当前位置:首页 >> 电力/水利 >>

porphyry Cu Sinclair


PORPHYRY DEPOSITS
W.D. SINCLAIR
Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E8 E-mail: dsinclai@NRCan.gc.ca

Definition Porphyry deposits are large, low- to medium-grade deposits in which primary (hypogene) ore minerals are dominantly structurally controlled and which are spatially and genetically related to felsic to intermediate porphyritic intrusions (Kirkham, 1972). The large size and structural control (e.g., veins, vein sets, stockworks, fractures, 'crackled zones' and breccia pipes) serve to distinguish porphyry deposits from a variety of deposits that may be peripherally associated, including skarns, high-temperature mantos, breccia pipes, peripheral mesothermal veins, and epithermal precious-metal deposits. Secondary minerals may be developed in supergene-enriched zones in porphyry Cu deposits by weathering of primary sulphides. Such zones typically have significantly higher Cu grades, thereby enhancing the potential for economic exploitation. The following subtypes of porphyry deposits are defined according to the metals that are essential to the economics of the deposit (metals that are byproducts or potential byproducts are listed in brackets): Cu (±Au, Mo, Ag, Re, PGE) Cu-Mo (±Au, Ag) Cu-Mo-Au (±Ag) Cu-Au (±Ag, PGE)

Au (±Ag, Cu, Mo) Mo (±W, Sn) W-Mo (±Bi, Sn) Sn (±W, Mo, Ag, Bi, Cu, Zn, In) Sn-Ag (±W, Cu, Zn, Mo, Bi) Ag (±Au, Zn, Pb) For deposits with currently subeconomic grades and tonnages, subtypes are based on probable coproduct and byproduct metals, assuming that the deposits were economic. Geographical Distribution Porphyry deposits occur throughout the world in a series of extensive, relatively narrow, linear metallogenic provinces (Fig. 1). They are predominantly associated with Mesozoic to Cenozoic orogenic belts in western North and South America and around the western margin of the Pacific Basin, particularly within the South East Asian Archipelago. However, major deposits also occur within Paleozoic orogens in Central Asia and eastern North America and, to a lesser extent, within Precambrian terranes. The distribution of selected porphyry deposits in Canada is shown in Figure 2.

Figure. 1. Global distribution of porphyry deposits.

W.D. Sinclair Importance Porphyry deposits are the world's most important source of Cu, Mo and Re, and are major sources of Au, Ag and Sn; significant byproduct metals include W, In, Pt, Pd and Se. They account for about 50 to 60 per cent of world Cu production, although less than 50 per cent of Canadian Cu production is from porphyry deposits. This is primarily because of important Canadian Cu production from Cu-Ni ores at Sudbury and from numerous volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits scattered across the country. About 60 per cent of Canadian Cu reserves are in porphyry deposits, largely in the Cordillera (Fig. 2), but they include a considerable amount of low-grade Cu resources that are currently subeconomic. Porphyry deposits account for more than 99 per cent of both Canadian and world Mo production and reserves. In the past few years, porphyry Cu-Au (e.g., Kemess, B.C.) and porphyry Au (e.g., Troilus, Quebec) deposits have become increasingly important sources of Au. At present (2004), no porphyry W-Mo or Sn deposits are in production in Canada. Grade and Tonnage Porphyry deposits are large and typically contain hundreds of millions of tonnes of ore, although they range in size from tens of millions to billions of tonnes; grades for the different metals vary considerably but generally average less than one per cent (Appendix 1). In porphyry Cu deposits, Cu grades range from 0.2% to more than 1% Cu (Fig. 3); Mo content ranges from approximately 0.005 to about 0.03% Mo (Fig. 4); and Au contents range from 0.004 to 0.35 g/t (Fig. 5). Ag content ranges from 0.2 to 5 g/t. Re is also a significant byproduct from some porphyry Cu deposits; at Island Copper, for example, Re was extracted from molybdenite concentrates

Figure 2. Distribution of selected porphyry deposits in Canada.

2

Porphyry Synthesis probably an intensely deformed porphyry deposit (Fraser, 1993), contains about 71 Mt of material grading 0.93 g Au/t and 0.1% Cu. Grade-tonnage relationships for porphyry Mo deposits show that the very large and rich Climax and Henderson deposits in Colorado, with resources of 907 Mt grading 0.24% Mo and 727 Mt grading 0.17% Mo respectively, are end members of a spectrum of Mo-bearing deposits, most of which have lower Mo grades and/or tonnages (Fig. 4). The geological resources of the Endako deposit, for example, are about 336 Mt with an average grade of 0.07% Mo. Limited data are available for W and Sn grades in most porphyry Mo deposits, but some deposits, such as Climax, have produced

Figure 3. Cu grades versus tonnage for Canadian and foreign porphyry deposits.

that typically contained more than 1000 ppm Re. Some Aurich porphyry Cu deposits have relatively high contents of Pt-group elements (PGE)(Mutschler and Mooney, 1995; Tarkian and Stribrny, 1999). Cu grades in porphyry Cu-Au deposits are comparable to those of the porphyry Cu subtype (Fig. 3), but Au contents tend to be consistently higher (0.2 to 2.0 g/t)(Fig. 5). Sillitoe (1993b) suggested that porphyry Cu deposits should contain >0.4 g Au/t to be called Au rich. However, Au is an important coproduct at grades as low as 0.2 g/t Au (Fig. 6). Although the number of deposits in this class is limited,

Figure 5. Au grades versus tonnage for Canadian and foreign porphyry deposits.

significant amounts of W and Sn. Cu and Mo contents indicate that a continuum exists between porphyry Cu and porphyry Mo deposits (Fig. 7). End member deposits are abundant and important economically but deposits with intermediate Cu and Mo contents indicate that porphyry Cu deposits, with minor or no Mo, grade to porphyry Mo deposits with negligible Cu contents (e.g., Westra and Keith, 1981). A continuum may also exist between porphyry Mo and porphyry W-Mo and W deposits, although more data are required to substantiate such a rela-

Figure 4. Mo grades versus tonnage for Canadian and foreign porphyry deposits.

deposits such as Grasberg in Indonesia, with a resource greater than 2.5 billion tonnes grading 1.1% Cu and 1.04 g Au/t (Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Inc., Annual Report 2000), indicate that porphyry Cu-Au deposits can contain major Au as well as Cu resources. In comparison, the Kemess South deposit in British Columbia contains about 212 Mt grading 0.63% Cu and 0.215 g/t Au. Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits also contain significant amounts of PGE (e.g, Afton; Appendix 1). Porphyry Au deposits contain 0.8 to 2.0 g Au/t in deposits that range in size from about 30 to greater than 200 Mt of ore (Fig. 5). The Troilus deposit, Quebec, which is

Figure 6. Au versus Cu grades in Canadian and foreign porphyry deposits.

3

W.D. Sinclair Troilus, Quebec (Fraser, 1993). Other examples of Precambrian porphyry deposits include McIntyre and Setting Net Lake, Ontario; Clark Lake and McLeod Lake, Quebec; and Coppin Gap, Australia. Dated at approximately 3.3 Ga (Williams and Collins, 1990), the Coppin Gap CuMo deposit is the oldest known porphyry deposit in the world.

Figure 7. Mo versus Cu grades in Canadian and foreign porphyry deposits.

tionship. These examples illustrate some of the difficulties in making sharp distinctions between different porphyry deposit subtypes and one reason for viewing porphyry deposits as a single large class of deposits characterized by diverse metal contents with gradational boundaries between metal subtypes.

Figure 9. Schematic diagram showing the tectonic settings of porphyry deposits.

Continental Scale (Geotectonic Environment) Tectonic Setting Porphyry deposits occur in a variety of tectonic settings. Porphyry Cu deposits typically occur in the root zones of andesitic stratovolcanoes in subduction-related, continentaland island-arc settings (Mitchell and Garson, 1972; Sillitoe, 1973, 1988a; Sillitoe and Bonham, 1984)(Fig. 9). Porphyry Cu-Au deposits, such as those associated with Triassic and Lower Jurassic silica-saturated, alkaline intrusions in British Columbia, formed in an island-arc setting, although possibly during periods of extension. Grasberg and Porgera formed in a continental-island-arc collisional zone during or immediately following subduction (MacDonald and Arnold, 1994; Richards and Kerrich, 1993). Porphyry Au deposits of Tertiary age in the Maricunga belt in Chile appear to have formed in a continental-arc setting along strike to the north from major porphyry Cu deposits of the same general age (Sillitoe, 1992, 1993b). Porphyry Mo deposits are typically associated with anorogenic or A-type granites that have been emplaced in continental settings, particularly rift or extensional environments (Fig. 9). The Climax and Henderson deposits, for example, are genetically related to small cupolas (small plugs and stocks) on the upper surface of a regional batholith emplaced during active extension in the Rio Grande rift (Bookstrom, 1981; Carten et al., 1988b, 1993). Other por-

Figure 8. Age distribution of porphyry deposits.

