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2000-2010年全套大学英语四级真题与解析


2000 年 1 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案

Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Example:

You will hear: You will read:
A) At the office. B) In the waiting room. C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they will start at 9 o‘clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) ―5 hours‖ is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D]

1. A) The woman is a close friend of the man. B) The woman has been working too hard. C) The woman is seeing a doctor. D) The woman is tired of her work. 2. A) This apple pie tastes very good. B) His mother likes the pie very much. C) This pie can‘t match his mother‘s. D) His mother can‘t make apple pies. 3. A) Take a walk. B) Give a performance. C) Listen to the music.

D) Dance to the music. 4. A) Read an article on political science. B) Present a different theory to the class. C) Read more than one article. D) Choose a better article to read. 5. A) The woman would understand if she did Mary‘s job. B) The woman should do the typing for Mary. C) The woman should work as hard as Mary. D) The woman isn‘t a skillful typist. 6. A) He wants to make an appointment with Mr. Smith. B) He wants to make sure that Mr. Smith will see him. C) He wants to change the time of the appointment. D) He wants the woman to meet him at three o‘clock. 7. A) He gets nervous very easily. B) He is an inexperienced speaker. C) He is an awful speaker. D) He hasn‘t prepared his speech well. 8. A) She didn‘t like the books the man bought. B) There wasn‘t a large selection at the bookstore. C) The man bought a lot of books. D) She wanted to see what the man bought. 9. A) Buy a ticket for the tem o‘clock flight. B) Ask the man to change the ticket for her. C) Go to the airport immediately. D) Switch to a different flight. 10. A) Dr. Lemon is waiting for a patient. B) Dr. Lemon is busy at the moment. C) Dr. Lemon has lost his patience. D) Dr. Lemon has gone out to visit a patient.

Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage one Questions 11 to 14 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. A) A car outside the supermarket. B) A car at the bottom of the hill. C) Paul‘s car. D) The sports car. 12. A) Inside the car. B) At the foot of the hill.

C) In the garage. D) In the supermarket. 13. A) The driver of the sports car. B) The two girls inside the car. C) The man standing nearby. D) The salesman from London. 14. A) Nobody. B) The two girls. C) The bus driver. D) Paul. Passage Two Questions 15 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard. 15. A) His friend gave him the wrong key. B) He didn‘t know where the back door was. C) He couldn‘t find the key to his mailbox. D) It was too dark to put the key in the lock. 16. A) It was getting dark. B) He was afraid of being blamed by his friend. C) The birds might have flown away. D) His friend would arrive any time. 17. A) He looked silly with only one leg inside the window. B) He knew the policeman wouldn‘t believe him. C) The torch light made him look very foolish. D) He realized that he had made a mistake. Passage Three Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 18. A) The threat of poisonous desert animals and plants. B) The exhaustion of energy resources. C) The destruction of oil wells. D) The spread of the black powder from the fires. 19. A) The underground oil resources have not been affected. B) Most of the desert animals and plants have managed to survive. C) The oil lakes soon dried up and stopped evaporating. D) The underground water resources have not been polluted. 20. A) To restore the normal production of the oil wells. B) To estimate the losses caused by the fires. C) To remove the oil left in the desert. D) To use the oil left in the oil lakes.

Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

Passage One
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Unless we spend money to spot and prevent asteroids (小行星) now, one might crash into Earth and destroy life as we know it, say some scientists. Asteroids are bigger versions of the meteoroids (流星) that race across the night sky. Most orbit the sun far from Earth and don‘t threaten us. But there are also thousands of asteroids whose orbits put them on a collision course with Earth. Buy $50 million worth of new telescopes right now. Then spend $10 million a year for the next 25 years to locate most of the space rocks. By the time we spot a fatal one, the scientists say, we‘ll have a way to change its course. Some scientists favor pushing asteroids off course with nuclear weapons. But the cost wouldn‘t be cheap. Is it worth it? Two things experts consider when judging any risk re: 1) How likely the event is; and 2) How bad the consequences if the event occurs. Experts think an asteroid big enough to destroy lots of life might strike Earth once every 500,000 years. Sounds pretty rare—but if one did fall, it would be the end of the world. ―If we don‘t take care of these big asteroids, they‘ll take care of us,‖ says one scientist. ―It‘s that simple.‖ The cure, though, might be worse than the disease. Do we really want fleets of nuclear weapons sitting around on Earth? ―The world has less to fear from doomsday (毁灭性的) rocks than from a great nuclear fleet set against them,‖ said a New York Times article. 21. What does the passage say about asteroids and meteoroids? A) They are heavenly bodies different in composition. B) They are heavenly bodies similar in nature. C) There are more asteroids than meteoroids. D) Asteroids are more mysterious than meteoroids. 22. What do scientists say about the collision of an asteroid with Earth? A) It is very unlikely but the danger exists. B) Such a collision might occur once every 25 years. C) Collisions of smaller asteroids with Earth occur more often than expected. D) It‘s still too early to say whether such a collision might occur. 23. What do people think of the suggestion of using nuclear weapons to alter the courses of asteroids? A) It sounds practical but it may not solve the problem. B) It may create more problems than it might solve. C) It is a waste of money because a collision of asteroids with Earth is very unlikely. D) Further research should be done before it is proved applicable. 24. We can conclude from the passage that ________. A) while pushing asteroids off course nuclear weapons would destroy the world B) asteroids racing across the night sky are likely to hit Earth in the near future C) the worry about asteroids can be left to future generations since it is unlikely to happen in our lifetime D) workable solutions still have to be found to prevent a collision of asteroids with Earth 25. Which of the following best describes the author‘s tone in this passage?

A) Optimistic. B) Critical. C) Objective. D) Arbitrary.

Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Believe it or not, optical illusion (错觉) can cut highway crashes. Japan is a case in point. It has reduced automobile crashes on some roads by nearly 75 percent using a simple optical illusion. Bent stripes, called chevrons (人字形), painted on the roads make drivers think that they are driving faster than they really are, and thus drivers slow down. Now the American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety in Washington D.C. is planning to repeat Japan‘s success. Starting next year, the foundation will paint chevrons and other patterns of stripes on selected roads around the country to test how well the patterns reduce highway crashes. Excessive speed plays a major role in as much as one fifth of all fatal traffic accidents, according to the foundation. To help reduce those accidents, the foundation will conduct its tests in areas where speed-related hazards are the greatest—curves, exit slopes, traffic circles, and bridges. Some studies suggest that straight, horizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half. However, traffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bars. Chevrons, scientists say, not only give drivers the impression that they are driving faster than they really are but also make a lane appear to be narrower. The result is a longer lasting reduction in highway sped and the number of traffic accidents. 26. The passage mainly discusses ________. A) a new way of highway speed control B) a new pattern for painting highways C) a new approach to training drivers D) a new type of optical illusion 27. On roads painted with chevrons, drivers tend to feel that ________. A) they should avoid speed-related hazards B) they are driving in the wrong lane C) they should slow down their speed D) they are approaching the speed limit 28. The advantage of chevrons over straight, horizontal bars is that the former ________. A) can keep drivers awake B) can cut road accidents in half C) will have a longer effect on drivers D) will look more attractive 29. The American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety plans to ________.

A) try out the Japanese method in certain areas B) change the road signs across the country C) replace straight, horizontal bars with chevrons D) repeat the Japanese road patterns 30. What does the author say about straight, horizontal bars painted across roads? A) They are falling out of use in the United States. B) They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time. C) They are applicable only on broad roads. D) They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles.

Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. Amtrak (美国铁路客运公司) was experiencing a downswing in ridership (客运量) along the lines comprising its rail system. Of major concern to Amtrak and its advertising agency DDB Needham, were the long-distance western routes where ridership had been declining significantly.] At one time, trains were the only practical way to cross the vast areas of the west. Trains were fast, very luxurious, and quite convenient compared to other forms of transportation existing at the time. However, times change and the automobile became America‘s standard of convenience. Also, air travel had easily established itself as the fastest method of traveling great distances. Therefore, the task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train travel in order to change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west. Two portions of the total market were targeted: 1) anxious fliers—those concerned with safety, relaxation, and cleanliness and 2) travel-lovers—those viewing themselves as relaxed, casual, and interested in the travel experience as part of their vacation. The agency then developed a campaign that focused on travel experiences such as freedom, escape, relaxation, and enjoyment of the great western outdoors. It stressed experiences gained by using the trains and portrayed western train trips as wonderful adventures. Advertisements showed pictures of the beautiful scenery that could be enjoyed along some of the more famous western routes and emphasized the romantic names of some of these trains (Empire Builder, etc.). These ads were strategically placed among family-oriented TV shows and programs involving nature and America in order to most effectively reach target audiences. Results were impressive. The Empire Builder, which was focused on in one ad, enjoyed a 15 percent increase in profits on its Chicago to Seattle route. 31. What‘s the author‘s purpose in writing this passage? A) To show the inability of trains to compete with planes with respect to speed and convenience. B) To stress the influence of the automobile on America‘s standard of convenience. C) To emphasize the function of travel agencies in market promotion. D) To illustrate the important role of persuasive communication in changing consumer attitudes.

32. It can be inferred from the passage that the drop in Amtrak ridership was due to the fact that ________. A) trains were not suitable for short distance passenger transportation B) trains were not the fastest and most convenient form of transportation C) trains were not as fast and convenient as they used to be D) trains could not compete with planes in terms of luxury and convenience 33. To encourage consumers to travel by train, DDB Needham emphasized ________. A) the freedom and convenience provided on trains B) the practical aspects of train travel C) the adventurous aspects of train trips D) the safety and cleanliness of train trips 34. The train ads were placed among family-oriented TV programs involving nature and America because ________. A) they could focus on meaningful travel experiences B) they could increase the effectiveness of the TV programs C) their profits could be increased by some 15 percent D) most travel-lovers and nervous fliers were believed to be among the audiences 35. According to the passage, the Empire Builder enjoyed an increase in ridership and profits because ________. A) the attractiveness of its name and route was effectively advertised B) it provided an exciting travel experience C) its passengers could enjoy the great western outdoors D) it was widely advertised in newspapers and magazines in Chicago and Seattle

Passage Four
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. Why does cram go bad faster than butter? Some researchers think they have the answer, and it comes down to the structure of the food, not its chemical composition—a finding that could help rid some processed foods of chemical preservatives. Cream and butter contain pretty much the same substances, so why cream should sour much faster has been a mystery. Both are emulsions—tiny globules (小球体) of one liquid evenly distributed throughout another. The difference lies in what‘s in the globules and what‘s in the surrounding liquid, says Brocklehurst, who led the investigation. In cream, fatty globules drift about in a sea of water. In butter, globules of a watery solution are locked away in a sea of fat. The bacteria which make the food go bad prefer to live in the watery regions of the mixture. ―This means that in cream, the bacteria are free to grow throughout the mixture,‖ he says. When the situation is reversed, the bacteria are locked away in compartments (隔仓室) buried deep in the sea of fat. Trapped in this way, individual colonies cannot spread and rapidly run out of nutrients (养料). They also slowly poison themselves with their waste products. ―In butter, you get a self-limiting system which stops the bacteria growing,‖ says Brocklehurst. The researchers are already working with food companies keen to see if their products

can be made resistant to bacterial attack through alterations to the food‘s structure. Brocklehurst believes it will be possible to make the emulsions used in salad cream, for instance, more like that in butter. The key will be to do this while keeping the salad cream liquid and not turning it into a solid lump. 36. The significance of Brocklehurst‘s research is that ________. A) it suggested a way to keep some foods fresh without preservatives B) it discovered tiny globules in both cream and butter C) it revealed the secret of how bacteria multiply in cream and butter D) it found that cream and butter share the same chemical composition 37. According to the researchers, cream sours fast than butter because bacteria ________. A) are more evenly distributed in cream B) multiply more easily in cream than in butter C) live on less fat in cream than in butter D) produce less waste in cream than in butter 38. According to Brocklehurst, we can keep cream fresh by ________. A) removing its fat B) killing the bacteria C) reducing its water content D) altering its structure 39. The word ―colonies‖ (Line 2, Para. 4) refers to ________. A) tiny globules B) watery regions C) bacteria communities D) little compartments 40. Commercial application of the research finding will be possible if salad cream can be made resistant to bacterial attack ________. A) by varying its chemical composition B) by turning it into a solid lump C) while keeping its structure unchanged D) while retaining its liquid form

Part III Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there
are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 41. She ought to stop work; she has a headache because she ________ too long. A) has been reading B) had read C) is reading D) read 42. Niagara Falls is a great tourist ________, drawing millions of visitors every year. A) attention

B) attraction C) appointment D) arrangement 43. I don‘t mind ________ the decision as long as it is not too late. A) you to delay making B) your delaying making C) your delaying to make D) you delay to make 44. The hopes, goals, fears and desires ________ widely between men and women, between the rich and the poor. A) alter B) shift C) transfer D) vary 45. Corn originated in the New World and thus was not known in Europe until Columbus found it ________ in Cuba. A) being cultivated B) been cultivated C) having cultivated D) cultivating 46. The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the audience ________ on benches, chairs or boxes. A) having seated B) seating C) seated D) having been seated 47. This kind of glasses manufactured by experienced craftsmen ________ comfortably. A) is worn B) wears C) wearing D) are worn 48. Some diseases are ________ by certain water animals. A) transplanted B) transformed C) transported D) transmitted 49. Wouldn‘t you rather your child ________ to bed early? A) go B) went C) would go D) goes 50. Although Anne is happy with her success she wonders ________ will happen to her private life.

A) that B) what C) it D) this 51. The words of his old teacher left a ________ impression on his mind. He is still influenced by them. A) staying not B) not to stay C) that he would not stay D) that he not stay 52. Mike‘s uncle insists ________ in this hotel. A) whatever B) whomever C) whichever D) whoever 53. We agreed to accept ________ they thought was the best tourist guide. A) whatever B) whomever C) whichever D) whoever 54. It is our ________ policy that we will achieve unity through peaceful means. A) consistent B) continuous C) considerate D) continual 55. Between 1974 and 1997, the number of overseas visitors expanded ________27%. A) by B) for C) to D) in 56. Although many people view conflict as bad, conflict is sometimes useful ________ it forces people to test the relative merits of their attitudes and behaviors. A) by which B) to which C) in that D) so that 57. He is ________ about his chances of winning a gold medal in the Olympics next year. A) optimistic B) optional C) outstanding D) obvious 58. Sometimes I wish I ________ in a different time and a different place. A) be living

B) were living C) would live D) would have lived 59. The director was critical ________ the way we were doing the work. A) at B) in C) of D) with 60. In a sudden ________ of anger, the man tore up everything within reach. A) attack B) burst C) split D) blast 61. ________ she realized it was too late to go home. A) No sooner it grew dark than B) Hardly did it grow dark that C) Scarcely had it grown dark than D) It was not until dark that 62. In Britain people ________ four million tons of potatoes every year. A) swallow B) dispose C) consume D) exhaust 63. I‘d ________ his reputation with other farmers and business people in the community, and then make a decision about whether or not to approve a loan. A) take into account B) account for C) make up for D) make out 64. It is essential that these application forms ________ back as early as possible. A) must be sent B) will be sent C) are sent D) be sent 65. She cooked the meat for a long time so as to make it ________ enough to eat. A) mild B) slight C) light D) tender 66. We take our skin for granted until it is burned ________ repair. A) beyond B) for C) without D) under

