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1. Differences between countries are becoming less evident nowadays. People tend to have the same films, music, brands, TV channels, etc. To what extent do you think the disadvantages of this outweigh the advantages? Brainstorm 事件:人们看同样的电影、电视,听同样的音乐,用同样的品牌。 后果 1: 分论点: ? 后果 1:人们欣赏同样的电影、电视、音乐和品牌对人们可能有两方面的影响 —creativity 和 communication ability。我们先考虑在创造性方面的影响。 (句型 2) Appreciation of the same films, music and clothing might reduce/inhibit man’s creativity and innovation. ? 后果 2:事件对传统文化的影响,造成传统文化的消失。当然,你也可以不同意这 个观点,把这一段写成驳论。 They are afraid that “cultural diversity” will be a historic term in the future. However, globalization does not necessarily mean the loss of their national identity. ? 后果 2:事件对世界经济的影响。这个事件就是全球化的具体体现,按照后果 7 提 示的思路,全球化给我们带来的是机遇和挑战。 (句型 2) Globalization means more economic opportunities for the world. Others feel upset at the prospect of cultural and economic globalization, which might endanger the jobs of many people in various industries. 2. More and more measures to improve the security in the urban area have been introduced because of the increased crimes. Do the benefits of these measures outweigh the drawbacks? 题干标志:benefits/ drawbacks 总论点:more advantages 分论点: ? 后果 1:政府预防犯罪 (句型 4) It is more convenient for the government to ensure the city order and prevent crimes. (For example, the surveillance cameras all over the streets in Beijing have enabled the police to control the information of all vehicles. Thanks to these security measures, street crimes could be recorded and the criminals involved could be soon controlled and caught when they try to escape the spot. In addition, even if these measures were informed by the public, it would still be deterrence to those potential criminals. Finally, the cameras can also help the municipal government to collect and broadcast traffic information as so to avoid even more serious traffic problems.) ? 后果 1:商业企业保护他们的利益(句型 1) Security measures enable those business enterprises to protect their profits. (Examples can be easily found to support this view point. With surveillance cameras in the supermarkets, the owners can easily be informed whether someone is trying to steal their goods. On the contrary, without these measures, a large number of extra



employees would be required in order to achieve this end.) 后果 6:反驳-社会诚信和法律问题 Some people think that in a society full of security measures, social trust might be threatened or even destroyed and sometimes security measures might also arouse legal troubles. However, they are oversimplifying the situation. In front of safety problems, even privacy should give in. (For example, it might be controversy to set up surveillance cameras in toilets on US airplanes. However, it was where terrorists prepared and launched to attack in 911.) 后果 3:安装安全设施可以分不同的方式,在不为人注意的情况下安装应该是一个 不错的选择。 The security measures should be set in a way that is unaware to local residents.

3. In many countries,the proportion of older people is steadily increasing. Does this trend make positive or negative effects to society? 题干标志:effects 总论点:more advantages 分论点: ? 后果 6:反驳老年人体力弱 Some people might argue that old people are physically weak and therefore society might be not energetic enough to develop. However, modern sciences and technologies have enabled old men to be physically strong enough to meet the challenges in modern society. (In the past, old people aged over sixty were rather fragile. But nowadays, because of medicine innovations and scientific exercises, senior people could still enjoy a life with various activities. Therefore, it is not wise to question the old people’s working ability now.) ? 后果 6:反驳老年人保守 Quite a few people insist that old people are conservative. However, a large proportion of old people nowadays do not work simply for economic reasons. (They are trying all the way out to be informed of fresh ideas and theories. As a result, they also surf on the Internet and make friends all over the world. In addition, to be conservative sometimes is the prerequisite of glorious success in modern society. ) ? 后果 2:年轻人失去工作机会,这个观点可以反驳 Some people might argue that it can be observed that young people might be deprived of their opportunities to develop their abilities as more old people could mean that they have more chances to occupy essential social positions. However, they are oversimplifying the situation. Business enterprises, as profit-oriented bodies, will only decide the recruiting and promoting of employees according to their merits and abilities. If the young people could not be offered the opportunities, it would only prove that they were not so capable as the old generation, when the only way out was to learn from old people and tried to gain more experiences. ? 后果 4:-老年人的本质 In fact, there are quite a few jobs that are especially suitable for old people, such as jobs that call for more experience and wisdom than physical power. On the other hand, the