Geological Attributes Temporal Distribution Porphyry deposits range in age from Archean to Recent, although most are Jurassic or younger (Fig. 8). On a global basis, the peak periods for development of porphyry deposits are Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene in age. These ages also correspond to peak periods of porphyry mineralization in Canada, except Miocene, of which age there are few deposits in Canada. Although porphyry-type deposits of Precambrian age are not as well represented, important examples include Malanjkhand, India (Sikka and Nehru, 1997), Tongkuangyu, China (Weixing and Dazhong, 1987), Boddington, Australia (Roth et al., 1991), Haib, Namibia (Minnitt, 1986) and 4

Porphyry Synthesis phyry Mo deposits appear to have formed during extension in areas adjacent to strike-slip faults (e.g., northern Cordillera - Quartz Hill, Adanac, Casmo and Mount Haskins)(Fig. 9). A few deposits, such as Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick and Questa, New Mexico, are associated with high-silica rhyolites and granites that formed in continental calderas (Lipman, 1988; McCutcheon, 1990; McCutcheon et al., 1997). For most porphyry deposits, however, the depth of erosion is such that caldera settings are conjectural (e.g., Lipman, 1984). Some porphyry Mo deposits, along with porphyry WMo and porphyry Sn deposits, formed in areas of great continental thickness related to collisional tectonic settings, although the deposits generally postdate the collision event. Porphyry Sn deposits in Bolivia, in particular, are related to S-type peraluminous intrusions that were emplaced above deep levels of a Benioff Zone (Ishihara, 1981; Kontak and Clark, 1988; Lehmann, 1990). Details of each setting and related controls on magma generation, composition and emplacement conceivably had a major influence on the size, metal contents and nature of individual deposits. However, exceptions to typical settings, such as the Tribag and Jogran porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Ontario that apparently are related to a continental rift environment (Kirkham, 1973; Norman and Sawkins, 1985), and the Malmbjerg porphyry Mo deposit in East Greenland, which is related to the Iceland mantle plume, indicate that individual porphyry deposits can occur in diverse and unique settings. Regional Structures In some cases, the distribution of porphyry deposits can be related to regional structures. The Rio Grande rift system in the western United States, for example, is the locus for porphyry Mo deposits (Bookstrom, 1981). The West Fissure zone along strike of the Eocene porphyry Cu belt in northern Chile, from El Salvador in the south to past Collahausi in the north, was active both during and following porphyry emplacement and hydrothermal activity (Baker and Guilbert, 1987). Also within this belt, cross structures apparently controlled the distribution of individual deposits such as Quebrada Blanca, Collahausi and Escondida (Sillitoe, 1992; Richards et al., 2001). The major Philippine strike-slip fault system in the northern part of the island arc system, similar to the West Fissure zone in northern Chile, was probably also a control on the location of major magmatic and hydrothermal centres, which might be localized in areas that are pullapart structures at dilational bends. In many districts, however, perhaps because of intense alteration and multiple intrusions, regional structural control is obscure. Deposit Scale Geological Setting and Related Magmatic Rocks Porphyry deposits occur in close association with porphyritic epizonal and mesozonal intrusions, typically in the root zones of andesitic stratovolcanoes. Possible exceptions are some porphyry Au deposits such as Porgera, Papua New Guinea and QR, British Columbia that show a close associ-

Figure 10. Examples of intermineral dykes and breccias associated with porphyry deposits. A) Intermineral porphyry dyke truncates magnetiteand chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins in altered porphyry and is, in turn, cut by chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins. Granisle deposit, Babine district, British Columbia (KQ-70-53B); B) Intermineral porphyry dyke with chilled margin cuts older porphyry with magnetite and quartz-magnetite veins and associated potassic alteration; both the older porphry and the intermineral porphyry are cut by bornite- and chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins. Granisle deposit, Babine district, British Columbia (KQ-70-57A); C) Intermineral intrusive breccia consisting of matrix porphyry with a partially digested chalcopyrite fragment and highly altered porphyry fragments with chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins. Granisle deposit, Babine district, British Columbia (KQ-70-55).

5

W.D. Sinclair ation with small alkaline mafic intrusions emplaced at very shallow depths (Richards and Kerrich, 1993; A. Panteleyev, personal communication, 1994). A close temporal relationship between magmatic activity and hydrothermal mineralization in porphyry deposits is indicated by the presence of intermineral intrusions and breccias that were emplaced between or during periods of mineralization (Kirkham, 1971)(Fig. 10). Felsic intrusive rocks that are closely associated with some porphyry deposits are characterized by distinct textural features such as comb-quartz layers (Fig. 11) and other undirectional solidification textures (Shannon et al., 1982; Kirkham and Sinclair, 1988). Comb-quartz layers occur in places along the margins and in the upper parts of small intrusions or cupolas. They generally range from less than 1 mm to several cm or more in thickness and are separated by interlayers of fine-grained, aplitic granite. Prismatic quartz crystals in the layers are oriented roughly perpendicular to the planes of layering and appear to have grown on a crystallized aplitic substrate inward toward the center of the intrusion. They are significant because individual layers likely crystallized from pockets of exsolved magmatichydrothermal fluid and the development of multiple layers reflects a continuous supply of magmatic fluid from subjacent magma (Lowenstern and Sinclair, 1996). Magma composition and petrogenesis of related intrusions exert a fundamental control on the metal contents of porphyry deposits. Intrusive rocks associated with porphyry Cu, porphyry Cu-Mo, porphyry Cu-Au and porphyry Au tend to be low-silica, relatively primitive dioritic to granodioritic plutons, whereas porphyry deposits of Mo, W-Mo, W and Sn typically are associated with high-silica, strongly differentiated granitic plutons. Oxidation state of granitic rocks, reflected by accessory opaque minerals such as magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite, also influences metal contents of related deposits (Ishihara, 1981). For example, porphyry deposits of Cu, Cu-Mo, Cu-Au, Au, Mo and W are generally associated with more oxidized, magnetite-series plutons in contrast to porphyry Sn deposits, which are typically related to reduced, ilmenite-series plutons (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. SiO2-(Fe2O3/FeO) variation diagram for granitic rocks related to porphyry deposits of Cu, Cu-Mo, Cu-Au, Mo, W-Mo and Sn (modified from Lehmann, 1990).

Figure 11. Examples of comb-quartz layers in felsic intrusions assciated with porphyry deposits. A) Comb quartz layers containing molybdenite separated by aplite interlayers; growth direction from top to bottom. Anticlimax deposit, British Columbia (SYA-Anticlimax); B) Multiple thin to thick comb quartz layers separated by aplite interlayers; growth direction of the quartz crystals in the comb layers was from the upper right to the bottom left. Logtung deposit, Yukon Territory (SYA85-15B). C) Multiple thin to thick comb quartz layers, highly contorted in places, and separated by interlayers of chloritized aplite; growth direction of the quartz crystals in the comb layers was from top to bottom. North zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick (SYA86-28); D) Photomicrograph of a comb quartz layer in granite porphyry showing euhedral termination of quartz crystals approximately perpendicular to the layer; the very fine grained texture of the granite adjacent to the crystal faces is thought to have resulted from pressure quenching and consequent rapid cooling related to sudden (catastrophic) release of the fluid phase in which the quartz crystals were growing. North zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick.

