decrease of ?rmness during both storage and post-harvest maturation, with a more pronounced effect at 20 °C. As indicated, the rates of softening of apricots during storage and/or post-harvest maturation were found to be very similar, whatever their initial stage of maturity at harvest. For both stages, the decrease of ?rmness was $0.4 ID10 per day at 1 °C over the 3 weeks, whereas it was 10 times higher ($4 ID10 per day) during ripening at 20 °C for samples not previously stored at 1 °C. The results also indicated that, the longer the samples were stored at 1 °C, the greater was the decrease of ?rmness during the phase of maturation at 20 °C (up to $10 ID10 per day for 3 weeks of storage). Although soluble solids contents and titratable acidity results were statistically different between samples, the changes observed during storage and/or post-harvest maturation were relatively weak and the levels in samples were found overall, to be similar to those observed at harvest. Finally, it is important to note that, for a given storage and/or post-harvest maturation time, the levels of ?rmness and soluble solids were always, respectively, higher and lower in samples harvested at stage 3 in comparison to those observed in samples harvested at stage 5. As indicated in Fig. 2 and Tables 3–5, the effects of storage and/ or post-harvest maturation on Bergeron volatiles are mainly characterized by opposite changes in two major groups of volatiles. The ?rst group consisted of C6 compounds, alcohols and carbonyl compounds, and the second of lactones, esters and terpenic compounds. As shown, whatever the stage of maturity at harvest, C6 compounds, aldehydes and alcohols, products of enzymatic breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids (Sanz, Olias, & Perez, 1997), are the main compounds isolated in unripened apricots, from 60% in samples harvested at stage 5 with 2 weeks of storage to 83% in apricots harvested at stage 3 (Fig. 2). During storage and/or post-harvest maturation, the relative proportion of these so-called green components, in particular those of (E)-2-hexenal (Tables 3 and 4), decreased drastically, up to $20% in samples harvested at stage 5 with 7 days of ripening or 3 weeks of storage, followed by 3 days at 20 °C. The results also indicated that, after ripening at 20 °C, the relative proportion of C6-compounds in ‘‘ready-to-eat” apricots was, on average, always higher in samples harvested at stage 3 than in samples harvested at stage 5, respectively, 53% and 27%. A diminution of the levels of alcohols and carbonyl compounds was also observed, mainly during maturation at 20 °C. With decreasing concentrations of C6 compounds during the ripening process, lactones and esters increase during the same time and become the major volatiles in apricots. Among them c-hexalactone , c- and d-octalactone, c- and d-hexalactone, c-jasmolactone, and (Z)-7-decen-5-olide, previously reported to be important impact compounds in stone fruits (Berger, 1991; Derail, Hofmann, & Schieberle 1999; Engel et al., 1988; Greger & Schieberle, 2007; Takeoka et al., 1992) and to be responsible for the fruity background aroma of apricot (Chairote et al., 1981; Crouzet et al., 1983; Greger & Schi-

