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International Marketing Coursework Final Version


09BSP040 International Marketing Report

Cadbury plc
Li Wenxia Matthew Godwin Xin Tang

4th May 2010
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Table of Contents
Page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Executive Summary Introduction Internationalisation Foreign Market Segmentation and Targeting Environmental Analysis International Marketing Objectives Foreign Market Entry Strategy Product Mix Preparation Conclusion References Appendices 3 4 5 6 7 12 12 13 20 21 23

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1. Executive Summary
Cadbury is one of first movers in China chocolate market, as early as 1990s (wood et al, 1997), but it was not a successful launch. Cadbury?s trademark Choclairs (Chocolate filled toffee) went public in China early in 1997, with the Beijing headquarters, one factory and two Hong Kong trading company. However, in 2006, its market share in confectionery industry is no more than 14%, not even half of Dove (38.61%) (Liu, 2006). It is said that the corporation?s profit has not covered its cost until 2009 in China. Cadbury?s initial position in China caused the problem.

Laurence L. Allen, former senior executive in KISSES and Nestle, revealed the secret of the Chinese market in his newly released book, that what China?s consumers respect is a kind of lifestyle. High taste and the feeling of happiness overweigh the eating activity itself. In China, luxury packaging often is in the colour gold while Cadbury?s colour for luxury is purple, which reflects consumer taste in the UK. Cadbury?s launch in China is far less successful as its great competitor Dove (Galaxy in the UK), a trademark of Mars. When we compare both companies in the Chinese advertising market, Dove advocates the sensual experience of its silky taste, while Cadbury is proud of its a cup and a half of milk ethos, which actually doesn?t mean anything in Chinese minds at all.

Also, of all the sub brands, almost only Choclairs stands up till now thanks to its unique toffee feature. The target market is too narrow, with merely segmentations.

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Nevertheless at home the brand has varied products designed for from children to grandma.

2. Introduction
Multinational companies have a great need for tailored marketing solutions in order to help them integrate their products into new markets. For example, companies that employ American consumer market focussed strategies into marketing products in India will find themselves making very little progress overall when it comes to increasing their sales if they employ a one size fits all approach. As a result, tailored international and cross border marketing strategies become more and more important as globalisation becomes more prevalent. With this in mind, the company that this report is focussing on is Cadbury, a market leading UK based confectioner, for whom we have written a marketing strategy for its expansion in foreign markets. For the purpose of this task, we have focussed on one country and what could be a potential growth market. That country is China. Although Cadbury has already got a presence in China through its Dairy Milk brand, it is not by any means the most popular nor the most marketed chocolate brand in the Chinese market. In a New York Times article (Barrionuevo, 2006, para.15), Robert J. Gamgort, president of Mars Incorporated?s North American operations is reported as saying that Dove, a chocolate brand owned by the Mars Corporation, is “the highest selling chocolate brand in China”. As China is the world?s largest growth market, it will not surprise that this position is actively being challenged. This is shown by L.J Wood and S. Grosvenor, who state that within China there is “continuing competition between multinational companies for market share” and that within the chocolate and confectionary industry, “the competition
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involves Cadbury, Mars and Nestlé” (1997, p.173). However, in the year 2010, Cadbury still only offer a very limited product range in China in whereas in its home market, the United Kingdom, it offers not only a large selection of chocolate brands but also gum and confectionary. Therefore, Cadbury is an organisation for whom a tailored and progressive internationally focussed marketing strategy is ideal. In the first instance, the problem identification and solving stage was key to the direction the report would take. The first thing that was done was to focus on which products were already offered and how they were presented, meaning what sort of packaging is used, what kind of advertising strategies are employed, and what is the best seller in the Chinese market to name but a few. Secondly, we identified new products that could be appealing to Chinese consumers and therefore possibly be introduced into the marketplace. In addition to this, we looked into whether the current product range offered by Cadbury in China could be better marketed or redesigned through better branding. Following this we conducted primary research with members of the Chinese student community to ascertain whether the products that we had designated as being potential introductions to the Chinese market would be of interest to the average Chinese person. This research also had the benefit of being conducted within the ideal 18-25 year old age range, towards which Cadbury products could be primarily aimed. With this research conducted and the questions answered, the report began to take shape.

3. Internationalisation
There are mainly 4 reasons that drive us to choose Cadbury?s to extend market in China.
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Cadbury?s launch in China is not as good as competitors like Mars. It has not seized the opportunity as the first-mover.

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The package design is not preferred by Chinese. The purple colour cannot make echo with Chinese people. Especially for gift giving, few people will consider this brand.

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Sub brands not attractive and the ranges are too narrow. On the other hand, there is a lot more products in the UK that well receive warm welcome if introduced.

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The market segmentation is poor. There are no specific products for children, lover, and special days such as Chinese New Year, Valentine?s Day. The price setting is also sole and according to just one standard.

4. Foreign Market Segmentation and Targeting
Following the introduction of the Cadbury brand into the Chinese market and the subsequent establishment of the name as a quality confectionary brand, it would appear to be a sensible move to explore and evaluate potential product diversifications into China using existing products in the company?s range. At the moment, there is only a few products from Cadbury that are available in the Chinese marketplace and distribution is still patchy in some areas of the country, as shown by Wood and Grosvenor when they state that “For Cadbury, as for most firms developing markets for mass consumer goods in China, the real challenge is distribution” (1997, p.182).They go on to mention that Cadbury had to open offices in Shanghai, Tianjin and Guanhzou and that “Each of these has an associated warehouse, while wholesalers are generally used to supply Cadbury products to the surrounding region” (1997, p.182). Despite these challenges, these regional offices
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and depots are essential for the company to maintain and improve its presence around China and they provide a good opportunity not only to consolidate the company?s position but also to further the brand by the distribution of new products in alliance with the company?s wholesalers. Therefore, the regions around the warehouses are where the focus of our diversification strategy will be put into place. In our marketing research, we have attempted to establish what kind of demand there could be for new products and where this demand might be and how the distribution of these products might take place. Following this our strategy is to implement trials of the new products in the geographical areas mentioned above (Shanghai, Tianjin and Guanhzou) in alliance with the company?s wholesalers. If these trials are successful, an incremental approach would be taken and distribution would gradually be phased in around the country. The screening process of the market revolves around the research that is presented in the following section along with some primary research conducted by the authors of this report.

5. Environmental Analysis
? Political and Legislative Analysis:

In China, cocoa is generally imported from countries in Southeast Asia, more particularly the ASEAN alliance. According to and as stated in a Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) report, “Both China and ASEAN started to implement the CAFTA?s Trade in Goods Agreement with import tariff reductions from July 2005, with the five-year tariff reduction schedule entirely phased in from January 2010” (HKTDC, 2010, para.11). With the formal operation of CAFTA in January 2010, around 7,000 items that are traded between China and ASEAN are zero-rated. As

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cocoa is one of those zero-rated products, the material costs of chocolate have been lowered. Consequently this makes chocolate a more competitive product in the confection market which is an opportunity for Cadbury to expand its chocolate product market share. During the recent few years, a new national standard for chocolate and chocolate product has been applied. The standard regulates that the content of fat in non-cocoa butter cannot exceed 5 per cent. According to the China Light Industry (CLII) website, the content of cocoa butter must be no less than 20 per cent in white chocolate and no less than 18 per cent in dark chocolate (CLII, 2004, para.2). However, according to and as stated in the China Daily newspaper, “Foreign chocolate brands, such as Cadbury, have all adopted international standards, so there is no problem for them to meet the Chinese requirements” (“Chocolate strives for standard”, 2004, para.37). This puts Cadbury at a significant advantage over any Chinese chocolate manufacturers who need to adapt to the new regulations in order to be able to sell their chocolate in the Chinese market. ? Economic Analysis: China?s economy and its growth has been one of the economic success stories of the new millennium. Year on year the growth figures are in the realms of what established economies can only dream of. According to The Times newspaper, in the last quarter of 2009, China?s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew by 10.7 percent, despite the effects of the largest global recession seen since the Second World War (Lewis, 2010, para.2). This figures demonstrates that consumerism in China is still growing which makes it ideal for any company that offers consumer products to continue expansion. Associated with this overall growth figure is rising wages in China. According to the latest figures from the World Bank (“China Quick
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Facts”, 2010), average wages in China have risen from $293 US Dollars in 1985 to $2,025 US Dollars per person in 2006. These rises show that as the economy in China has developed, people?s general spending power has increased significantly and will continue to rise. This means that products such as chocolate, which in years gone by may have been considered a luxury to many, is now accessible to many more people that before, thus increasing the size of the market and making it more attractive to confectionary companies. ? The Social Environment and the Market:

Strengths & weaknesses: The Country of origin: It is widely considered that the best chocolate comes from Europe and America. Cadbury?s long history and acknowledgement by the royalty, the queen?s preference can be attractive. Brand advantages: The brand?s reputation in China also helps in the reposition and segmentation. It is shown in the questionnaire that only 2 in 14 have never heard or Cadbury. And 8 candidates have ever purchased the brand. Many can list out the diverse product names. Relatively low market share & brand loyalty Chinese consumers tend to be more brand loyal than their counterparts in the West (Yau, 1988). Data from Cadbury?s website shows that the company only occupies 6% market share in Asia. In the questionnaire, when candidates are asked to list the brands they would consider when shopping for chocolate, only 2 in 14 say Cadbury?s (2 give no answer). We should notice 8 candidates listed Dove, which is

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our biggest competitor. To persuade consumers switch their choices may require reposition of the brand and better marketing plans. Opportunities Gift presenting culture CMMS (China Marketing and Media Study) 2004(spring) data in website www.tech-food.com shows that in Chinese chocolate market 52.4% purchase is for gift. And within the gift market, Dove enjoys 40.2%, followed by Cadbury?s, Le Conte, and Hershey. Gift giving is an important way to build up and maintain relationships in China. As is shown in the questionnaire data, Question 3, 8 candidates in 14 have chosen to purchase chocolate as gift, (while 4 of them have chosen both as gift and self-consuming). Chocolate is not only a kind of confection, but also a beloved gift chosen in special occasions in China. Gifts presented should be expensive enough to show giver?s sincere but also to show the high value of the receiver. The products regarded as gifts also require packaging prestigious and beautiful. When such products are launched by well-known firms or manufacturers, the prices can be set higher than competitors' as the Chinese believe in established brands and companies (Yau, 1988). Our survey shows 7 candidates out of 14 considered the packaging important, i.e. if the package is attractive, they would like to choose the brand(s). Brand loyalty Chinese consumers tend to be more brand loyal than their counterparts in the West. Chinese consumers often endeavour to conform to group norms and therefore tend to purchase the same brand or product other members of the group recommend (Yau, 1988). Huge market size and growing sales estimates

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Chocolate consuming is only 50g-60g per capita annually in China, while in Korea and Japan, over 1.4kg. It is estimated by qukeli.cn that China chocolate market will increase by about 20% annually in the coming 10 years. Now China market is a little smaller than the US, ranking number 2 in the world. Price strategy Price of the product is also a factor that has impact on consumers? purchase behaviours. A survey carried out by www.tech-food.com shows 93.6% of samples think the drawback of the high-end products is the high price that people cannot afford. Price is also a great factor affecting the consumers? behaviours Threats Diets Misunderstanding of chocolate results in their reluctance in eating it. They think it contains high level of hydrocarbons with high calories, which will cause diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (www.tech-food.com). The elder people also seldom consume chocolate partially considering it a treat to their health. Fewer dairy products are consumed than the western world. Traditionally, the Chinese diet, like most Asian diets, included few dairy products and chocolate was virtually unknown. As a result the elder people can hardly accept chocolate. The name 'Cadbury', synonymous with chocolate and the 'glass and a half of full dairy milk' through most industrialised countries, meant nothing in China (Wood et al, 1997). Competition Dove, trademark of Mars, has been the winner in China chocolate market, occupying 33% market share. And Cadbury?s ranks third, share with the first 4 brands with over 70% market share. Data from Cadbury?s website shows that the company only occupies 6% market share in Asia.
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6. International Marketing Objectives
The marketing objectives for the Chinese market are quite simple. We will utilise all means at our disposal in order to raise the profile of the Cadbury brand. This will take the form of advertising, either through the new digital media or by traditional means such as television and the written press. Through wholesalers, marketing agents and brand representatives, we will also distribute free samples in supermarkets, coffee outlets and convenience stores where existing Cadbury brands such as Dairy Milk and Eclairs are already being sold in order to gain general feedback and comments about the products that will be on offer but also to raise awareness of the brands and the associated new products that we would like to introduce. A limited amount of the new product offerings will be imported into China and this will support the promotional tour that will be conducted for around 3 months in various locations within the provinces of Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Guanhzou (where existing Cadbury offices, factories and distribution warehouses are already in use, as reported by Wood and Grosvenor (1997, p.182)). Following this promotional tour and the use of advertising to enhance public awareness of the new Cadbury products that will be introduced, our market entry strategy will be put into action.