Morphology and Architecture The overall form of individual porphyry deposits is highly varied and includes irregular, oval, solid or "hollow" cylindrical and inverted cup shapes (e.g., Sutherland Brown, 1969; James, 1971; McMillan and Panteleyev, 1980). Orebodies may occur separately or overlap and, in some cases, are stacked one on top of the other (Wallace et al., 1968; White et al., 1981; Carten et al., 1988a). Individual orebodies measure hundreds to thousands of metres in three dimensions. Orebodies are characteristically zoned, with barren cores and crudely concentric metal zones that are surrounded by barren pyritic halos with or without peripheral veins, skarns, replacement manto zones and epithermal precious-metal deposits (e.g., Einaudi, 1982; Sillitoe 1988 a,b; Jones, 1992) (Fig. 13). Complex, irregular ore and alteration patterns are due, in part, to the superposition and spatial separation of mineral and alteration zones of different ages. Associated Structures and Mineralization Styles At the scale of ore deposits, associated structures can result in a variety of mineralization styles, including veins, vein sets, stockworks, fractures, 'crackled zones' and breccia pipes (Fig. 14). In large, complex, economic porphyry

6

Porphyry Synthesis muthinite and native bismuth; other minerals include pyrite, arsenopyrite, loellingite, quartz, K-feldspar, biotite, muscovite, clay minerals, fluorite and topaz. Porphyry Sn and Sn-Ag deposits: Principal ore minerals are cassiterite, tetrahedrite, argentite, stannite, wolframite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, franckeite, cylindrite, teallite, molybdenite, bismuthinite, other sulphides and sulphosalts, native Ag and native Bi; associated minerals include pyrite, arsenopyrite, loellingite, quartz, K-feldspar, biotite, muscovite, clay minerals, fluorite and topaz. Porphyry Ag deposits: Principal ore minerals are freibergite, stephanite, acanthite, sphalerite and galena; associated minerals include arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, adularia, quartz, fluorite and calcite. Alteration Hydrothermal alteration is extensive and typically zoned both on a deposit scale and around individual veins and fractures (Fig. 15). In many porphyry deposits, alteration zones on a deposit scale consist of an inner potassic zone characterized by biotite and/or K-feldspar (± amphibole ± magnetite ± anhydrite) and an outer zone of propylitic alteration that consists of quartz, chlorite, epidote, calcite and,

Figure 13. Generalized zoning model for Au-enriched porphyry Cu systems (after Jones, 1992).

deposits, mineralized veins and fractures typically have a very high density. Orientations of mineralized structures can be related to local stress environments around the tops of plutons or can reflect regional stress conditions (Rehrig and Heidrick, 1972; Heidrick and Titley, 1982; Carten et al., 1988a). Where they are superimposed on each other in a large volume of rock, the combination of individual mineralized structures results in higher-grade zones and the characteristic large size of porphyry deposits. Mineralogy The mineralogy of porphyry deposits is highly varied, although pyrite is typically the dominant sulphide mineral in porphyry Cu, Cu Mo, Cu Au, Au and Ag deposits, reflecting the fact that large amounts of sulphur were added to the deposits. In porphyry deposits of the more lithophile elements, i.e., Sn, W and Mo, the overall sulphur and sulphide mineral contents are lower. Principal ore and associated minerals of the different porphyry deposit subtypes are as follows: Porphyry Cu, Cu-Mo and Cu-Mo-Au deposits: Principal ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, tennantite, enargite, other Cu sulphides and sulphosalts, molybdenite and electrum; associated minerals include pyrite, magnetite, quartz, biotite, K-feldspar, anhydrite, muscovite, clay minerals, epidote and chlorite. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits: Principal ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, tennantite, other Cu minerals, native Au, electrum and tellurides; associated minerals include pyrite, arsenopyrite, magnetite, quartz, biotite, Kfeldspar, anhydrite, epidote, chlorite, scapolite, albite, calcite, fluorite and garnet. Porphyry Au deposits: Principal ore minerals are native Au, electrum, chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite; associated minerals include pyrite, magnetite, quartz, biotite, Kfeldspar, muscovite, clay minerals, epidote and chlorite. Porphyry Mo deposits: Principal ore minerals are molybdenite, scheelite, wolframite, cassiterite, bismuthinite and native bismuth; associated minerals include magnetite, quartz, K-feldspar, biotite, muscovite, clay minerals, fluorite and topaz. Porphyry W-Mo deposits: Principal ore minerals are scheelite, wolframite, molybdenite, cassiterite, stannite, bis-

Figure 14. Examples of different mineralization styles associated with porphyry deposits. A) Chalcopyrite- and bornite-rich quartz-apatite veins and veinlets cutting biotite-feldspar porphyry. High-grade ore, Granisle deposit, Babine district, British Columbia (KQ-70-48); B) Bornite- and chalcopyrite-bearing quartz veins cutting highly sericitized Bethsaida granodiorite. Valley deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia (KQ-82-49); C) Stockwork of wolframite-bearing fractures and quartz veinlets in altered breccia. Fire Tower zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick (SYA81-26B); D) Quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite veinlets cutting fine-grained diopside-garnet skarn. Typical veinlet stockwork ore, Copper Mountain deposit, Mines Gaspé, Quebec (KQ-70-386); E) Pyrite and chalcopyrite disseminated, along fractures, and in deformed quartz vein in foliated breccia consisting of felsic fragments in biotite-rich matrix. Troilus deposit, Quebec (SYA911B); F) Breccia consisting of fragments of silicified granite in a dark matrix of sphalerite and cassiterite. Fire Tower zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick (SYA95-32A).

7

W.D. Sinclair position of the host rocks. In mafic host rocks with significant iron and magnesium, biotite (± minor hornblende) is the dominant alteration mineral in the potassic alteration zone, whereas K-feldspar dominates in more felsic rocks. In carbonate-bearing host rocks, calc-silicate minerals such as garnet and diopside are abundant. Alteration mineralogy is also controlled by the composition of the mineralizing system. In more oxidized environments, minerals such as pyrite, magnetite (± hematite) and anhydrite are common, whereas pyrrhotite is present in more reduced environments. Fluorine-rich systems, such as those related to many porphyry Sn and W Mo deposits, and some porphyry Mo deposits, commonly contain fluorine-bearing minerals as part of the alteration assemblages. At Mount Pleasant, for example, potassic alteration is rare and the principal alteration associated with the W-Mo deposit consists of quartz, topaz, fluorite and sericite, and the surrounding propylitic alteration consists of chlorite + sericite (Kooiman et al., 1986). Similarly, alteration in some low grade Sn deposits in Australia (e.g., Ardlethan) grades out from a central zone of quartz + topaz to zones of sericite and chlorite ± carbonate (Scott, 1981). Siems (1989) suggested that lithium silicate alteration (e.g., lithium-rich mica and tourmaline), which accompanies Sn, W and Mo in some granite-related deposits, is analogous to potassic alteration in porphyry Cu and Mo deposits. Phyllic alteration zones are not present in all porphyry deposits. In many deposits in which they are present, however, phyllic alteration is superimposed on earlier potassic alteration assemblages (Carson and Jambor, 1979). At Chuquicamata in Chile, for example, a zone of intense phyllic alteration extends to depth in the core of the deposit and is superimposed on earlier potassic alteration and small amounts of associated Cu sulphides with low Cu grades. This phyllic zone contains higher than average Cu grades and associated arsenic-bearing Cu minerals and molybdenite. Advanced argillic (high sulphidation) and adularia-type (low sulphidation) epithermal alteration zones with associat-

Figure 15. Examples of different types of alteration associated with porphyry deposits. A) Potassic (K-feldspar) alteration around chalcopyriteand bornite-bearing quartz veins. Valley deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia; B) Bornite-bearing quartz veins cutting Bethsaida granodiorite that is pervasively and potassically altered to K-feldspar. Valley deposit, Highland Valley district, British Columbia (KQ-82-50B); C) Finegrained granite cut by wolframite- and molybdenite-bearing fracture stockwork with biotitic alteration selvages; D) Quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite vein stockworks in feldspar porphyry heavily overprinted by sericitic (phyllic) alteration. Bell deposit, Babine district, British Columbia (KQ-82-71).

locally, albite associated with pyrite. Zones of phyllic alteration (quartz + sericite + pyrite) and argillic alteration (quartz + illite + pyrite ± kaolinite ± smectite ± montmorillonite ± calcite) may be part of the zonal pattern between the potassic and propylitic zones, or can be irregular or tabular, younger zones superimposed on older alteration and sulphide assemblages (e.g., Ladolam; Moyle et al., 1990). The spatial and temporal relationships between different types of alteration are shown schematically in Figure 16. Economic sulphide zones are most closely associated with potassic alteration, as demonstrated by Carson and Jambor (1974) for several porphyry Cu and Cu Mo deposits. Sodic alteration (mainly as secondary albite) is associated with potassic alteration in some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, such as Copper Mountain and Ajax, British Columbia (Preto, 1972; Barr et al., 1976; Ross et al., 1995). Albitic alteration partly overlaps potassic alteration and Cu on the north side of the Ingerbelle deposit at Copper Mountain; at the Ajax deposit, highest Cu grades occur near, but not in, the most intensely altered albitic rocks. Eaton and Setterfield (1993) indicated that the subeconomic Nasivi 3 porphyry Cu deposit in the centre of the shoshonitic Tavua caldera, adjacent to the epithermal Emperor Au mine in Fiji, contains an albitic, Cu bearing core surrounded by peripheral propylitic alteration and overprinted by younger phyllic alteration. Sodic-calcic alteration (oligoclase + quartz + sphene + apatite ± actinolite ± epidote) has been documented in the deep root zones beneath potassically-altered porphyry Cu deposits at Yerington and Ann-Mason, Nevada (Carten, 1986; Dilles and Einaudi, 1992). Alteration mineralogy is controlled in part by the com8

Figure 16. Schematic time-depth relations of principal alteration types in Au-rich porphyry Cu systems and other types of porphyry deposits (after Sillitoe, 1993b).