67. The computer revolution may well change society as ________ as did the Industrial Revolution. A) certainly B) insignificantly C) fundamentally D) comparatively 68. ________ in this way, the situation doesn‘t seem so disappointing. A) To look at B) Looking at C) Looked at D) To be looked at 69. A lot of ants are always invading my kitchen. They are a thorough ________. A) nuisance B) trouble C) worry D) anxiety 70. Some women ________ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family. A) must make B) should have made C) would make D) could have made

Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. In a telephone survey of more than 2,000 adults, 21% said they believed the sun revolved (旋转) around the earth. An __71__ 7% did not know which revolved around __72__ I have no doubt that __73__ all of these people were __74__ in school that the earth revolves around the sun; __75__ may even have written it __76__ a test. But they never __77__ their incorrect mental models of planetary (行星的) __78__ because their everyday observations didn‘t support __79__ their teachers told them: People see the sun ―moving‖ __80__ the sky as morning turns to night, and the earth seems stationary (静止的) __81__ that is happening. Students can learn the right answers __82__ heart in class, and yet never combined them __83__ their working models of the world. The objectively correct answer the professor accepts and the __84__ personal understanding of the world can __85__ side by side, each unaffected by the other. Outside of class, the student continues to sue the __86__ model because it has always worked well __87__ that circumstance. Unless professors address __88__ errors in students‘ personal models of the world, students are not __89__ to replace them with the __90__ one.

71. A) excessive B) extra C) additional D) added 72. A) what B) which C) that D) other 73. A) virtually B) remarkably C) ideally D) preferably 74. A) learned B) suggested C) taught D) advised 75. A) those B) these C) who D) they 76. A) on B) with C) under D) for 77. A) formed B) altered C) believed D) thought 78. A) operation B) position C) motion D) location 79. A) how B) which C) that D) what 80. A) around B) across C) on D) above 81. A) since B) so C) while D) for

82. A) to B) by C) in D) with 83. A) with B) into C) to D) along 84. A) adult‘s B) teacher‘s C) scientist‘s D) student‘s 85. A) exist B) occur C) survive D) maintain 86. A) private B) individual C) personal D) own 87. A) in B) with C) on D) for 88. A) general B) natural C) similar D) specific 89. A) obliged B) likely C) probable D) partial 90. A) perfect B) better C) reasonable D) correct

Part V Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance My College Education. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below: 1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决 2. 哪种途径适合于我(说明理由) How I Finance My College Education

答案 Part I 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. C 9. D 10. B 11. C 12. D 13. A 14. A 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. D 19. D 20. C Part II 21. B 22. A 23. B 24. D 25. C 26. A 27. C 28. C 29. A 30. B 31. D 32. B 33. C 34. D 35. A 36. A 37. B 38. D 39. C 40. D Part III 41. A 42. B 43. B 44. D 45. A 46. C 47. B 48. D 49. B 50. B 51. C 52. D 53. D 54. A 55. A 56. C 57. A 58. B 59. C 60. B 61. D 62. C 63. A 64. D 65. D 66. A 67. C 68. C 69. A 70. D Part IV 71. C 72. B 73. A 74. C 75. D 76. A 77. B 78. C 79. D 80. B 81. C 82. B 83. A 84. D 85. A 86. C 87. A 88. D 89. B 90. D 2000 年 1 月四级听力原文 1. M: Hi, Jane, do you have some changes? I have to make a call on the payphone. W: Payphone? Why not use my mobile phone? Here you are. Q: What will the man most probably do? 2. M: Can you tell me the title of this oil painting? W: Sorry, I don‘t know for sure, but I guess it is an early 18 century work. Let me look it up in the catalog. Q: Where does this conversation most probably take place? 3. M: I am worried about those classes I missed when I was sick. W: I will try to bring you up today on what we‘ve done. Q: What does the woman mean? 4. W: Hey Dan. I hear you‘re meeting Susan‘s parents for the first time.

M: Yeah, next weekend. Fortunately, her father loves to fish, so we will have so many things to talk about. Q: What can be inferred about Dan? 5. W: Professor White‘s presentation seemed to go on forever. I was barely able to stay awake. M: How could you sleep through it? It is one of the best that I have ever heard on this topic. Q: What does the man think of Professor White‘s presentation? 6. W: I am looking for quality paper to type my essay. I don‘t see any on the shelf. M: I saw some in the stockroom this morning. I will go and check. Q: What does the woman want to buy? 7. M: It seems that we‘ll have another fine day tomorrow. Let‘s go to the seaside. W: OK. But we‘ll have to leave very early, or else we‘ll get caught in the traffic. Q: What does the woman suggest? 8. M: Do you know James? He is in your class. W: Certainly. In fact he was the first person I got to know in my class. I still remember the look on his face when he showed up late on the first day of school. Q: Why did the woman remember James so well? 9. W: The man at the garage thinks that I take good care of my car. M: So do I. I can‘t see any scratches on the outside, and the inside is clean, too. Q: What does the man think of the woman‘s car? 10. M: Wonderful day, isn‘t it? Want to join me for a swim? W: If you don‘t mind waiting while I get prepared. Q: What does the woman mean? Passage One A friend of mine told me that when he was a young man, he went to work as a teacher in one of the states of India. One day, he received an invitation to dinner at the ruler‘s palace. Very pleased, he went to tell his colleagues. They laughed, and told him the meaning of the invitation. They had all been invited, and each person who was invited had to bring with him a certain number of silver and gold coins. The number of coins varied according to the person‘s position in the service of the government. My friend‘s income was not high, so he did not have much to pay. Each person bowed before the ruler, his gold went onto one hip, his silver went onto another hip. And in this way he paid his income tax for the year. This was a simple way of collecting income tax. The tax on property was also collected simply. The ruler gave a man the power to collect a tax from each owner of land or property in a certain area, if this man promised to pay the ruler a certain amount of money. Of course, the tax collector managed to collect more money than he paid to the ruler. The difference between the sum of money he collected and the sum of money he gave to the ruler was his profit. Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. What do we know about the speaker‘s friend? 12. What was the real purpose of the ruler‘s invitation? 13. What does the passage say about the tax collectors? Passage Two Around the year 1000.A.D, some people from northwest India began to travel westward. Nobody knows why. After leaving their homes, they did not settle down again, but spent their lives moving from one place to another, their later generations are called the Romany people,

or Gypsies. There‘re Gypsies all over the world, and many of them are still travelling with no fix homes. There are about 8,000,000 of them, including 3,000,000 in Eastern Europe. Gypsies sometimes have a hard time in the countries where they travel, because they are different, people may be afraid of them, look down on them, or think that they are criminals. The Nazies treated the Gypsies cruelly, like the Jews, and nobody knows how many of them died in Hitler‘s deathcamps. Gypsies have their own language Romany. They liked music and dancing. And they often work in fairs and travelling shows. Travelling is very important to them, and many Gypsies are unhappy if they have to stay in one place. Because of this, it is difficult for Gypsy children to go to school, and Gypsies are often unable to read and write. In some places, the education authorities tried to arrange special travelling schools for Gypsy children, so that they can get the same education as other children. Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. Why did the ancestors of Gypsies leave their home? 15. What is the attitude of some people toward Gypsies? 16. What measure has been taken to help Gypsy children? Passage Three As the car industry develops, traffic accidents have become as familiar as the common code. Yet, their cause and control remain a serious problem that is difficult to solve. Experts have long recognized that this discouraging problem has multiple causes. At the very least, it is a problem that involves three factors: the driver, the vehicle, and the roadway. If all drivers exercise good judgments at all times, there would be few accidents. But that is rather like saying that if all people were honest, there would be no crime. Improved design has helped make highways much safer. But the type of accidents continued to rise because of human failure and an enormous increase in the numbers of automobiles on the road. Attention is now turning increasingly to the third factor of the accident, the car itself. Since people assume that the accidents are bound to occur, they want to know how cars can be built better to protect the drivers. Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 17. What does the speaker think of the causes of automobile accidents? 18. What measure has been taken to reduce car accidents? 19. What remains an important factor for the rising number of road accidents? 20. What is the focus of people‘s attentions today according to the passage?

