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考研英语二历年真题(2010-2015)


目录
2010 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 ........................................................................... 3 2011 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题.......................................................................... 13 2012 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 ......................................................................... 24 2013 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 ......................................................................... 36 2014 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 ......................................................................... 46 2015 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题 ......................................................................... 56

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2010 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following passage. For each numbered blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points)

The outbreak of swine flu that was first detected in Mexico was declared a global epidemic on June 11, 2009. It is the first worldwide epidemic__1__ by the World Health Organization in 41 years. The heightened alert ___2__an emergency meeting with flu experts in Geneva that convened after a sharp rise in cases in Australia, and rising___3___in Britain, Japan, Chile and elsewhere. But the epidemic is "__4__" in severity, according to Margaret Chan, the organization's director general, __5__ the overwhelming majority of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and a full recovery, often in the __6___ of any medical treatment. The outbreak came to global__7__in late April 2009, when Mexican authorities noticed an unusually large number of hospitalizations and deaths__8___healthy adults. As much of Mexico City shut down at the height of a panic, cases began to __9___in New York City, the southwestern United States and around the world. In the United States, new cases seemed to fade__10__warmer weather arrived. But in late September 2009, officials reported there was __11__flu activity in almost every state and that virtually all the__12___tested are the new swine flu, also known as (A) H1N1, not seasonal flu. In the U.S., it has__13__more than one million people, and caused more than 600 deaths and more than 6,000 hospitalizations. Federal health officials__14___Tamiflu for children from the national stockpile and began__15__orders from the states for the new swine flu vaccine. The new vaccine, which is different from the annual flu vaccine, is __16__ ahead of expectations. More than three million doses were to be made available in early October 2009, though most of those __17__doses were of the FluMist nasal spray type, which is not__18__for pregnant women, people over 50 or those with breathing difficulties, heart disease or several other __19__. But it was still possible to vaccinate people in other high-risk group: health care workers, people __20___infants and healthy young people. 1 [A] criticized 2 [A] proceeded 3 [A] digits 4 [A] moderate 5 [A] with 6 [A] progress 7 [A] reality [B] appointed [B] activated [B] numbers [B] normal [B] in [B] absence [B] phenomenon [C]commented [C] followed [C] amounts [C] unusual [C] from [C] presence [C] concept [D] by [D] favor [D] notice
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[D] designated [D] prompted [D] sums [D] extreme

8 [A]over 9 [A] stay up 10 [A] as 11 [A] excessive 12 [A]categories 13 [A] imparted 14 [A] released 15 [A] placing 16 [A] feasible 17 [A] prevalent 18 [A] presented 19 [A] problems 20 [A] involved in

[B] for [B] crop up [B] if [B] enormous [B] examples [B] immerse [B] relayed [B] delivering [B] available [B] principal [B] restricted [B] issues [B] caring for

[C] among [C] fill up [C] unless [C] significant [C] patterns [C] injected [C] relieved [C] taking [C] reliable [C] innovative [C] recommended [C] agonies [C] concerned with

[D] to [D] cover up [D] until [D]magnificent [D] samples [D] infected [D] remained [D] giving [D] applicable [D] initial [D] introduced [D] sufferings [D] warding off

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1 The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever”,at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 2008. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than £70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy. The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare Mc Andrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm—double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries. In the weeks and months that followed Mr. Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector—for Chinese contemporary art—they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and
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Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them. The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the Second World War. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.” What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds—death, debt and divorce—still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return. 21. In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory” because ____. A. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories B. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids C. Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces D. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis 22.By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2,Para.3),the author suggests that_____. A. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions B .people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries C. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent D .works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying 23. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A .Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 2008. B. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum. C. The market generally went downward in various ways. D. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come. 24. The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are ____ A. auction houses ' favorites C. factors promoting artwork circulation B. contemporary trends D. styles representing impressionists

25. The most appropriate title for this text could be ___ A. Fluctuation of Art Prices
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B. Up-to-date Art Auctions C. Art Market in Decline D. Shifted Interest in Arts TEXT2 I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room—a women's group that had invited men to join them. Throughout the evening one man had been particularly talkative, frequently offering ideas and anecdotes, while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch. Toward the end of the evening I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them. This man quickly nodded in agreement. He gestured toward his wife and said, "She's the talker in our family." The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt. "It's true," he explained. "When I come home from work, I have nothing to say. If she didn't keep the conversation going, we'd spend the whole evening in silence." This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage. The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book "Divorce Talk" that most of the women she interviewed—but only a few of the men—gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent,that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year —a virtual epidemic of failed conversation. In my own research complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning, cooking, social arrangements and errands. Instead they focused on communication: "He doesn't listen to me." "He doesn't talk to me." I found as Hacker observed years before that most wives want their husbands to be first and foremost conversational partners but few husbands share this expectation of their wives. In short the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face, while a woman glares at the back of it, wanting to talk. 26. What is most wives' main expectation of their husbands? A. Talking to them. C. Supporting their careers. B. Trusting them. D. Sharing housework.

27. Judging from the context, the phrase “wreaking havoc”(Line 3,Para.2)most probably means ___ . A. generating motivation. C. causing damage B. exerting influence D. creating pressure
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28. All of the following are true EXCEPT_______ A. men tend to talk more in public than women B. nearly 50 percent of recent divorces are caused by failed conversation C. women attach much importance to communication between couples D. a female tends to be more talkative at home than her spouse 29. Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of this text? A. The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists. B. Marriage break-up stems from sex inequalities. C. Husband and wife have different expectations from their marriage. D. Conversational patterns between man and wife are different. 30. In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on ______ A. a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk B. a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon C. other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S. D. a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker Text 3 Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors — habits — among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks, apply lotions and wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues. “There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hands instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” Dr. Curtis said. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.” The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to — Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever — had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines. If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day — chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, antiperspirants, colognes, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins— are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of canny advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands. A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now
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featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup. “Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to making new products commercially viable.” Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through relentless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods. 31. According to Dr. Curtis, habits like hand washing with soap________. A. should be further cultivated B. should be changed gradually C. are deeply rooted in history D. are basically private concerns 32. Bottled water, chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to____ A. reveal their impact on people’s habits B. show the urgent need of daily necessities C. indicate their effect on people’s buying power D. manifest the significant role of good habits 33. Which of the following does NOT belong to products that help create people’s habits? A. Tide B. Crest C. Colgate D. Unilever

34. From the text we know that some of consumer’s habits are developed due to _____ A. perfected art of products B. automatic behavior creation C. commercial promotions D. scientific experiments 35. The author’s attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people’s habits is____ A. indifferent Text4 Many Americans regard the jury system as a concrete expression of crucial democratic values, including the principles that all citizens who meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy are equally competent to serve on juries; that jurors should be selected randomly from a representative cross section of the community; that no citizen should be denied the right to serve on a jury on
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B. negative