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Table 3 Levels of volatilesa in the different samples of apricot harvested at maturity stage 3. Codeb Storage at +1°C (days) 0 Postharvest maturation at +20°C (h) 0 48 72 40 15-64 1 0-2 138 41-318 5 3-6 2 2-3 229 164-279 1344 1091-1669 11 8-15 3 2-4 178 97-300 8 5-12 37 29-51 2 0-4 94 76-109 28 23-34 8 6-14 2 2-3 109 69-173 40 34-46 55 28-110 11 7-18 6 4-9 168 47 18-100 1 0-3 37 27-58 4 2-6 4 3-5 158 89-249 926 837-1055 8 7-11 3 2-4 234 140-283 12 8-16 63 27-98 8 4-13 177 152-198 43 33-52 16 10-24 3 2-4 161 94-245 98 60-134 55 35-96 23 13-39 13 7-26 7 0 3 0-9 3 0-7 388 118-536 4 3-8 3 2-4 102 74-138 1844 1643-2200 1 0-2 48 15 12-18 2 1-2 123 88-165 4 1-8 2 1-3 173 127-210 1487 1415-1653 6 5-7 3 2-5 78 53-119 5 3-7 18 7-29 72 16 7-31 2 1-2 52 18-119 4 3-5 2 1-3 125 89-180 1118 884-1349 7 5-11 2 1-3 123 43-211 6 3-8 23 12-42 2 0-5 102 41-191 18 11-25 19 4-33 2 1-2 85 33-141 46 11-85 41 13-82 21 3-43 6 3-10 14 0 5 2-9 2 1-3 215 168-308 4 3-7 3 2-3 53 36-78 1107 1001-1422 3 2-4 0 0-1 9 3-21 1 0-1 1 0-2 48 9 6-12 2 2-2 82 25-195 4 3-6 3 2-4 66 25-92 755 711-800 5 3-8 1 1-2 37 26-50 3 2-3 9 5-13 1 0-2 56 41-65 7 5-9 5 4-6 0 0-1 34 29-42 8 7-10 20 13-25 5 4-5 3 3-4 72 24 16-33 2 2-2 49 10-116 4 3-6 3 2-4 71 59-97 635 533-797 6 5-7 2 1-3 137 83-181 7 5-8 22 16-31 3 2-4 128 77-179 14 12-16 25 15-37 1 1-1 75 68-92 34 19-49 45 39-57 25 14-38 5 3-7 21 0 7 4-11 2 1-3 184 30-325 4 2-6 2 1-3 44 33-66 704 477-944 3 3-4 0 0-1 11 5-18 1 0-2 0 0-1 48 9 7-11 1 1-2 82 14-156 4 3-5 2 2-4 54 46-67 617 485-780 4 4-5 1 1-1 53 38-62 4 3-4 12 8-14 1 1-2 66 41-96 6 11 5-17 0 0-1 38 22-59 12 5-19 30 20-41 10 4-16 10 4-21 72 22 10-36 2 1-2 59 33-86 5 4-8 3 2-4

Alcohols and carbonyl compounds O1 7 26 0-18 4-47 O2 2 1 0-5 0-2 O3 302 161 165-405 39-322 O4 4 5 0-8 3-9 c 2 O5 1-3 C6 compounds C1 130 70-182 C2 2057 1832-2459 C3 1 0-4 C4 Esters E1 E2 E3 E4 Lactones L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 168 67-271 1809 1611-1988 7 4-10 3 2-3 79 27-143 4 1-7 17 9-23 2 1-2 51 41-62 18 14-20 3 2-4 61 34-84 19 16-22 31 11-52 4 2-5 10 6-16

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

62 52-77 540 409-670 6 5-8 1 0-2 263 181-331 10 9-12 36 27-55 4 3-5 119 57-166 15 35 23-48 2 1-2 106 56-176 42 25-62 70 47-102 38 22-54 6 4-8

15 7-40 1 0-3 -

4 2-6 2 0-10 -

12 9-16 13 6-22 15 8-38 7 0-20 18 7-30

17 6-30 1 0-3 6 2-10 12 1-28 4 0-10 8 5-10

58 15-103 10 5-18 8 0-19 1 0-1 62 20-101 18 6-32 36 9-69 22 16-32 9 4-16

29 13-62 3 0-7 0 0-1 0 0-1 7 2-18 3 1-7 4 1-11 5 4-6

26 13-51 1 0-2 1 0-6 3 0-7 3 1-3

Table 3 (continued) Codeb Storage at +1°C (days) 0 Postharvest maturation at +20°C (h) 0 Terpenic compounds T1 11 5-18 T2 5 2-9 T3 21 15-30 Total 2620 2409-2940
a b c

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

7 168 13 4-23 5 2-8 75 43-110 2188 1879-2482 0 12 9-18 4 3-5 38 10-64 2454 1905-2862 48 14 5-26 5 1-10 40 14-63 2199 2023-2467 72 15 7-25 6 3-9 35 18-50 1875 1404-2405

14 0 10 6-16 4 2-5 32 21-42 1499 1321-1837 48 7 6-8 3 3-4 42 25-62 1166 1090-1242 72 14 9-19 5 4-7 38 25-56 1372 1074-1641

21 0 9 5-13 4 3-6 36 21-54 1044 775-1285 48 9 5-15 4 2-5 42 24-62 1081 820-1352 72 15 12-19 6 5-7 49 32-69 1514 1176-1972

48 11 6-19 5 3-6 31 15-48 2529 2149-2951

72 14 8-18 6 4-7 36 19-61 2405 1865-3033

Average values expressed in lg/kg equivalents of 2-octanol and min-max range on the two experiments (n = 6). See Table 2. Not detected.