2000 年 6 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案 Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Example:

You will hear: You will read: A) 2 hours. B) 3 hours. C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they will start at 9 o‘clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) ―5 hours‖ is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1. A) She is not interested in the article. B) She has given the man much trouble. C) She would like to have a copy of the article. D) She doesn‘t want to take the trouble to read the article. 2. A) He saw the big tower he visited on TV. B) He has visited the TV tower twice. C) He has visited the TV tower once. D) He will visit the TV tower in June. 3. A) The woman regrets having taken up much of the professor‘s time. B) The woman regrets having taken up much of the professor‘s time. C) The woman knows the professor has been busy. D) The woman knows the professor has run into trouble. 4. A) He doesn‘t enjoy business trips as much as he used to. B) He doesn‘t think he is capable of doing the job. C) He thinks the pay is too low to support his family. D) He wants to spend more time with his family. 5. A) The man thought the essay was easy. B) They both had a hard time writing the essay. C) The woman thought the essay was easy. D) Neither of them has finished the assignment yet. 6. A) In the park. B) Between two buildings. C) In his apartment. D) Under a huge tree. 7. A) It‘s awfully dull. B) It‘s really exciting. C) It‘s very exhausting. D) It‘s quite challenging. 8. A) A movie. B) A lecture. C) A play. D) A speech. 9. A) The weather is mild compared to the past years.

B) They are having the coldest winter ever. C) The weather will soon get warmer. D) The weather may get even colder. 10. A) A mystery story. B) The hiring of a shop assistant. C) The search for a reliable witness. D) An unsolved case of robbery. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage one Questions 11 to 14 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. A) They want to change the way English is taught. B) They learn English to find well-paid jobs. C) They want to have an up-to-date knowledge of English. D) They know clearly what they want to learn. 12. A) Professionals. B) College students. C) Beginners. D) Intermediate learners. 13. A) Courses for doctors. B) Courses for businessmen. C) Courses for reporters. D) Courses for lawyers. 14. A) Three groups of learners. B) The importance of business English. C) English for Specific Purposes. D) Features of English for different purposes. Passage Two Questions 15 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard. 15. A) To show off their wealth. B) To feel good. C) To regain their memory. D) To be different from others. 16. A) To help solve their psychological problems. B) To play games with them. C) To send them to the hospital. D) To make them aware of its harmfulness. 17. A) They need care and affection. B) They are fond of round-the-world trips. C) They are mostly form broken families.

D) They are likely to commit crimes. Passage Three Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 18. A) Because it was too heavy. B) Because it did not bend easily. C) Because it did not shoot far. D) Because its string was short. 19. A) It went out of use 300 years ago. B) It was invented after the short bow. C) It was discovered before fire and the wheel. D) It‘s still in use today. 20. A) They are accurate and easy to pull. B) Their shooting range is 40 yards. C) They are usually used indoors. D) They took 100 years to develop. Part II Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 21. As we can no longer wait for the delivery of our order, we have to ________ it. A) postpone B) refuse C) delay D) cancel 22. These books, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you ________ you need. A) all the information B) all the information C) all of information D) all of the information 23. Not until the game had begun ________ at the sports ground. A) had he arrived B) would he have arrived C) did he arrive D) should he have arrived 24. Young people are not ________ to stand and look at works of art; they want art they can participate in. A) conservative B) content C) confident D) generous 25. Most broadcasters maintain that TV has been unfairly criticized and argue that the power of the medium is ________. A) granted B) implied

C) exaggerated D) remedied 26. These surveys indicate that many crimes go ________ by the police, mainly because not all victims report them. A) unrecorded B) to be unrecorded C) unrecording D) to have been unrecorded 27. I have no objection ________ your story again. A) to hear B) to hearing C) to having heard D) to have heard 28. The clothes a person wears may express his ________ or social position. A) curiosity B) status C) determination D) significance 29. By law, when one makes a large purchase, he should have ________ opportunity to change his mind. A) accurate B) urgent C) excessive D) adequate 30. You will see this product ________ wherever you go. A) to be advertised B) advertised C) advertise D) advertising 31. The early pioneers had to ________ many hardships to settle on the new land. A) go along with B) go back on C) go through D) go into 32. The suggestion that the major ________ the prizes was accepted by everyone. A) would present B) present C) presents D) ought to present 33. Beer is the most popular drink among male drinkers, ________ overall consumption is significantly higher than that of women. A) whose B) which C) that

D) what 34. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested ________ at the next town. A) to stop B) stopping C) stop D) having stopped 35. I didn‘t know the word. I had to ________ a dictionary. A) look out B) make out C) refer to D) go over 36. The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds ________ his arguments in favour of the new theory. A) to be based on B) to base on C) which to base on D) on which to base 37. There are signs ________ restaurants are becoming more popular with families. A) that B) which C) in which D) whose 38. I think I was at school, ________ I was staying with a friends during the vacation when I heard the news. A) or else B) and then C) or so D) even so 39. It is said that the math teacher seems ________ towards bright students. A) partial B) beneficial C) preferable D) liable 40. In order to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he took ________ trouble over the figures. A) extensive B) spare C) extra D) supreme 41. —―May I speak to your manager Mr. Williams at five o‘clock tonight?‖ —―I‘m sorry. Mr. Williams ________ to a conference long before then.‖ A) will have gone B) had gone C) would have gone

D) has gone 42. You ________ him so closely; you should have kept your distance. A) shouldn‘t follow B) mustn‘t follow C) couldn‘t‘ have been following D) shouldn‘t have been following 43. The growth of part-time and flexible working patterns, and of training and retraining schemes, ________ more women to take advantage of employment opportunities. A) have allowed B) allow C) allowing D) allows 44. Everybody ________ in the hall where they were welcomed by the secretary. A) assembled B) accumulated C) piled D) joined 45. Putting in a new window will ________ cutting away part of the roof. A) include B) involve C) contain D) comprise 46. Living in the western part of the country has its problems, ________ obtaining fresh water is not the least. A) with which B) for which C) of which D) which 47. In the ________ of the project not being a success, the investors stand to lose up to $30 million. A) face B) time C) event D) course 48. The manager would rather his daughter ________ in the same office. A) had not worked B) not to work C) does not work D) did not work 49. ________, he does get annoyed with her sometimes. A) Although much he likes her B) Much although he likes her C) As he likes her much D) Much as he likes her

50. The British constitution is ________ a large extent a product of the historical events described above. A) within B) to C) by D) at Part III Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the disputed refereeing (裁判) decisions that denied victory to their team. A researcher was appointed to study the performance of some top referees. The researcher organized an experimental tournament (锦标赛) involving four youth teams. Each match lasted an hour, divided into three periods of 20 minutes during which different referees were in charge. Observers noted down the referees‘ errors, of which there were 61 over the tournament. Converted to a standard match of 90 minutes, each referee made almost 23 mistakes, a remarkably high number. The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyse the matches in detail. Surprisingly, he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident. When the officials got it right, they were, on average, 17 meters away from the action. The average distance in the case of errors was 12 meters. The research shows the optimum (最佳的) distance is about 20 meters. There also seemed to be an optimum speed. Correct decisions came when the referees were moving at a speed of about 2 meters per second. The average speed for errors was 4 meters per second. If FIFA, football‘s international ruling body, wants to improve the standard of refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball, the researcher argues. He also says that FIFA‘s insistence that referees should retire at age 45 may be misguided. If keeping up with the action is not so important, their physical condition is less critical. 51. The experiment conducted by the researcher was meant to ________. A) review the decisions of referees at the 1998 World Cup B) analyse the causes of errors made by football referees C) set a standard for football refereeing D) reexamine the rules for football refereeing 52. The number of refereeing errors in the experimental matches was ________. A) slightly above average B) higher than in the 1998 World Cup C) quite unexpected