Porphyry Synthesis ed precious-metal deposits occur above or near several porphyry Cu and Cu-Mo deposits. These alteration zones, in places, show a marked telescoping of older potassic and younger epithermal alteration (Fig. 13, 16; Sillitoe, 1990; 1993a,b; Moyle et al., 1990; Vila and Sillitoe, 1991; Setterfield et al., 1991; Eaton and Setterfield, 1993; Richards and Kerrich, 1993). The advanced argillic assemblages include illite, quartz, alunite, natroalunite, pyrophyllite, diaspore and a high pyrite content. Adularia assemblages, with quartz, sericite and clay minerals, have lower pyrite contents. Sillitoe (1993a) suggested that advanced argillic or high-sulphidation-type epithermal systems can occur in spatial association with porphyry Cu, Cu-Mo, Cu-Au and Au deposits, but not with porphyry Mo deposits. Adularia- or low-sulphidation-type epithermal systems probably form from more dilute ore fluids and may or may not occur on the peripheries of porphyry systems. Furthermore, Sillitoe (1993a) suggested that base-metal-rich epithermal deposits form from more concentrated NaCl brines and, similar to porphyry deposits, are parts of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Genetic and Exploration Models A generalized empirical model for porphyry deposits is illustrated schematically in Figure 17, which shows a porphyry Cu deposit associated with a small subvolcanic porphyritic intrusion and surrounded by a more extensive pyritic zone. The larger scale of the hydrothermal system is reflected by related, peripheral types of deposits, including skarn Cu, replacement (manto) Zn, Pb, Ag, Au and various types of base- and precious-metal veins and breccia-hosted deposits. The most applicable genetic model for porphyry deposits is a magmatic-hydrothermal one, or variations thereupon, in which the ore metals were derived from temporally and genetically related intrusions (Fig. 17). Large polyphase hydrothermal systems developed within and above genetically-related intrusions and commonly interacted with meteoric fluids (and possibly seawater) on their tops and peripheries. During the waning stages of hydrothermal activity, the magmatic-hydrothermal systems collapsed inward upon themselves and were replaced by waters of dominantly meteoric origin. Redistribution, and possibly further concentration of metals, occurred in some deposits during these waning stages. Variations of the magmatic-hydrothermal model for porphyry deposits, commonly referred to as the "orthomagmatic" model, have been presented by such authors as Burnham (1967, 1979), Phillips (1973) and Whitney (1975, 1984). These authors envisaged that felsic and intermediate magmas were emplaced at high levels in the crust and underwent border zone crystallization along the walls and roof of the magma chamber. As a consequence of this crystallization, supersaturation of volatile phases occurred within the magma, resulting in separation of volatiles due to resurgent, or second, boiling. Ore metals and many other components were strongly partitioned into these volatile phases, which became concentrated in the carapace of the magma chamber (Christiansen et al., 1983; Candela and Holland, 1986; Manning and Pichavant, 1988; Candela, 1989; Cline and

Figure 17. Schematic diagram of a porphyry Cu system in the root zone of an andesitic stratovolcano showing mineral zonation and possible relationship to skarn, manto, "mesothermal" or "intermediate" precious-metal and base-metal vein and replacement, and epithermal precious-metal deposits.

Bodnar, 1992; Heinrich et al., 1992). When increasing fluid pressures exceeded lithostatic pressures and the tensile strength of the overlying rocks, fracturing of these rocks occurred, permitting rapid escape of hydrothermal fluids into newly-created open space. A fundamental control on ore deposition was the pronounced adiabatic cooling of the ore fluids due to their sudden expansion into the fracture and/or breccia systems, thus the importance of structural control on ore deposition in porphyry deposits. Aplitic and micrographic textures in granitic rocks associated with porphyry deposits are the result of pressure-quench crystallization related to the rapid escape of the ore fluids (Shannon et al., 1982; Kirkham and Sinclair, 1988). Modification of the above orthomagmatic model is required for at least some, if not most, porphyry deposits, in view of studies by Shannon et al. (1982), Carten et al. (1988a) Kirkham and Sinclair (1988) and Shinohara et al. (1995). These authors concluded that, in many porphyry deposits, the underlying genetically-related intrusions were largely liquid in their carapaces until ore formation was essentially complete. Kirkham and Sinclair (1988) suggested that crystallization deep within a batholithic magma chamber could have been the cause of resurgent boiling, rather than local border zone crystallization as envisaged by Burnham (1967, 1979), Whitney (1975, 1984) and Carten et al. (1988b). According to this model, volatiles streamed through large volumes of magma, stripping it of its metal content, and accumulated in small cupolas at the top of the magma chambers (Fig. 18). These volatile-rich, ore-forming fluids would have lowered the liquidus temperature of the magma in the cupolas, keeping them largely liquid during the ore-forming process. Areas where these ore-forming fluids accumulated in cupolas of siliceous intrusions associated with some porphyry Mo, Cu-Mo and W-Mo deposits are indicated by abundant comb quartz layers (Shannon et al., 1982; Carten et al., 1988a; Kirkham and Sinclair, 1988). 9

W.D. Sinclair Such a model is consistent with the sequence of erupted products from large-volume ash-flow tuff eruptions - that is, early high-silica eruptive products with few crystals followed by more mafic eruptive products rich in crystals (Hildreth, 1979, 1981; Smith, 1979; Keith et al., 1986; Keith and Shanks, 1988). Similarities in chemical characteristics of siliceous intrusions associated with the Quartz Hill porphyry Mo deposit in Alaska and the Bishop Tuff in California (Hudson et al., 1981) indicate that the magmas responsible for the Quartz Hill deposit could have been similar to those that produced the Bishop Tuff. deposit (Carten et al., 1988a). At Bingham, Utah the early Last Chance augite monzonite intrusion has no known significant associated mineralization, although it was emplaced at a time when a scavenging heat engine should have been most effective; on the other hand, the subsequent quartz monzonite phases of the Bingham stock and the related small, but not insignificant, latite porphyry phases (Wilson, 1978) have huge amounts of associated metals. Another example is the Battle Mountain district in Nevada where, at essentially the same place in the earth's crust at different times, a porphyry Mo deposit, and a porphyry Cu deposit with related Au-rich skarn zones, were formed (Kirkham, 1985; Theodore et al., 1982, 1992). Such evidence indicates strongly that input of metal-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids was essential for the formation of these deposits. Key Exploration Criteria Several features of porphyry deposits conducive to exploration are related to their large size. Metal, mineral and alteration patterns tend to be large, concentric and zoned, thus yielding useful clues to areas with exploration potential. Large pyritic halos, for example, may be used to delineate the extent of the deposits, and also the intensity and complexity of the hydrothermal system. On a regional scale, the presence of epizonal to mesozonal felsic to intermediate porphyritic intrusions, especially if accompanied by large pyritic alteration zones, indicate that the area could be prospective for porphyry deposits. Porphyry Cu and Cu-Mo deposits are relatively abundant in island- and continental-arc volcanic terranes; porphyry Mo deposits are relatively abundant in subaerial areas of crustal extension with bimodal mafic and felsic magmatism. The tectonic settings of other subtypes of porphyry deposits are less well understood. Porphyry deposits tend to have large geochemical dispersion halos and reconnaissance stream sediment and soil geochemical surveys have been effective exploration tools in many parts of the world. Careful study and interpretation of leached cappings have also been used to differentiate between barren and mineralized deposits, some with major supergene enriched ores (Blanchard, 1968; Anderson, 1982). Induced polarization surveys have been useful in outlining sulphide distribution in porphyry deposits, and magnetic surveys have been used to outline porphyry Cu and Cu-Au deposits with abundant hydrothermal magnetite, and pyrrhotite- and/or magnetite-bearing hornfels zones around porphyry-related intrusive rocks. Conversely, some deposits are characterized by magnetic lows due to the destruction of magnetite in phyllic alteration zones. Gamma ray spectrometry surveys have been used to outline potassic alteration zones closely related to mineralized zones in the Mount Milligan deposit in central British Columbia and the Casino deposit in west-central Yukon Territory (Shives et al., 2000). Knowledge Gaps Despite the close association of porphyry deposits with intermediate to felsic intrusive rocks and general agreement

Figure 18. Schematic diagram of a crystallizing batholithic mass with an overlying volatile-saturated cupola and related ash-flow tuffs illustrating the environment of formation of porphyry deposits (modified from Kirkham and Sinclair, 1988).