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Table 4 Levels of volatilesa in the different samples of apricot harvested at maturity stage 5. Codeb Storage at +1°C (days) 0 Postharvest maturation at +20°C (h) 0 48 72 41 1-75 1 0-2 95 40-196 4 2-7 4 2-6 101 2-138 650 516-753 15 8-20 2 1-3 331 4-573 11 0-18 50 6-73 2 0-5 120 87-192 40 25-49 21 6-32 3 2-4 178 86-243 55 33-82 117 38-172 25 8-38 11 2-19 168 46 20-79 1 0-3 23 10-45 4 2-6 6 5-9 66 55-82 506 411-617 13 9-17 2 1-3 740 484-1120 25 18-35 127 64-228 13 8-20 271 236-318 63 48-74 43 27-65 5 4-6 294 216-443 161 122-243 153 94-247 67 38-125 18 7-36 7 0 5 4-7 2 1-2 220 147-297 3 2-7 5 3-7 59 29-79 770 641-924 1 0-3 1 0-1 7 3-13 1 1-2 2 1-3 48 16 12-20 2 1-2 104 53-149 3 2-5 4 3-5 77 45-104 599 541-668 7 6-9 1 1-1 192 90-313 6 4-8 22 13-34 2 0-4 64 18-116 14 6-23 12 1-25 1 0-2 73 35-115 20 5-35 48 21-85 12 2-24 12 9-15 72 23 13-38 2 2-2 61 15-145 5 4-6 3 0-4 59 43-67 497 430-565 9 7-13 2 1-2 209 88-413 8 5-13 34 21-53 2 0-4 137 54-240 24 16-35 27 10-54 2 2-3 117 65-175 51 21-87 71 35-124 30 9-61 7 5-9 14 0 5 0-8 2 1-4 209 147-284 3 1-4 3 0-6 24 9-32 526 482-554 3 2-4 0 0-1 9 3-17 2 0-2 1 0-3 48 14 9-24 2 2-2 88 16-235 4 4-4 4 3-6 37 26-48 370 304-468 7 5-10 1 1-1 69 40-113 4 3-6 16 10-21 1 1-2 81 44-123 11 8-14 11 7-15 1 0-1 55 38-74 13 8-18 41 28-56 10 5-14 6 2-11 72 25 20-31 2 1-2 69 12-161 4 3-6 3 2-4 40 23-61 247 96-320 7 6-8 1 1-2 201 147-273 9 8-10 30 25-35 3 3-4 129 91-168 17 14-22 34 28-42 2 1-2 95 74-104 39 30-48 69 46-86 33 25-46 4 3-5 21 0 10 6-15 2 1-3 139 58-249 4 2-7 3 2-4 34 16-53 587 368-702 4 3-6 1 0-1 22 14-33 2 1-2 2 0-4 48 13 8-23 1 1-1 65 18-129 4 3-6 3 2-4 22 16-40 299 223-382 6 5-10 1 0-1 75 52-130 5 4-7 19 12-31 1 1-1 72 51-94 7 5-9 13 1 0-1 52 39-64 12 8-16 50 36-59 11 7-15 9 4-14 72 25 10-39 2 1-2 73 24-131 10 4-23 5 3-7 42 25-61 218 177-296 8 6-13 1 1-2 335 223-438 12 9-15 33 21-46 4 3-6 167 112-236 18 14-22 49 2 2-2 104 49-162 47 24-77 75 51-101 46 29-68 7 5-13

Alcohols and carbonyl compounds O1 12 27 6-21 6-61 O2 2 1 2-3 0-2 O3 179 160 53-289 41-352 O4 3 4 0-7 3-6 O5 1 3 0-2 2-5 C6 compounds C1 90 65-127 C2 1306 1062-1768 C3 4 3-5 C4 -c Esters E1 E2 E3 E4 Lactones L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 91 37-184 912 770-1129 10 5-19 2 2-5 131 61-210 6 3-10 30 21-43 2 2-3 65 55-87 26 18-40 8 4-13 105 59-154 28 23-34 67 26-109 9 5-14 11 7-15

