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新目标大学英语1unit6 Language in Use


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Metaphor "Verb + with" collocation Conversion Translation of metaphorical expressions Translation of analogy Useful expressions

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Language in Use

Metaphor

What is metaphor? It refers to a comparison between unlike things without the use of “like” or “as”, thus highlighting the similarities between the two.
Structural metaphor Orientational metaphor Ontological metaphor

… they picture for us the marvels and beauties of nature
He is really low these days. … lift us out of and above ourselves.

Metaphor

Language in Use

Metaphor

Discuss with your partners and find more examples of metaphors.
Structural metaphor Orientational metaphor Ontological metaphor The Internet is a highway of information.

Metaphor

She is in high spirit.

The runners are out of sight now.

Language in Use

"Verb + with" collocation

They … store our minds with ideas, fill them with good and happy thoughts, and lift us out of and above ourselves. (Para.1) Books, indeed, endow us with a whole enchanted palace of thoughts. (Para.4) In English, verbs denoting “fill”, “cover”, “supply” often collocate with the preposition “with” to show contents or material, forming the construction “v.…with...”

More examples:
cram with; cover with

Language in Use

"Verb + with" collocation

Exercise 6 Complete each sentence with a verb from the box below, using the correct form of the verbs.
endow supply provide fill present honour cover equip

1) Aesthetic knowledge can ______ endow us with an appreciation of literature. filled his time with a 2) Since January, John has _____ weekly newspaper column, lectures and speaking events.

Language in Use

"Verb + with" collocation

Exercise 6 Complete each sentence with a verb from the box below, using the correct form of the verbs.
endow supply provide fill present honour cover equip

supply us with your 3) I wonder if you could ______ latest products for regular orders. 4) People who go to the bank to deposit or are provided with security withdraw money ___________ and good services.

Language in Use

"Verb + with" collocation

Exercise 6 Complete each sentence with a verb from the box below, using the correct form of the verbs.
endow supply provide fill present honour cover equip

5) Relative poverty, however, did not prevent equipping himself with an Martin from _________ excellent education. 6) Edgar Allan Poe, a legendary American author and poet, ___________ was honored with a statue in his hometown 150 years after his death.

Language in Use

Conversion

Conversion is a word formation process in which a word in one part of speech changes into another part of speech without any changes to spelling or pronunciation,such as:

noun → verb: bottle → to bottle host → to host
verb → noun: to attack → attack to increase → increase adjective →verb: calm → to calm

Conversion will provide you alternative ways of expressing an idea more vividly and economically.

Language in Use

Conversion

Major types of conversion
Noun to Verb Conversion access → to access Google →to Google

bottle → to bottle can → to can closet → to closet email → to email eye → to eye fool → to fool

host → to host knife → to knife name → to name pocket → to pocket salt → to salt shape → to shape

Language in Use

Conversion

Major types of conversion
Verb to Noun Conversion to attack → attack to hope → hope

to call → call to clone → clone to command → command to cover → cover to cry → cry to experience → experience to fear → fear to feel → feel

to increase → increase to judge → judge to laugh → laugh to rise → rise to run → run to sleep → sleep to start → start to visit → visit

Language in Use

Conversion

Major types of conversion
Other Conversions adjective to verb: calm → try to calm yourself

adverb to noun: up, down → the ups and downs of life noun to adverb: home → go home noun to adjective: gold → a gold ring conjunction to noun: if, and, but → no ifs, ands, or buts interjection to noun: ho ho ho → I love the ho ho hos of Christmastime. auxiliary verb to noun: must → This dictionary is a must for us.

Language in Use

Conversion

Exercise 7 The words in bold in the following sentences are used as nouns or verbs. Convert them into verbs or nouns to rewrite the sentences. Make changes where necessary. Model: Please change the cheque into cash. Please cash the cheque. 1) The feedback from consumers gives great support to Facebook and its development. The feedback from consumers greatly supports Facebook and its development.

Language in Use

Conversion

Exercise 7 2) A search on Google for “scenic spots” yields more than a million results. If you Google “scenic spots”, you’ll get more than a million results. 3) The movie star’s divorce with his wife became the headlines of the newspaper. The newspaper headlined the movie star’s divorce with his wife.

Language in Use

Conversion

Exercise 7 4) On her ride home, she relived her moment of glory again and again. While riding home, she relived her moment of glory again and again. 5) The citizens have expressed that they desire peace and order. The citizens have expressed their desire for peace and order.

Language in Use

Conversion

Exercise 7 6) They picture for us the marvels and beauties of nature. They present us a picture of the marvels and beauties of nature. 7) He has hosted the famous TV talk show for three years. He has been the host of the famous TV talk show for three years.

