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光伏组件测试基础知识(德国光伏测试工程师写的内部PPT)


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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics

Using the sun as a revenue generator is not only clever, it can also be very profitable!

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Topics

Photovoltaics
? Photovoltaic System Layout ? Fundamentals / Characteristic Curves ? International Test Specifications ? Which tests are required? ? Technical Specifications of the PROFITEST PV ? USPs ? Capacitive Measuring Method ? Calculation of Internal Series Resistance ? PV Analyzer ? Software for Graphic Representation, Evaluation and Documentation with Integrated Database

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic System Layout

1 PV generator (several PV modules connected in series and parallel with mounting frame) 2 Generator terminal box (with safety technology) 3 Direct current conductors 4 Direct current enabling device 5 Inverter 6 AC cables 7 Meter cabinet with electrical circuit distribution, import and export meters, service line and safety technology
Source: photovoltaic systems, DGS

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology
Photovoltaic's implies photon energy from the sun and the voltage which is generated there from. Photovoltaic effect The photovoltaic effect is the direct transformation of light into electrical power with the help of solar cells, i.e. solar energy is converted into electrical energy. Grid-connected photovoltaic system A PV system which is connected to the public power grid. Power generated by these systems is fed to the public grid. Off-grid photovoltaic system System for photovoltaic power generation without connection to the public grid. As a rule, off-grid photovoltaic systems are used to supply isolated consumers without access to the grid, e.g. remote telecommunications equipment, navigational marks, remote estates or villages (typical example: the SHS – solar home system – in developing nations).

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology
Solar cell Semiconductor diode with large-surface insulating layer exposed to sunlight which directly generates electrical energy when struck by the sun’s rays. Solar power module – string – array The terms solar module and solar panel are interchangeable and designate the individual modules. Strings are generators consisting of interconnected individual modules, and each string is connected to an inverter (or a multi-string inverter). Arrays are groups of several strings included in a PV generator, which thus consist of lines and columns. Current-voltage characteristics (IU curve) Current-voltage characteristics represent PV generator performance under various load conditions in the form of a diagram. The characteristic curve depends upon momentary irradiance and solar cell temperature.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Characteristic current-voltage curve The characteristic current-voltage curve of a PV generator indicates its various attributes and problems, and serves as a basis for several essential, characteristic values. For example, partial shading in the form of diffuse or cast shadows show up in the characteristic curve, as do high internal resistance values and any missing or incorrectly installed bypass diodes. Recognizing these details necessitates a certain amount of experience in interpreting the characteristic curves, as well as basic knowledge of the physics of the PV cell (from a semiconductor standpoint).

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Characteristic Current-Voltage Curve

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Direct radiation / diffuse radiation Direct radiation (shadow casting) strikes a surface without diffusion due to the constituents of the Earth’s atmosphere. Diffusion (due to fog, haze or clouds) results in diffuse/indirect radiation.

Mismatching Connection of worse and better modules within a single string, as a result of which the worst module in the string dictates current, thus reducing total power.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Solar constant The solar constant is the amount of solar irradiation which perpendicularly strikes a surface outside of the atmosphere (s = 1.37 kW per sq. meter). Solar irradiation is nearly constant in outer space; on the Earth it fluctuates during the course of the day and from season to season, and it varies depending upon latitude and weather conditions. The maximum value on the surface of the Earth lies within a range of 0.8 to 1.2 kW per square meter. The annual mean value for solar irradiation in Germany, depending upon region, is between approximately 850 and 1100 W per square meter.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Global Radiation

Overview for Germany

? Approx. 900 to 1200 kWh per sq. meter (long-term annual mean value, 1981 to 2000) ? Recognizable north-south gradient ? Direct and diffuse radiation components make up 50% each over the year

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

System Location

Zenith 21 June, 61.4° 21 March / 23 Sept., 38°

21 Dec., 14.5° South Sunrise, CET: 8:36 a.m. East 4:09 a.m. North

For 52° latitude north

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Orientation (azimuth) and Inclination (elevation)

West East 90° 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° 0° 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° 90° -90° 75° -75°

60° 45° 30° 15° 0° South -15° -30°

-60° -45°

100% 95% 90% 80% 70%

For 52° latitude north

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Solar irradiation Solar irradiation is comprised of direct irradiation from the sun, as well as several indirect components. Amongst others, the indirect components include reflected irradiation from the environment such as snow surfaces, which reflect irradiation from blue skies, as well as other diffuse radiation. The angle of the sun’s rays to the respective surface is decisive for accurate calculation of the amount of energy which strikes the surface. This angle changes according to time of day and season. Various websites provide information concerning exact calculation. Irradiation is limited by several factors; even with bright sunshine and blue skies, only about 90% of the sun’s energy arrives at the surface of the earth.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Performance ratio In the field of photovoltaic's, performance ratio defines the ratio between a system’s actual and targeted yield. The performance ratio of a photovoltaic system is the quotient of AC yield and nominal yield of the generator’s direct current. It indicates which portion of the current generated by the generator is actually available. High performance PV systems reach performance ratios of greater than 70%. The performance ratio is frequently called the quality factor (Q) as well. Solar modules based on crystalline cells attain quality factors ranging from 0.85 to 0.95, and grid-connected systems lie within a range of 70 to 75% on the average.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology
Short-circuit current ISC Current at a short-circuited solar cell or a short-circuited solar module, i.e. with an output voltage of 0 V. Open-circuit voltage UOC Output voltage of a solar cell or a solar module in the no-load state, i.e. in the absence of current. kWp Kilowatt peak. However, the “p” does not designate peak power, but rather nominal power under standard test conditions (STC). Pmpp Maximum output power of a solar cell or a solar module with a given amount of irradiation and a specific solar cell temperature, i.e. at the maximum power point (mpp).

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology
MPP MPP is the maximum power point. A solar cell has a maximum power point in its characteristic UI curve for each and every radiation value in combination with a given temperature and light spectrum value. The product of usable voltage and the associated current value of a solar cell is not always the same. Efficiency Ratio of usable energy to utilized energy. As an illustration, conventional light bulbs convert roughly 3 to 4% of the utilized energy into light, photovoltaic systems and solar cells currently achieve efficiency levels of 11 to 17%, and thermal solar systems are capable of converting 25 to 40% of the captured solar radiation.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Degradation characteristics The efficiency of amorphous solar cells drops greatly at the beginning of the phase with prolonged exposure to sunlight, and doesn’t stabilize until after a period of 3 weeks to 5 months. In addition to this irreversible degradation, reversible degradation takes place as well. This means that amorphous solar cells demonstrate a greater degree of efficiency in the spring and summer months than they do in fall and winter.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Peak power In order to assure that power ratings for PV modules can be compared with each other, it has been generally agreed that the nominal power of a module is measured under specified conditions including a cell temperature of 25? C, an irradiation value of 1000 W per square meter and a reference spectrum of AM 1.5, and that the resulting value is designated “peak power” (some manufacturers also call this the “nominal value”). These conditions are known as standard test conditions (STC). Unfortunately, STCs are very uncommon in nature and the respective measurements have thus far been performed in the laboratory, where these conditions can be created, albeit at great expense.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology

Pyranometer An instrument (usually calibrated) for measuring total solar radiation (global irradiance G) on a flat surface within the entire wavelength range from roughly 0.3 μm to 3 μm. Reference cell A calibrated solar cell for measuring global irradiance G on a flat surface (standard AM 1.5 spectrum where G = 1 kW / sq. meter), for which the values from the pyranometer and the crystalline reference cell must coincide under standard test conditions (STC). Note: Crystalline reference cells provide spectrally evaluated results, because they are unable to convert the entire light spectrum.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Basic Terminology
4-wire measurement (Kelvin measurement) When current flows through an electrical conductor, voltage drops due to specific resistance. This phenomenon is known as Ohm’s Law (R = U/I). The voltage at the end of the cable is not as high as it was at the beginning of the cable (the measuring point). In order to be able to acquire the exact voltage at the measuring point, we make use of the 4-wire method: In this case, current flows through two conductors (positive and negative) and a low-impedance load, and voltage of course drops. Two additional wires are connected to the current conductors and to a high-impedance measuring instrument. Due to the fact that nearly no current flows at this point, there is no voltage drop in the cable: Measured voltage is precisely the voltage which prevails at the measuring point.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Fundamentals – PV Generator, DC

PV Modules
Crystalline
Monocrystalline ? = 15 to 18% Polycrystalline ? = 12 to 16%

Thin Film

? = 6 to 10%
With Diffuse Light

With Direct Irradiation

High Degree of Efficiency
(required surface area: approx. 8 sq. meters per kWp)

High Degree of Efficiency
(required surface area: approx. 12 sq. meters per kWp)

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Fundamentals – PV Generator, DC

PV Modules
Crystalline
Front with protective glass and frame Always with reverse current protection Material: Silicon P: 175 to 400 Wp UMPP: approx. 35 V IMPP: approx. 7.5 A

Thin Film
Front: vapor coated glass without frame Not always with reverse current protection Material: Si, Ga, In, Se, Cd, Te P: 80 to 120 Wp UMPP: approx. 100 V IMPP: approx. 1.2 A
Source: Reinhard Solartechnik

Source: BASF

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Standard Test Conditions per IEC 60904
STC – Standard Test Conditions In order to be able to compare different PV modules and cells with each other, standard test conditions have been established worldwide by means of which the characteristic curves of the solar cells are determined. The STCs make reference to IEC 60904 and DIN EN 60904 standards. Essentially, the characteristic curve is defined by the MPP value, short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. ?Irradiance E with perpendicular incident light striking the surface of the module with 1000 W per square meter ?Cell temperature T of 25? C with a tolerance of ± 2? K ?Defined light spectrum with an air mass (AM) of 1.5 (the unit of measure AM is defined in part III of the IEC 904-3 standard and quantifies the additional distance traveled by the sunlight in the case of inclined incidence instead of perpendicular incidence through the atmosphere – in the case of AM 1.5, the distance is 50% greater than with perpendicular incidence). (Air mass is equal to 1 at the equator, and roughly 1.5 in Europe.)
Note: STCs are theoretical quantities and are not actually achieved in the specified quality. NOCT conditions were created in order to better represent these conditions (NOCT conditions: radiant intensity of 800 W per sq. meter, ambient temperature of 20? C, wind speed of 1 ms-1, PV system must be idling – EN 61215).

Author – title of department – date – page 24 Michael Roick ? Product Manager

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Photovoltaics

Introduction to System Testing

Energy yield depends upon:
? Location parameters
? ?

Global radiation at the system location Orientation (azimuth) and inclination (elevation)

? Technology
? ? ?

System components System topology System efficiency

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Photovoltaics

System Components

Solar power generator
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Crystalline modules Thin-film modules

System layout
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Mounting system Cables

Inverter
? ? ?

String inverter Central inverter Generator terminal box

System monitoring
? ?

Yield monitoring at regular intervals Information in the event of error

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Photovoltaics

System Topology
Central Inverter String Inverter Module Inverter

Direct Current Distribution

DC AC

DC AC

DC AC

DC AC

DC AC

Solar power generator

Inverter

DC = direct current terminal AC = alternating current terminal

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

System Efficiency
PV generator with a power rating of P = 1 kWp
Deviation from nominal module efficiency and E < 1000 W per sq. meter Module contamination Module temperature Eideal = 1050 kWh 1003 kWh 4.5% 2.5% 3.5% 2.0% 3.5% 1.5% 7.5% 3.0% Ereal = 756 kWh 977 kWh 940 kWh 919 kWh 882 kWh 866 kWh 788 kWh

Losses of up to 28%

Shading Mismatching and DC losses MPP matching error Inverter losses AC losses, meter

Source: DGS

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

System Planning
? Inverter ideally matched to module technology ? Select best possible locations for system components ? Mounting system with long-term stability, and matched to local conditions (e.g. per DIN 1055) ? Cable laying per existing standard in accordance with DIN VDE 0298 ? Installation of solar power system per DIN VDE 0100, part 712 ? System certification as a basis for required system documentation

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Photovoltaics

Why is testing performed?

? To assure stable system operation ? To reduce liability risk for installation companies ? To fulfill standards and directives ? To gain experience regarding long-term stability of the installed products ? To provide customers with positive references

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Photovoltaics

What’s tested?

Solar Modules
?

Mounting System
? ? ? ? ?

Electrical Equipment
? ?

Electrical defects (e.g. power, diodes, hot-spots) Mechanical defects (e.g. broken glass, frame defects) Optical impairments (e.g. anti-reflection coatings, contamination, shading)

Loose module retainer Loose screw connections Defects on mounting rails Damaged roofing Functional earthing

Inverter defects Defects in generator terminal box Loose terminals Damaged cables Functional testing of switching devices Meter inspection

?

? ? ?

?

?

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

When is testing performed?

? During initial start-up / initial testing ? When requested by the customer ? When system monitoring indicates an error ? During regularly scheduled maintenance work ? In accordance with VDE 0105, part 100 (permanently installed operating equipment, once every four years)

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Is testing mandatory?
Setting Up PV Systems in Accordance with the Standards Erection of low-voltage installations DIN VDE 0100 – 600: part 6, tests
Testing must be conducted by qualified electricians who are experienced in testing electrical systems. This applies as well to the erection of PV systems, because according to section 11.1 in DIN VDE 0100-100, the scope of validity of VDE regulations includes PV systems as well! A report must be prepared after testing has been completed.

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Photovoltaics

How is testing performed? – Measuring Methods

Combined testing ? Determination of power and measurement of irradiation Electrical testing ? Measurement of ? Open-circuit voltage conspicuous thermal ? Short-circuit current phenomena with photo ? Insulation ? Ascertainment of fill factor, Optical testing measurement as well as series and ? Visual inspection parallel resistance ? Functions test

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Photovoltaics

Measuring Methods for System Testing

Power measurement at the solar generator

Use of thermographs

Insulation resistance measurement

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
At the moment, 18 EN standards are available for PV modules! IEC 60364-1 / DIN VDE 0100-100
Erection of low-voltage installations Part 1 – Fundamental principles, assessment of general characteristics, definitions

IEC 60364-6 / DIN VDE 0100-600
Low-voltage electrical installations Part 6 – Verification

EN 50110-1 / DIN VDE 0105-100
Operation of electrical installations – General requirements

IEC 60364-7-712 / DIN VDE 0100-712
Parts 7 to 712 – Requirements for special installations or locations – Photovoltaic (PV) power systems

IEC 60904-2 / DIN VDE 0126-4-2
Photovoltaic devices Part 2 – Requirements for reference solar devices

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
IEC 62446 / DIN VDE 0126-23
Grid connected photovoltaic systems – Minimum requirements for system documentation, commissioning tests and inspection

IEC 61215 / DIN VDE 0126-31
Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval

IEC 61646 / DIN VDE 0126-32
Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules – Design qualification and type approval

IEC 82 / 571 (CDV) / VDE 0126-34-1 (E)
Testing the power coefficient of photovoltaic (PV) modules and energy measurement Part 1 – Power measurement relative to irradiance and temperature, as well as performance measurement

EN 62305-3 / VDE 0185-305-3 (E)
Protection against lightning Part 3 – Physical damage to structures and life hazard

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
Lightning and Overvoltage Protection DIN EN 62305-2: Protection against lightning Part 2 – Risk management DIN EN 62305-3: Protection against lightning Part 3 – Physical damage to structures and life hazard Instruction leaflet for PV electricians – Protection against lightning and overvoltage in PV systems VdS directive 2010-09 – Risk oriented protection against lightning and overvoltage In general it can be said that: “PV systems do not increase the risk of buildings being struck by lightning”, although if left unprotected, system components may fail as the result of lightning current and/or overvoltage. Consequences ? lost profits and incurred repair costs

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications

Examples in Germany The respective building codes in the various regions of Germany specify protection class III lightning protection systems (LPS) for safety reasons when PV systems are installed on public buildings such as schools or hospitals. Advantages of protection against lighting and overvoltage: ? Fire prevention and protection against destruction of the PV system and the building ? Continuous availability of the PC system ? Secure investment without any decrease in profits ? Protection against injury to living beings within and in proximity to the system

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
IR Thermography DIN EN 54190 – Non-destructive testing – Thermographic testing Part 1: General principles Part 2: Equipment Part 3: Terms and definitions Thermal performance of buildings – Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes – Infrared method Thermal performance of buildings – Determination of air permeability of buildings – Fan pressurization method Parts 1 to 3 – Thermal insulation Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of NDT personnel – General principles
Source: Flir

DIN EN 13187 –

DIN EN 13829 – DIN 4108 – DIN EN 473 –

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
Source: Flir

IR Thermography Quality assurance of the PV system is of decisive importance for the entire duration of its service life. Advantages: ? Image generating, contactless, non-destructive testing of the of the PV system during normal operation ? Scanning of large surface areas ? Examination and visualization of defects in the thermo gram - Hot spots - Warmer cells - Overall warming of the module ? Quick localization of possible defects at the cell and module level, any shadow errors and degradation of aged PV modules

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Photovoltaics

International Test Specifications
IR Thermography Connector sockets Mounting frames and cables Defective sub-string Defective individual cell

Idling

Load

Short-Circuit

Broken Cell Hot spot – crack in solar cell

Source: ZAE Bayern

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Photovoltaics

Setting Up PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards”
Setting Up Grid-Connected PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards” PV systems must be set up and installed in accordance with existing IEC, DIN EN and VDE requirements. The safety requirements specified in the following standards must be complied with: ? IEC 60364-1 (VDE 0100-100: Low-voltage electrical installations, Part 1 – Fundamental principles) ? IEC 60364-6 (VDE 0100-600: Low-voltage electrical installations, Part 6: Verification) ? DIN EN 50110-1 (VDE 0105-100: Operation of electrical installations) ? DIN EN 62305-3 (VDE 0185-3: Protection against lightning Part 3 – Physical damage to structures and life hazard)

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Photovoltaics

Setting Up PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards”
In particular for the installation of PV systems!

IEC 60364-7-712 (VDE 0100-712: Requirements for special
installations or locations – Photovoltaic (PV) power systems)

In particular for system documentation, initial start-up testing and periodic testing of grid-connected PV systems!

DIN EN 62446 (VDE 0126-23: Grid connected photovoltaic systems – Minimum
requirements for system documentation, commissioning tests and inspection). In addition to the items which have to be included in system documentation, DIN EN 62446 also describes tests and measurements which must be conducted for initial start-up, as well as periodic tests and measurements for legally secure operation. ? PROFITEST PV

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Setting Up PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards”
IEC 60364-7-712 (excerpt) / VDE 0100-712
712.4 712.41 712.411 712.413 712.433 712.434 712.444 712.5 712.51 712.511 712.512 712.513 712.52 712.522 712.53 712.54 Protective measures Protection against electric shock Protection against direct as well as indirect contact Fault protection Protection in case of overload at the DC side Protection in case of short-circuit current Protection against electromagnetic influence (EMI) in buildings Selection and setup of electrical operating equipment Common requirements Compliance with standards Operating conditions and external influences Accessibility Cable and conductor systems Selection and setup of electrical operating equipment in consideration of external influences Disconnecting, switching and controlling Earthing systems, protective conductors and equipotent bonding conductors
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Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

Photovoltaics

Setting Up PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards”
VDE 0100-712 Setting up the Disconnect Function “A load disconnector must be included at the DC side of the PV inverter!'' Disconnection can be implemented as follows: load disconnector, disconnector, isolating links, replaceable fuses, plug connectors ? Semiconductors may not be used as disconnector devices! ?

Profitest PV Accessory: Load Disconnector, 1000 V / 32 A

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Setting Up PV Systems “in Accordance with the Standards”

VDE 0100-712 Mandatory identification is binding in the new VDE 0100-712! Where? At the electrical system’s point of common coupling, e.g. identification must be attached to the building terminal box or the main building distributor. How big? DIN A6

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Photovoltaics

Test Requirements per IEC 62446 / DIN VDE 0126-23
AC Systems ? Testing of all AC circuits in accordance with IEC 60364-6 DC Systems ? Test functional ground electrode and equipotential bonding conductor (PV generator frame) for continuity, including the connection to the main grounding terminal ? low-resistance test ? Test polarity of all DC conductors and their connections and inspect for correct identification ? Test/measure open-circuit voltage of each string under stable irradiance conditions (< 5%), compare identical strings ? Test/measure short-circuit current of each string under stable irradiance conditions (< 5%), compare identical strings Note: Make sure that all PV strings are isolated from each other – disconnecting devices and switchgear must be open!

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Photovoltaics

Test Requirements per IEC 62446 / DIN VDE 0126-23
? Functional inspection for correct installation and connections, mains failure test ? Insulation resistance for DC circuits – 2 test procedures in accordance with VDE: “Test 1 between the negative electrode of the PV generator and ground, followed by testing between the positive electrode of the PV generator and ground.” “Test 2 between ground and the negative and positive electrodes of the PV generator, while the electrodes are short-circuited.”
Test Procedure System Voltage (UOC STC x 1.25) V < 120 Test Procedure 1 120 to 500 > 500 < 120 Test Procedure 2 120 to 500 > 500 Test Voltage V 250 500 1000 250 500 1000 Smallest Insulation Resistance, M? 0.5 1 1 0.5 1 1
Source: DIN EN 62446

Note: Before measurement, disconnect overvoltage arresters!

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Photovoltaics

Test Requirements per IEC 62446 / DIN VDE 0126-23
Testing and Documentation After Initial Start-Up The party responsible for setting up the PV system must write a report for each start-up procedure. Important report contents include measured values and system data. Documenting the measured values Insulation resistance on the DC side Earth resistance of the system Open-circuit voltage of the generator Open-circuit voltage of the string Short-circuit current of the string Voltage drop over diode and fuse for systems with string diodes/fuses (generator terminal boxes) ? Optional measurement of characteristic curves of the individual strings ? Preparation of thermograms for the PV generator, as well as switchgear and fusing ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Photovoltaics

Test Requirements per IEC 62446 / DIN VDE 0126-23
Requirements for System Documentation After installation or periodic testing of grid-connected PV systems, documentation with basic system data must be prepared for the customer, the inspector or the maintenance engineers. Basic System Data ? ? ? ? ? Rated system power (kW DC or kVA AC) PV modules and inverter (model, manufacturer and quantity) Date of installation and initial start-up Customer name Address of installation location

Information on the System Developer ? Company name, contact person, address, phone number and e-mail address Information on the System Installer ? Company name, contact person, address, phone number and e-mail address

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
E-Check Guideline for PV Systems, for Periodic Testing of PV Systems

Introduction Photovoltaic systems (PV systems) and their associated operating equipment are intended to generate, distribute and make use of electrical energy. PV systems and their associated electrical operating equipment are subject to aging and wear. Influencing factors include environmental influences and special operating conditions. For this reason, it must be assumed that defects will occur during the course of time which are decisive for safety at home or at work. Therefore, as is mandatory in commercial applications, periodic testing should be conducted for all applications in the form of the E-Check for PV systems.