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

30 16-49 2 1-3 7 0-19 1 0-2 20 12-32 14 11-19 1 0-1 22 16-30 9 5-14 9 3-16

25 5-45 11 8-19 0 0-1 0 0-1 21 13-37 10 6-15 13 5-21 1 0-2 5 2-6

32 17-61 5 2-8 0 0-1 0 0-1 6 2-14 4 1-10 5 1-8 0 0-1 6 4-13

36 17-60 1 0-2 2 1-4 1 0-6 3 0-7 9 2-22

Table 4 (continued) Codeb Storage at +1°C (days) 0 Postharvest maturation at +20°C (h) 0 Terpenic compounds T1 10 4-17 T2 3 1-6 T3 33 17-52 Total 1755 1542-2323
a b c

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

7 168 15 5-27 6 5-9 111 75-179 2780 2265-3626 0 10 7-12 3 3-4 60 31-97 1235 976-1402 48 12 5-16 4 1-6 66 43-122 1372 1264-1490 72 16 11-23 6 4-9 55 28-73 1456 1106-1991

14 0 8 5-13 3 2-5 57 30-113 914 843-989 48 8 6-11 4 3-4 63 35-93 921 679-1200 72 14 12-16 6 5-6 56 30-85 1139 914-1400

21 0 8 5-11 4 3-4 53 39-69 927 578-1087 48 9 6-10 4 3-5 60 41-80 815 658-1051 72 16 11-19 7 6-9 62 46-80 1369 1047-1695

48 11 8-13 5 3-6 54 28-87 1769 1319-2345

72 16 12-24 7 6-10 67 24-105 1966 1440-2554

Average values expressed in lg/kg equivalents of 2-octanol and min-max range on the two experiments (n = 6). See Table 2. Not detected.

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Table 5 Levels (lg/kg) of the main chemical classes in the different samples of apricot. Stage of maturity Post-harvest maturation at 20 °C (h) Storage at 1 °C (days) 0 Mean Alcohols and carbonyl compounds 3 0 48 72 168 F (p) 5 0 48 72 168 314 195 186 93 4.7(*) 197 195 145 79 2.1 (ns) bAB abA abA a aA aA aA a Range 173–424 50–373 66–389 61–154 68–307 56–421 68–268 58–100 7 Mean 400 146 76 12.8(***) 235 129 93 10.7(**) bA aA aA 159–314 81–171 36–188 bB aA aA Range 127–552 111–184 32–158 14 Mean 229 100 82 13.5(***) 222 112 103 5.9(*) bA aA aA 155–298 43–255 41–200 bAB aA aA Range 179–321 47–206 40–147 21 Mean 198 98 90 4.3(*) 159 87 115 2.7 (ns) C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398 aA aA aA 74–263 40–151 56–169 1.5 (ns) 1.5 (ns) 0.8 (ns) bA aA aA Range 40–341 29–172 59–131 3.3(*) 2.2 (ns) 2.8 (ns) F (p)a

F (p) C6 compounds 3

0 48 72 168 0 48 72 168

F (p) 5

2189 1987 1587 1096 42.3(***) 1399 1016 768 587 22.2(***)

cC cD bC a cC bC aC a

1916–2638 1740–2111 1353–1897 971–1154 1133–1900 884–1203 527–894 498–719

1947 1668 1252 21.2(***) 831 685 566 12.3(***)

cC bC aB

1717–2303 1581–1871 1004–1482

1163 826 715 25.7(***)

bB aB aA

1053–1503 780–858 604–865

752 676 609 1.3 (ns)

aA aA aA

518–985 537–830 469–755

56.1(***) 189.4(***) 52.1(***)

cB bB aB

673–1002 600–765 504–641

553 415 295 27.5(***)

cA bA aA

517–576 345–505 167–360

626 328 269 26.9(***)

bAB aA aA

389–754 249–432 229–329

27.8(***) 69.3(***) 51.8(***)