Another possible modification to the orthomagmatic model involves mixing of mafic magmas with the felsic to intermediate, ore-related calc-alkaline magmas prior to the onset of mineralization. Carten et al. (1993) suggested that, for high-grade porphyry Mo deposits, volatiles (F, Cl, S, CO2) released from underlying saturated mafic magmas were responsible for stripping metals from the overlying felsic magmas. Maughan et al. (2002) concluded that ore-related porphyries at Bingham, Utah mixed with mafic alkaline magmas prior to mineralization and that the mafic magmas may have contributed more than half of the S and significant amounts of the Cu, Au and PGE in the Bingham deposit. Wallrocks of the intrusions and deposits are not considered to be viable sources for the metals in porphyry deposits. Perhaps the most convincing argument against a wallrock source for metals is the strong, universal petrogenetic and temporal association of deposits of specific metals with intrusions of specific compositions and petrogenesis. With the exception of some Au deposits, such as Porgera in Papua New Guinea, no known significant porphyry-type deposits are related to gabbros or more mafic rocks, suggesting that heat engine models for genesis of porphyry deposits have little or no relevance. Furthermore, the metal content of most porphyry deposits is related to one or more specific phase(s) of intrusion, as at Henderson, Colorado, where two of the eleven identified phases, the Seriate and the Henderson stocks, together provided an estimated 62% of the Mo in the 10

Porphyry Synthesis that their formation involves the separation of metalliferous fluids from ore-related magmas, significant knowledge gaps remain and may be summarized as follows: Babine district, Stikine terrane, have high potential for porphyry Cu-Au deposits and Late Cretaceous to Eocene calcalkaline intrusions in the Tatsa Ranges, Stikine Terrane are favourable for porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Mid-Cretaceous calc-alkaline intrusions of the Mayo plutonic suite in the North American terrane have potential for porphyry Au deposits. Although exploration for porphyry deposits in Precambrian terranes has been limited, large, low-grade, porphyry-type deposits of Cu, Au and Mo associated with Archean and Proterozoic intrusions have been recognized and the potential for porphyry deposits in Precambrian terranes is likely underappreciated. Numerous porphyry-type deposits occur in the Abitibi and Opatica greenstone belts, including one that is currently in production (Troilus), and these areas have high potential. Areas where felsic to intermediate, subvolcanic plutons have intruded shallow marine or subaerial volcanic and sedimentary rocks should be the most favourable areas for exploration. Acknowledgements This paper is based to a large extent on the chapter on porphyry deposits in the DNAG 8 volume on Geology of Canadian Mineral Deposit Types (Kirkham and Sinclair, 1995). It has benefited from discussions with many people over many years and from many informative visits to porphyry deposits. A.G. Galley, A. Douma, J.J. Carrière, D.F Garson and K. Ross helped compile data used in this paper; D.F. Garson also produced many computer plots used to make diagrams. A. Panteleyev and ? reviewed various versions of the manuscript and provided many constructive suggestions. References
Anderson, J.A., 1982, Characteristics of leached capping and appraisal; in Titley, S.R., ed., Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits; Southwestern North America: University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 275 296. Ayres, L.D., Averill, S.A. and Wolfe, W.J., 1982, An Archean molybdenite occurrence of possible porphyry type at Setting Net Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada: Economic Geology, v. 77, p. 1105-1119. Baker, R.C. and Guilbert, J.M., 1987, Regional structural control of porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile (abstract): Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 19, p. 578. Barr, D.A., Fox, P.E., Northcote, K.E. and Preto, V.A., 1976, The alkaline suite porphyry deposits: a summary; in Sutherland Brown , A., ed., Porphyry Deposits of the Canadian Cordillera: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 15, p. 359-367. Blanchard, R., 1968, Interpretation of leached outcrops: Nevada Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 66, 196 p. Bookstrom, A.A., 1981, Tectonic setting and generation of Rocky Mountain porphyry molybdenum deposits; in Dickinson, W.D. and Payne, W.D., eds., Relations of Tectonics to Ore Deposits in the Southern Cordillera: Arizona Geological Society Digest, v. 14, p. 251-226. Burnham, C.W., 1967, Hydrothermal fluids at the magmatic stage; in Barnes, H.L., ed., Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., New York, p. 34-76. Burnham, C.W., 1979, Magma and hydrothermal fluids; in Barnes, H.L., ed., Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits, 2nd edition: Wiley Interscience, New York, p. 71-136. Candela, P.A., 1989, Calculation of magmatic fluid contributions to porphyry-type ore system: predicting fluid inclusion chemistries: Geochemical Journal, v.23, p. 295-305.

?

What are the sources of metals in porphyry deposits? Ore-related magmas can be generated in various ways, ranging from mantle melting to melting and/or assimilation of crustal rocks. Do the source regions need to be enriched in specific metals, or are magmatic processes such as fractionation more important than the primary metal content of magmas? Can ore components be added during magma ascent through the crust?

?

What is the role of tectonic setting? The view that porphyry Cu (±Mo±Au) deposits form in subduction-related island arcs associated with converging plates is overly simplistic (Richards, 2003). What are the effects of changes or variations in tectonic setting such as arc reversals or low angle subduction of aseismic ridges or seamount chains? Why are some magmatic arcs more productive than others?

?

What controls metal ratios in porphyry deposits? Although there is a general relationship between magma composition and metal ratios, other factors are likely involved. For example, Au-rich porphyry Cu deposits commonly are associated with more primitive magmas in island arc settings, whereas porphyry Au deposits in the northern Cordillera occur in a continental arc setting and have an affiliation toward porphyry W-Mo rather than porphyry Cu systems (McMillan et al., 1995).

? What controls fluid separation from magmas? Porphyry mineralization is typically episodic and related to one or more intrusions in a complex of multiple intrusions. What are the dynamics of fluid (volatile) degassing of magmas and how is it triggered?
What controls fluid composition? How are metals scavenged from magmas and concentrated in hydrothermal orebearing fluids?

?

? What is the relationship between porphyry deposits and other types of intrusion-related hydrothermal deposits, such as epithermal deposits? Is there a geochemical transition between them?
What are the critical factors for the formation of giant porphyry deposits? Areas of High Potential in Canada Many parts of the Canadian Cordillera are favourable for various types of porphyry deposits, although exploration is currently focused primarily on deposits with gold potential. Areas with some of the highest potential for porphyry Cu-Au deposits are those underlain by Late Triassic to Early Jurassic alkaline intrusions, which occur mainly in the Quesnel and Stikine terranes. Some of the more favourable areas include the Afton and Cariboo districts, the Mt. Milligan area and the Galore Creek area. In the Toodoggone region, calc-alkaline intrusions of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age are associated with the Kemess North and South porphyry Cu-Au deposits and potential for additional deposits is high. Eocene calc-alkaline intrusions in the

?