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

Goals:
The purpose of the E-Check is to find any defects in PV systems and their associated operating equipment which represent a danger for persons, animals and property. At the same time, the electrician should also act as an advisor for the system operator by providing him with useful tips regarding the efficient use of energy. The system operator is responsible for keeping the PV system and its associated electrical equipment in good operating order.

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

On the basis of this E-Check guideline, the condition of the PV system and its associated electrical operating equipment must be tested with regard to:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Usability and operational capability Correct technical safety condition Protection against electric shock Protection against electrically ignited fire Measures against lightning and overvoltage Energy savings Yield of the PV system

After completing the E-Check for the PV system and eliminating any discovered defects, the required safety for persons, animals and property is once again assured.

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

Scope of Validity
This guideline for the PV system E-Check applies to the periodic testing, for example in accordance with VDE 0105-100 and VDE 0126-23, conducted for:
? ? ? ? ?

Apartments and residential buildings Adjoining building such a garages, sheds, stalls etc. Buildings used for commercial purposes Industrials facilities Public facilities

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

Further requirements for the periodic testing of certain electrical equipment may be additionally stipulated in legal regulations or rulings which must be adhered to, for example: 1 Operating safety regulation and its subsequent technical rules (e.g. TRBS 1201) 2 BGV A 3 accident prevention regulations (previously VBG 4) or GUV-V A3 3 For periodic testing of technical electrical equipment at systems which are subject to mandatory testing (according to building legislation and insurance contracts), or systems which require monitoring in accordance with operating safety regulations

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

This guideline and the stipulations set forth herein are in accord with acknowledged rules of technology. During the course of periodic testing, acknowledged rules of technology must be taken into consideration, in the version which is valid at the point in time that the electrical system or electrical operating equipment is set up.

Source: ZVEH

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Principles of Application This E-Check guideline for PV systems is based on the laws, regulations and stipulations listed below: Laws, Regulations and Stipulations ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Landlords’ obligations, BGB §§ 535; 536 Building hazards, StGB § 319 Arson, StGB § 309 Co-responsibility of network operators, NAV § 15 Operating safety regulation, BSV § 10 Technical rules for the operating safety regulation, TRBS 1201, 1203 Special constructions, state construction laws VdS directives issued by the building insurance carriers, e.g. VdS 3145 Accident prevention regulations, e.g. BGV A2, GUV-V A2, VSG 1.4 VDE regulations, e.g. VDE 0105 -100; VDE 0126-23

Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Execution
The E-Check for PV systems must be executed in consideration of:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Age Condition Ambient influences Stressing Most recent inspection results (old test reports) Any existing documentation regarding included equipment Technical documentation …

… of the PV system and its operating equipment in accordance with the work order. The following measures in accordance with VDE 0105-100 or VDE 0126-23 are required to this end: 1 Visual inspection for damage and defects 2 List of equipment including a layout sketch with installation plan or overall circuit diagram (if necessary for providing a better overview)
Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems

3 Measurement of the system’s insulation resistance, as well as leakage current at the operating equipment 4 Testing/measurement of the effectiveness of protective measures (including RCDs) 5 Function test 6 Completion of a test report / defects report In the event that test measures are impeded, e.g. due to built-in components or other objects, appropriate comments must be included in the test report / defects report. Insofar as no test deadlines are specified by law or by the regulations, the electrician should recommend test deadlines. The above specified system criteria must be taken into consideration to this end. The repeat testing deadline should be within 4 years (BGV A3 or VDE 0105-100).

Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Recommended Test Deadlines
When Inverter Where What Inspect operation indicator Check operating state via remote monitoring (special attention must be given to insulation errors for fire protection purposes) Analyze error messages and implement suitable measures Yield check: document and analyze meter readings at regular intervals (does not apply in case of automatic acquisition and evaluation) Visual inspection to determine whether or not severe visible damage exists, e.g. hanging modules, module clamps, mounting frame components or solar cables Repeat measurements and tests per VDE 0105-100, VDE 0100-600 or VDE 0126-23 Who Operator Operator / electrician Electrician Operator / electrician

Daily

Operating data monitoring (system)

Meter

Monthly Generator surface

Operator

Every 4 years

Entire system

Electrician

Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Measurement, Measuring Methods and Values / Reference Values for Testing Systems with Protective Measures in TN/TT Systems
Measuring Task Measuring Method Alternating Current Side per VDE 0105-100 Values

Insulation resistance from protective conductor to neutral and phase conductor without PV inverter terminal and separate consumer system

Insulation resistance measurement

≥ 1 M? at a line voltage of 500 V

Protective-equipotential bonding and additional protectiveequipotential bonding

Low-resistance measurement

<1?

Substantiation of the effectiveness of protective measures

Loop impedance measurement of effectiveness of RCD

Distributor circuit in ?TN systems: ≤ 5 s ?TT systems: ≤ 1 s

Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Measurement, Measuring Methods and Values / Reference Values for Testing Systems with Protective Measures in TN/TT Systems
Direct Current Side per VDE 0105-100

Continuity of the protective and equipotential bonding conductors if installed

Low-resistance measurement

≤1?

Polarity test

Suitable multimeter, DC measuring range of at least 1000 V

Test open circuit voltage at a single string

Suitable multimeter, DC measuring range of at least 1000 V

Depends on number of modules in the PV string

Test short-circuit current at a single string
Source: ZVEH

Suitable current clamp and DC short-circuit switch

Depends on radiant intensity

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

E-Check Guideline for PV Systems
Measurement, Measuring Methods and Values / Reference Values for Testing Systems with Protective Measures in TN/TT Systems

Test procedure 1 Separate measurement at the positive and negative electrodes of the PV generator individually to ground

Insulation resistance measurement ?With a system voltage of ≤ 500 V and a measuring voltage of 500 V DC ?With a system voltage of > 500 V and a measuring voltage of 1000 V DC ≤ 1 M?

Test procedure 2 Positive and negative electrodes of the PV generator are short circuited with measurement to ground

Source: ZVEH

Report

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Documentation – Photovoltaics – System Certification
BSW-Solar, in cooperation with the Central Association of German Electrical and Information Technology Trades (ZVEH), has developed a system certification in order to verifiably document high quality installation of solar systems for the customer. It documents the key components utilized in the solar power system, as well as services rendered by the installer, and contains test reports for the PV system.

www.photovoltaik-anlagenpass.de

Source: BSW, ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics – System Certification
System Certification – Attachments 1 through 4 Description of utilized components ? Modules ? Inverters ? Load disconnectors ? Cables / conductors ? Photovoltaic mounting system Information concerning planning ? System data ? Installation data ? Statics ? Electrical operating safety ? Selection and installation of electrical operating equipment ? Lightning and overvoltage protection Source: ZVEH ? Certainty of yield, system protection

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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic's – System Certification

System Certification – Attachments 1 through 4 Test certificate / test report ? Measurement report for approval testing of the installed systems in accordance with DIN IEC 62446 / VDE 0100-712 / VDE 0126-23 Overview of accompanying documents ? Electrical circuit diagram, (roof) components layout diagram ? Technical data sheets ? User information ? Copies of certificates ? Guarantee statements ? Serial numbers
Source: ZVEH

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

RAL GZ 966 Solar Energy Seal of Approval

Design and planning per RAL-GZ-966 Quality and test specifications: P1: Components for photovoltaic systems P2: Photovoltaic system planning P3: Photovoltaic system design P4: Service and operation of photovoltaic systems

Source: Güteschutz Solar

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Curve Tracing in the Field of Photovoltaic's

Qualitative Assessment of the Operating State
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Photovoltaics

Power Measurement – the Solar Cell
Ideal Solar Cell Without Resistors, with Load Resistance I
Iph ID, UD

U

R

Standard Solar Cell with Internal Resistance and Load Resistance (series resistance Rs and parallel resistance Rp)
Rs