F (p) Esters 3

0 48 72 168 0 48 72 168

F (p) 5

16 101 224 318 23.9(***) 40 169 393 905 22.9(***)

aA bA cAB d aB abB bAB cA

9–43 39–174 134–364 179–386 17–72 90–262 10–664 612–1403

5 100 155 8.4(**) 10 221 254 12.1(***)

aA bA bA

2–13 67–154 58–256

10 50 168 62.1(***)

aA bA cA

5–22 35–64 107–223

12 70 313 97.6(***)

aA bA cB

6–19 51–82 221–397

1.7 (ns) 2.8 (ns) 5.1(**)

aA bB bA

5–18 124–331 115–481

12 91 244 63.6(***)

aA bA cA

7–19 56–140 184–320

25 100 384 60.1(***)

aAB bA cA

16–39 70–169 256–505

6.1(**) 5.8(**) 1.6 (ns)

F (p) Lactones 3

0 48 72 168 0 48 72 168

F (p) 5

65 199 352 589 48.1(***) 73 319 570 1077 39.9(***)

aB bA cA d aA bA cA d

45–80 152–241 269–502 414–809 51–113 206–445 295–721 860–1533

48 226 338 6.3(*) 85 255 466 8.7(**)

aAB bA bA

29–60 83–374 121–598

51 138 350 50.5(***)

aAB bA cA

31–98 125–150 251–449

33 183 432 24.5(***)

aA bA cA

17–54 109–258 259–630

3.5(*) 1.6 (ns) 0.5 (ns)

aA aA bA

61–142 113–434 223–787

58 229 422 74.5(***)

aA bA cA

37–97 144–298 356–520

52 227 516 36.8(***)

aA bA cA

31–81 166–277 356–723

2.3 (ns) 1.2 (ns) 0.9 (ns)

F (p)

Table 5 (continued) Stage of maturity Post-harvest maturation at 20 °C (h) Storage at 1 °C (days) 0 Mean Terpenic compounds 3 0 48 72 168 0 48 72 168 37 47 55 92 18.3(***) 46 70 90 133 12.7(***) aA aA aA b aA abA bA c Range 28–41 35–60 43–80 68–120 37–58 43–100 42–130 102–189 7 Mean 54 59 55 0.2 (ns) 73 82 77 0.2 (ns) aA aA aA 46–107 65–129 52–88 aA aA aA Range 28–77 49–71 44–69 14 Mean 45 53 57 1.6 (ns) 69 75 75 0.1 (ns) aA aA aA 48–124 49–106 52–102 aA aA aA Range 38–58 37–73 48–69 21 Mean 49 54 69 4.9(*) 65 73 85 4.7(*) aA abA bA 53–78 55–89 73–105 1.8 (ns) 0.3 (ns) 0.7 (ns) aA aA bA Range 33–63 44–71 57–87 1.6 (ns) 1.1 (ns) 2.1 (ns) F (p)a C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

F ( p) 5

F ( p)

3,20)

For a given stage of maturity, means within the same storage time followed by the same small letters are not signi?cantly different (F(0.05; 2,15) = 3.7; F(0.05; 2,15) = 6.4; F(0.05; 2,15) = 11.3 or F(0.05; 3,20) = 3.1; F(0.01; 3,20) = 4.9; F(0.001; = 8.1, respectively, for 3 and 4 levels). For a given stage of maturity, means within the same post-harvest maturation time followed by the same capital letters are not signi?cantly different (F(0.05; 3,20) = 3.1; F(0.01; 3,20) = 4.9; F(0.001; 3,20) = 8.1). a ns, not signi?cant. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001.