11

W.D. Sinclair
Candela, P.A. and Holland, H.D., 1986, A mass transfer model for copper and molybdenum in magmatic hydrothermal systems: the origin of porphyry-type ore deposits: Economic Geology, v.81, p. 1-19. Carson, D.J.T. and Jambor, J.L., 1974, Mineralogy, zonal relationships and economic significance of hydrothermal alteration at porphyry copper deposits, Babine Lake area, British Columbia: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Bulletin, v. 76, p. 110-133. Carson, D.J.T. and Jambor, J.L., 1979, The occurrence and significance of phyllic overprinting at porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits (abstract): Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, v. 72, no. 803, p. 78. Carten, R.B., 1986, Sodium-calcium metasomatism: chemical, temporal, and spatial relationships at the Yerington, Nevada, porphyry copper deposit: Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 1495-1519. Carten, R.B., Geraghty, E.P. and Walker, B.M., 1988a, Cyclic development of igneous features and their relationship to high-temperature hydrothermal features in the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado: Economic Geology, v. 83, p. 266-296. Carten, R.B., Walker, B.M., Geraghty, E.P. and Gunow, A.J., 1988b, Comparison of field-based studies of the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado with experimental and theoretical models of porphyry systems: in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, p. 351-366. Carten, R.B., White, W.H and Stein, H.J., 1993, High-grade, graniterelated molybdenum systems: classification and origin: in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40, p521-554. Carter, N.C., 1981, Porphyry Copper and Molybdenum Deposits, Westcentral British Columbia; British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 64, 150 p. Christiansen, E.H., Burt, D.M., Sheridan, M.F. and Wilson, R.T., 1983, The petrogenesis of topaz rhyolites from the western United States: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 83, p. 16-30. Christopher, P.A. and Pinsent, R., 1982, Geology of the Ruby Creek and Boulder Creek area near Atlin (104N/11W): British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Notes to accompany preliminary Map 52, 10 p. Clark, A.H., 1993, Are outsize porphyry copper deposits either anatomically or environmentally distinctive? in Whiting, B.H., Hodgson, C.J., and Mason, R., eds., Giant Deposits: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 2, p. 213-284. Cline, J.S. and Bodnar, R.J., 1991, Can economic porphyry copper mineralization be generated by a typical calc-alkaline melt ?: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, p. 8113-8126. Cox, D.P. and Singer, D.A., 1988, Distribution of gold in porphyry copper deposits: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 88-46, 22 p. Dilles, J.H. and Einaudi, M.T., 1992, Wall-rock alteration and hydrothermal flow paths about the Ann-Mason porphyry copper deposit, Nevada - a 6-km vertical reconstruction: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1963-2001. Eaton, P.C. and Setterfield, T.N., 1993, The relationship between epithermal and porphyry hydrothermal systems within the Tavua Caldera, Fiji: Economic Geology, v. 88, p. 1053 1083. Einaudi, M.T., 1982, Description of skarns associated with porphyry copper plutons: in Titley, S.R., ed., Advances in Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits: University of Arizona, Press, Tuscon, p. 139-183. Fraser, R.J., 1993, The Lac Troilus gold-copper deposit, northwestern Quebec: a possible Archean porphyry system: Economic Geology, v. 88, p. 1685-1699. Grant, N., Halls, C., Avila, W. and Avila, G., 1977, Igneous geology and the evolution of hydrothermal systems in some sub-volcanic tin deposits of Bolivia: Geological Society of London, Special Volume 7, p. 117-126. Grant, J.N., Halls, C., Sheppard, S.M.F. and Avila, W., 1980, Evolution of the porphyry tin deposits of Bolivia: Mining Geology Special Issue, no. 8, p. 151-173. Guan Xunfan, Shou Yongqin, Xiao Jinghua, Lian Shuzhao and Li Jinmao, 1988, A new type of tin deposit - the Yinyan porphyry tin deposit in China; in Hutchison, C.S., ed., Geology of Tin Deposits in Asia and the Pacific: Springer Verlag, Berlin, New York, p. 487-494. Gustafson, L.B and Hunt, J.P., 1975, The porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile: Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 857-912 Hedenquist, J.W. and Lowenstern, J.B., 1994, The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits: Nature, v. 370, p. 519-527. Heidrick, T.L. and Titley, S.R., 1982, Fracture and dike patterns in Laramide plutons and their structural and tectonic implication: American Southwest; in in Titley, S.R., ed., Advances in Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits, Southwestern North America: University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 73 91. Heinrich, C.A., Ryan, C.G., Mernach, T.P. and Eadington, P.J., 1992, Segregation of ore metals between magmatic brine and vapor: a fluid inclusion study using PIXE microanalysis: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 15661583. Hildreth, W., 1979, The Bishop Tuff: evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers; in Ash-flow Tuffs; Geological Society of American, Special Paper 180, p. 43-75. Hildreth, W., 1981, Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 86, p. 10153-10192. Hudson, T., Arth, J.G. and Muth, K.G., 1981, Geochemistry of intrusive rocks associated with molybdenite deposits, Ketchikan Quadrangle, southeastern Alaska: Economic Geology, v. 76, p. 1225-1232. Ishihara, S., 1981, The granitoid series and mineralization; in Skinner , B.J., , ed., Economic Geology Seventy-fifth Anniversary Volume, 19051980: Economic Geology Publishing Co., p. 458-484. James, A.H., 1971, Hypothetical diagrams of several porphyry copper deposits: Economic Geology, v. 66, p. 43-47. Jones, B.K., 1992, Application of metal zoning to gold exploration in porphyry copper systems: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 43, p. 127-155. Keith, J.D. and Shanks, W.C., III, 1988, Chemical evolution and volatile fugacities of the Pine Grove porphyry molybdenum and ash-flow tuff system, southwestern Utah; in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, p. 402423. Keith, J.D., Shanks, III, W.C., Archibald, D.A. and Farrar, E., 1986, Volcanic and intrusive history of the Pine Grove porphyry molybdenum system, southwestern Utah: Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 553-577. Kesler, S.E., 1973, Copper, molybdenum and gold abundances in porphyry copper deposits: Economic Geology, v. 68, p. 106-112. Kesler, S.E., Jones, L.M. and Walker, R.L., 1975, Intrusive rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization in island arc areas: Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 515-526. Kirkham, R.V., 1971, Intermineral intrusions and their bearing on the origin of porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits: Economic Geology, v. 66, p. 1244-1250. Kirkham, R.V., 1972, Porphyry deposits; in Report of Activities, Part B: November 1971 to March 1972: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 72-1, Part B, p. 62-64. Kirkham, R.V., 1973, Tectonism, volcanism and copper deposits; in Volcanism and Volcanic Rocks: Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 164, p. 129-151. Kirkham, R.V., 1985, Tectonic and petrochemical control on distribution and metal contents of granite-related molybdenum deposits (extended abstract); in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Granite-related Mineral Deposits: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metollurgy Conference, Halifax, September, 1984, p. 165-168. Kirkham, R.V., McCann, C., Prasad, N., Soregaroli, A.E., Vokes, F.M. and Wine, G., 1982, Molybdenum in Canada, part 2: MOLYFILE - an indexlevel computer file of molybdenum deposits and occurrences in Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report 33, 208 p. Kirkham, R.V. and Sinclair, W.D., 1988, Comb quartz layers in felsic intrusions and their relationship to the origin of porphyry deposits; in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, p. 50-71.