D) as high as in a standard match 53. The findings of the experiment show that ________. A) errors are more likely when a referee keeps close to the ball B) the farther the referee is from the incident, the fewer the errors C) the more slowly the referee runs, the more likely will errors occur D) errors are less likely when a referee stays in one spot 54. The word ―officials‖ (Line 2, Para. 4) most probably refers to ________. A) the researchers involved in the experiment B) the inspectors of the football tournament C) the referees of the football tournament D) the observers at the site of the experiment 55. What is one of the possible conclusions of the experiment? A) The ideal retirement age for an experienced football referee is 45. B) Age should not be the chief consideration in choosing a football referee. C) A football referee should be as young and energetic as possible. D) An experienced football referee can do well even when in poor physical condition. Passage Two Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage. While still in its early stages, welfare reform has already been judged a great success in many states—at least in getting people off welfare. It‘s estimated that more than 2 million people have left the rolls since 1994. In the past four years, welfare rolls in Athens Country have been cut in half. But 70 percent of the people who left in the past tow years took jobs that paid less than $6 an hour. The result: The Athens County poverty rate still remains at more than 30 percent—twice the national average. For advocates (代言人) for the poor, that‘s an indication much more needs to be done. ―More people are getting jobs, but it‘s not making their lives any better,‖ says Kathy Lairn, a policy analyst at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in Washington. A center analysis of US Census data nationwide found that between 1995 and 1996, a greater percentage of single, female-headed households were earning money on their own, but that average income for these households actually went down. But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory. ―Welfare was a poison. It was a toxin (毒素) that was poisoning the family,‖ says Robert Rector, a welfare-reform policy analyst. ―The reform in changing the moral climate in low-income communities. It‘s beginning to rebuild the work ethic (道德观), which is much more important.‖ Mr. Rector and others argued that once ―the habit of dependency is cracked,‖ then the country can make other policy changes aimed at improving living standards. 56. From the passage, it can be seen that the author ________. A) believes the reform has reduced the government‘s burden B) insists that welfare reform is doing little good for the poor C) is overenthusiastic about the success of welfare reform D) considers welfare reform to be fundamentally successful 57. Why aren‘t people enjoying better lives when they have jobs?

A) Because many families are divorced. B) Because government aid is now rare. C) Because their wages are low. D) Because the cost of living is rising. 58. What is worth noting from the example of Athens County is that ________. A) greater efforts should be made to improve people‘s living standards B) 70 percent of the people there have been employed for two years C) 50 percent of the population no longer relies on welfare D) the living standards of most people are going down 59. From the passage we know that welfare reform aims at ________. A) saving welfare funds B) rebuilding the work ethic C) providing more jobs D) cutting government expenses 60. According to the passage before the welfare reform was carried out, ________. A) the poverty rate was lover B) average living standards were higher C) the average worker was paid higher wages D) the poor used to rely on government aid Passage Three Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage. Americans are pound of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States? Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity (身份) than to step out of uniform? Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible (可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes. Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least. Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes. 61. It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality ________. A) still judge a man by his clothes

B) hold the uniform in such high regard C) enjoy having a professional identity D) will respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform 62. People are accustomed to think that a man in uniform ________. A) suggests quality work B) discards his social identity C) appears to be more practical D) looks superior to a person in civilian clothes 63. The chief function of a uniform is to ________. A) provide practical benefits to the wearer B) make the wearer catch the pubic eye C) inspire the wearer‘s confidence in himself D) provide the wearer with a professional identity 64. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms ________. A) are usually helpful B) have little or no individual freedom C) tend to lose their individuality D) enjoy greater popularity 65. The best title for this passage would be ________. A) Uniforms and Society B) The Importance of Wearing a Uniform C) Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform D) Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms Passage Four Questions 66 to 70 are based on the following passage. Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships. One strength of the human condition is our tendency to give and receive support from one another under stressful circumstances. Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties. Those of us with strong support systems appear better able to cope with major life changes and daily hassles (困难). People with strong social ties live longer and have better health than those without such ties. Studies over a range of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, reveal that the presence of social support helps people fend off (挡开) illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely. Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives, and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self-respect is strengthened when we feel accepted by others despite our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting (转 移…注意力) us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support—financial aid, material resources, and needed services—that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems. 66. Interpersonal relationships are important because ________.

A) they are indispensable to people‘s social well-being B) they awaken people‘s desire to exchange resources C) they help people to cope with life in the information era D) they can cure a range of illnesses such as heart disease, etc 67. Research shows that people‘s physical and mental health ________. A) relies on the social welfare systems which support them B) has much to do with the amount of support they get from others C) depends on their ability to deal with daily worries and troubles D) is closely related to their strength for coping with major changes in their lives 68. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word ―cushions‖ (Line 1, Para. 2)? A) Adds up to. B) Does away with. C) Lessens the effect of. D) Lays the foundation for. 69. Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work is an example of ________. A) instrumental support B) informational support C) social companionship D) the strengthening of self-respect 70. Social companionship is beneficial in that ________. A) it helps strengthen our ties with relatives B) it enables us to eliminate our faults and mistakes C) it makes our leisure-time activities more enjoyable D) it draws our attention away from our worries and troubles Part IV Translation (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, there are four items, each consisting of one or two sentences for you to translate into Chinese. These sentences are all taken from the Reading Passages you have just read in Part Three of Test Paper One. You should refer back to the passages so as to identify their meanings in the context. S1. (Lines 1-2, Para. 1, Passage 1) Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the disputed refereeing (裁判) decisions that denied victory to their team. S2. (Lines 1-2, Para. 6, Passage 2) But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory. S3. (Lines 5-6, Para. 2, Passage 3) What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity (身份) than to step out of uniform? S4. (Lines 3-4, Para. 1, Passage 4) Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their inter personal ties. Part V Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary? The first sentence has already been written for you. You

should write at least 100 words, and base your competition on the outline given in Chinese below: 1. 很多人认为有必要举行英语口语考试,理由是… 2. 也有人持不同意见,... 3. 我的看法和打算 Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test (CET) 答案 Part I 1. C 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. D 11. D 12. A 13. B 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. B 20. A Part II 21. D 22. A 23. C 24. B 25. C 26. A 27. B 28. B 29. D 30. B 31. C 32. B 33. A 34. B 35. C 36. D 37. A 38. A 39. A 40. C 41. A 42. D 43. D 44. A 45. B 46. C 47. C 48. D 49. D 50. B Part III 51. B 52. C 53. A 54. C 55. B 56. D 57. C 58. A 59. B 60. D 61. B 62. A 63. D 64. C 65. D 66. A 67. B 68. C 69. A 70. D S1. 1998 年世界杯足球赛早已尘埃落定,但失望的球迷们仍在责骂那些颇有争议的判罚,声称 正是那些判罚使他们的球队没能获胜。 S2. 但是穷人在没有政府救济的情况下,生活照样过得很好,对很多人来说,这一事实本身就是 一个巨大的胜利。 S3. 对于一名护士、 理发师或是一名侍者而言, 还有什么比脱掉制服更加便利的方法能让他们失 去职业身份呢? S4. 社会资助是由人与人之间的资源交换所构成的, 而这种交换乃是建立在他们的人际关系的基 础之上。 2001 年 1 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案

Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Example: You will hear: You will read: A) 2 hours. B) 3 hours. C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they will start at 9 o‘clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) ―5 hours‖ is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1. A) Get some change form Jane. B) Use the woman‘s phone. C) Go look for a pay phone. D) Pay for the phone call. 2. A) At a bookstore. B) In a workshop. C) At an art gallery. D) In a department store. 3. A) She‘s bought the man a pair of glasses today. B) She will help the man to catch up. C) She is worried about the man‘s health. D) She has bought the man an up-to-date map. 4. A) He is going to give a talk on fishing. B) He thinks fishing is a good way to kill time. C) He has the same hobby as Susan‘s father. D) He is eager to meet Susan‘s parents. 5. A) He finds the presentation hard to follow. B) He considers the presentation very dull. C) He thinks Professor White has chosen an interesting topic. D) He speaks highly of the presentation. 6. A) High quality paper. B) A typewriter. C) A bookshelf. D) Some stocks. 7. A) They go to the seaside.

B) They set off early. C) They go sightseeing. D) They wait for a fine day. 8. A) He was late for school on the first day. B) He had a funny face. C) He was the first person she met at school. D) He liked to show off in class. 9. A) Her car can stand any crash. B) Her car is not as good as his. C) Her car is maintained as well as his. D) Her car is kept in good condition. 10. A) She is too busy to go. B) She doesn‘t want to wait long. C) She‘s willing to go swimming. D) She enjoys the wonderful weather. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage one Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. A) He was once a friend of the ruler. B) He was a tax collector. C) He was a government official. D) He was once a school teacher in India. 12. A) To declare new ways of collecting tax. B) To entertain those who had made great contributions to the government. C) To collect money from the persons invited. D) To reward outstanding tax collectors. 13. A) They tried to collect more money than the ruler asked for. B) They were given some silver and gold coins by the ruler. C) They were excused from paying income tax. D) They enjoyed being invited to dinner at the ruler‘s palace. Passage Two Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. A) They liked traveling. B) They wanted to find a better place to live in. C) They were driven out of their homes. D) The reasons are unknown. 15. A) They try to put up with Gypsies. B) They are envious of Gypsies. C) They are unfriendly to Gypsies.

D) They admire the musical talent of the Gypsies. 16. A) Special schools have been set up for them. B) Permanent homes have been built for them. C) They are now taught in their own language. D) They are now allowed to attend local schools. Passage Three Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 17. A) The causes are obvious. B) The causes are very complicated. C) The causes are familiar. D) The causes are not well understood. 18. A) Regular driver training. B) Improved highway design. C) Stricter traffic regulations. D) Better public transportation. 19. A) Highway crime. B) Poor traffic control. C) Confusing road signs. D) Drivers‘ errors. 20. A) Designing better cars. B) Building more highways. C) Increasing people‘s awareness of traffic problems. D) Enhancing drivers‘ sense of responsibility. Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Dogs are social animals and without proper training, they will behave like wild animals. They will soil your house, destroy your belongings, bark excessively, fight other dogs and even bite you. Nearly all behavior problems are perfectly normal dog activities that occur at the wrong time or place or are directed at the wrong thing. The key to preventing or treating behavior problems is learning to teach the dog to redirect its normal behavior to outlets that are acceptable in the domestic setting. One of the best things you can do for your dog and yourself is to obedience train it. Obedience training doesn‘t solve all behavior problems, but it is the foundation for solving just about any problem. Training pens up a line of communication between you and your dog. Effective communication is necessary to instruct your dog about what you want it to do. Training is also an easy way to establish the social rank order. When your dog obeys a simple request of ―come here, sit,‖ it is showing obedience and respect for you. It is not necessary to establish yourself as top dog or leader of the pack (群) by using extreme measure. You can teach your dog its subordinate (从属的) role by teaching it to show submission to you. Most

dogs love performing tricks for you to pleasantly accept that you are in charge. Training should be fun and rewarding for you and your dog. It can enrich your relationship and make living together more enjoyable. A well-trained dog is more confident and can more safely be allowed a greater amount of freedom than an untrained animal. 21. Behavior problems of dogs are believe to ________. A) be just part of their nature B) worsen in modern society C) occur when they go wild D) present a threat to the community 22. The primary purpose of obedience training is to ________. A) teach the dog to perform clever tricks B) make the dog aware of its owner‘s authority C) provide the dog with outlets for its wild behavior D) enable the dog to regain its normal behavior 23. Effective communication between a dog and its owner is ________. A) essential to solving the dog‘s behavior problems B) the foundation for dogs to perform tasks C) a good way to teach the dog new tricks D) an extreme measure in obedience training 24. Why do pet dogs love performing tricks for their masters? A) To avoid being punished. B) To show their affection for their masters. C) To win leadership of the dog pack. D) To show their willingness to obey. 25. When a dog has received effective obedience training, its owner ________. A) can give the dog more rewards B) will enjoy a better family life C) can give the dog more freedom D) will have more confidence in himself Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Engineering students are supposed to be examples of practicality and rationality, but when it comes to my college education I am an idealist and a fool. In high school I wanted to be an electrical engineer and, of course, any sensible student with my aims would have chosen a college with a large engineering department, famous reputation and lots of good labs and research equipment. But that‘s not what I did. I chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts (文科) university that doesn‘t even offer a major in electrical engineering. Obviously, this was not a practical choice; I came here for more noble reasons. I wanted a broad education that would provide me with flexibility and a value system to guide me in my career. I wanted to open my eyes and expand my vision by interacting with people who weren‘t studying science or engineering. My parents, teachers and other adults praised me for such a sensible choice. They told me I was wise and mature beyond my 18 years, and I believed them. I headed off to college sure I was going to have an advantage over those students who went to

big engineering ―factories‖ where they didn‘t care if you have values or were flexible. I was going to be a complete engineer: technical genius and sensitive humanist (人文学者) all in one. Now I‘m not so sure. Somewhere along the way my noble ideals crashed into reality, as all noble ideals eventually do. After three years of struggling to balance math, physics and engineering courses with liberal-arts courses, I have learned there are reasons why few engineering students try to reconcile (协调) engineering with liberal-arts courses in college. The reality that has blocked my path to become the typical successful student is that engineering and the liberal arts simply don‘t‘ mix as easily as I assumed in high school. Individually they shape a person in very different ways; together they threaten to confuse. The struggle to reconcile the two fields of study is difficult. 26. The author chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts university because he ________. A) wanted to be an example of practicality and rationality B) intended to be a combination of engineer and humanist C) wanted to coordinate engineering with liberal-arts courses in college D) intended to be a sensible student with noble ideals 27. According to the author, by interacting with people who study liberal arts, engineering students can ________. A) balance engineering and the liberal arts B) receive guidance in their careers C) become noble idealists D) broaden their horizons 28. In the eyes of the author, a successful engineering student is expected ________. A) to have an excellent academic record B) to be wise and mature C) to be imaginative with a value system to guide him D) to be a technical genius with a wide vision 29. The author‘s experience shows that he was ________. A) creative B) ambitious C) unrealistic D) irrational 30. The word ―they‖ in ―... together they threaten to confuse.‖ (Line 3, Para. 5) refers to ________. A) engineering and the liberal arts B) reality and noble ideals C) flexibility and a value system D) practicality and rationality Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. Priscilla Ouchida‘s ―energy-efficient‖ house turned out to be a horrible dream. When she and her engineer husband married a few years ago, they built a $100,000, three-bedroom home in California. Tightly sealed to prevent air leaks, the house was equipped with small double-paned (双层玻璃的) windows and several other energy-saving features. Problems