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C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

6
1

A

5

4
1 1

3
1

1

1

1

1

1

2 PC2 (13 %)
1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

1

2 2

1

0
1 2

-1

-2

2

2

-3

-4 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 PC1 (50 %)
1.5

6

8

10

12

14

B

1 TA C2 0.5 FD O3 O2 0 L9 C1 O4 E3 C4 E4 L6 L5 L2 L1 L4 L3L8 L7 E2 E1 IR C3 O1 T1 T2

-0.5 O5 T3

-1

-1.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

Fig. 1. Results from PCA analysis (A) projection of the samples (1, 1st experiment; 2, 2nd experiment; d, 0 h; 4, 48 h; j, 72 h; ?, 168 h); (B) factor loadings of variables (for variable codes see Table 2).

eberle, 2007; Tang and Jennings, 1967, 1968), increase mainly during post-harvest maturation, reaching their highest amounts in

samples ripened for one week at 20 °C. The same trend was observed for esters, and particularly for butyl and hexyl acetates, pre-

C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398

1397

maturity stage 3
100%

80% relative proportion (%)

60%

40%

20%

0% 0h 48 h 72 h 168 h 0h 48 h 7 days 72 h 0h 48 h 1 4 days 72 h 0h 48 h 21 days 72 h

0 days

maturity stage 5
100%

80% relative proportion (%)

60%

40%

20%

0% 0h 48 h 72 h 168 h 0h 48 h 7 days 72 h 0h 48 h 1 4 days 72 h 0h 48 h 21 days 72 h

0 days

C6 compounds

alcohols & carbonyls compounds

lactones

esters

terpenic compounds

Fig. 2. Relative proportions (percent) of the main classes of volatile compounds in the different samples of apricot in the two experiments according the length of storage at 1 °C (days) and the length of post-harvest maturation at 20 °C (h).

viously reported to be responsible for the banana-like and the nail polish notes of apricot (Chairote et al., 1981; Crouzet et al., 1983; Greger & Schieberle, 2007; Tang and Jennings, 1967, 1968). Regarding storage at 1 °C, the results have shown that, although some results were statistically different between samples, the changes observed for lactones and esters were relatively weak in comparison to those observed during post-harvest maturation. For a given ripening time, their levels were found overall, to be similar to those observed at harvest. To a lesser extent, the same trend was ob-

served for the levels of terpenic compounds previously reported to be responsible for the ?owery note of apricot (Chairote et al., 1981; Crouzet et al., 1983; Greger and Schieberle, 2007; Guillot et al., 2003; Tang and Jennings, 1967, 1968). These results are consistent with those previously reported by Aubert and Chanforan (2007). Finally, it is important to note that the results also indicated that, in ‘‘ready-to-eat” apricots, the relative proportions of the sum of lactones, esters and terpenic compounds were, on average, 50% higher in samples harvested at stage 5 ($66%) in compar-