information era has attached more importance to experience and intelligence compared to agricultural or industrial society. Therefore, old people are qualified to contribute more to society in their seventies or even eighties. 4. The international trade has made many goods transport to other countries, such as daily necessities. Such goods are usually transported a long distance. What do you think if its benefits overweigh the drawbacks? 题干标志:benefits/ drawbacks 总论点:more advantages 分论点: ? 后果 1:当地居民在质和量上有了多种选择(句型 4) The international trade makes it possible for local residents to have a variety of choices in terms of quality and quantity. (Because of the technology, tradition and other related factors, goods, such as necessities, have diverse quality and quantity in different areas. Moreover, it is not possible for a country to produce all goods in the best quality and biggest quantity. Hence, the exchange of products could enable local residents to improve their living standards. For example, thanks to the Open Policy performed after 1978 in China and the consequently aroused climax of the international trade, Chinese people have the option to appreciate the most advanced digital productions and fresh fruit and vegetables which are not originally grown in China.) ? 后果 2:带动相关产业——运输业(句型 5) Accompanying the introduction of foreign goods, other industries, such as cargo transportation industry, might also develop. (In fact, without international trade, it is impossible for cargo carriers to survive, which might even affect passenger transportation industry negatively. For example, upon the completion of the international railway, the incredible cost would be on all passengers provided that there were no cargo trains on the line.) ? 后果 6:反驳价格高 Some people might argue that the transported goods might be expensive for average citizens. However, market should decide whether long distance transportation is justified. In fact, the diverse prices in different areas are the exact reason of the international trade. (In most occasions, the price of the same production in exporting countries could be much cheaper than that in importing ones. And even when the transportation expenditure is included, the price could be still lower than the local cost. Therefore, local citizens might happily find daily necessities in better quality but with lower price in their supermarkets.) ? 后果 6:反驳破坏民族工业 Some people are really concerned that the swarming of foreign productions might threaten or even destroy local industries. However, the accompanied great competition should stimulate local enterprises to develop positively. (Provided proper governmental policies, the impact of foreign industries could be minimized to an acceptable extent, while advanced management experience and new scientific technologies actually help to modernize national industry.)


后果 6:反驳破坏当地文化 Others are afraid of the loss of traditional culture belonging to developing countries. However, it is the communication with the outside world that can make culture permanent. (For example, without the international trade, numerous Chinese traditional handicrafts could not survive because of the economical embarrassment of handicraft artists. Fortunately, their works have been acknowledged and appreciated by increasingly more people in western countries. As a result of much more income, they might spend more time in researching and polishing their art.)

5. People are optimistic about 21st century. Many people think it is a good opportunity to find positive change in future. How do you think the optimism? What would you like to change in 21st century? 题干标志:change 总论点:both advantages and disadvantages 分论点: ? 后果 2:世界经济通过高效通讯提高效率(句型 2) Information technologies has greatly improved the efficiency of communication and therefore simulated the world economy. (Examples can be easily found to support this view point. Before the internet has been widely established, a businessman in Beijing had to fly to London to make a bargain with his partners, which would take him more than three days to settle down and begin to negotiate. On the other hand, via internet, he only needs to open Net meeting system now, which allows him to exchange ideas with his partners virtually simultaneously through not only audio but also video information.) ? 后果 2:对社会的深刻影响-男女平等(句型 4) In addition, an information society fathers more profound influence on social structure. In fact, the advent of new technologies has made it possible for women to share equal status with men. (It is evident that social status is decided by productivity. In the past, namely the industrial or agricultural era, physical power was the most essential element of productivity, and obviously females were not as strong as males. However, the information era now attaches more importance to intelligence rather than physical power, and there is no evidence indicating that women are not as intelligent as men. As a result, increasingly more females have occupied significant social positions, such as the CEO, the Prime Minister and the President. The United States might see its first female president in 2009.) ? 后果 4:信息技术的本质是把人们固定在电脑前,失去直接沟通的能力。 (句型 4) However, it is dangerous to conclude that modern technologies have brought only benefits to society. In fact, people might feel isolated in modern society because of the lack of face-to-face communication. (Computers and modems have fixed people in front of the little screen, and as a result friends and relatives might lose close contact with each other. For instance, in the Spring Festival, the most important festival in China, people used to travel a lot to visit each other. But nowadays, emails and calls simply substitute the trips, which might raise a communication barrier among them and


lead to a deteriorating relationship.) 后果 6:反驳全球化对世界经济带来好处。 Quite a few people are optimistic that the prospect of cultural and economic globalization, which is another characteristic in the 21st century, might bring more opportunities for the world economy. However, it is more a curse than a blessing for developing countries. (Due to the globalization, wealthy countries are much easier to seize cheap natural and labor resources in developing areas and at the same time sell their productions there. As a result, the gap between the developing and developed world has been enlarged.)

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