I

Iph

ID, UD

Rp

U

R

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Photovoltaics

Characteristic Power Measurement Values – Solar Cell
ISC

Fill factor (FF):
PMPP IMPP * UMPP

8A
IMPP

6A 4A 2A 0A 0V 0.1 V 0.2 V 0.3 V
UMPP UOC

FF =

ISC * UOC

Indicates the quality of the cell! Crystalline cells: 0.70 to 0.85 Thin-film cells: 0.5 to 0.7

0.4 V

0.5 V

0.6 V

Defined by: Momentary max. current (IMPP), momentary max. voltage (UMPP), short-circuit current (ISC), open circuit voltage (UOC)

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Power Measurement – Temperature Dependency
? Current (ISC) is only minimally dependent on temperature ? Voltage (UOC) depends on temperature to a significant extent. ? Power (PMMP) is thus also dependent on temperature.
Current (A) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

Example: BP Solar 3230N ISC = 5.46 mA/K UOC = -132.12 mV/K W/K PMMP = -1.15

t = 75° t = 50° t = 25° t = 0°
10 20 30 40 50 Voltage (V)

Source: BP Solar 230Wp

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Power Measurement – Power
Current (A) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Voltage (V)
600 W/m? 400 W/m? 200 W/m? 1000 W/m? 800 W/m?

? Current is directly proportional to irradiation. ? Full voltage can be measured even with minimal irradiation.

Source: BP Solar 230Wp

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Generator Power Measurement – Series Connection

I total U1 Voltage: U1 + U2 + U3 = U total U2 U total Current: I1 = I2 = I3 = I total U3

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Power Measurement – Shading – Series Connection
? 20 modules in series ? Only one deal PMPP

5.0
Current in A
PMPP1

PMPP

without shading only
? Shading of 2 to 8

8

6

4

2
PMPP2

modules with shifting of PMPP
? Reduction of power

8 modules shaded 0 50

Unshaved

0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Voltage in V 5.0 Power in kW

with two distinct max. values PMPP1/2

Unshaded 2 modules 4 modules 6 modules 8 modules
Source: DGS

PMPP1

PMPP2

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Voltage in V

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Photovoltaics

Solar Generator Power Measurement – Parallel Connection

I1 U1

I2 U2

I3 U3 U total

Voltage: U1 = U2 = U3 = U total

Current: I1 + I2 + I3 = I total I total

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Power Measurement – Shading – Parallel Connection
? Distinct max. value

25 Current in A

PMPP without shading
? Shading in two

6

4 8

2

PMPP PMPP

strings of 2 to 8 modules
? Only one distinct

max. value, and thus the inverter usually regulates to the PMPP at the right

0 2 modules shaded 1.4 Power in kW

2 strings fully shaded
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Voltage in V
PMPP PMPP

Unshaded 2 modules 4 modules 6 modules 8 modules 8 modules shaded

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Voltage in V

Source: DGS

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Power Measurement – Shading – Parallel Connection
? Distinct max. value PMPP

25 Current in A
PMPP

without shading
? Shading of several strings

PMPP

with 2 modules each
? Left max. power value is

usually outside of the inverter’s working range.
? Right max. power value is

4 strings partially shaded
0 10 20 30 40 50 Voltage in V 60 70 80 90

0 2 modules shaded 1.4 Power in kW

within the range of the UMPP of the unshaded generator. Unshaded 2 modules 4 modules 6 modules 8 modules
Source: DGS

PMPP

PMPP

0 0 8 modules shaded 10 20 30 40 50 Voltage in V 60 70 80

90

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Photovoltaics

Sample Power Measurement: Characteristic Curve
Current (A) 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 328.10 V 280 320 360 428.07 V 400 Voltage (V) 2.44 A 2.10 A MPP: 690.50 W

1

Characteristic IU curve TRMS characteristic curve MPP marking

2

1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

1 2

Current reduction, e.g. due to shading, contamination or loose plug connectors Reduced power due to cell defects in the module and insulation faults
Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011 ?79

Power (W)

Photovoltaics

Sample Power Measurement: Measured Values
Characteristic Electrical Values – Test Report
Values under STC Peak power P pk: I pmax0: Upmax0: I sc0: Uoc0: Maximum values (momentary): P max: I pmax0: Upmax: I sc: Uoc: Values: Rs: Rp: FF Measuring conditions: Cell temperature T mod: Irradiation E TRMS: 921.0 W 2.41 A 381.70 V 2.80 A 498.0 V 690.5 W 2.10 A 328.1 V 2.44 A 428.1 V 40.1 ? 7761.5 ? 0.66 52.9° C 872W/m2

Target values

Actual values

Calculated values

Measured values

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Photovoltaics

Sample Power Measurement: Data Sheet
Characteristic Electrical Values – Solar Power Module (excerpt)
Power specifications under standard test conditions (STC): (irradiance: 1000 W per sq. meter , air mass AM: 1.5, cell temperature: 25 °C) Nominal power Nominal voltage Nominal current Short-circuit current Open-circuit voltage Fill factor Nominal power has a tolerance of ± 4%. (Pmpp) (Vmpp) (Impp) (Isc) (Voc) (FF) 93.0 W 34.0 V 2.7 A 3.0 A 43.1 V 71%

Target values

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Sample Power Measurement: Actual vs. Target Value Comparison
? System topology: string inverter concept with 12 modules in series
Target Value, Module
Power PMPP Voltage UMPP Open-circuit voltage UOC Current IMPP Short-circuit current ISC Fill factor FF 93 Wp 34 V 43.1 V 2.7 A 3.0 A 71% 1116 Wp 408 V 517 V ? 3.0 A 921 Wp 381 V 498 V 2.41 A 2.8 A 66% 195 Wp 27 V 19 V 0.29 A 0.2 A -5%

Target Value, Module String

Actual Value, Module String

Difference

? Reduced fill factor, minimal string power ? Unequivocal proof of reduced power in the generator string!
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Photovoltaics

Sample Power Measurement: Visual Inspection

? Visual inspection for cause of reduced power: corrosion of the contacts in the laminate

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?83

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.0, Unshaded

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?85

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.1

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.2

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.3

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.4

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.5

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?90

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 1.6

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.1

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.1.1

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.2

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.3

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.4

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.5

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?97

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.6

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.7

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?99

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.8

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?100

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.9

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?101

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.10

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?102

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 2.11

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.1

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?104

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.2

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?105

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.3

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?106

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.4

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?107

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.5

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?108

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.6

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?109

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.7

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?110

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.8

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?111

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.9

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?112

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.10

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?113

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.11

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?114

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.12

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?115

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.13 Shade on 1 Cell Connector

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.14 Shade on 2 Cell Connectors

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?117

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.14, Umbra: 3 cm

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?118

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.16, Umbra: 3 cm

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?119

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.17, Umbra: 1 cm

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?120

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.18, Umbra: 1 cm

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?121

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.19, Umbra: 1 cm, Distance: 3 m

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?122

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.20, Umbra: 1 cm, Distance: 1 m

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?123

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis 3.21, Umbra: 3cm

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?124

Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis Reference Measurements

Reference module: 170 Wp

PMPP

IMPP

UMPP

ISC

UOC

Manufacturer’s flash data 1st reference measurement (before), Profitest PV power data 2nd reference measurement (after), Profitest PV power data

169.8

4.79

35.4

5.06

44.8

170.8

4.95

34.5

5.29

43.6

170.5

4.9

34.8

5.24

43.9

Difference as percentage

0.50%

2.82%

-2.12%

4.05%

-2.34%

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Solar Module Shading Analysis

Conclusions:
? The difference of 0.5% between the measured power values for the module is very low compared with the flash data. ? Shading of the module/generator surface always results in reduced power. ? The extent of power reduction depends on the umbra. ? The extent of power reduction depends on where the shading is located.

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?126

Photovoltaics

Thermography in the Field of Photovoltaic's
Image Generating Process for the Measurement of Temperature

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Thermography in the Field of Photovoltaics
Thermography in General
?

Practical Application in Photovoltaics
? ? ? ? ? ?

Experience from Actual Practice
? ? ?

Advantages and objectives of thermography Origin of thermal radiation Reflections and their avoidance Transmission Emission

Demands placed upon the inspector Measuring technology requirements Error groups – VATh directive Influencing factors Prevention of measurement error Fault finding in the PV generator

Error patterns in modules Error patterns in distributors Actual practice / exchange of experience

? ? ? ?

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Advantages and Objectives of Thermography
Advantage of the IR camera: The infrared or thermographic camera shows the distribution of warmth over a surface. ? No contact with the test object is required for measurement. ? Data can be evaluated with software. ? Visualization of irregularities on-site
?

240 Pixels

Goal: localization of irregularities

320 Pixels
320 x 240 pixels = 76,800 measuring point

High temperatures result in damage, up to and including fire ? Reduced wear
?

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?129

Photovoltaics

Origin of Thermal Radiation

Sources of radiation:
? ? ?

Reflected radiation Transmitted radiation Emitted radiation

Only emitted radiation provides us with information regarding surface temperature!

Object

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Origin of Thermal Radiation – Reflection

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?131

Photovoltaics

Origin of Thermal Radiation – Reflection

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Avoiding Reflection

Good exposure range
?

Strong reflection visible as of an angle of roughly 45°(depending on module type) Reflections shift when the camera is moved

Poor exposure range

Module

?

α

Camera
° Max. 45° Max. 45

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?133

Photovoltaics

Origin of Thermal Radiation – Emission

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Demands Placed Upon the Inspector per DIN 54191 (thermographic testing of electric installations)
The inspector must possess adequate knowledge of electrical systems, as well as thermography, including the evaluation of thermographic findings for electrical installations.

(qualified electrician + test certificate per DIN 54162 or comparable) Training is offered by:
? ? ? ? ?

ITC (subsidiary of FLIR) DGZfP VdS METEG (Austria) T?V Rhineland

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Measuring Technology Requirements per DIN 54191

Feature
Temperature measuring range Thermal resolution Error limits Calibration Adjustable measuring parameters

Minimum Requirement
-20 to + 300° C NETD 0.2 K at 30° C 2 K or 2% of the displayed value – the higher value is decisive At least once every 2 years Emissivity, background temperature

Measuring function Documentation

Spot measuring function in the camera Infrared images with radiometric data

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Crossfade from Normal Image to Infrared Image

Advantages of the crossfading function:
? ?

Stepless crossfading from visible photo to thermographic image Unequivocal identification of pronounced spots or irregularities

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?137

Photovoltaics

Error Groups – VATh Directive
VATh Directive: Breakdown into Error Groups
Error groups in medium and high voltage systems – by over-temperature – general (special specifications follow):
Error group 0: 0 to < 10 K Error group 1: 10 to < 35 K Error group 2: 35 to 70 K Error group 3: > 70 K

? ? ? ?

Relevant for Photovoltaics

Solar module operating temperature: approx. 60° C
?

Module delamination as of roughly 150° C

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Factors which may impair measurement:

? Wind speeds of greater than 1 meter per second ? Rain ? Cold / heat ? Reflection from the object under test ? Intrinsic reflection ? Transmissions ? Excessive distance ? Too little irradiation

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Prevention of Measurement Error
The test object should fill out the field of vision:

Ideal

Good

Faulty

Sensor

Object size same as measuring spot diameter Camera resolution must correspond to the smallest verifiable object area in order to determine temperature accurately.
Source: Energiebau K?ln

Object larger than measuring spot diameter

Object smaller than measuring spot diameter

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?140

Photovoltaics

Thermal Irregularities in Actual Practice

Error Patterns in Modules
? An idling module string (no load)

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?141

Photovoltaics

Error Patterns in Modules

Defective or overloaded diodes and connections

Hot spots in cells or between their connectors

Hot cells due to shading/ contamination

Short-circuited cell strings due to defective diodes

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Irregularities in Modules
Module Cell String Individual Cell

One module is consistently warmer than the others

Heat-up of a cell string

Isolated individual cells significantly warmer (patchwork pattern) Short-circuited module All bypass diodes defective (possibly due to overvoltage) Module power at zero, Voc reduced by 100%

Idling module Module not connected (inverter possibly in derating mode) Module operational as a rule

One idling cell string Internal defect, open solder joint Cell string power loss: Voc reduced by about 30%, mismatch in the string

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?143

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

Thermal Irregularities due to Overvoltage

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?144

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

Thermal Irregularities due to Shading

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?145

Photovoltaics

Power Reduction due to Shading

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?146

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

Thermal Irregularities due Transient Overvoltage

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?147

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

Thermal Irregularities due Transient Overvoltage

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?148

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

Ascertain Temperature and Possibly Remove and Test Module
Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?149

Photovoltaics

Fault Finding in the PV Generator

The defect in the module becomes apparent in the module when current is fed in the reverse direction:
?

A diode in the connector socket short circuits the cell string and dissipates energy in the form of heat. This heat is made visible by the IR camera.

?

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Short-Circuited Cell String

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Irregularities in Modules

Doesn’t always provide information about the function of the module.
Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Researching Causes at Modules

Broken Glass due to a Cell Defect

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Heat Sources at Modules

54.5

°C

31.9

Conspicuously Warm Connection Socket – Reduced Power

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Thermal Irregularities in Actual Practice

Error Pattern in AC and DC Distributors

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Error Patterns in Distributors

Loose terminals

Falling short of specified clearances

Undersized fuses (power loss)

Faulty distributor layout

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?156

Photovoltaics

Error Pattern: Loose Terminals in AC and DC Distributors

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Error Pattern: Increased Contact Resistance

Excessive heat-up at terminals or plug connectors – reduces service life, as well as contact protection at the components if applicable.

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Error Pater: Clearance
Falling short of specified clearances Undersized fuses (autofuses / melting fuses)

? ?

Increased Risk of Fire and Reduced Service Life

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance (Riso)
Effective Inspection of Protective Measures

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?160

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance (Riso)
Why Measure Insulation Resistance?
?

Practical Application in Photovoltaics
?

Experience from Actual Practice
?

Fundamentals Protective Measures

AC side (building installation)

Test setup Calculation of insulation resistance

?

? ?

DC side (PV generator)

?

Insulation resistance: initial inspection per DIN VDE 0100, part 600

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance

Fundamentals
? Ohmic resistance of the insulation between the electrical conductors to each

other, as well as to earth potential
? Insulation strength of a material, which separates two neighboring contacts or

a contact from ground with greatest possible impedance
? Due to the fact that there is no perfect insulator, all types of insulation

demonstrate an Ohmic resistance whose value may be very high, but is nevertheless finite.

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 162

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?162

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance

Protective Measures
? Insulation prevents active parts from contacting each other directly. ? Insulation prevents uncontrolled fault current which endangers human life. ? Insulation prevents bias current which may result in heat-up at the point of

damage and cause fire.

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 163

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?163

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance

Why measure insulation resistance?
Insulation resistance changes due to:
? Aging (corrosion) ? Moisture (rain, condensate) ? Contamination (deposits on contacts) ? Damage (marten damage) ? Radiation (UV) ? Chemical influences (excessive ammonia in stalls) ? Physical influences (temperature differences)

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 164

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?164

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance
Building connection

Insulation measurement for:
? ? ? ? ? ?

Uo = 230 V

Meter

I≥Ia

3/NPE ~ 50 Hz 400 / 230 V L1 L2 L3 N PE

New systems Retrofitting Modifications Repairs Malfunctions Maintenance PEN Broken Equipotential PEN bonding rail Transformer operational earth electrode
RB

kWh

Body contact Fault current circuit 1 Foundation earth electrode
RA

Current path over the Soil Fault current circuit 2

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 165

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?165

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance Initial Inspection per DIN VDE 0100, part 600
Preparation
? ? ? ? ?