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C. Aubert et al. / Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 1386–1398 Crouzet, J., Etievant, P., & Bayonove, C. (1990). Stoned fruit: Apricot, plum, peach, cherry. In I. D. Morton & A. J. Macleod (Eds.), Food ?avors part C. The ?avours of fruits (pp. 43–91). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. Derail, C., Hofmann, T., & Schieberle, P. (1999). Difference in key odorants of handmade juice of yellow-?esh peaches (Prunus persica L.) induced by the workup procedure. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47, 4742–4745. Engel, K. H., Flath, R. A., Buttery, R. G., Mon, T. R., Ramming, D. W., & Teranashi, R. (1988). Investigation of volatile constituents in nectarines. 1. Analytical and sensory characterization of aroma components in some nectarine cultivars. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 36, 549–553. Genovese, A., Ugliano, M., Pessina, R., Gambuti, A., Piombino, P., & Moio, L. (2004). Comparison of the aroma compounds in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Pellecchiella) and apple (Malus pumila L. cv. Annurca) raw distillates. Italian Journal of Food Science, 16, 185–196. Gómez, E., & Ledbetter, C. A. (1997). Development of volatile compounds during fruit maturation: Characterization of apricot and plum ? apricot hybrids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 74, 541–546. Gómez, E., Ledbetter, C. A., & Hartsell, P. L. (1993). Volatile compounds in apricot, plum, and their interspeci?c hybrids. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 41, 1669–1676. Greger, V., & Schieberle, P. (2007). Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 55, 5221–5228. Guichard, E., Schlich, P., & Issanchou, S. (1990). Composition of apricot aroma: Correlation between sensory and instrumental data. Journal of Food Science, 55, 735–738. Guichard, E., & Souty, M. (1988). Comparison of the relative quantities of aroma compounds found in fresh apricot (Prunus armeniaca) from six different varieties. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch, 186, 301–307. Guillot, S., Boulanger, R., Crouzet, J., Bureau, S., Lepoutre, J. P., & Galindo, S. (2003). Tracers of apricot aromatic quality. In J. L. Le Quéré & P. X. Etiévant (Eds.), Flavour research at the dawn of the twenty-?rst century. Proceedings of the 10th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium (pp. 606–609). Intercept Publishers. Guillot, S., Peytavi, L., Bureau, R., Boulanger, R., Lepoutre, J. P., Crouzet, J., et al. (2006). Aroma characterization of various apricot varieties using headspacesolid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–olfactometry. Food Chemistry, 96, 147–155. Issanchou, S., Schlich, P., & Guichard, E. (1989). Odour pro?ling of the components of apricot ?avour. Description by correspondence analysis. Sciences des aliments, 9, 351–370. Lichou, J., Vaysse, P., Jay, M., & Lespinasse, N. (2003). Apricot. In Recognizing apricot varieties (pp. 86–87). Paris: Cti?. Mencarelli, F., Botondi, R., De Santis, D., & Vizovitis, K. (2006). Post-harvest quality maintenance of fresh apricots. In J. M. Audergon (Ed.), Proceedings of the XII international symposium on apricot culture and decline. Acta Horticulturae (Vol. 701, pp. 503–510). ISHS: Avignon, France. Riu-Aumatell, M., Castellari, M., Lopez-Tamames, E., Galassi, S., & Buxaderas, S. (2004). Characterisation of volatile compounds of fruit juices and nectars by HS/ SPME and GC/MS. Food Chemistry, 87, 627–637. Sanz, C., Olias, J. M., & Perez, A. G. (1997). Aroma biochemistry of fruits and vegetables. In F. A. Tomás-Barberán & R. J. Robins (Eds.), Phytochemistry of fruit and vegetables (pp. 125–155). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Takeoka, G. R., Flath, R. A., Buttery, R. G., Winterhalter, P., Guntert, M., Ramming, D. W., et al. (1992). Free and bound ?avor constituents of white-?eshed nectarines. In R. Teranishi, G. R. Takeoka, & M. Güntert (Eds.), ACS symposium series 490, ?avor precursors – Thermal and enzymatic conversions (pp. 116–138). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Takeoka, G. R., Flath, R. A., Mon, T. R., Teranishi, R., & Guentert, M. (1990). Volatile constituents of apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 38, 471–477. Tang, C. S., & Jennings, W. G. (1967). Volatile compounds of apricot. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 15, 24–28. Tang, C. S., & Jennings, W. G. (1968). Lactonic compounds of apricot. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 16, 252–254. Tóth-Marcus, M., Boross, F., Blazsó, M., & Kerek, M. (1989a). Volatile ?avour substances of apricot and heir changes during ripening. Die Nahrung, 33, 423–432. Tóth-Marcus, M., Boross, F., Blazsó, M., & Kerek, M. (1989b). Volatile ?avour substances of different apricot cultivars. Die Nahrung, 33, 433–442.

ison to those observed in samples harvested at stage 3 ($42%) (Fig. 2). In this study, great numbers of data, including physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents, of Bergeron apricot have been obtained under different storage and/or post-harvest maturation conditions. The results showed that the most signi?cant changes, i.e., a signi?cant decrease of ?rmness and C6-compounds and a signi?cant increase of esters, lactones and terpenic compounds, mainly took place during post-harvest maturation rather than during storage. The results have also shown that, in the end, qualitative and quantitative differences could be observed between ripened samples according to their initial stages of maturity at harvest. Nevertheless, although the results have demonstrated that, after ripening at 20 °C, the ‘‘ready-to-eat” samples, previously harvested at maturity stage 5, have, on average, higher levels of soluble solids, lactones, esters and terpenic compounds, and lower levels of ?rmness or C6 compounds than those harvested at maturity stage 3, it would be particularly pertinent, in further investigations, to characterize these samples from a sensory point of view (descriptive analyses, preference tests) in order to determine whether consumers are able, or not, to perceive differences between apricots.

Acknowledgements We thank Jean-Marc Lemontey and Jean Lichou for their contribution and Nelly Ottens for her assistance with English.

References
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