12

Porphyry Synthesis
Kirkham, R.V. and Sinclair, W.D., 1995, Porphyry copper, gold, molybdenum, tungsten, tin, silver; in Eckstrand, O.R. , Sinclair, W.D., and Thorpe, R.I. , eds., Geology of Canadian Mineral Deposit Types; Geology of Canada, no. 8: Geological Survey of Canada, p. 421-446 (also Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, v. P-1). Kontak, D.J. and Clark, A.H., 1988, Exploration criteria for tin and tungsten mineralization in the Cordillera Oriental of southeastern Peru; in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, p. 157-169. Kooiman, G.J.A., McLeod, M.J. and Sinclair, W.D., 1986, Porphyry tungsten molybdenum orebodies, polymetallic veins and replacement bodies, and tin bearing greisen zones in the Fire Tower Zone, Mount Pleasant, New Brunswick: Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 1356 1373. Lehmann, B., 1990, Metallogeny of Tin: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences; Springer Verlag, Berlin, 211 p. Lipman, P.W., 1984, The roots of ash flow calderas in western North America: windows into the tops of granitic batholiths: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 89, p. 8801-8841. Lipman, P.W., 1988, Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, U.S.A.: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; Earth Sciences, v. 79, p. 265-288. Lipman, P.W. and Sawyer, D.A., 1985, Mesozoic ash-flow caldera fragments in southeastern Arizona and their relation to porphyry copper deposits: Geology, v.13, p. 652-656. Lowell, J.D. and Guilbert, J.M., 1970, Lateral and vertical alterationmineralization zoning in porphyry ore deposits: Economic Geology, v. 65, p. 373-408. Lowenstern, J.B. and Sinclair, W.D., 1996, Exsolved magmatic fluid and its role in the formation of comb-layered quartz at the Cretaceous Logtung W-Mo deposit, Yukon Territory, Canada: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; Earth Sciences, v. 87, p. 291-303. MacDonald, G.D. and Arnold, L.C., 1994, Geological and geochemical zoning of the Grasberg Igneous Complex, Irian Jaya, Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 50, p. 143-178. Manning, D.A.C. and Pichavant, M., 1988, Volatiles and their bearing on the behaviour of metals in granitic systems; in Taylor, R.P., and Strong, D.F., eds., Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, p. 13 24. Maughan, D.T., Keith, J.D., Christiansen, E.H., Pulsipher, T., Hattori, K. and Evans, N.J., 2002, Contributions from mafic alkaline magmas to the Bingham porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Utah, USA: Mineralium Deposita, v. 37, p. 14-37. McCuaig, T.C., Behn, M., Stein, H., Hagemann, S.G., McNaughton, N.J., Cassidy, K.F., Champion, D. and Wyborn, L., 2001, The Boddington gold mine: A new style of Archaean Au-Cu deposit (abstract); in Cassidy, K.F., Dunphy, J.M., and Van Kranendonk, M.J., eds., 4th International Archaean Symposium, Extended Abstracts, Record - Australian Geological Survey Organization, 2001/37, p. 453-455. McCutcheon, S.R., 1990, The Mount Pleasant caldera: geological setting of associated tungsten-molybdenum and tin deposits; in Mineral Deposits of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, in Boyle, D.R. , ed., 8th IAGOD Symposium, Field Trip Guidebook, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2157, p. 73-77. McCutcheon, S.R., Anderson, H.E. and Robinson, P.T., 1997, Stratigraphy and eruptive history of the Late Devonian Mount Pleasant caldera complex, Canadian Appalachians: Geological Magazine, v. 134, p. 17-36. McInnes, B.I.A. and Cameron, E.M, 1994, Carbonated alkaline hybridizing melts from a sub-arc environment: Mantle wedge samples from the Tabar-Lihir-Targa-Feni arc, Papua New Guinea: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 122, p. 125-144. McMillan, W.J., 1991, Porphyry deposits in the Canadian Cordillera; Ore Deposits, Tectonics and Metallogeny in the Canadian Cordillera, British Columbia Geological Survey Branch, Paper 1991-4, p. 253-276. McMillan, W.J. and Panteleyev, A., 1980, Ore deposit models - 1. Porphyry copper deposits: Geoscience Canada, v. 7, p. 52-63. McMillan, W.J., Thompson, J.F.H., Hart, C.J.R. and Johnston, S.T., 1995, Regional geological and tectonic setting of porphyry deposits in British Columbia and Yukon Territory: in Schroeter, T.G., ed., Porphyry Deposits of the Northwestern Cordillera of North America: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 46, p. 40-57. Meyer, J. and Foland, K.A., 1991, Magmatic-tectonic interaction during early Rio Grande rift extension at Questa, New Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, p. 993-1006. Minnitt, R.C.A., 1986, Porphyry copper mineralization, Haib River, Southwest Africa, Namibia; in Anhaeusser, C.R., and Maske, S., eds., Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa, v. II: The Geological Society of South Africa, p. 1567-1585. Mitchell, A.H. and Garson, M.S., 1972, Relationship of porphyry copper and circum-Pacific tin deposits to palaeo-Benioff zones: Transaction of Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, v. 81, p. B10-25. Moyle, A.J., Doyle, B.J., Hoogvliet, H. and Ware, A.R., 1990, Ladolam gold deposit, Lihir Island; in Hughes, F.E., ed., Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne, p. 1793-1805. Mutschler, F.E. and Mooney, T.C., 1993, Precious-metal deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks- provisional classification, grade-tonnage data and exploration frontiers; in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40, p. 479-520. Norman, D.I. and Sawkins, F.J., 1985, The Tribag breccia pipes: Precambrian Cu Mo deposits, Batchawana Bay, Ontario: Economic Geology, v. 80, p. 1593 1621. Panteleyev, A., 1981, Berg Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Deposit: British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 66, 158 p. Panteleyev, A., 1991, Gold in the Canadian Cordillera - a focus on epithermal and deeper environments; in Ore Deposits, Tectonics and Metallogeny in the Canadian Cordillera: British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Paper 1991-4, p. 163-212. Pearson, M.F., Clark, K.F. and Porter, E.W., 1988, Mineralogy, fluid characteristics, and silver distribution at Real de Angeles, Zacatecas, Mexico: Economic Geology, v. 83, p. 1737-1759. Phillips, W.J., 1973, Mechanical effects of retrograde boiling and its probable importance in the formation of some porphyry ore deposits: Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Transactions, v. B82, p. 90-98. Preto, V., 1972, Geology of Copper Mountain; British Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Bulletin 59, 87 p. Rehrig, W.A. and Heidrick, T.L., 1972, Regional fracturing in Laramide stocks of Arizona and its relationship to porphyry copper mineralization: Economic Geology, v. 67, p. 198-213. Richards, J.P., 2003, Tectono-magmatic precursors for porphyry Cu-(MoAu) deposit formation: Economic Geology, v. 98, p. 1515-1533. Richards, J.P. and Kerrich, R., 1993, The Porgera Gold Mine, Papua New Guinea: magmatic hydrothermal to epithermal evolution of an alkalic-type precious metal deposit: Economic Geology, v. 88, p. 1017-1052. Richards, J.P., Boyce, A.J. and Pringle, M.S., 2001, Geologic evolution of the Escondida area, northern Chile: A model for spatial and temporal localization of porphyry Cu mineralization: Economic Geology, v. 96, p.271-305. Roth, E., Groves, D.E., Anderson, G., Daley, L. and Staley, R., 1991, Primary mineralization at the Boddington mine, Western Australia: An Archean porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit; in Ladeira, E.A. , ed., Brazil Gold 91, The Economic Geology, Geochemistry and Genesis of Gold Deposits: A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 481-488. Ross, K.V., Godwin, C.I., Bond, L. and Dawson, K.M., 1995, Geology, alteration and mineralization of the Ajax East and Ajax West deposits, southern Iron Mask Batholith, Kamloops, British Columbia; in Schroeter, T.G., ed., Porphyry deposits of the Northwestern Cordillera of North America: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 46, p. 565-580. Schroeter, T.G. (editor), 1995, Porphyry deposits of the Northwestern Cordillera of North America: The Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Special Volume 46, 888 p.