System Voltage

Switch system to voltage-free state Measure: From phase conductors (L1, L2, L3) to protective conductor (PE) Between protective conductor (PE) and neutral conductor (N) Between all active conductors (L1, L2, L3, N)

Measuring Voltage

Insulation Resistance

Protective extralow voltage 50 V AC / 120 V DC Up to 500 V 500 V Up to 1000 V

250 V

≥ 0.5 MΩ

500 V 1000 V

≥ 1 MΩ ≥ 1 MΩ

The minimum values are also valid (specified) for insulation resistance measurement at PV generators. Test surface > 0.1 sq. meter: Riso must amount to 40 M? per sq. meter!

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 166

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?166

Photovoltaics

Insulation Resistance 1st Test Procedure
Preparation
? ?

Switch system to voltage-free state! => short circuit generator Max. system voltage is decisive for test voltage

Measure:
+ PV Generator Short-Circuit Switch – Insulation Tester Connect string ends to DC enabler ? Connect neutral point to measurement cable ? Short circuit enabler ? Perform measurement
?

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 167

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?167

Photovoltaics

Insulation Measurement 2nd Test Procedure
Preparation
? ?

System is not switched to the voltage-free state ? system voltage counteracts test voltage respectively

Measure:
?

+ PV Generator Insulation Tester –
?

Between positive electrode and ground/frame Between negative electrode and ground/frame

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?168

Photovoltaics

Calculation of Insulation Resistance

Example: 1 string with 12 modules Module surface: 1.328 x 0.710 m ≈ 0.94 sq. m Generator surface 0.94 sq. m x 12 modules = 11.3 sq. m Expected insulation resistance 40 M? per sq. m ÷ 11.3 sq. m ≥ 3.5 M?

Service Projects ? 3/12/2012 ? 169

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?169

Photovoltaics

Photos of Insulation Errors from Actual Practice

Source: Energiebau K?ln

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?170

Photovoltaics

PROFITEST PV

Pt1000

Pt100

DC ═ AC

Load Disconnector 1000 V / 32 A DC

PROFITEST PV 1000V / 20A / 20 kW

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?171

Photovoltaics

USPs for the PROFITEST PV
Peak power measuring instrument and curve tracer for PV modules and strings (measurement at capacitive load)

Connect ? Switch On ? Start Measurement ? Read Results ? Done! With the help of a patented process, the instrument is capable of ascertaining peak power, internal series resistance and internal parallel resistance directly on-site “with only one measurement and without entering module data”. ? Measurement of characteristic IU curve at PV modules and strings ? Generator voltage up to 1000 V DC, current up to 20 A DC ? The acquired characteristic IU curve is highly accurate thanks to steady measurement at the capacitive load. ? Measurement of short-circuit current ISC, open circuit voltage UOC, instantaneous peak power of a solar cell Pmax, internal series resistance RS and internal parallel resistance RP ? Automatic conversion of momentary measured values to STC

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?172

Photovoltaics

USPs for the PROFITEST PV
Peak power measuring instrument and curve tracer for PV modules and strings (measurement at capacitive load)

? Power and temperature measurement with four-wire measuring method for error-free results ? Displayed (calculated) values: Peak power PPk, internal series resistance RS, internal parallel resistance RP, instantaneous values: Upmax, Ipmax, Pmax, UOC, ISC, FF, Tmod, Tref, ETRMS, characteristic IU curve diagram ? Patented calculation process for evaluating PV generators without knowledge of the manufacturer’s specifications ? Patented calculation process for determining the generator’s internal series resistance based solely on a single, measured characteristic IU curve ? Separate measurement of temperatures at the irradiation sensor and the back of the module for increased measuring accuracy ? High level of intrinsic safety thanks to included load disconnector (1000 V / 32 A DC) for all-pole disconnection of the measuring instrument from the PV generator

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?173

Photovoltaics

USPs for the PROFITEST PV
Peak power measuring instrument and curve tracer for PV modules and strings (measurement at capacitive load)

? Calibrated irradiation sensor in accordance with IEC/EN 60904-2 with integrated Pt1000 temperature sensor ? Universal input for use with commercially available irradiation reference sensors, assuring trouble-free on-site use of adapted sensors and sensor replacement ? Highly luminous, high resolution color TFT touch-screen with energy-saving LED illumination (suitable for use in sunlight) ? Easy touch-screen operation ? Continuous display of momentary irradiation and temperature provides information regarding measuring conditions. ? Sensors for irradiation and temperature are integrated by means of analog technology with a rugged data transmission line. As a result, irradiation can always be measured in real-time, and irradiation fluctuations are reliably detected within the millisecond range. However, irradiation typically changes by up to several hundred W per sq. m even in the millisecond range.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?174

Photovoltaics

USPs for the PROFITEST PV
Peak power measuring instrument and curve tracer for PV modules and strings (measurement at capacitive load)

? Operation via a PC with direct import of measurements is also possible (e.g. for long-term measurements). ? Open interfaces allow for operation of the instrument in special applications as well. ? External power pack with broad-range input for charging the batteries, and for continuous operation of the measuring instrument

? Integrated customer database with bidirectional data exchange ? Integrated module database with bidirectional data exchange ? Internal data memory for up to several thousand measurements

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?175

Photovoltaics

Patented Measuring Process
Capacitive Measuring Method As opposed to conventional measuring methods, the PROFiTEST-PV acquires the characteristic IU curve with great accuracy by means of steady measurement at the capacitive load. Measurement with conventional measuring methods takes relatively long with durations ranging from 10 to 30 seconds. However, irradiation typically changes by up to several 100 W per square meter even in the millisecond range.
Module current in A
5 E = 1000 W per sq. m E = 800 W per sq. m 3 E = 600 W per sq. m 2 E = 400 W per sq. m 1 E = 200 W per sq. m

4

Why is measurement with capacitive load necessary?

Source: DGS

Module voltage in V
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

5

10

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Patented Measuring Process
Measurement with capacitive load is necessary ? because: On the one hand, measurement of characteristics curves for PV generators (modules, strings, arrays) must not be conducted too quickly (? large voltage-time fluctuations), because the measured characteristic curve may be changed in the case of rapid measurement (< 20 ms) due to the capacitive/inductive attributes of the generator or the test setup, in which case not only the characteristics of the PV generator are reflected in the measurement results. On the other hand, measurement must not be too slow either (> 1 second), because the danger of fluctuating radiant exposure is otherwise significantly increased, which would influence measurement results. This affects module temperature as well, which reacts relatively sluggishly but nevertheless can change within a matter of seconds. In particular thin-film modules and modules with contacts on the back react with great sensitivity to excessive time-voltage fluctuations.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Patented Measuring Process
Determining Internal Series Resistance RS

? immediately after a single measurement!

This resistance is the physical result of the material used to manufacture the module, as well as its layout and wiring connections, and normally has a constant value. It amounts to: ? Approximately 1 ? for crystalline modules ? More than 2 ? for thin-film modules Conventionally, at least two characteristic curves, under defined conditions, are required to this end.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Patented Measuring Process

Determining Internal Series Resistance RS

? immediately after a single measurement!
As of recently, measurement of internal series resistance RS is can be performed with instruments from the Profitest PV product range. Only a single characteristic IU curve has to be traced at the module for this purpose. On the basis of this characteristic curve, the instrument automatically calculates Rs, as well as peak power PPK and parallel resistance RP. In addition to this, theoretically anticipated internal series resistance can be calculated as well. This can be done with the PV analyzer if the module’s following characteristics STC values are known: UOC, ISC, UMPP and IMPP. Calculated RS can then be compared with the measured value. If the measured value is too high, wiring must be inspected for interruptions, corrosion, connection errors and underdimensioning!