7. Foreign Market Entry Strategy
As Cadbury already has a presence in China, the objective at this stage is not so much as to formulate an entry strategy but in truth to formulate an expansion strategy to which the company can achieve respectable growth in the Chinese market. Using the existing Cadbury distribution infrastructure in Shanghai, Tianjin and Guanhzou provinces and the chocolate producing plant in Beijing as demonstrated in the article by Wood and Grosvenor (1997, p.182), the company can
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expand its offering to the Chinese consumer. Increasing the foreign direct investment of the Cadbury Company in these sites will be needed in order to support the increase in production that will be needed by the new chocolate and candy lines. This money will be transformed into additional capacity for production (meaning new machinery and extra floor space) within the Beijing factory and extra staff in order to cover these new products, along with extra warehousing and distribution capacity. In the three satellite sites, this money will be needed in all probability to expand the capacity of the warehousing, to add further employees and to further the capacity of distribution. Following this expansion of capacity and capability, the tools will be in place to further Cadbury?s presence in the Chinese marketplace and to satisfy the company?s growth criteria and targets.

8. Product Mix Preparation
The product decision is the first decision that we need to make in order to develop a specific marketing mix for China. At the early stage, some of the classic and popular products that Cadbury has in the UK but that are not yet available in the Chinese market will be launched. After extensive research of Chinese tastes and some primary research (i.e. going to stores, obtaining the products and doing taste tests), the products that we have chosen are as follows: ? ? ? ? ? Cadbury Fingers, Bassett?s Jelly Babies, Dairy Milk Buttons, Mini Animals, Crème Egg,

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? ?

Milk Tray, Crunchie. Cadbury Fingers are a type of biscuit shaped in a long thin shape, much like a

human finger. It is coated in milk chocolate and sold in large packs, mainly in supermarkets. Crunchie has a “honeycomb” centre in a golden colour, which in coated in a standard Cadbury milk chocolate. It is wrapped individual as a small bar and is generally sold in convenience stores and small retailers. Dairy Milk Buttons are small bags filled with small button-like individual chocolates. They are designed especially for children and tend to have a cartoon of an animal on the front of the package. As they are small pieces of chocolate, they could be seen as a healthier option for children. They are generally sold in convenience stores. Mini Animals are small individual packets animal shaped biscuits half coated with Cadbury milk chocolate. This product also targets the children?s chocolate market. Along with the amusing shape of the biscuits, there are no artificial flavours or colours which will encourage parents to purchase them as a healthier option for their children. They are usually sold as multipacks in supermarkets. Bassett?s Jelly Babies are possibly the most well known candy in the UK. They are small gelatine baby shaped candies with natural colours, flavours and no added sugar. This makes the product healthier and thus is suitable for children and adults and as they are also not too sweet, they should suit Chinese tastes well. They are generally sold in different sized packages in outlets such as convenience stores and supermarkets.
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Milk Tray is a gifting chocolate brand with an emphasis on luxury and special occasions. Many Chinese people buy chocolates as a gift for festivals or special days, and Cadbury Milk tray, with Chinese market adapted luxury-style packaging, will suit these occasions perfectly. For special days such as Valentine?s Day or the Chinese spring festival, special packaging could be designed in order to gain even more market share of the chocolate gift market. Milk Tray can be sold in supermarkets or specialist chocolate shops. Our target markets are young people aged 18-27 and children. Our primary research has probed young people?s attitudes toward packaging (colour), price, and purchase purpose. Although there is no means to conduct survey on children, after considering the shared nature of kids, we decide to introduce the welcomed children products to the new market. We are going to market 7 products, 2 mainly for young people, and 3 for children; and as CMMS (China Marketing and Media Study) 2004(spring) data in www. Tech-food.com shows that in Chinese chocolate market 52.4% purchase is for gift, we specially choose 2 products for special days, such as Chinese New Year, Valentine?s Day, for gift giving. When being asked the question “why you would like to choose the brand(s)” (in all the questions, more than one options can be chosen), among 14 candidates, 7 choose “like the package”, 13 choose “like the taste and quality”, 8 think they “like the feeling”. We notice that while the chocolate quality itself is most decisive for consumers? purchase actions, the product packaging play a crucial role. Especially when the customer has no access to taste the product first, he/she will make decision by the packaging. Young people

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1. Chocolate fingers The packaging remains purple as Cadbury?s theme colour. On right side of the package, there is a transparent image of steaming coffee, with golden colour border. In our survey, only 2 candidates say they have never heard of Cadbury?s. So we should keep the acknowledged main colour, and at same time add some new elements, such as golden colour (11 in 14 candidates think golden package is more attractive than purple). The coffee image imply a lifestyle-relaxed but graceful. Through the transparent part customers can see what the fingers look like for real seeing is better than figures shown on packages. 2. Crunchie We design the market name in China market as “Mi Xin Qi”. The term has a similar pronunciation in Chinese with English, and the character also implies that it contains honey in the middle. The shining golden colour package is eye catching. There is shining image of honey pouring from a jar. The similar colour with honey also reminds consumers of delicious taste and good-for-health-and-beauty function of honey ingredients. Children

1. Bassett?s Jelly Babies We rename this product as “Tan tan xiao jing ling” (bouncy little fairies). “Jing ling” (fairy) can also mean little cute people in Chinese. The package?s main theme is yellow colour, with different jelly babies of different colour. 2. Dairy milk button

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We are going to market this product with the name “ niu nai xiao bu dian”, which means both the chocolate button shape and little people, implying this is a companion for children. The package will remain the same as in the UK market. The cartoon animal face shown on the package will be really attractive to kids. 3. Mini animals The package remains purple colour theme. All the animals appear one the bag have a story of forest. Every pack contains a card telling a episode of the whole story. If the children manage to gather the whole collection, they will get a complete story of the forest animal friends. Luxury for special days

1. Crème egg We plan to market the product with the name “lucky egg” in china. During national special days, such as Chinese New Year and Lantern Festival, the chocolate egg is red and gold, with different gift boxes and ribbons outside. The fillings of the egg will vary into nuts, cookies, cream, and fruit gel to meet people?s taste. 2. Milk tray This is special for gift giving, so it is priced higher. There are two styles: golden showing respect and honour for gift receiver, and pink one designed for lovers, mainly market during Valentine?s Day.

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There are simple version hard-paper-box, and classic version iron box one.. There sizes can be chosen from for consumers. Prices are all varied according to the package and size. The chocolate inside are of varied shape small chocolate bars. During special days, we will present exclusive version of ingot shape classic chocolate, and heart and rose shape chocolate. All the chocolate bars have “Cadbury?s” Chinese characters on the bottom. Due to the huge cultural difference between UK (the country of origin of all of the above products) and China, adaptations to the Chinese local culture are necessary, most basically, perhaps, in the alteration of the confection recipes to suit Chinese people?s tastes better. As stated by Wood and Grosvenor, “a low sugar and high cocoa solid recipe was devised that the Chinese indicated then preferred and that still met Cadbury?s own specifications for dairy milk chocolate” (1997, p.179). We believe that the with a small modification in the way the product tastes, we see no reason why these traditional British products could not work equally as well in China given time. Having decided upon the optimum standardization and adaptation route and the newness of the products, the specific promotion of the products for the Chinese market will be the next important factor for Cadbury to consider. According to Svend Hollensen, “product and promotion go hand in hand in foreign markets and together are able to create of destroy markets in very short order” (2007, p.434). From this, we acknowledge that the success of the promotional activity is the essential element for the Cadbury?s expansion plan to succeed in China.
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From the outset, when these brands are launched, the well known Cadbury ethos (well known in China) of “a glass and half of milk” will continue to be used as the theme of the commercials and the benefits of milk consumption will be emphasized as well. Advertising and sales promotions are the main communication element that Cadbury is going to use. To advertise the brand and the new product, traditional mass media such as print advertising and television will definitely be used to create awareness. In addition, since web advertisement is becoming a more and more popular tool, Cadbury will also advertise on the popular websites in China to gain more awareness, for example QQ or kaixin (the most popular social networking website in China). Sponsoring a TV entertainment show is also a creative idea that should be used as these shows are hugely popular in China and the huge number of people watching them will create brand and product awareness on a massive scale. After creating an awareness of the products, sales promotions will be used to promote the purchasing of the products. For instance, buy one get one free offers, price reduction coupons or as gifts for purchasing a set amount of Cadbury product, should be in situations that best apply in order to promote interest and awareness in the brand and products. In the long term, as time passes, the proposed products? sales may decline, so Cadbury should always keep investing in marketing in order to create a new sales cycle. This can be realised by using measures such as product improvements or repositioning the perception of the product in order to increase sales. Cadbury should continue to maintain the awareness of the brand at all times and consider introducing new products should the market conditions be appropriate.