13

W.D. Sinclair
Scott, K.M., 1981, Wall rock alteration in disseminated tin deposits, southeastern Australia: Proceedings of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, no. 280, p. 17 28. Setterfield, T.N., Eaton, P.C., Rose W.J. and Sparks, R.S.J., 1991, The Tavua Caldera, Fiji: a complex shoshonitic caldera formed by concurrent faulting and downsagging: Journal of the Geological Society, v.148, p. 115127. Shannon, J.R., Walker, B.M., Carter, R.B. and Geraghty, E.P., 1982, Unidirectional solidification textures and their significance in determining relative ages of intrusions at the Henderson mine, Colorado: Geology, v. 19, p. 293-297. Shinohara, H., Kazahaya, K. and Lowenstern, J.B., 1995, Volatile transport in a convecting magma column: Implications for porphyry Mo mineralization: Geology, v. 23, p. 1091-1094. Shives, R.B.K., Charbonneau, B.W. and Ford, K.L., 2000, The detection of potassic alteration by gamma-ray spectrometry; recognition of alteration related to mineralization; Geophysics, v. 65, p. 2001-2011. Siems, P.L., 1989, Lithium silicate alteration of tin granites: an analog of potassium silicate alteration in porphyry copper and molybdenite deposits (abstract); The Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 21, no. 5, p. 143. Sikka, D.G. and Nehru, C.E., 1997, Review of Precambrian porphyry Cu±Mo±Au deposits with special reference to Malanjkhand porphyry copper deposit, Madhya Pradesh, India: Journal of the Geological Society of India, v. 49, p. 239-288. Sillitoe, R.H., 1973, The tops and bottoms of porphyry copper deposits: Economic Geology, v. 68, p. 700-815. Sillitoe, R.H., 1988a, Ores in volcanoes; in Zachrisson , E., ed., Proceedings of the Seventh Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, p. 1-10. Sillitoe, R.H., 1988b, Gold and silver deposits in porphyry systems; Bulk Mineable Precious Metal Deposits of the Western United States, Symposium Proceedings, April 6-8, 1987, p. 233- 257. Sillitoe, R.H., 1990, Gold-rich porphyry copper deposits of the circumPacific region - an updated overview: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Pacific Rim 90 Congress, 8 p. Sillitoe, R.H., 1992, Gold and copper metallogeny of the central Andes past, present, and future exploration objectives. Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 2205-2216. Sillitoe, R.H., 1993a, Epithermal models: genetic types, geometrical controls and shallow features; in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40, p. 403-417. Sillitoe, R.H., 1993b, Gold-rich porphyry copper deposits: geological model and exploration implications; in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40, p. 465-478. Sillitoe, R.H. and Bonham, H.F., Jr., 1984, Volcanic landforms and ore deposits: Economic Geology, v. 79, p. 1286-1298. Sillitoe, R.H., Halls, C. and Grant, J.N., 1975, Porphyry tin deposits in Bolivia: Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 913-927. Sinclair, W.D., 1986, Molybdenum, tungsten and tin deposits and associated granitoid intrusions in the northern Canadian Cordillera and adjacent parts of Alaska; in Morin, J.A., Mineral Deposits of Northern Cordillera: The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 37, p. 216-233. Smith, R.L., 1979, Ash-flow magmatism; in Ash-flow Tuffs: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 180, p. 5-27. Soloman, M., 1990, Subduction, arc reversal, and the origin of porphyry copper-gold deposits in island arcs: Geology, v. 18, p. 630-633. Sutherland Brown, A., 1969, Mineralization in British Columbia and the copper and molybdenum deposits: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, v. 72, p. 1-15. Sutherland Brown, A. (editor), 1976, Porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 15, 510 p. Tarkian, M. and Stribrny, B., 1999, Platinum-group elements in porphyry copper deposits: a reconnaissance study: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 65, p. 161-183. Taylor, R.P. and Strong, D.F. (editors), 1988, Recent Advances in the Geology of Granite-related Mineral Deposits; The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Special Volume 39, 445 p. Theodore, T.G. and Menzie, W.D., 1984, Fluorine-deficient porphyry molybdenum deposits in the western North American Cordillera: Proceedings of the Sixth Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium, E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, p. 463-470. Theodore, T.G., Blake, D.W. and Kretschmer, E.L., 1982, Geology of the Copper Canyon porphyry copper deposits, Lander County, Nevada; in Titley , S.R., ed., Advances in the Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits: The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, p. 543 550. Theodore, T.G., Blake, D.W., Loucks, T.A. and Johnson, C.A., 1992, Geology of the Buckingham Stockwork Molybdenum Deposit and Surrounding Area, Lander County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 798-D, p. D1-D307. Titley, S.R., editor, 1982, Advances in geology of the porphyry copper deposits - southwestern North America: The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 560 p. Titley, S.R., 1993, Characteristics of porphyry copper occurrence in the American southwest; in Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40, p. 433 464. Titley, S.R. and Beane, R.E., 1981, Porphyry copper deposits; in Skinner, B.J., ed., Economic Geology Seventy-fifth Anniversary Volume, 19051980: Economic Geology Publishing Co., p. 214-269. Titley, S.R. and Hicks, C.L., editors, 1966, Geology of the Porphyry Copper Deposits, Southwestern North America; The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 287 p. Titley, S.R., Thompson, R.C., Haynes, F.M., Manske, S.L., Robison, L.C. and White, J.L., 1986, Evolution of fractures and alteration in the Sierrita Esperanza hydrothermal system, Pima County, Arizona: Economic Geology, v. 81, p. 343 370. Vila, T. and Sillitoe, R.H., 1991, Gold-rich porphyry systems in the Maricunga gold-silver belt, northern Chile: Economic Geology, v. 86, p. 1238-1260. Wallace, S.R., Muncaster, N.K., Jonson, D.C., Mackenzie, W.B., Bookstrom, A.A. and Surface, V.A., 1968, Multiple intrusion and mineralization at Climax, Colorado; in Ridge, J.D., ed., Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967 (Graton-Sales volume): American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., New York, p. 605-640. Weixing, Hu and Dazhong, Sun., 1987, Mineralization and evolution of the Early Proterozoic copper deposits in the Zhongtiao Mountains: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 61, p. 152-165. Westra, G., 1978, Porphyry copper genesis at Ely, Nevada: 5th IAGOD Quadrennial Symposium Proceedings, v. 11, Nevada Bureau Mines and Geology, Report 33, p. 127-140. Westra, G. and Keith, S.B., 1981, Classification and genesis of stockwork molybdenum deposits: Economic Geology, v. 76, p. 844-873. White, W.H., Bookstrom, A.A., Kamilli, R.J., Ganster, M.W., Smith, R.P., Ranta, D.E. and Steininger, R.C., 1981, Character and origin of Climax-type molybdenum deposits; in Skinner, B.J., ed ., Economic Geology Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Volume, 1905-1980: Economic Geology Publishing Co., p. 270-316. Whitney, J.A., 1975, Vapour generation in a quartz monzonite magma: a synthetic model with application to porphyry copper deposits: Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 346-358. Whitney, J.A., 1984, Volatiles in magmatic systems; in Fluid-mineral Equilibria in Hydrothermal Systems: Reviews in Economic Geology, v.1, p. 155-175. Williams, I.S. and Collins, W.J., 1990, Granite-greenstone terranes in the Pilbara Block, Australia, as coeval volcano-plutonic complexes: evidence from U-Pb zircon dating of the Mount Edgar Batholith: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 97, p. 41-53. Wilson, J.C., 1978, Ore fluid-magma relationships in a vesicular quartz latite porphyry dike at Bingham, Utah: Economic Geology, v. 73, p. 12871307.

14


相关文章:
...OF THE YULONG PORPHYRY COPPER BELT OF INTRACON_论文.pdf
GEOLOGICAL FEATURES AND FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF THE YULONG PORPHYRY COPPER BELT OF INTRACON_电子/电路_工程科技_专业资料。 N 0 . 3 一 生 EN : Y u o ...
PORPHYRY COPPER (-MOLYBDENUM-GOLD) DEPOSIT PROSPECTIVITY IN ....pdf
PORPHYRY COPPER (-MOLYBDENUM-GOLD) DEPOS
...of Granodiorite Porphyry in the Degongniuchang Copper ....pdf
Geochemistry Characteristics of Granodiorite Porphyry in the Degongniuchang Copper Deposit_电子/电路_工程科技_专业资料。Vol. 91 Supp. 1 ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA ...
Features and significance of the Yudai porphyry copper ....pdf
Features and significance of the Yudai porphyry copper deposit in the Kalatag district eas_电子/电路_工程科技_专业资料。Vol. 91 Supp. 1 ACTA GEOLOGICA ...
...penetrating geochemistry over the Spence porphyry copper ....pdf
Further study on deep penetrating geochemistry over the Spence porphyry copper deposit_专业资料。GEOSENCEFRONTICI ERS232 )331 ()(01103 1 aalbea vialt...
...Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system, Altay-Sayan regio_论文.pdf
Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Aksug porphyry Cu-Mo system, Altay-Sayan regio_专业资料。10-5920/2(2-676 0006/08041)25-8 At eooi ...
...and Ore-forming Time of the Dexing Porphyry Copper Ore ....pdf
Geological Characteristics and Ore-forming Time of the Dexing Porphyry Copper Ore Mine in Jiangx_专业资料。Vo.6N.P6 6918 o3P.99 1 ACAGOOCSNIA(...
...from Porphyry-Cu- Mo Deposits and their Host R_论文.pdf
Platinum-group Element Geochemistry of Magnetite from Porphyry-Cu- Mo Deposits and their Host R_专业资料。Vo.6No1P.0 718 . P161 1 ACTA GEOLOGICA...
...and Zonation of Primary Halos of Pulang Porphyry Copper ....pdf
Geochemical Characteristics and Zonation of Primary Halos of Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit, N_专业资料。维普资讯 http://www.cqvip.com JunlfCiaUiri Gocecs...
...for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi,_论文.pdf
Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi,_专业资料。维普资讯 http://www.cqvip.com Goa ely,11:53(...
...of Metallogenetic Porphyry Bodies from the Nongping Au-Cu ....pdf
Geochronology and Geochemistry of Metallogenetic Porphyry Bodies from the Nongping Au-Cu Deposit_专业资料。Vo.6No3P. 2 18 .P6 6919 ACAGOOIAICEgi din...
A Special Issue Devoted to Porphyry Copper Deposits of ....pdf
A Special Issue Devoted to Porphyry Copper Deposits of Northern Chile_电力/水利_工程科技_专业资料。斑岩铜矿研究经典外文文献 Economic Geology BULLETIN OF THE...
...signal in exhumation patterns revealed by porphyry copper ....unkown
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2429 A climate signal in exhumation patterns revealed by porphyry copper deposits Brian J. Yanites and Stephen E...
...at the Duobuza porphyry coppergold deposit, Northern Tibet.unkown
(2011) 11, 134143 doi: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00325.x High-temperature magmatic fluid exsolved from magma at the Duobuza porphyry coppergold...
The Saindak Porphyry Cu (-Ag) Deposits in Chagai, Western ....unkown
The Saindak Porphyry Cu (-Ag) Deposits i
New Porphyry CopperGold Discovery, Mongolia.unkown
New Porphyry CopperGold Discovery, Mongolia Solomon Resources Ltd. (SRB:TSX-V) is pleased to announce that a significant zone of copper- gold ...
...THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE YERINGTON PORPHYRY COPPER ....unkown
Proffett Title of report: REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE YERINGTON PORPHYRY COPPER DISTRICT, NEVADA, A FOUR DIMENSIONAL STUDY, AS SUPPORTED BY...
...of the Duobuza Gold-Rich Porphyry Copper District in the ....unkown
62, No. 1: 99118 Thematic Article rge_182 99..118 Geology and Hydrothermal Alteration of the Duobuza Gold-Rich Porphyry Copper District in the ...
Arizona porphyry copperhydrothermal deposits II: Crystal ....unkown
Arizona porphyry copperhydrothermal deposits II: Crystal structure of ajoite, (K Na)3Cu20Al3Si29O76(OH)168H2O Joseph J. Pluth* and ...
Field Mapping in Porphyry Copper Environments Cerro Colorado ....unkown
Guidebook Field Mapping in Porphyry Copper Environments Cerro Colorado Mine, Chile August 11-14, 2002 Erich U. Petersen College of Mines & Earth Sciences ...
更多相关标签: