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新目标大学英语1unit7 Language in Use


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Simile

Collocations: "adjectives + distance/ space / situation"
Word formation: compound nouns English abstract nouns English prepositional phrases Useful expressions

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Language in Use

Simile

Two friends are like magnets.(Para.9) Friendship is thus a balancing act, like a ballet or dance. (Para.9)

Simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things through the explicit use of connecting words, such as like, as, so, than, or various verbs such as resemble…

Language in Use

Simile

More examples: His arms were weak and felt like noodles. The thunder was as loud as fireworks. I'm happier than a tornado in a trailer park!

Language in Use

Simile

Simile VS Metaphor
Although similes and metaphors are sometimes considered to be interchangeable, similes acknowledge the imperfections and limitations of the comparative relationship to a greater extent than metaphors. Metaphors are subtler and therefore rhetorically stronger. While a simile compares two items, a metaphor directly equates them, and does not use like or as as does a simile. This room is like a stage for the kids. All world’s a stage. simile metaphor

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

Here there is, within the group, very little social and physical distance. (Para.3) The social space is partly symbolic and invisible and hence dealt with through gestures, language. (Para.1) Neither of these two extreme situations is what we commonly associate with life in Britain, though there are some exceptions. (Para.2)

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

More examples:
physical distance (身体距离) safe distance (安全距离) long distance (长距离) social space (社交空间) personal space (私人空间) limited space (有限空间) extreme situation (极端情境) real-life situation (现实生活情境) current situation (现状)

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

Exercise 6 Fill in the blanks in the box with adjectives that collocate with “distance”, “space” and “situation”, and the complete the following sentences with appropriate collocations from the box.
walking _______ distance outer space(外层 difficult situation
(很近的距离) 空间;宇宙空间) travelling _______ distance living space (旅行距离) (生存空间) open _____ space (露天场所) parking _______ space (停车位) (困境) dangerous situation (危险的处境) embarrassing _____________ situation (尴尬的境地) financial situation ________ (财务状况)

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

Exercise 6 1) Social media and the Internet make it easier for people to keep in touch, even for those physical distance between who have great _______________ them. 2) “The good thing about being so tall is that I can long distance ,” he said. see people from a ____________ 3) The distance between seats should be carefully arranged so that they are not too remote from each other, but not so close that personal space is invaded. _____________

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

Exercise 6 4) The expanding human population requires living space and forests are always the more __________, first thing humans decide to sacrifice. 5) But it’s important for us to look at our current situation and be realistic about the ______________ possibility of making this dream our reality. 6) Conveniently located, the Holiday Inn is within walking distance of the hot springs and the ______________ downtown shopping area.

Language in Use

Collocations: adjectives+ "distance", "space" and "situation"

Exercise 6 7) She said hospitals often had limited parking space and could not provide free ____________ parking for patients. financial situation of local 8) The difficult _______________ governments threatens the stability and development of the social economy.

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Compounding Compounding is a very good way to form new expressions for complex ideas. Compound nouns are nouns that are composed of more than a single word. They can be words that are written together (handshake), or hyphenated (side-effect), or separate words that go together by meaning (post office).

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Compound nouns can be formed in the following ways:

noun + noun adjective + noun verb + noun

flowerpot, housekeeper, fish tank blackboard, blueprint, highlight playground, pickpocket, cut-throat

v-ing + noun
preposition / adverb + noun

sleeping pill, walking stick, washing machine
underground, bystander, onlooker

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Compound nouns can be formed in the following ways:

noun + v-ing noun + verb noun + preposition / adverb

handwriting, sunbathing, window-shopping haircut, rainfall, headache love-in, passer-by, hangeron

verb + adverb

takeout, drawback, lookout, check-in, runoff, takeoff

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Exercise 7 Match the words in Column A with those in Column B to form compound nouns and complete the following sentences with appropriate compound nouns chosen from the table.

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Exercise 7
A 1) real 2) feed B road quake

3) check 4) cross 5) soft 6) high 7) earth 8) sweet 9) sight 10) up

heart back date light estate seeing in ware

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Exercise 7 1) Though ________ check-in lines were long on Monday morning, flight schedules were back to normal by the afternoon. 2) First, they need to get ________ feedback on the level of satisfaction of their customers. 3) He visited the Internet to have the latest update _____ on the presidential election. 4) He was married to his high-school sweetheart _________, Mary Jeanne, and they had a daughter, Kathleen.