began as soon as the couple moved in, however. Priscilla‘s eyes burned. Her throat was constantly dry. She suffered from headaches and could hardly sleep. It was as though she had suddenly developed a strange illness. Experts finally traced the cause of her illness. The level of formaldehyde (甲醛) gas in her kitchen was twice the maximum allowed by federal standards for chemical workers. The source of the gas? Her new kitchen cabinets and wall-to-wall carpeting. The Ouchidas are victims of indoor air pollution, which is not given sufficient attention partly because of the nation‘s drive to save energy. The problem itself isn‘t new. ―The indoor environment was dirty long before energy conservation came along,‖ says Moschandreas, a pollution scientist at Geomet Technologies in Maryland. ―Energy conservation has tended to accentuate the situation in some cases.‖ The problem appears to be more troublesome in newly constructed homes rather than old ones. Back in the days when energy was cheap, home builders didn‘t worry much about unsealed cracks. Because of such leaks, the air in an average home was replaced by fresh outdoor air about once an hour. As a result, the pollutants generated in most households seldom build up to dangerous levels. 31. It can be learned from the passage that the Ouchidas house ________. A) is well worth the money spent on its construction B) is almost faultless from the point of energy conservation C) failed to meet energy conservation standards D) was designed and constructed in a scientific way 32. What made the Ouchidas‘ new house a horrible dream? A) Lack of fresh air. B) Poor quality of building materials. C) Gas leakage in the kitchen. D) The newly painted walls. 33. The word ―accentuate‖ (Line 4, Para. 3) most probably means ―________‖. A) relieve B) accelerate C) worsen D) improve 34. Why were cracks in old houses not a big concern? A) Because indoor cleanliness was not emphasized. B) Because energy used to be inexpensive. C) Because environmental protection was given top priority. D) Because they were technically unavoidable. 35. This passage is most probably taken from an article entitled ―________‖. A) Energy Conservation B) Houses Building Crisis C) Air Pollution Indoors D) Traps in Building Construction Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. In 1993. New York State ordered stores to charge a deposit on beverage (饮料) containers.

Within a year. Consumers had returned millions of aluminum cans and glass and plastic bottles. Plenty of companies were eager to accept the aluminum and glass as raw materials for new products. But because few could figure out what to do with the plastic, much of it wound up buried in landfills (垃圾填埋场). The problem was not limited to New York. Unfortunately, there were too few uses for second-hand plastic. Today, one out of five plastic soda bottles is recycled (回收利用) in the United States. The reason for the change is that now there are dozens of companies across the country buying discarded plastic soda bottles and turning them into fence posts, paint brushes, etc. Shrinking landfill space, and rising costs for burying and burning rubbish are forcing local governments to look more closely at recycling. In many areas, the East Coast especially, recycling is already the least expensive waste-management option. For every ton of waste recycled, a city avoids paying for its disposal, which, in parts of New York, amounts to saving of more than $100 per ton. Recycling also stimulates the local economy by creating jobs and trims the pollution control and energy costs of industries that make recycled products by giving them a more refined raw material. 36. What regulation was issued by New York State concerning beverage containers? A) Beverage companies should be responsible for collecting and reusing discarded plastic soda bottles. B) Throwaways should be collected by the state for recycling. C) A fee should be charged on used containers for recycling. D) Consumers had to pay for beverage containers and could get their money back on returning them. 37. The returned plastic bottles in New York used to ________. A) end up somewhere underground B) be turned into raw materials C) have a second-life value D) be separated from other rubbish 38. The key problem in dealing with returned plastic beverage containers is ________. A) to sell them at a profitable price B) how to turn them into useful things C) how to reduce their recycling costs D) to lower the prices for used materials 39. Recycling ahs become the first choice for the disposal of rubbish because ________. A) local governments find it easy to manage B) recycling ahs great appeal for the jobless C) recycling causes little pollution D) other methods are more expensive 40. It can be concluded from the passage that ________. A) rubbish is a potential remedy for the shortage of raw materials B) local governments in the U.S. can expect big profits from recycling C) recycling is to be recommended both economically and environmentally D) landfills will still be widely used for waste disposal Part III Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four

choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 41. It is important that the hotel receptionist ________ that guests are registered correctly. A) has made sure B) made sure C) must make sure D) make sure 42. I suggested he should ________ himself to his new conditions. A) adapt B) adopt C) regulate D) suit 43. I‘ll never forget ________ you for the first time. A) to meet B) meeting C) to have met D) having to be meeting 44. Cancellation of the flight ________ many passengers to spend the night at the airport. A) resulted B) obliged C) demanded D) recommended 45. That young man still denies ________ the fire behind the store. A) start B) to start C) having started D) to have started 46. ________ in a recent science competition, the three students were awarded scholarships totaling $21,000. A) Judged the best B) Judging the best C) To be judged the best D) Having judged the best 47. Without proper lessons, you could ________ a lot of bad habits when playing the piano. A) keep up B) pick up C) draw up D) catch up 48. Everything we eat and drink contains some salt; we can meet the body‘s need for it from natural sources without turning ________ the salt bottle. A) up B) to C) on D) over

49. He always did well at school ________ having to do part-time jobs every now and then. A) in spite of B) regardless of C) on account of D) to case of 50. ________ receiving financial support from family, community or the government is allowed, it is never admired. A) As B) Once C) Although D) Lest 51. All the key words in the article are printed in ________ type so as to attract readers‘ attention. A) dark B) dense C) black D) bold 52. The basic features of the communication process are identified in one question: Who says ________ through what channel to whom? A) how B) when C) what D) such 53. I didn‘t ________ to take a taxi but I had to as I was late. A) assume B) suppose C) mean D) hope 54. The hours ________ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people. A) in which B) on which C) when D) that 55. I‘d rather have a room of my own, however small it is, than ________ a room with someone else. A) share B) to share C) sharing D) to have shared 56. In Disneyland every year, some 800,000 plants are replaced because Disney refused to ________ signs asking his ―guests‖ not to step on them. A) put down B) put out

C) put up D) put off 57. ________ difficulties we may come across, we‘ll help one another to overcome them. A) Wherever B) Whatever C) However D) Whenever 58. So many directors ________, the board meeting had to be put off. A) were absent B) been absent C) had been absent D) being absent 59. On New Year‘s Eve, New York City holds an outdoor ________ which attracts a crowd of a million or more people. A) incident B) event C) case D) affair 60. American football and baseball are becoming known to the British public through televised ________ from the United States. A) transfer B) deliveries C) transportation D) transmissions 61. He will surely finished the job on time ________ he‘s left to do it in his own way. A) in that B) so long as C) in case D) as far as 62. If this kind of fish becomes ________, future generations may never taste it at all. A) minimum B) short C) seldom D) scarce 63. The bank is reported in the local newspaper ________ in broad daylight yesterday. A) being robbed B) having been robbed C) to have been robbed D) robbed 64. Agriculture was a step in human progress ________ which subsequently there was not anything comparable until our own machine age. A) in B) for C) to