Language in Use

Conversion

Exercise 7 8) A lot of high-tech components will be shipped to Shanghai to be assembled. A lot of high-tech components will be sent by ship to Shanghai to be assembled.

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Metaphorical expressions A metaphorical expression describes a person or an object in a literary way by referring to something else that is considered to have similar characteristics to the one you are trying to describe.

Metaphorical expressions help us to express our understanding of the world around us. They add color, vivid imagery and perhaps emotion to a sentence.

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Metaphorical expressions When translating metaphorical expressions, we should first try to figure out the similarities between the original meaning and the extended meaning in the specific context, and then give a proper Chinese expression for the extended meaning.

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Here are some examples :
My friend gave me the green light to head to his home. Don't go on that side of the city, it's a grey area. My family gave me a hand to move out. Children often fight like cats and dogs. Life is a long scary roller coaster.

The sky was dark and angry. She gave me an icy look.
I have always been an early bird, I like to do things in the morning.

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Exercise 8 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying attention to the italicized metaphorical expressions and how their meanings are extended.

1) …we may transport ourselves to the mountains or the seashore, and visit the most beautiful parts of the earth, without fatigue, inconvenience, or expense. (Para. 2)
……我们还能遍访山川海岸,尽享大地之最美, 而不觉疲倦,没有不便,更不用破费。

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Exercise 8 2) But, she said, “I wish that all their pleasure in the park is but a shadow to the pleasure I find in Plato.” (Para. 3)

但她说:“我希望他们在园子里打猎的快乐,与 我在柏拉图文字里获得的愉悦相比,只不过是影 子而已。”
3) Books, indeed, endow us with a whole enchanted palace of thoughts. (Para. 5) 书籍的确赐予我们一座令人神往的思想宫殿。

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Exercise 8 4) “All mirrors,” says George MacDonald. “The commonest room is a room in a poem when I look in the glass.” (Para. 5)

“凡事皆镜像,”乔治 · 麦克唐纳说。“从镜子 里面看,再普通的房子我也觉得充满诗情画意。”

Language in Use

Translation of metaphorical expressions

Exercise 8 5) Without stirring from our firesides we may roam to the most remote regions of the earth, or soar into realms where Spenser’s shapes of unearthly beauty flock to meet us, where Milton’s angels peal in our ears the choral hymns of Paradise. (Para. 7) 无须起身离开火炉,我们就可漫游天涯海角,或 是飞到斯宾塞笔下的王国,在那里我们受到成群 结队非凡美丽的仙女们的欢迎,或是飞到弥尔顿 的天堂,在那里我们欣赏天使们合唱天堂颂歌。

Language in Use

Translation of analogy

Analogy An analogy is a likeness or a comparison between two things, the source and the target, which have some similar features and some different aspects as well. An analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular. There are many ways to express analogy. Pay attention to the differences in structure between the different constructions.

Language in Use

Translation of analogy

Analogy Here are some examples: A gang of boys is like a pack of wolves. Green is to go as red is to stop.

What a general is to an army, a CEO is to a company.

Language in Use

Translation of analogy

Exercise 9 Translate into English the following sentences of analogy, paying attention to the different ways of expression.

1) 开车对美国人而言就像鸟儿需要飞翔一样,几乎 就是他们天性的一部分。(what )
Driving is to Americans what flying is to birds. It is almost part of their nature.

Language in Use

Translation of analogy

Exercise 9 2) 提纲之于作家,犹如蓝图之于建筑师。(…is to…as …is to…) The outline is to a writer as the blueprint is to an architect.

3) 学习对于人的思想,犹如食物对于人的身体。 (as…, so…)
As food is to the body, so is learning to the mind.

Language in Use

Translation of analogy

Exercise 9 4) 太阳火辣辣的,与他那天在奥运会上所面临的竞 争一样火热。(… as… as…) The sun is as hot as the competition that he was confronted with at the Olympic Games. 5) 正如剑是战士的武器,笔是作家的武器。(just as…is…, …is…)

Just as a sword is the weapon of a warrior, a pen is the weapon of a writer.

Language in Use

Useful Expressions

1. accumulated knowledge 2. the marvels and beauties of nature 3. store our minds with ideas 4. have the best of 5. owe…to… 6. in full cry

1. 积累的知识
2. 大自然的神奇与美丽 3. 用思想充实我们的心智 4. 处于优势,从中受益 5. 归功于 6. (猎狗群)吠叫,大叫

Language in Use

Useful Expressions

7. on condition that
8. would rather

7. 如果
8. 宁愿

9. endow…with
10. garner up

9. 赋予
10. 储存,收集


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