Language in Use

Word formation: compound nouns

Exercise 7

crossroad with 5) History has led us to a new _________, new promise and new peril(危险).
6) In 2007, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake _________ struck western Japan and affected a power plant owned by TEPCO. 7) The presidential elections are the highlight _______ of next year’s political calendar. 8) Ordinary Chinese frequently invest in real estate so a downturn could batter their _________, savings.

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

The range of body distance varies with the degree of intimacy and equality that is thought to exist in the relationship. (Para. 1)
It originally means closeness. With the phrase “the degree of” used before it, it should be translated into 关系亲疏 It originally means the state of being equal. Here it should be translated into 地位高低

In translating an English abstract noun into Chinese, you often have to make some additions to your translation according to the meaning of the noun in the context.

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

Exercise 8 Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying special attention to the italicized abstract nouns. 1) The range of body distance varies with the degree of intimacy and equality that is thought to exist in the relationship. (Para. 1)

人和人之间的身体距离因其关系亲疏和地位高低 而不同。

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

Translation 2) At one extreme is “untouchability”, whether literally (as in the caste system) or through keeping one’s distance, as when a nobleman finds it distasteful to be close to a commoner. (Para. 2) 一个极端是“不可接触”,无论按照字面上的意 思(如种姓制度里)还是通过保持空间距离,如 贵族会觉得接近平民是件令人生厌的事情。

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

Translation

3) In some societies there seems to be little appreciation of privacy, separateness, the need for a protected zone of intimacy into which no one intrudes. (Para. 4)
在一些社会当中,人们不太理会个人隐私、互不 干扰以及不被打扰的受保护的私密空间的需要。

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

Translation 4) They should be close enough to show engagement and involvement, but not so close as to cause embarrassment and intrusion. (Para. 5)

人们之间的距离应该是近得可以显示你被吸引和 积极参与,但又不至于近得侵入私人空间,让人 尴尬。

Language in Use

English abstract nouns

Translation

5) Friendship is thus a balancing act, like a ballet or dance. (Para. 9)
因此,交友是一种平衡的行为,如同芭蕾或者其 他舞蹈。

Language in Use

English prepositional phrases

English prepositional phrases can modify nouns, verbs, phrases, and complete clauses. They can also be embedded inside other prepositional phrases. A great deal of information can be compactly structured in a sentence by using prepositional phrases. English prepositional phrases need not always be translated as such in Chinese, because they might function differently in Chinese. Be aware of the different ways of expression in the two languages.

Language in Use

English prepositional phrases

Exercise 9 Translate the following sentences into English, using the prepositional phrases provided. 1)他在大庭广众中通常很有礼貌,但私下里很粗鲁。 (in public; in private) He is very rude in private, though in public he is usually very polite.

Language in Use

English prepositional phrases

Translation

2) 饥饿是食物摄入量的一个极端,肥胖则是另一个 极端。(at one extreme; at the other extreme)
Starvation is at one extreme of the spectrum of food intake; obesity is at the other extreme.

Language in Use

English prepositional phrases

Translation

3) 与好友在一起心灵才能找到归宿。(in the company of)
It is in the company of a good friend that the heart finds a home.

4) 尽管她父亲在公司里,但她那份工作却是靠自己 得到的。(on one’s own)
Although her father is in the firm, she got the job on her own.

Language in Use

English prepositional phrases

Translation

5) 这个项目开始的时候我们都满怀热情,但不幸的 是我们现在已经没有当初那么热心了。(at the start of)
At the start of the project we were all full of passion but unfortunately we’ve lost a lot of our early enthusiasm.

Language in Use

Useful Expressions

1. social space
2. deal with

1. 社交空间
2. 涉及

3. body distance
4. caste system

3. 身体距离
4. 种姓制度

5. keep one’s distance
6. drop in

5. 保持距离
6. 顺便拜访

7. comment on
8. personal space

7. 评头论足
8. 私人空间

Language in Use

Useful Expressions

9. in private
10. effect a compromise

9. 私底下
10. 达成一种折中

11. more or less
12. on the whole

11. 或多或少
12. 总体而言

13. in public
14. a calculated risk

13. 当众
14. 盘算过的冒险

15. side-effect

15. 附属品


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