C. positive

D. biased

account of race, religion, sex, or national origin; that defendants are entitled to trial by their peers; and that verdicts should represent the conscience of the community and not just the letter of the law. The jury is also said to be the best surviving example of direct rather than representative democracy. In a direct democracy, citizens take turns governing themselves, rather than electing representatives to govern for them. But as recently as in 1986, jury selection procedures conflicted with these democratic ideals. In some states, for example, jury duty was limited to persons of supposedly superior intelligence, education, and moral character. Although the Supreme Court of the United States had prohibited intentional racial discrimination in jury selection as early as the 1880 case of Strauder v. West Virginia, the practice of selecting so-called elite or blue-ribbon juries provided a convenient way around this and other antidiscrimination laws. The system also failed to regularly include women on juries until the mid-20th century. Although women first served on state juries in Utah in 1898, it was not until the 1940s that a majority of states made women eligible for jury duty. Even then several states automatically exempted women from jury duty unless they personally asked to have their names included on the jury list. This practice was justified by the claim that women were needed at home, and it kept juries unrepresentative of women through the 1960s. In 1968, the Congress of the United States passed the Jury Selection and Service Act, ushering in a new era of democratic reforms for the jury. This law abolished special educational requirements for federal jurors and required them to be selected at random from a cross section of the entire community. In the landmark 1975 decision Taylor vs. Louisiana, the Supreme Court extended the requirement that juries be representative of all parts of the community to the state level. The Taylor decision also declared sex discrimination in jury selection to be unconstitutional and ordered states to use the same procedures for selecting male and female jurors. 36. From the principles of the US jury system, we learn that ______ A. both liberate and illiterate people can serve on juries B. defendants are immune from trial by their peers C. no age limit should be imposed for jury service D. judgment should consider the opinion of the public 37. The practice of selecting so-called elite jurors prior to 1968 showed_____ A. the inadequacy of antidiscrimination laws B. the prevalent discrimination against certain races C. the conflicting ideals in jury selection procedures D. the arrogance common among the Supreme Court justices 38. Even in the 1960s, women were seldom on the jury list in some states because_____
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A. they were automatically banned by state laws B. they fell far short of the required qualifications C. they were supposed to perform domestic duties D. they tended to evade public engagement 39. After the Jury Selection and Service Act was passed.___ A. sex discrimination in jury selection was unconstitutional and had to be abolished B. educational requirements became less rigid in the selection of federal jurors C. jurors at the state level ought to be representative of the entire community D. states ought to conform to the federal court in reforming the jury system 40. In discussing the US jury system, the text centers on_______ A. its nature and problems B. its characteristics and tradition C. its problems and their solutions D. its tradition and development Part B Both Boeing and Airbus have trumpeted the efficiency of their newest aircraft, the 787 and A350 respectively. Their clever designs and lightweight composites certainly make a difference. But a group of researchers at Stanford University, led by Ilan Kroo, has suggested that airlines could take a more naturalistic approach to cutting jet-fuel use, and it would not require them to buy new aircraft. The answer, says Dr Kroo, lies with birds. Since 1914, and a seminal paper by a German researcher called Carl Wiesel Berger, scientists have known that birds flying in formation—a Vshape, echelon or otherwise—expend less energy. The air flowing over a bird’s wings curls upwards behind the wingtips, a phenomenon known as upwash. Other birds flying in the upwash experience reduced drag, and spend less energy propelling themselves. Peter Lissaman, an aeronautics expert who was formerly at Caltech and the University of Southern California, has suggested that a formation of 25 birds might enjoy a range increase of 71%。 When applied to aircraft, the principles are not substantially different. Dr Kroo and his team modeled what would happen if three passenger jets departing from Los Angeles, San Francisco and Las Vegas were to rendezvous over Utah, assume an inverted V-formation, occasionally swap places so all could have a turn in the most favorable positions, and proceed to London. They found that the aircraft consumed as much as 15% less fuel (coupled with a reduction in carbon-dioxide output). Nitrogen-oxide emissions during the cruising portions of the flight fell by around a quarter。 There are, of course, kinks to be worked out. One consideration is safety, or at least the perception of it. Would passengers feel comfortable traveling in convoy? Dr Kroo points out that
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the aircraft could be separated by several nautical miles, and would not be in the intimate groupings favored by display teams like the Red Arrows. A passenger peering out of the window might not even see the other planes. Whether the separation distances involved would satisfy air-traffic-control regulations is another matter, although a working group at the International Civil Aviation Organization has included the possibility of formation flying in a blueprint for new operational guidelines。 It remains to be seen how weather conditions affect the air flows that make formation flight more efficient. In zones of increased turbulence, the planes’ wakes will decay more quickly and the effect will diminish. Dr Kroo says this is one of the areas his team will investigate further. It might also be hard for airlines to co-ordinate the departure times and destinations of passenger aircraft in a way that would allow them to gain from formation flight. Cargo aircraft, in contrast, might be easier to reschedule, as might routine military flights。 As it happens, America’s armed forces are on the case already. Earlier this year the country’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency announced plans to pay Boeing to investigate formation flight, though the program has yet to begin. There are reports that some military aircraft flew in formation when they were low on fuel during the Second World War, but Dr Lissaman says they are apocryphal. “My father was an RAF pilot and my cousin the skipper of a Lancaster lost over Berlin,” he adds. So he should know。 41. Findings of the Stanford University researchers will promote the sales of new Boeing and Airbus aircraft。 42. The upwash experience may save propelling energy as well as reducing resistance。 43. Formation flight is more comfortable because passengers can not see the other planes。 44. The role that weather plays in formation flight has not yet been clearly defined。 45. It has been documented that during World War II, America’s armed forces once tried formation flight to save fuel.

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Part C
Directions: In this section there is a text in English .Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15points)

“Sustainability” has become a popular word these days, but to Ted Ning, the concept will always have personal meaning. Having endured a painful period of unsustainability in his own life made it clear to him that sustainability-oriented values must be expressed through everyday action and choice。 Ning recalls spending a confusing year in the late 1990s selling insurance. He’d been through the dot-com boom and burst and, desperate for a job, signed on with a Boulder agency。 It didn’t go well. “It was a really bad move because that’s not my passion,” says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictably, into a lack of sales. “I was miserable, I had so much anxiety that I would wake up in the middle of the night and stare at the ceiling. I had no money and needed the job. Everyone said, ‘Just wait, you’ll turn the corner, give it some time.’”

Section IV Writing Part A Directions: You have just come back from the U.S. as a member of a Sino-American cultural exchange program. Write a letter to your American colleague to 1) 2) Express your thanks for his/her warm reception; Welcome him/her to visit China in due course。

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead。 Do not write your address. (10 points) Part B Directions: In this section, you are asked to write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1) 2) Interpret the chart and Give your comments

Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

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2011 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section I Use of English
Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 across the Web. Can privacy be preserved 2 increasingly 3 ? Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a 4 to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech 5 of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 6 one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems. User could 9 which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license the government. Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these “single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services. 12 .the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a 13 community. Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure 15 which the transaction runs”. Still, the administration’s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would 17 be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality. The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1. A. swept 2. A. for 3. A. careless 4. A. reason B. skipped B. within B. lawless B. reminder C. walked C. while C. pointless C. compromise D. ridden D. though D. helpless D. proposal
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bringing safety and security to a world that seems

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by

5. A. information 6. A. by 7. A. linked 8. A. dismiss 9. A. recall 10. A. released 11. A. carry on 12. A. In vain 13. A. trusted 14. A. caution 15. A. on 16. A. divided 17. A. frequently 18. A. skepticism 19. A. manageable 20. A. invited

B. interference B. into B. directed B. discover B. suggest B. issued B .linger on B. In effect B. modernized B. delight B. after B. disappointed B. incidentally B. relevance B. defendable B. appointed

C. entertainment C. from C. chained C. create C. select C. distributed C. set in C. In return C. thriving C. confidence C. beyond C. protected C. occasionally C. indifference C. vulnerable C. allowed

D. equivalent D. over D. compared D. improve D. realize D. delivered D. log in D. In contrast D. competing D. patience D. across D. united D. eventually D. enthusiasm D. invisible D. forced

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points)

Text 1 Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said. Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises. The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of 70.
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They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up.” Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms. But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus. 21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for [A]gaining excessive profits [B]failing to fulfill her duty [C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times 22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be [A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers 23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director’s surprise departure, the firm is likely to . . .

[A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits 24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm 25. The author’s attitude toward the role of outside directors is [A]permissive Text 2
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.

. [D]critical

[B]positive

[C]scornful

Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America’s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date. In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same. It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further. Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable. The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business. 26. By saying “Newspapers like … their own doom” (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author indicates that newspaper .

[A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies [C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation 27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because [A]readers threatened to pay less [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs [C]journalists reported little about these areas
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.

[D]subscribers complained about slimmer products 28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they .

[A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising [D]are less affected by readership 29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business? [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers. [B]Completeness is to blame for the failure of newspaper. [C]Foreign bureaus play a crucial role in the newspaper business. [D]Readers have lost their interest in car and film reviews. 30. The most appropriate title for this text would be [A]American Newspapers: Struggling for Survival [B]American Newspapers: Gone with the Wind [C]American Newspapers: A Thriving Business [D]American Newspapers: A Hopeless Story Text 3 We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growth, with soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus. But when it came to their houses, it was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the war, Americans had learned to live with less, and that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made small, efficient housing positively stylish. Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase “less is more” was actually first popularized by a German, the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who like other people associated with the Bauhaus, a school of design, emigrated to the United States before World War II and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture, but none more so that Mies. Mies’s signature phrase means that less decoration, properly organized, has more impact that a lot. Elegance, he believed, did not derive from abundance. Like other modern architects, he employed metal, glass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies’s sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty.
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.

The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive, for example, were smaller-two-bedroom units under 1,000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city’s Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass walls, the views they afforded and the elegance of the buildings’ details and proportions, the architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time. The trend toward “less” was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1,200 square feet-than the spreading twostory ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century. The “Case Study Houses” commissioned from talented modern architects by California Arts & Architecture magazine between 1945 and 1962 were yet another homegrown influence on the “less is more” trend. Aesthetic effect came from the landscape, new materials and forthright detailing. In his Case Study House, Ralph everyday life - few American families acquired helicopters, though most eventually got clothes dryers - but his belief that self-sufficiency was both desirable and inevitable was widely shared. 31. The postwar American housing style largely reflected the Americans’ [A]prosperity and growth [B]efficiency and practicality [C]restraint and confidence [D]pride and faithfulness 32. Which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3 about Bauhaus? [A]It was founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. [B]Its designing concept was affected by World War II. [C]Most American architects used to be associated with it. [D]It had a great influence upon American architecture. 33. Mies held that elegance of architectural design [A]was related to large space [B]was identified with emptiness [C]was not reliant on abundant decoration [D]was not associated with efficiency 34. What is true about the apartments Mies building Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive? [A]They ignored details and proportions. [B]They were built with materials popular at that time. [C]They were more spacious than neighboring buildings. [D]They shared some characteristics of abstract art. . .

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35. What can we learn about the design of the “Case Study House”? [A]Mechanical devices were widely used. [B]Natural scenes were taken into consideration [C]Details were sacrificed for the overall effect. [D]Eco-friendly materials were employed. Text 4 Will the European Union make it? The question would have sounded strange not long ago. Now even the project’s greatest cheerleader’s talk of a continent facing a “Bermuda triangle” of debt, population decline and lower growth. As well as those chronic problems, the EU faces an acute crisis in its economic core, the 16 countries that use the single currency. Markets have lost faith that the euro zone’s economies, weaker or stronger, will one day converge thanks to the discipline of sharing a single currency, which denies uncompetitive members the quick fix of devaluation. Yet the debate about how to save Europe’s single currency from disintegration is stuck. It is stuck because the euro zone’s dominant powers, France and Germany, agree on the need for greater harmonization within the euro zone, but disagree about what to harmonies. Germany thinks the euro must be saved by stricter rules on borrow spending and competitiveness, barked by quasi-automatic sanctions for governments that do not obey. These might include threats to freeze EU funds for poorer regions and EU mega-projects and even the suspension of a country’s voting rights in EU ministerial councils. It insists that economic coordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club, among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigors; in the inner core alone, Germany fears, a small majority favour French interference. A “southern” camp headed by French wants something different:”European economic government” within an inner core of euro-zone members. Translated, that means politicians intervening in monetary policy and a system of redistribution from richer to poorer members, via cheaper borrowing for governments through common Eurobonds or complete fiscal transfers. Finally, figures close to the France government have murmured, euro-zone members should agree to some fiscal and social harmonization: e.g., curbing competition in corporate-tax rates or labour costs. It is too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world’s largest trading block. At its best, the European project is remarkably liberal: built around a single market of 27 rich and poor countries, its internal borders are far more open to goods, capital and labour than any comparable trading area. It is an ambitious attempt to blunt the sharpest edges of globalization, and make capitalism benign. 36. The EU is faced with so many problems that .
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[A] it has more or less lost faith in markets [B] even its supporters begin to feel concerned [C] some of its member countries plan to abandon euro [D] it intends to deny the possibility of devaluation 37. The debate over the EU’s single currency is stuck because the dominant powers [A] are competing for the leading position [B] are busy handling their own crises [C] fail to reach an agreement on harmonization [D] disagree on the steps towards disintegration 38. To solve the euro problem, Germany proposed that [A] EU funds for poor regions be increased [B] stricter regulations be imposed [C] only core members be involved in economic co-ordination [D] voting rights of the EU members be guaranteed 39. The French proposal of handling the crisis implies that __ __. [A] poor countries are more likely to get funds [B] strict monetary policy will be applied to poor countries [C] loans will be readily available to rich countries [D] rich countries will basically control Eurobonds 40. Regarding the future of the EU, the author seems to feel __ __. [A] pessimistic [B] desperate [C] conceited [D] hopeful . .

Part B
Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about what parents are supposed to do to guide their children into adulthood. Choose a heading from the list A-G that best fits the meaning of each numbered part of the text(41-45). There are two extra headings that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Leading doctors today weigh in on the debate over the government's role in promoting public health by demanding that ministers impose "fat taxes" on unhealthy food and introduce cigarettestyle warnings to children about the dangers of a poor diet. The demands follow comments last week by the health secretary, Andrew Lansley, who insisted the government could not force people to make healthy choices and promised to free businesses from public health regulations. But senior medical figures want to stop fast-food outlets opening near schools, restrict advertising of products high in fat, salt or sugar, and limit sponsorship of sports events by fast-food
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producers such as McDonald's. They argue that government action is necessary to curb Britain's addiction to unhealthy food and help halt spiraling rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Professor Terence Stephenson, president of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, said that the consumption of unhealthy food should be seen to be just as damaging as smoking or binge drinking. "Thirty years ago, it would have been inconceivable to have imagined a ban on smoking in the workplace or in pubs, and yet that is what we have now. Are we willing to be just as courageous in respect of obesity? I would suggest that we should be," said the leader of the UK's children's doctors. Lansley has alarmed health campaigners by suggesting he wants industry rather than government to take the lead. He said that manufacturers of crisps and confectionery could play a central role in the Change4Life campaign, the centrepiece of government efforts to boost healthy eating and fitness. He has also criticised the celebrity chef Jamie Oliver's high-profile attempt to improve school lunches in England as an example of how "lecturing" people was not the best way to change their behaviour. Stephenson suggested potential restrictions could include banning TV advertisements for foods high in fat, salt or sugar before the 9pm watershed and limiting them on billboards or in cinemas. "If we were really bold, we might even begin to think of high-calorie fast food in the same way as cigarettes – by setting stringent limits on advertising, product placement and sponsorship of sports events," he said. Such a move could affect firms such as McDonald's, which sponsors the youth coaching scheme run by the Football Association. Fast-food chains should also stop offering "inducements" such as toys, cute animals and mobile phone credit to lure young customers, Stephenson said. Professor Dinesh Bhugra, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, said: "If children are taught about the impact that food has on their growth, and that some things can harm, at least information is available up front." He also urged councils to impose "fast-food-free zones" around schools and hospitals – areas within which takeaways cannot open. A Department of Health spokesperson said: "We need to create a new vision for public health where all of society works together to get healthy and live longer. This includes creating a new 'responsibility deal' with business, built on social responsibility, not state regulation. Later this year, we will publish a white paper setting out exactly how we will achieve this." The food industry will be alarmed that such senior doctors back such radical moves, especially the call to use some of the tough tactics that have been deployed against smoking over the last decade.

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A “fat taxes” should be imposed on fast-food producers such as McDonald’s B the government should ban fast-food outlets in the neighborhood of schools 41.Andrew Lansley held that C “lecturing” was an effective way to improve school lunches in England 42.Terence Stephenson agreed that D cigarette-style warnings should be introduced to children about the dangers of a poor diet 43.Jamie Oliver seemed to believe that E the producers of crisps and candies could contribute significantly to the Change4Life campaign 44.Dinesh Bhugra suggested that F parents should set good examples for their children by keeping a healthy diet at home 45.A Department of Health spokesperson proposed that G the government should strengthen the sense of responsibility among businesses Part C
Directions: In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Who would have thought that, globally, the IT industry produces about the same volume of greenhouse gases as the world’s airlines do—roughly 2 percent of all CO2 emissions? Many everyday tasks take a surprising toll on the environment. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2, depending on how many attempts are needed to get the “right” answer. To deliver results to its users quickly, then, Google has to maintain vast data centres round the world, packed with powerful computers. While producing large quantities of CO2, these computers emit a great deal of heat, so the centres need to be well air-conditioned, which uses even more energy. However, Google and other big tech providers monitor their efficiency closely and make improvements. Monitoring is the first step on the road to reduction, but there is much more to be done, and not just by big companies.
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Section IV Writing Part A Direction: Suppose your cousin, Liming, has just been admitted to a university, write him/her a letter to 1) congratulate him/her, and 2) give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life. Your should write about 100 words on ANSER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead. Do not write the address. (10 points)

Part B Directions: Write a short essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1) interpret the chart and 2) give your comments. You should write at least 150 words. Write your essay on ANWER SHEET 2.(15 points)

. 2008、2009 年国内轿车市场部分品牌市场份额示意图
从左至右依次:国产品牌 日系品牌 美系品牌

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2012 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points)

Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be. To the men and women who WarⅡand the people they liberated, the GI. was the 1 in World

2 man grown into hero, the poor farm kid

torn away from his home, the guy who 3 all the burdens of battle, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the 4 of food and shelter, who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of 5 an average guy up 6 the

murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well paid,

best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies seen in centuries. His name isn't much. GI. is just a military abbreviation all of the articles 8 7 .Government Issue, and it was on 9 it to the had a

to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never

top. Joe Blow, Joe Palooka. Joe Magrac...a working class name. The United States has 10 president or vice-president or secretary of state Joe. G.I. Joe had a 11 character. or a 12

career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a

of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of G.I. Joe, based on 13 portrayed

the last days of war correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers not how many miles were liberated. His reports Both men 17 16 14 15

side of the war, writing about the or what towns were captured or

the “Willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared Egypt, France,

the dirt and exhaustion of war, the

with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. 19 and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, in their lives. 1.[A] performed 2.[A] actual 3.[A] bore 4.[A] necessities 5.[A] and 6.[A] for 7.[A] meaning 8.[A] handed out 9.[A] pushed 10.[A] ever [B] served [B] common [B] cased [B] facilities [B] nor [B] into [B] implying [B] turn over [B] got [B] never [C] rebelled [C] special [C] removed [C] commodities [C] but [C] form [C] symbolizing [C] brought back [C] made [C] either 20

the most important person

[D] betrayed [D] normal [D] loaded [D] properties [D] hence [D] against [D] claiming

[D] passed down [D] managed [D] neither
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11.[A] disguised 12.[A] company 13.[A] employed 14.[A] ethical 15.[A] ruined 16.[A] paralleled 17.[A] neglected 18.[A] stages 19.[A] With 20.[A] on the contrary

[B] disturbed [B] collection [B] appointed [B] military [B] commuted [B] counteracted [B] avoided [B] illusions [B] To

[C] disputed [C] community [C] interviewed [C] political [C] patrolled [C] duplicated [C] emphasized [C] fragments [C] Among

[D] distinguished [D] colony [D] questioned [D] human [D] gained [D] contradicted [D] admired [D] advances [D] Beyond [D] at that point

[B] by this means [C] from the outset Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Text 1

Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade. This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children. District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule. At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.
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The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right. 21.It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____. [A] is receiving more criticism [B]is no longer an educational ritual [C]is not required for advanced courses [D]is gaining more preferences 22.L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____. [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education [B]have asked for a different educational standard [C]may have problems finishing their homework [D]have voiced their complaints about homework 23.According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____. [A]discourage students from doing homework [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards [C]undermine the authority of state tests [D]restrict teachers' power in education 24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated [B]it counts much in schooling [C]it places extra burdens on teachers [D]it is important for grades 25.A suitable title for this text could be______. [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students [C]Thorny Questions about Homework [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework Text 2 Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink intrinsically bad, but it is a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fused girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.
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Girls' attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it's not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What's more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children's marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem innately attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years. I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children's behaviour: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing gimmick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s. Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a "third stepping stone" between infant wear and older kids' clothes. It was only after "toddler" became common shoppers' term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist. 26. By saying "it is ... The rainbow"(line 3, Para 1), the author means pink _______. A. should not be the sole representation of girlhood B. should not be associated with girls' innocence C. cannot explain girls' lack of imagination D. cannot influence girls' lives and interests 27. According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours? A. Colors are encoded in girls' DNA B. Blue used to be regarded as the color for girls C. Pink used to be a neutral color in symbolizing genders D. White is preferred by babies 28. The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological devotement was much influenced by ________. [A] the marketing of products for children
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[B] the observation of children's nature [C] researches into children's behavior [D] studies of childhood consumption 29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised ________. A. focuses on infant wear and older kids' clothes B. attach equal importance to different genders C. classify consumers into smaller groups D. create some common shoppers' terms 30. It can be concluded that girl's attraction to pink seems to be _____. A. clearly explained by their inborn tendency B .fully understood by clothing manufacturers C .mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen D .well interpreted by psychological experts Text 3 In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were patented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle. On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed hold patents to two genes that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah, said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike. But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over. Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree. Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds.” Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of individual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court. As the industry advances, however, other suits may have an even greater impact. Companies
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are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules - most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy. Companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dots’, explains Hans Sauer, a lawyer for the BIO. Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO recently held a convention which included sessions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed. 31. It can be learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like______ A. their executives to be active B. judges to rule out gene patenting C. genes to be patentable D. the BIO to issue a warning 32. Those who are against gene patents believe that_____ A. genetic tests are not reliable B. only man-made products are patentable C. patents on genes depend much on innovations D. courts should restrict access to genetic tests 33. According to Hans Sauer, companies are eager to win patents for_____ A. establishing disease correlations B. discovering gene interactions C. drawing pictures of genes D. identifying human DNA 34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that_____ A. the Supreme Court was authoritative B. the BIO was a powerful organization C. gene patenting was a great concern D. lawyers were keen to attend conventions 35. Generally speaking, the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is_____ A. critical B. supportive C. scornful Text 4 The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, It will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years. No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they
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D. objective

had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending. But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. , lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes. Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them-- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind. In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden within American society. More difficult, in the moment, is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this recession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend. 36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___. [A]seek subsidies from the government [B]explore reasons for the unemployment [C]make profits from the troubled economy [D]look on the bright side of the recession 37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____. [A]realize the national dream [B]struggle against each other [C]challenge their lifestyle [D]reconsider their lifestyle 38. Benjamin Friedman believed that economic recession may_____. [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants [B]bring out more evils of human nature
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[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms [D]ease conflicts between races and classes 39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____. [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’ [D]recover more quickly than the others 40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____. [A]certain Part B
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)

[B]positive

[C]trivial

[D]destructive

“Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not. Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration. From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus - On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders. Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself." His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.
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This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals. Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: “It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.” This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding - from gender to race to cultural studies - were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.

[A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes. 41. Petrarch 42. Niccolo Machiavellli 43. Samuel Smiles 44. Thomas Carlyle 45. Marx and Engels [B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists. [C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate. [D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history. [E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. [F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders. [G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers.

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Part C
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate it into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. ( 15 points)

When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valsey or to hospitals and universities in the developed world. These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates. Lots of studies have found that well-education people form developing counting are particularly likely to emigrants , A big survey of Indian households in 2004found that nearly 40% of emigrants had morn than a high-school education ,compared with around 3.3%of all Indian over the age of 25. This "brain drain" has long bothered policymakers in poor counties .They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled worker who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospital and come up with clever new product for their factories to make
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Section IV Writing 47. Directions Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an online store the other day, Write an email to the customer service center to 1) Make a complaint and 2) Demand a prompt solution You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use "zhang wei "instead.

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48. Directions write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should 1) Describe the table, and 2) Give your comments You should write at least 150 words (15points)

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2013 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically.__1__, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been__2__for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very__3__of money itself,” only to 4 itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so__5__in coming? Although electronic means of payment may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work __6__ the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very__7__to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommuni8cations networks necessary to make electronic money the__8__form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they__9__receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to__10__. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of “float”—it takes several days__11__a check is cashed and funds are__12__from the issuer’s account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime. __13__electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment may__14__security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information__15__there. The fact that this is not an__16__occurrence means that dishonest persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and__17__from someone else’s accounts. The__18__of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a new field of computer science is developing to__19__security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic__20__that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby violating our privacy. 1. [A] However 2. [A] off 3. [A] power 4. [A] reward 5. [A] silent 6. [A] for 7. [A] imaginative [B] Moreover [B] back [B] concept [B] resist [B] sudden [B] against [B] expensive [C]Therefore [C] over [C] history [C] resume [C] slow [C] with [C] sensitive [D]Otherwise [D] around [D] role [D] reverse [D] steady [D] on [D] productive
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8. [A] similar 9. [A] collect 10. [A] give up 11. [A] before 12. [A] kept 13. [A] Unless 14. [A] hide 15. [A] analyzed 16. [A] unsafe 17. [A] steal 18. [A] consideration 19. [A] cope with 20. [A] chunk

[B] original [B] provide [B] take over [B] after [B] borrowed [B] Until [B] express [B] shared [B] unnatural [B] choose [B] prevention [B] fight against [B] chip

[C] temporary [C] copy [C] bring back [C] since [C] released [C] Because [C] raise [C] stored [C] uncommon [C] benefit [C] manipulation [C] adapt to [C] path

[D] dominant [D] print [D] pass down [D] when [D] withdrawn [D] Though [D] ease [D] displayed [D] unclear [D] return [D] justification [D] call for [D] trail

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

Text 1 In an essay entitled “Making It in America,” the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton country about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill has only two employees today, “a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.” Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker. In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle. But, today, average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra—their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment. Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes, “ In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers
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so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs—about 6 million in total—disappeared.” There will always be changed—new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average. In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to post-high school education. 21.The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate. [A] the impact of technological advances [B] the alleviation of job pressure [C] the shrinkage of textile mills [D] the decline of middle-class incomes 22.According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to. [A] work on cheap software [B] ask for a moderate salary [C] adopt an average lifestyle [D] contribute something unique 23.The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that. [A] gains of technology have been erased [B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed [C] factories are making much less money than before [D] new jobs and services have been offered 24.According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is. [A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution [B] to ensure more education for people [C] to advance economic globalization [D] to pass more bills in the 21st century 25.Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text? [A] New Law Takes Effect [B] Technology Goes Cheap [C] Average Is Over [D] Recession Is Bad

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Text 2 A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and who would make some money and go home. Between 1908 and 1915, about 7 million people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage. Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or brand them as aliens to be kicked out. That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges. Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas. They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them. They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another. With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably. Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle. Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes, including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system. 26.“Birds of passage” refers to those who. [A] immigrate across the Atlantic [B] leave their home countries for good [C] stay in a foreign country temporarily [D] find permanent jobs overseas 27.It is implied in Paragraph 2 that the current immigration system in the U.S.. [A] needs new immigrant categories [B] has loosened control over immigrants [C] should be adapted to meet challenges
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[D] has been fixed via political means 28.According to the author, today’s birds of passage want. [A] financial incentives [B] a global recognition [C] opportunities to get regular jobs [D] the freedom to stay and leave 29.The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated. [A] as faithful partners [B] with economic favors [C] with legal tolerance [D] as mighty rivals 30.Which is the best title for the passage? [A] Come and Go: Big Mistake [B] Living and Thriving: Great Risk [C] Legal or Illegal: Big Mistake [D] With or Without: Great Risk Text 3 Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses. Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness. But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing. Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long. Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their
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biases—or hire outside screeners. John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation: two days, not two seconds. Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: dog can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend. 31.The time needed in making decisions may. [A] vary according to the urgency of the situation [B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction [C] depend on the importance of the assessment [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment 32.Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snap decisions. [A] can be associative [B] are not unconscious [C] can be dangerous [D] are not impulsive 33.To reverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should. [A] trust our first impression [B] do as people usually do [C] think before we act [D] ask for expert advice 34.John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on. [A] critical assessment [B] “thin sliced” study [C] sensible explanation [D] adequate information 35.The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is. [A] tolerant [B] uncertain [C] optimistic [D] doubtful
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Text 4 Europe is not a gender-equality heaven. In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family-friendly until women are part of senior management decisions, and Europe’s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male. Indeed, women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards. The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women—up to 60 percent. This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up. Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate ladder fairly as they balance work and family? “Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But I like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions. I understand Reding’s reluctance—and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. But, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered. After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as well as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position—no matter how much “soft pressure” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power—as, for example, Shery Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule. If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women—whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers—and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society. 36.In the European corporate workplace, generally. [A] women take the lead [B] men have the final say [C] corporate governance is overwhelmed [D] senior management is family-friendly 37.The European Union’s intended legislation is. [A] a reflection of gender balance
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[B] a reluctant choice [C] a response to Reding’s call [D] a voluntary action 38.According to Reding, quotas may help women. [A] get top business positions [B] see through the glass ceiling [C] balance work and family [D] anticipate legal results 39.The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of. [A] skepticism [B] objectiveness [C] indifference [D] approval 40.Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of. [A] more social justice [B] massive media attention [C] suitable public policies [D] greater “soft pressure” Part B
Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list AG for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Live like a peasant [B] Balance your diet [C] Shopkeepers are your friends [D] Remember to treat yourself [E] Stick to what you need [F] Planning is everything [G] Waste not, want not The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning £130,000 a year working in corporate communications and eating at London’s best restaurants at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious.“The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I’d lost. But it’s still a day-by-day thing.”Now he’s living in a council flat and
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fielding offers from literary agents. He’s feeling positive, but he’ll carry on blogging—not about eating as cheaply as you can—“there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food”—but eating well on a budget. Here’s his advice for economical foodies. 41. Impulsive spending isn’t an option, so plan your week’s menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it’s not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It’s also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being human, you’ll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy. 42. This is where supermarkets and their anonymity come in handy. With them, there’s not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you’ll know that you only need, say, 350g of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre-packed in the supermarket chiller. 43. You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer—that’s not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you’ll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to “go off”will be cooked or juiced. 44 . Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you’ll feel comfortable asking if they’ve any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, they’ll let you have for free. 45. You won’t be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant—£1.75 a week for three months gives you £21—more than enough for a three’course lunch at Michelin’starred Arbutus. It’s £16.95 there—or £12.99 for a large pizza from Domino’s: I know which I’d rather eat. Section III Translation

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46.Directions:Translate the following text from English to Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2.(15 points)

I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week. I’ve been able to do this, since I was 4. I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs. My mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away neatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everybody does—try to put it to one side. I don’t think it’s harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn’t make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical Hair opened on Broadway on the same day—they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

Section IV Writing Part A 47.Directions:Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale for kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to 1) inform them about the details and 2) encourage them to participate. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. Don’t write your address.(10 points) Part B 48.Directions:Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should 1) interpret the chart, and 2) give your comments. You should write about 150 words.(15 points)

某高校学生兼职情况

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2014 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health. Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese. While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI. Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools. 1. [A] denied 2. [A] protective 3. [A] Instead 4. [A] indicator 5. [A] impact 6. [A] in terms of 7. [A] measures 8. [A] in essence 9. [A] complicated 10. [A] so 11. [A] shape [B] conduced [B] dangerous [B] However [B] objective [B] relevance [B] in case of [B] determines [B] in contrast [B] conservative [B] unlike [B] spirit [C] doubled [C] sufficient [C] Likewise [C] origin [C] assistance [C] in favor of [C] equals [C] in turn [C] variable [C] since [C] balance [D] ensured [D]troublesome [D] Therefore [D] example [D] concern [D] in of [D] modifies [D] in part [D straightforward [D] unless [D] taste
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12. [A] start 13. [A] strange 14. [A] option 15. [A] employed 16. [A]compared 17. [A] Even 18. [A] despised 19. [A] discussions 20. [A] for

[B] quality [B] changeable [B] reason [B] pictured [B] combined [B] Still [B] corrected [B] businesses [B] against

[C] retire [C] normal [C] opportunity [C] imitated [C] settled [C] Yet [C] ignored [C] policies [C] with

[D] stay [D] constant [D] tendency [D] monitored [D] associated [D] Only [D] grounded [D] studies [D] without

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1 What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton. These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memoriesparticularly if they involve feeling more connected to others. This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession. Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier
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than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent。 21.According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase? [A]A big house [B]A special tour [C]A stylish car [D]A rich meal 22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is [A]critical [B]supportive [C]sympathetic [D]ambiguous

23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that [A]consumers are sometimes irrational [B]popularity usually comes after quality [C]marketing tricks are after effective [D]rarity generally increases pleasure 24.According to the last paragraph,Happy Money [A]has left much room for readers’criticism [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase [C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement 25.This text mainly discusses how to [A]balance feeling good and spending money [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries Text 2 An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others— all obviously statistical impossibilities. We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become
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defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff. Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into selfenhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must didthey genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher selfesteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves. 26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______. [A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect [C] our need for leadership is unnatural [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective 27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______ [A] rapid watching [C] intuitive response [B] conscious choice [D] automatic self-defence

28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______ [A] underestimate their insecurities [B] believe in their attractiveness [C] cover up their depressions [D] oversimplify their illusions 29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
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[A]instinctively [C]particularly

[B]occasionally [D]aggressively

]30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can _____. [A]present their dishonest profiles [B]define their traditional life styles [C]share their intellectual pursuits [D]withhold their unflattering sides Text 4 When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned. Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged. Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes. The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%. Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues. But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing ? 4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of largescale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate. 36. The author believes that the housing sector__
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[A] has attracted much attention [B] involves certain political factors [C] shoulders too much responsibility [D] has lost its real value in economy 37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__ [A] increased its home supply [C] suffered government biases [B] offered spending opportunities [D] disappointed the government

38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______. [A] allow greater government debt for housing [B] stop local authorities from building homes [C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt [D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast 39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______. [A]lower the costs of registered providers [B]lessen the impact of government interference [C]contribute to funding new developments [D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities 40.The author believes that after 2015,the government may______. [A]implement more policies to support housing [B]review the need for large-scale public grants [C]renew the affordable housing grants programme [D]stop generous funding to the housing sector PartB
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)

Uncommon Ground - Land Art in Britain
The term Land Art brings to mind epic interventions in the land such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty, 6,500 tons of basalt, earth and salt projecting into Utah's Great Salt Lake, or Roden Crater, an extinct volcano in Arizona, which James Turrell has been transforming into an immense naked-eye observatory since 1979. Richard Long's A Line Made By Walking, however, involved nothing more strenuous than a 20-minute train ride from Waterloo. Having got off somewhere in suburbia, the artist walked backwards and forwards over a piece of grass until the squashed turf formed a line - a kind of drawing on the land.

Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies, Land Art was one of a range of new forms, including Body Art, Performance Art, Action Art and Installation Art, which pushed
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art beyond the traditional confines of the studio and gallery. Rather than portraying landscape, land artists used the physical substance of the land itself as their medium. The message of this survey of British land art -- the most comprehensive to date -- is that the British variant, typified by Long's piece, was not only more domestically scaled, but a lot quirkier than its American counterpart. Indeed, while you might assume that an exhibition of Land Art would consist only of records of works rather than the works themselves, Long's photograph of his work is the work. Since his "action" is in the past the photograph is its sole embodiment. That might seem rather an obscure point, but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects. Long is Britain's best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most of the time. Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard's very funny Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph. Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating towards landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn't apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Wordsworth would have readily understood. Derek Jarman's yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash. In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can't help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn't about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable.

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[A] originates from a long walk that the artist took 41. Stone Circle 42. Olaf Street Study 43. Across the Park 44. Towards Avebury 45. Seven days [B] illustrates a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art [C] reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition. [D] represents the elegance of the British land art [E] depicts the ordinary side of the British land art [F] embodies a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors [G] contains images from different parts of the same photograph.

Section III Translation
Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best. Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

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Section IV Writing 47. Directions:
Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to 1)tell him about your living habits, and 2)ask for advice about living there. You should write about 100 words on answer sheet. Do not use your own name.

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Part B 48. Directions: Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points) You should interpret the chart, and give your comments. You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)

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2015 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题
Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions:Read the following text。Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with -- or even looking at -- a stranger is virtually unbearable. Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a __1__underground. It's a sad reality -- our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings -- because there's _2 to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you. But you wouldn't know it, __3__into your phone. This universal armor sends the __4__: "Please don't approach me." What is it that makes us feel we need to hide __5__our screens? One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach. We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be __6__as "creepy,". We fear we'll be __7__ We fear we'll be disruptive. Strangers are inherently __8__to us, so we are more likely to feel _9__when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances. To avoid this anxiety, we __10__to our phones. "Phones become our security blanket," Wortmann says. "They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more__11__." But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't __12__ so bad. In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a __13__. They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow _14_. "When Dr. Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to _ 15_ how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their_ 16_ would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they _17 _with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed." _18 _ , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, _19 _human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that _20_ : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected. 1. [A] ticket 2. [A] nothing 3. [A] beaten 4. [A] message 5. [A] under 6. [A] misinterprete 7. [A] fired [B] permit [B] link [B] guided [B] cede [B] beyond [B] misapplied [B] judged [C] signall [C] another [C] plugged [C] notice [C] behind [C] misadjusted [C] replaced [D] record [D] much [D] brought [D] sign [D] from [D] mismatched [D] delayed
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8. [A] unreasonable 9. [A] comfortable 10. [A] attend 11. [A] dangerous 12. [A] hurt 13. [A] lecture 14. [A] trainees 15. [A] reveal 16. [A] voyage 17. [A] went through 18. [A] In turn 19. [A] unless 20. [A] funny

[B] ungreatful [B] anxious [B] point [B] mysterious [B] resist [B] conversation [B] employees [B] choose [B] flight [B] did away [B] In particular [B] since [B] simple

[C] unconventional [C] confident [C] take [C] violent [C] bend [C] debate [C] researchers [C] predict [C] walk [C] caught up [C] In fact [C] if [C] logical

[D] unfamiliar [D] angry [D] turn [D] boring [D] decay [D] negotiation [D] passengers [D] design [D] ride [D] put up [D In consequence [D] whereas [D] rare

Section II Reading Comprehension Part A
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1 A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys, people are actually more stressed at home that at work. Researchers measured people’s cortisol, which is stress marker, while they were at work and while they were at home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge. “Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as men have lower levels of stress at work than at home,” writes one of the researchers, Sarah Damaske. In fact women even say they feel better at work, she notes, “It is men, not women, who report being happier at home than at work.” Another surprise is that the findings hold true for both those with children and without, but more so for nonparents. This is why people who work outside the home have better health. What the study doesn’t measure is whether people are still doing work when they’re at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the workplace in making adjustments for working women, it’s not surprising that women are more stressed at home. But it’s not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what they’re supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The
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bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola. On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most of them. Your home colleagues- your family- have no clear rewards for their labor; they need to be talked into it, or if they’re teenagers, threatened with complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, they’re your family. You cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home. So it’s not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are the tasks apparently infinite, the co- workers are much harder to motivate. 21. According to Paragraph 1, most previous surveys found that home_______ [A] was an unrealistic place for relaxation [B] generated more stress than the workplace [C] was an ideal place for stress measurement [D] offered greater relaxation than the workplace 22. According to Damaske, who are likely to be the happiest at home? [A] Working mothers [B] Childless husbands [C] Childless wives [D] Working fathers 23. The blurring of working women’s roles refers to the fact thay_______ [A] they are both bread winners and housewives [B] their home is also a place for kicking back [C] there is often much housework left behind [D] it is difficult for them to leave their office 24. The word “moola”(Line 4, Para 4) most probably means_______ [A] energy [B] skills [C] earnings [D] nutrition 25. The home front differs from the workplace in that_______ [A] home is hardly a cozier working environment [B] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut [C] household tasks are generally more motivating [D] family labor is often adequately rewarded
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Text2 For years, studies have found that first-generation college students- those who do not have a parent with a college degree- lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. This has created “a paradox” in that recruiting first- generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has “continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close” ab achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science. But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach (which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap (measured by such factors as grades) between first-generation and other students. The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findings are based on a study involving 147 students ( who completed the project) at an unnamed private university. First generation was defined as not having a parent with a four-year college degree. Most of the firstgeneration students(59.1 percent) were recipients of Pell Grants, a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need, while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree. Their thesis- that a relatively modest intervention could have a big impact- was based on the view that first-generation students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students. They cite past research by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be narrowed to close the achievement gap. Many first- generation students “struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher education, learn the ‘rules of the game,’ and take advantage of college resources,” they write. And this becomes more of a problem when collages don’t talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students. Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students ’educational experience, many first-generation students lack sight about why they are struggling and do not understand how students’ like them can improve. 26. Recruiting more first- generation students has_______ [A] reduced their dropout rates [B] narrowed the achievement gao [C] missed its original purpose [D] depressed college students
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27. The author of the research article are optimistic because_______ [A] the problem is solvable [B] their approach is costless [C] the recruiting rate has increased [D] their finding appeal to students 28. The study suggests that most first- generation students______ [A] study at private universities [B] are from single-parent families [C] are in need of financial support [D] have failed their collage 29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students_______ [A] are actually indifferent to the achievement gap [B] can have a potential influence on other students [C] may lack opportunities to apply for research projects [D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college 30. We may infer from the last paragraph that_______ [A] universities often reject the culture of the middle-class [B] students are usually to blame for their lack of resources [C] social class greatly helps enrich educational experiences [D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question Text3 Even in traditional offices, “the lingua franca of corporate America has gotten much more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago,” said Harvard Business School professor Nancy Koehn. She started spinning off examples. “If you and I parachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990, we would see much less frequent use of terms like journey, mission, passion. There were goals, there were strategies, there were objectives, but we didn’t talk about energy; we didn’t talk about passion.” Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabulary is very “team”-oriented—and not by coincidence. “Let’s not forget sports—in male-dominated corporate America, it’s still a big deal. It’s not explicitly conscious; it’s the idea that I’m a coach, and you’re my team, and we’re in this together. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companies, but most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win.” These terms are also intended to infuse work with meaning—and, as Khurana points out, increase allegiance to the firm. “You have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit organizations and religious organizations: Terms like vision, values,
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passion, and purpose,” said Khurana. This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance. The “mommy wars” of the 1990s are still going on today, prompting arguments about why women still can’t have it all and books like Sheryl Sandberg’s Lean In, whose title has become a buzzword in its own right. Terms like unplug, offline, life-hack, bandwidth, and capacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home. But if your work is your “passion,” you’ll be more likely to devote yourself to it, even if that means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed. But this seems to be the irony of office speak: Everyone makes fun of it, but managers love it, companies depend on it, and regular people willingly absorb it. As Nunberg said, “You can get people to think it’s nonsense at the same time that you buy into it.” In a workplace that’s fundamentally indifferent to your life and its meaning, office speak can help you figure out how you relate to your work—and how your work defines who you are. 31. According to Nancy Koehn,office language has become_____ [A] more emotional [C] less energetic [B] more objective [D] less strategic

