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Biofuels and sustainability in Africa


Competitiveness of CO2 capture from an industrial solid oxide fuel cell combined heat and power system in the early stage of market introduction

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Research Article Fuel, Volume 90, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 958-973 Takeshi Kuramochi, Wim Turkenburg, André Faaij
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Abstract

In this article, it was investigated whether potentially low-cost CO2 capture from SOFC systems could enhance the penetration of SOFC in the energy market in a highly carbon-constrained society in the mid-term future (up to year 2025). The application of 5 MWe SOFC systems for industrial combined heat and power (CHP) generation was considered. For CO2 capture, oxyfuel combustion of anode off-gas using commercially available technologies was selected. Gas turbine (GT-) CHP plant was considered to be the reference case. Technical results showed that despite the energy penalties due to CO2 capture and compression, net electrical and heat efficiencies were nearly identical with or without CO2 capture. This was due to higher heat recovery efficiency by separating SOFC off-gas streams for CO2 capture. However, CO2 capture significantly increased the required SOFC and heat exchanger areas. Economic results showed that for above 40–50 $ t
?1

CO2 price, SOFC-CHP systems were

more economical when equipped with CO2 capture. CO2 capture also enabled SOFC-CHP to compete with GT-CHP at higher cell stack production costs. At zero CO2 price, cell stack production cost had to be as low as 140 kW 100 $ t
?1 ?1

for SOFC-CHP to outperform GT-CHP. At
?1

CO2 price, the cell stack production cost requirement raised to 350 $ kW . With

CO2 capture, SOFC-CHP still outperformed GT-CHP at a significantly higher cell stack production cost above 900 $ kW .
?1

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Methodology 2.1. Industrial SOFC system and its components 2.1.1. Estimation of first-generation tubular SOFC system performance 2.1.1.1. Maximum single generator module and plant scales 2.1.1.2. Cell power density performance 2.1.1.3. Stack production cost estimates 2.1.2. CO2 capture for SOFC systems 2.1.2.1. Overview of commercially available CO2 capture technologies for natural gas fed SOFC systems 2.1.2.2. Modifications to the SOFC system for CO2 capture 2.1.3. Pure oxygen from a stand-alone ASU 2.1.3.1. Air separation unit (ASU) 2.1.3.2. Afterburner design 2.1.3.3. Overall system configuration 2.2. Modeling of the CO2 capture SOFC-CHP systems 2.2.1. System modeling methodology 2.2.2. Competing technologies 2.2.3. Comparison of CHP options 2.2.4. Economic performance calculation 3. Results 3.1. Technical performance 3.2. Economic performance 3.2.1. Investment costs and O&M costs 3.2.2. CO2 mitigation cost 3.2.3. Competition of three CHP options (GT-CHP, ISOFC and ISOFC-CC) 3.2.4. Sensitivity analysis 4. Discussion 4.1. Separation of anode and cathode off-gases

4.2. Future CO2 price and SOFC development strategy 4.3. Costs of CO2 purification and transport 4.4. Optimization of heat recovery for the best economic performance 5. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

130

Review Article Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 15, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 1360-1372 Bamikole Amigun, Josephine Kaviti Musango, William Stafford
Biofuels and sustainability in Africa
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Abstract

The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from

production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels production thereby contributing to sustainable development.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. State of biofuel development in Africa 3. Factors responsible for increased biofuels production in Africa 4. Sustainability issues relevant to Africa 4.1. Food versus fuel 4.2. Land use and tenure security 4.3. Climate change and environment 4.4. Impact on poverty alleviation 4.5. Gender issues 4.6. Biofuel policies/strategies 5. Policies for sustainable biofuel development 6. Practices and technologies that can improve the sustainability issues 7. Conclusions References

131

The IEA CCS Technology Roadmap: One Year On

Original Research Article Energy Procedia, Volume 4, 2011, Pages 5752-5761 Juho Lipponen, Keith Burnard, Brendan Beck, John Gale, Bob Pegler
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Abstract

In October 2009, the International Energy Agency’s CCS Technology Roadmap was launched at the Carbon Sequestration Leadership forum (CSLF) Ministerial Meeting in London. The Roadmap builds on the IEA BLUE Map scenario that leads to the stabilisation of CO2 emissions at 450 ppm by 2050. Achieving this scenario will require an energy technology revolution involving a portfolio of solutions: greater energy efficiency, increased renewable energy technologies and nuclear power, and the near decarbonisation of fossil fuel-based power generation via carbon capture and storage (CCS). In this scenario CCS contributes almost 20% to the total emissions reductions required in 2050.