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9. Conclusion
According to the secondary research that we have undertaken, Cadbury does not enjoy as large a market share in China as was expected. However, having investigated the experience of Cadbury in China, we can see the potential of the brand to expand its market there if we make some improvements in terms of the product offering and the market positioning. In this report, we have probed the strengths and weaknesses of Cadbury in China, and also identified some available opportunities for the company to expand and diversify. We have also analysed the threats from the competition and introduced some products that will be able to compete with the other multinational chocolate makers. After some primary research and in-depth interviews with Chinese young people aged 18 to 27, we were able to gather valuable information which is enormously helpful for marketing strategy and decision making. Based on our research and analysis, we believe our expansion strategy and its associated marketing plans are established to be consolidated and practical and give Cadbury a clear route forward to becoming one of the biggest brands in the Chinese chocolate and confectionary market.

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10.
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References

Barrionuevo, A. (2006, September 14). Mars expands ?health? line with milk chocolate bars. New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/14/business/14place.html

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Wood, L.J., & Grosvenor, S. (1997). Chocolate in China: the Cadbury experience [Electronic version]. Australian Geographer, 28(2), 173-184.

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Lewis, L. (2010, January 21). China?s economic growth soars by 10.7 per cent. The Times. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/economics/article6996208.ece

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The World Bank. (2010). China Quick Facts. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://go.worldbank.org/4Q7SC8DU50

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Cadbury plc. (2009). Financial fact-sheet: Q3 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from the Cadbury plc website: http://www.investis.com/cadbury_ir/docs/0910_Quarterly_factsheet.pdf

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Cadbury: The legacy in Birmingham. (2009, December 15). BBC News. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/birmingham/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_ 8412000/8412655.stm

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Cadbury agrees Kraft takeover bid. (2010, January 19). BBC News. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8467007.stm

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Chocolate strives for standard. (2004, December 24). China Daily News. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/200412/24/content_402994.htm

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China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) – Implications for Hong Kong?s Merchandise Exports. (2010, March 8). Hong Kong Trade Development

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Council. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://www.hktdc.com/info/mi/a/ef/en/1X06OJ4B/1/Economic-Forum/ChinaASEAN-Free-Trade-Area-CAFTA-Implications-For-Hong-Kong-SMerchandise-Exports.htm ?

Chocolate and cocoa standards to be applied. (2004, July 5). China Light Industry Internet. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://cwd.clii.com.cn/Criterion/infoshow.asp?Showid=245

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Hollensen, S. (2007). Global Marketing: A Decision-Oriented Approach (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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Yau, Oliver. H. M. (1988). Chinese Cultural Values: Their Dimensions and Marketing Implications [Electronic version]. European Journal of Marketing, 22(5), 44-57.

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China Food and Technology Website. (1998). Analysis of China Chocolate Market Conditions. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from the China website: http://www.tech-food.com/news/2008-11-23/n0215574_2.htm

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Chocolate Website. (2009). Estimates of China Chocolate Market Growth in the Next 10 Years. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from the China website: http://qkeli.cn/qkeliInfos/gnInfos/2009/0827/3558_3.html

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Liu, K. (n.d.). China: a Chocolate Market with High Potential. Retrieved March 29, 2010, from http://www.industrysourcing.com/china/make_art.asp?id=30089

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11.

Appendices
Questionnaire *all the question choices are multiple

1. If you are going to purchase chocolate, which brand(s) will you consider? Please list below 2. Why you would like to choose the brand(s)? A. Like the package B. The price is low C. The price is high D. Like the taste and quality E. Like the feeling F. Other reasons, please list 3. You usually purchase chocolate for the purpose of A. Self consuming B. As gifts C. Other, please list 4. Do you know Cadbury?s If yes, go to Q5 If no, go toQ7 5. Where did you get the information of the brand A. Shops, such as supermarket B. Newspaper and magazine ads C. TV ads D. Fellows, family members have ever purchased it E. Other, please list 6. Have you ever purchased Cadbury?s chocolate Yes No If yes, please list the products 7. From below, which package is more attractive to you, for the first sight

A.

(purple)

B. (golden) 8. What factors do you think will persuade you to choose one chocolate brand A. The package is attractive B. There is product on sale C. Word of mouth, i.e. from friends, family, etc. recommendation D. Advertisements E. Feeling of exclusivity F. Other, please list

Thank you very much

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