32. “team”-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to_______ [A] historical incidents [C] sports culture [B] gender difference [D] athletic executives

33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to______ [A] revive historical terms [B] promote company image [C] foster corporate cooperation [D] strengthen employee loyalty 34.It can be inferred that Lean In________ [A] voices for working women [B] appeals to passionate workaholics [C] triggers dcbates among mommies [D] praises motivated employees 35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak? [A] Managers admire it but avoid it [B] Linguists believe it to be nonsense [C] Companies find it to be fundamental [D] Regular people mock it but accept it

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Text 4 Many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the Labor Department reported for June, along with the drop in the unemployment rate to 6.1 percent, as good news. And they were right. For now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. We still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace. However, there is another important part of the jobs picture that was largely overlooked. There was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time. This figure is now 830,000(4.4 percent) above its year ago level. Before explaining the connection to the Obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. Many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. They take part-time work because this is all they can get. An increase in involuntary part-time in June, but the general direction has been down. Involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9 percent) from its year ago level. We know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. The survey used by the Labor Department asks people if they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. If the answer is “yes,” they are classified as working part-time. They survey then asks whether they worked less than 35 hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice. They are only classified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a week. The issue of voluntary part-time relates to Obamacare because one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. For many people, especially those with serious health conditions of family members with serious health conditions, before Obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance. However, Obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through Medicaid or the exchanges. These are people who may previously have felt the need to get a fulltime job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. With Obamacare there is no longer a link between employment and insurance. 36. Which part of the jobs picture was neglected? A. The prospect of a thriving job market. B. The increase of voluntary part-time jobs. C. The possibility of full employment. D. The acceleration of job creation. 37. Many people work part-time because they A. prefer part-time jobs to full-time jobs B. feel that is enough to make ends meet
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C. cannot get their hands on full-time jobs D. haven’t seen the weakness of the market 38. Involuntary part-time employment in the US A. is harder to acquire than one year ago B. shows a general tendency of decline C. satisfies the real need of the jobless D. is lower than before the recession 39. It can be learned that with Obamacare, __________. A. it is no longer easy for part-timers to get insurance B. employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance C. it is still challenging to get insurance for family members D. full-time employment is still essential for insurance. 40. The text mainly discusses____________. A. employment in the US B. part-timer classification C. insurance through Medicaid D. Obamacare’s trouble Part B
Directions:Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Make your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A]You are not alone [B]Experience helps you grow [C]Pave your own unique path [D]Most of your fears are unreal [E]Think about the present moment [F]Don’t fear responsibility for your life [G]There are many things to be grateful for Some Old Truths to Help You Overcome Tough Times Unfortunately, life is not a bed of roses. We are going through life facing sad experiences. Moreover, we are grieving various kinds of loss: a friendship, romantic relationship or a house .Hard times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time, but you should remember that they won’t last forever. When our time of mourning is over, we press forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life. Furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventually move us toward future
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opportunities for growth and happiness. I want to share these old truths I’ve learned along the way. 41._______________________________ Fear is both useful and harmful. This normal human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to deal with it. Unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of exaggerating fears. My favorite actor Will Smith once said, “Fear is not real. It is a product of thoughts you create. Do not misunderstand me. Danger is very real. But fear is a choice.” I do completely agree that fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination. 42.________________________________ If you are surrounded by problems and cannot stop thinking about the past, try to focus on the present moment. Many of us are weighed down by the past or anxious about the future. You may feel guilt over your past, but you are poisoning the present with the things and circumstances you cannot change. Value the present moment and remember how fortunate you are to be alive. Enjoy the beauty of the world around and keep the eyes open to see the possibilities before you. Happiness is not a point of future and not a moment from the past, but a mindset that can be designed into the present. 43.________________________________ Sometimes it is easy to feel bad because you are going through tough times. You can be easily caught up by life problems that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. Only strong people prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about something. 44._______________________________ No matter how isolated you might feel and how serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone. Try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and nearest people. You may have a circle of friends who provide constant good humor, help and companionship. If you have no friends or relatives, try to participate in several online communities, full of people who are always willing to share advice and encouragement. 45._______________________________ Today many people find it difficult to trust their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external sources. This way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of managing your own life. When you are struggling to achieve something important you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best. You live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your own choices.

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Section III Translation
46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Think about driving a route that’s very familiar. It could be your commute to work, a trip into town or the way home. Whichever it is, you know every twist and turn like the back of your hand. On these sorts of trips it’s easy to zone out from the actual driving and pay little attention to the passing scenery. The consequence is that you perceive that the trip has taken less time than it actually has. This is the well-travelled road effect: people tend to underestimate the time it takes to travel a familiar route. The effect is caused by the way we allocate our attention. When we travel down a well-known route, because we don’t have to concentrate much, time seems to flow more quickly. And afterwards, when we come to think back on it, we can’t remember the journey well because we didn’t pay much attention to it. So we assume it was shorter.

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Section IV Writing Part A 47. Directions: Suppose your university is going to host a summer camp for high school students. Write a notice (1) briefly introduce the camp activities, and (2) call for volunteers You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not use your name or the name of your university. Do not write your address.

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Part B 48. Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, your should (1) interpret the chart,and (2) give your comment. You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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