Recommendations are made in the IEA CCS Roadmap on what is required to achieve this level of deployment not only technically, but also from a financial and regulatory point of view as well as in terms of public engagement and international collaboration, including the sharing of knowledge. This paper looks at progress made against these recommendations in the 12 months since the release of the roadmap. ? Analysis undertaken by the IEA consistently identifies a significant role for CCS in mitigating global CO2 emissions. IEA analysis suggests that there will be a need to capture and store 10 Gt CO2 per year in 2050, from 3400 projects globally to achieve the BLUE Map emissions reduction targets. ? Significant progress is being made to launch large-scale demonstration facilities across the globe, with some 80 large-scale integrated demonstration projects identified. As of April 2010, public funding commitments were in the range of USD 26.6 billion to USD 36.1 billion. ? While 5500 km of CO2 pipelines already exist and further infrastructure development is planned, it is however clear that to enable large-scale deployment of CCS, more joint planning of CO2 transportation infrastructure is required globally. ? The status and availability of data on CO2 storage varies significantly around the world and is potentially a major constraint to rapid, widespread CCS deployment. In regions with

the potential to store large volumes of CO2, a concerted effort will be required to characterise the basins in sufficient detail. ? Much progress has been achieved in the legal and regulatory area. The first movers in establishing legal frameworks have generally been OECD countries. It is now important that the large emerging economies start developing their legal and regulatory frameworks. ? Public awareness and acceptance is a key element in making CCS possible. Public concerns are legitimate and require a close dialogue and sharing of information with the local population. While companies developing transport and storage will need to lead on the engagement processes, governments and politicians have a vital role to play. ? Several initiatives are in place for international dialogue and collaboration on the development and deployment of CCS. ? While much progress has been made, many challenges still remain if CCS is to deliver at the scale required. The challenges are well-known and require concerted action by industry, governments, international organisations and civil society. Continued political leadership remains absolutely essential.

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Energy
selection

efficiency

criteria

in

uninterruptible

power

supply

Original Research Article Applied Energy, Volume 88, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 1312-1321 A. Moreno-Munoz, Juan José González de la Rosa, J.M.Purchase $ 41.95 Flores-Arias, F.J. Bellido-Outerino, A. Gil-de-Castro
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Abstract

With the generalized use of microelectronic devices, server computers and other susceptible equipment, the subject related to power quality (PQ) and its relationship to vulnerability of high performance plants are becoming an increasing concern to the industry. This paper addresses how uninterruptible power supply (UPS), particularly when configured in distributed DC mode, can become an energy efficient (EE) solution in high-tech buildings, especially

when integrated with complimentary PQ measures. The paper is based on PQ audits conducted at different high-tech industries over the last years. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags (or dips). Among all categories of electrical disturbances, voltage sags and momentary interruptions are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addresses the role of the Standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final costumer.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Power quality and reliability 2.1. Power quality and energy efficiency 2.2. Reliability and availability 3. Distributed Energy Resources 4. Facilities overview 5. Power quality audit 6. The power supply issue 7. Universal mitigation solution 7.1. Looking for energy efficiency assurance 8. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

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Comparison

of

MEA

capture

cost

for

low

CO2

emissions

sources

in

Australia Original Research Article International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 49-60 Minh T. Ho, Guy W. Allinson, Dianne E. Wiley

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Abstract

This paper estimates the cost of CO2 capture for three Australian industrial emission sources: iron and steel production, oil refineries and cement manufacturing. It also compares the estimated capture costs with those of post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. The cost of capture in 2008 using MEA solvent absorption technology ranges from less than A$60 per tonne CO2 avoided for the iron and steel production to over A$70 per tonne CO2 avoided for cement manufacture and over A$100 per tonne CO2 avoided for oil refineries. The costs of capture for the iron and steel and cement industries are comparable to or less than that for post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. This paper also investigates costs for converting low partial pressure CO2 streams from iron and steel production to a more concentrated stream using pressurisation and the water-gas shift reaction. In those cases, the costs were found to be similar to or less than the cost estimates without conversion. The analyses in this paper also show that estimated costs are highly dependent on the characteristics of the industrial emission source, the assumptions related to the type and price of energy used by the capture facilities and the economic parameters of the project such as the discount rate and capital costs.

Article Outline

Nomenclature 1. Introduction 2. Methodology 2.1. Emission sources 2.2. CO2 capture assumptions 2.3. Simulation program

2.4. Economic evaluation 2.4.1. Assumptions 2.4.2. External energy supply and prices for industrial emission sources 2.4.3. Comparison of effects of capture on cost of electricity at a coal fired power plant 2.4.4. Space requirements 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Capture costs for iron and steel production 3.2. Conventional blast furnace flue gas capture 3.3. Oxygen blown Corex flue gas capture 3.4. Shift conversion of CO to CO2 3.5. Capture costs for oil refineries 3.6. Capture costs in the cement industry 4. Regional impacts and cost uncertainties 4.1. Impact of different prices and fuel for the external energy supply 4.2. Cost sensitivities 4.3. Deployment opportunities for selected industrial emission sources 5. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

134

The relationship between perceptions of insecurity, social capital and subjective well-being: Empirical evidences from areas of rural conflict in Colombia

Original

Research Article Journal of Socio-Economics, Volume 40, Issue 1, February 2011, Pages 88-96 Eduardo Wills-Herrera, Luz E. Orozco, Clemente Forero-Pineda, Oscar Pardo, Venetta Andonova
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Research highlights

This article is the first to establish a significant relationship between perceptions of insecurity, social

capital and subjective well-being.

Our sample of 742 observations allowed us to develop a multiple Thus we developed a robust We used a We

regression model with a low size effect and high power, near to 80%.

model about the relationships between SWB, subjective insecurity and social capital.

multilevel hierarchical regression model which involves individual, local and regional variables.

showed that subjective perceptions of insecurity do not correlate significantly with objective data of violent events. We showed that it is possible to identify different types of perceptions of insecurity We highlight the importance of subjective well being We framed our

(personal, political, communitarian, economic).

measures as complements to more traditional objective development indicators. discussion in terms of a human security discussion.

We think that results may be replicated in

conflicting regions of other countries in the world (Latin America, Afghanistan, eastern Eurpo). Safe storage of Co2 together with improved oil recovery by Co2-enriched

135

water injection Original Research Article Chemical Engineering Research and Design, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 5 February 2011 Purchase Mehran Sohrabi, Nor Idah Kechut, Masoud Riazi, Mahmoud$ 31.50 Jamiolahmady, Shaun Ireland, Graeme Robertson
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? In this study we investigate the potentials of carbonated (CO2-enriched) water injection as an injection strategy for enhancing oil recovery and CO2 storage. ? The results show that carbonated water loses its CO2 gradually in porous medium when it comes in contact with the oil. ? Dissolution of CO2 in the oil causes oil swelling and favourably changes the physical properties of the oil. ? Carbonated water injection improves oil recovery in both secondary and tertiary injection modes. ? A significant part of the CO2 injected as carbonated water is safely stored in the rock as a dissolved phase.

136

Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: A review Review Article Water Research, Volume 45, Issue 5, February 2011, Pages 1907-1920 Purchase Arun Subramani, Mohammad Badruzzaman, Joan Oppenheimer,$ 31.50 Joseph G. Jacangelo
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Research highlights

? In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies is provided for desalination. ? The review includes the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane material, innovative technologies, and renewable energy resources. ? Use of advanced membrane materials, application of innovative technologies, and renewable energy utilization for desalination shows promise but several factors need to be considered before implementation at full-scale. A perfect match?: Oil and gas companies have learned to overcome many offshore difficulties, so what, if anything, can they bring to the

137

Original Research Article Renewable Energy Focus, Volume 12, Issue 1, January-FebruaryPurchase $ 39.95 2011, Pages 38-40 James Lawso
renewable energy table?
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138

Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating

Original Research Article Sustainable Cities and Society, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 5 March 2011 Purchase $ 31.50 Bruno Lee, Marija Trcka, Jan L.M. Hensen
systems—A case study for industrial halls
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139