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy

? Make sure that the examined module is not shaded, not even minimally. Even shadows cast by blades of grass can cause a measurable error. ? The same applies to the reference sensor. ? Please remember that contamination of the modules causes shading as well. ? The higher the irradiation (on the module), the more accurate are the measurement results. If possible, irradiation (ascertained by the combination sensor) on the module should be greater than 500 W per square meter.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy
The combination irradiation-temperature sensor measures temperature at the back of the reference cell. If the PROFITEST PV only receives a temperature value from the irradiation reference sensor because no external temperature sensor has been mounted in order to measure temperature at the back of the module, the PROFITEST PV assumes that the temperature of the reference cell and that of the module under examination are roughly the same. This is indeed the case to a high degree of accuracy if the reference cell and the PV modules have been exposed to the same amount of irradiation for a long enough period of time. The module and the cell should be aligned to the sun identically for more than 15 minutes before measurement is performed to this end. However, to be on the safe side, temperature at the back of the module should be measured before curve tracing in this case, e.g. with an infrared thermometer.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy
If possible , the module to be measured should be aligned perpendicular to the sun’s rays. However, this is frequently not possible. Sufficient irradiation at the surface of the module is important in this case (which automatically necessitates orientation toward the sun to at least a given extent), as is precise alignment of the reference cell: It must have exactly the same orientation as the module. In the simplest of all cases, just clamp the combination sensor to the module under examination. However, the combination sensor may be located some distance from the module if it can be assured that alignment to the sun is really identical and than no reflections in the surroundings can influence the irradiation measurement values..

The reference must face the same part of the sky as the device under test.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?182

Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy

Basic Principle According to IEC 60904, the irradiation reference cell and the device under test must have the same spectral characteristics. Ideal situation ? identical layout! It’s entirely possible to use a module which is identical in design to the module under test as a reference. The module is subjected to a load via a precision shunt resistor, and measurable voltage occurring at the shunt as a result is used as a measure of momentary irradiation – this is exactly how most reference sensors work.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?183

Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy

Caution: If alignment of the reference cell deviates even a few degrees from that of the PV module, considerable error may occur in the measurement results.

Maximum accuracy can be assured for the measurement if several measurements (e.g. 5) are performed at the same object and the results are evaluated statistically.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?184

Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy
Parameters which are decisive for the accuracy of the measurements include: Under the following conditions, the peak power specifications of the PROFITEST PV demonstrate an accuracy level of ± 5% relative to the actual peak power value of the device under test. ? The device under test consists of monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon cells. ? The device under test is not shaded, not even minimally. ? The irradiation reference sensor is not shaded, not even minimally. ? Essentially, the irradiation reference sensor must demonstrate the same spectral sensitivity as the device under test. ? Measurement is performed in natural sunlight. ? In accordance with IEC60904, the sun should be oriented vertically within a tolerance of ± 10° relative to the active surface of the device under test.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?185

Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy
Parameters which are decisive for the accuracy of the measurements include: ? In accordance with IEC60904, irradiation amounts to at least 800 W per sq. m. On the basis of comparative measurements, irradiation of 600 W per sq. m is adequate. ? Irradiation measurement must be performed immediately before or after IU curve tracing, and elapsed time between curve tracing and irradiation measurement must be less than 10 ms. ? The measured value from the irradiation reference sensor must be corrected on the basis of the measured cell temperature ? Cell temperature measurement must take place immediately before or after curve tracing (within 1 second) with an accuracy tolerance of 1 K. ? The active surface of the device under test must lie within the same plane as the surface of the irradiation reference sensor with an accuracy tolerance of ± 5%.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?186

Photovoltaics

Influences on Measuring Accuracy
Parameters which are decisive for the accuracy of the measurements include: ? Irradiation prior to IU curve tracing must be constant enough (±10 W per sq. m) for a period of at least 10 seconds, in order to avoid misinterpretation of DUT and reference cell temperature. ? During IU curve tracing, irradiation may not fluctuate by more than 10 W per square meter (the PROFITEST PV generates a warning in this case). ? The temperatures of the device under test and the irradiation reference sensor must be settled in (no further temperature changes may be displayed). ? Voltage and current from the device under test are measured with separate measurement cables (4-wire measurement).

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?187

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
Software for Graphic Representation, Evaluation and Documentation with Integrated Database

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?188

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
? Measured characteristic curve values are read in from the PROFITEST PV. ? Graphic representation of the characteristic IU curve ? With calculated MPP – maximum power point (Pmax) ? In comparison with the characteristic power curve ? In comparison with the TRMS curve ? In comparison with the STC curve ? Characteristic IU curve with display of measuring points ? Representation of measured and calculated values under STC ? Overview of characteristic IU curves for a given test series in a browser window ? Export of measured values or results (e.g. XLS file) ? Generation of a test report (e.g. PDF file) ? Online measurement – graphic representation of the characteristics curve and measured values (also suitable for continuous measurement) ? Online access to databases / data management in the PROFITEST PV ? Compatible with MS Windows? NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?189

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
Integrated Module Database ? More than 33,000 module types in the database ? Expandable as desired ? Adaptation possible at any time with the PROFITEST PV

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?190

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
Calculation of the RS setpoint

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?191

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
Test report generation

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?192

Photovoltaics

PV Analyzer
Overview of characteristic IU curves for a given test series in a browser window

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?193

Photovoltaics

Sample Characteristic Curves from Actual Practice

Source: PVE

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?194

Photovoltaics

Sample Characteristic Curves from Actual Practice

Source: PVE

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?195

Photovoltaics

Sample Characteristic Curves from Actual Practice

Source: PVE

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?196

Photovoltaics

PV Signpost

Further information regarding planning, directives, financing, standards, system certification and more is included in our “PV Signpost”.

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?197

Photovoltaics

Measuring Technology for Photovoltaic Systems in Accordance with EN 62446 (VDE 0126-23) Safe and Convenient Measuring Technology

PROFITEST I PVSUN

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Technical Data

? Display: multiple display with LCD panel, background illumination ? Voltage: 0 to 1000 V DC ? Resolution: 1 V ? Accuracy: ± (1% rdg. + 1 d) ? ? ? ? ?

Current (direct): 0 to 20 A DC
Voltage range: 2 to 1000 V DC Resolution: 0.1 A Accuracy: ± (1% rdg. + 1 d) Overcurrent protection: max. 24 A

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

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Photovoltaics

Technical Data

? Insulation measurement: 250 / 500 / 1000 V DC ? Range: 0 to 20 M? ? Resolution, 250 V test voltage: 0 to 1 M? / 0.1 M? 1 M? to 20 M? / 1 M? ? 500 / 1000 V test voltage: 0 to 20 M? / 1 M? ? Limit value display: < 1 M? (500 V / 1000 V) ? < 0.5 M? (250 V) ? Number of measurements: approx. 1000 insulation measurements (batteries: 1.5 V per IEC LR6) ? Ground fault measurement: 0 to 1000 V DC ? Resolution: 1 V

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?200

Photovoltaics

Technical Data

? Low-resistance measurement: 0 to 10 ? ? Test current: > 200 mA ? Resolution: 0.1 ? ? Low-voltage directive: 2006/95/EC (EN 61010-1, EN 61557-1, 2, 4) ? Operating temperature: 0 to 40° C ? Protection: IP 42 ? Power supply: 4 x 1.5 V batteries, IEC LR6, AA, AM3, MN1500, MIGNON ? Dimensions: approx. 209 x 98 x 35 mm ? Weight: approx. 500 g

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?201

Thank you for your attention! Michael Roick GMC-I Messtechnik GmbH Südwestpark 15 90449 Nürnberg · Germany

Michael Roick ? Product Manager ? April 2011

?202


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