Biodiesel from oilgae, biofixation of carbon dioxide by microalgae: A

Original Research Article Applied Energy, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 January 2011 Purchase $ 41.95 Ayhan Demirbas
solution to pollution problems
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140

Life-cycle assessment of a 100% solar fraction thermal supply to a European apartment building using water-based sensible heat storage Original Research Article Energy and Buildings, Volume 43, Issue 6, June 2011, PagesPurchase $ 35.95 1231-1240 Andrew Simons, Steven K. Firth
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141

Is foreign trade important for regional growth? Empirical evidence from Portugal

Original Research Article

Economic Modelling, Volume 28, Issue 3, May 2011, Pages 1363-1373 Elias Soukiazis, Micaela Antunes Purchase
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$ 31.50

Research highlights

? Regional growth with foreign trade, human capital and sectoral labour share. ? Panel data and GMM estimation approach. ? Interior and Littoral areas.

海上风电研发中心— 海上风电研发中心—海上风电信息技术工程师
北京金风科创风电设备有限公司
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公司行业: 公司行业: 公司性质: 公司性质:

机械/设备/重工 电力/水利 国企 比比你的竞争力

公司规模: 公司规模: 500 人以上

发布日期: 工作年限: 职位描述 岗位职责

2011-04-18 一年以上

工作地点: 学 历:

北京 硕士

招聘人数:

若干

1、需要制定海上风资源测试方案,组织和协调公司内外相关资源搭建海上风资源测试平台,对测试平 台采集数据进行日常维护和处理; 2、需要收集、分析波浪、潮汐、海流、地质等海洋环境信息; 3、需要进行海上风电场尾流数值模拟与研究; 4、需要组织开展海上风电专项技术研究; 任职资格 最低学历:硕士 专 业:风资源、海洋气象学、水文学相关专业

工作年限:一年及以上 专业能力 1、了解风资源数据采集的方法; 2、熟悉风资源、气象资料、水文资料、地质资料数据分析的基本算法与常用工具如:MIKE、WASP、 WINDFARM; 3、掌握风资源、气象学、波浪潮汐等相关专业知识; 4、能够阅读与翻译英文技术资料,独立进行外语技术交流 其他要求 1、对于风资源分析方向要求 1 年以上工作经验; 2、对于水文气象分析方向要求 1 年以上工作经验。

电控技术中心——电力接入程师 电控技术中心——电力接入程师 ——
北京金风科创风电设备有限公司
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粉丝团(160)|

公司行业: 公司行业: 公司性质: 公司性质:

机械/设备/重工 电力/水利 国企 比比你的竞争力

公司规模: 公司规模: 500 人以上

发布日期: 工作年限: 职位描述 岗位描述: 岗位描述:

2011-04-18 三年以上

工作地点: 语言要求:

北京 英语 良好

招聘人数: 学 历:

若干 硕士

国内、国际风电并网技术标准和发展方向进行跟踪,针对机组的并网技术与标准的差异进行并网产品 开发、实验和配合进行产品推广。针对风机售前、运行中和后期的并网技术问题进行跟踪技术支持, 包括技术答疑、问题处理和技术升级。 主要职责: 主要职责: 1、并网产品研发 (1)并网技术攻关和研发; (2)并网研发的现场实验,性能的优化改进; (3)并网产品现场安装调试和后期维护升级

(4)并网产品的改进升级 (5)研发文件的编写整理 2、风电场并网技术问题处理 (1)风电场前期接入设计的并网技术支持 (2)协助完成风电场并网准入许可 (3)现场业主并网技术问题的处理 (4)协助国际国内营销技术支持 任职要求: 任职要求: 1、硕士以上学历,电力或电力电子相关专业; 2、3 年以上电网相关工作经验; 3、掌握电力系统运行、风机并网特性、电力电子等相关知识; 4、精通一种电力系统仿真工具,具备独立开发硬件或软件能力; 5、流利的专业英语交流能力。

国际 投资 合作 能源 运输 电网 智能 设计 工程 项目 人才 贸易 地区 协调 生活 安装 寿命 风力 发电 生物 民用 工业 潮汐

International investment cooperation energy transport network of intelligent design projects Talent trade area harmonious life installation life Wind power biological civil industrial the tides


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