D) from 65. The same factors push wages and prices up together, the one ________ the other. A) emphasizing B) reinforcing C) multiplying D) increasing 66. No one had told Smith about ________ a lecture the following day. A) there being B) there be C) there would be D) there was 67. Operations which left patients ________ and in need of long periods of recovery time now leave them feeling relaxed and comfortable. A) exhausted B) abandoned C) injured D) deserted 68. I was halfway back to the cottage where my mother lived ________ Susan caught up with me. A) when B) while C) until D) though 69. ________ the temperature falling so rapidly, we couldn‘t go on with the experiment. A) Since B) For C) As D) With 70. The bed has been ________ in the family. It was my great-grandmother‘s originally. A) handed out B) handed over C) handed down D) handed round Part IV Cloze (15 minutes) Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. For the past two years, I have been working on students‘ evaluation of classroom teaching. I have kept a record of informal conversations __71__ some 300 students from at __72__ twenty-one colleges and universities. The students were generally __73__ and direct in their comments __74__ how course work could be better __75__. Most of their remarks were kindly __76__—with tolerance rather than bitterness—and frequently were softened by the __77__ that the students were speaking __78__ some, not all, instructors. Nevertheless, __79__ the

following suggestions and comments indicate, students feel __80__ with things-as-they-are in the classroom. Professors should be __81__ from reading lecture notes. ―It makes their __82__ monotonous (单调的).‖ If they are going to read, why not __83__ out copies of the lecture? Then we __84__ need to go to class. Professors should __85__ repeating in lectures material that is in the text-book. ―__86__ we‘ve read the material, we want to __87__ it or hear it elaborated on, __88__ repeated.‖ ―A lot of students hate to buy a __89__ text that the professor has written __90__ to have his lectures repeat it.‖ 71. A) involving B) counting C) covering D) figuring 72. A) best B) least C) length D) large 73. A) reserved B) hard-working C) polite D) frank 74. A) over B) at C) on D) of 75. A) presented B) submitted C) described D) written 76. A) received B) addressed C) made D) taken 77. A) occasion B) truth C) case D) fact 78. A) on B) about C) at D) with 79. A) though B) whether C) as

D) if 80. A) dissatisfied B) unsatisfactory C) satisfied D) satisfactory 81. A) interfered B) interrupted C) discouraged D) disturbed 82. A) voices B) sounds C) pronunciation D) gestures 83. A) hold B) leave C) drop D) give 84. A) couldn‘t B) wouldn‘t C) mustn‘t D) shouldn‘t 85. A) refuse B) prohibit C) prevent D) avoid 86. A) Once B) Until C) However D) Unless 87. A) remember B) argue C) discuss D) keep 88. A) yet B) not C) and D) or 89. A) desired B) revised C) required D) deserved 90. A) about B) how C) but

D) only Part V Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Succeed in a Job Interview? You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below: 1. 面试在求职过程中的作用 2. 取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实事求是… How to Succeed in a Job Interview? 答案 Part I 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. D 10. C 11. D 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. B 19. D 20. A Part II 21. A 22. C 23. B 24. D 25. C 26. B 27. D 28. D 29. C 30. A 31. B 32. A 33. C 34. B 35. C 36. D 37. A 38. B 39. D 40. C Part II 41. D 42. A 43. B 44. B 45. C 46. A 47. B 48. B 49. A 50. C 51. D 52. C 53. C 54. D 55. A 56. C 57. B 58. D 59. B 60. D 61. B 62. D 63. C 64. C 65. B 66. A 67. A 68. A 69. D 70. C Part IV 71. A 72. B 73. D 74. C 75. A 76. C 77. D 78. B 79. B 80. A 81. C 82. A 83. D 84. B 85. D 86. A 87. C 88. B 89. C 90. D 81. C 82. A 83. D 84. B 85. D 86. A 87. C 88. B 89. C 90. D 2001 年 6 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案

Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Example: You will hear: You will read: A) At the office. B) In the waiting room. C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they had to finish in the evening. This is most likely to have taken place at the office. Therefore, A) ―At the office‖ is the best answer. You should choose [A] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1. A) A math teacher and his colleague. B) A teacher and his student. C) A librarian and a student. D) A student and his classmate. 2. A) Tony thought the experiment was well done. B) Tony finished the experiment last night. C) Tony could not continue the experiment. D) Tony had expected the experiment to be easier. 3. A) She wants to save money to buy a piano. B) The present apartment is too expensive. C) She can‘t put up with the noise. D) She had found a job in a neighbouring area. 4. A) He has made great progress in his English. B) He is not very interested in English songs. C) He is a student of the music department. D) He is not very enthusiastic about his English lessons. 5. A) In a car. B) On the street. C) In a restaurant. D) At home. 6. A) His injury kept him at home. B) He was too weak to see the doctor. C) He didn‘t think it necessary. D) He failed to make an appointment. 7. A) 5:10.

B) 5:00. C) 4:30. D) 5:15. 8. A) The man is talking with his boss. B) The man needs help. C) The man is complaining. D) The man likes his job. 9. A) Wear a new dress. B) Attend a party. C) Go shopping. D) Make a silk dress. 10. A) He exaggerated his part. B) He played his part quite well. C) He was not dramatic enough. D) He performed better than the secretary. Section B Compound Dictation Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from S1 to S7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from S8 to S10 you are required to fill in the missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written. If you are a young college student, most of your concerns about your health and happiness in life are probably (S1) ________ on the present. Basically, you want to feel good physically, mentally, and (S2) ________ now. You probably don‘t spend much time worrying about the (S3) ________ future, such as whether you will develop heart disease, or (S4) ________, how you will take care of yourself in your (S5) ________ years, or how long you are going to live. Such thoughts may have (S6) ________ your mind once in a while. However, if you are in your thirties, forties, fifties, or older, such health-related thoughts are likely to become (S7) ________ important to you. (S8) ________ that will help you feel better physically and mentally. Recently researchers have found that, even in late adulthood, exercise, strength training with weights, and better food can help elderly individuals significantly improve their health and add happiness to their life. (S9) ________, giving us the opportunity to avoid some of the health problems that have troubled them (S10) ________ Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage One Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. People living on parts of the south coast of England face a serious problem. In 1993, the

owners of a large hotel and of several houses discovered, to their horror, that their gardens had disappeared overnight. The sea had eaten into the soft limestone cliffs on which they had been built. While experts were studying the problem, the hotel and several houses disappeared altogether, sliding down the cliff and into the sea. Erosion (侵蚀) of the white cliffs along the south coast of England has always been a problem but it has become more serious in recent years. Dozens of homes have had to be abandoned as the sea has crept farther and farther inland. Experts have studied the areas most affected and have drawn up a map for local people, forecasting the year in which their homes will be swallowed up by the hungry sea. Angry owners have called on the Government to erect sea defenses to protect their homes. Government surveyors have pointed out that in most cases, this is impossible. New sea walls would cost hundreds of millions of pounds and would merely make the waves and currents go further along the coast, shifting the problem from one area to another. The danger is likely to continue, they say, until the waves reach an inland area of hard rock which will not be eaten as limestone is. Meanwhile, if you want to buy a cheap house with an uncertain future, apply to a house agent in one of the threatened areas on the south coast of England. You can get a house for a knockdown price but it may turn out to be a knockdown home. 11. What is the cause of the problem that people living on parts of the south coast of England face? A) The disappearance of hotels, houses and gardens. B) The experts‘ lack of knowledge. C) The rising of the sea level. D) The washing-away of limestone cliffs. 12. The erosion of the white cliffs in the south of England ________. A) will soon become a problem for people living in central England B) has now become a threat to the local residents C) is quickly changing the map of England D) can be stopped if proper measures are taken 13. The experts‘ study on the problem of erosion can ________. A) lead to its eventual solution B) provide an effective way to slow it down C) help to prevent it from worsening D) warn people whose homes are in danger 14. It is not feasible to build sea defenses to protect against erosion because ________. A) it is too costly and will endanger neighbouring areas B) the government is too slow in taking action C) they will be easily knocked down by waves and currents D) house agents along the coast do not support the idea 15. According to the author, when buying a house along the south coast of England, people should ________. A) be aware of the potential danger involved B) guard against being cheated by the house agent C) take the quality of the house into consideration D) examine the house carefully before making a decision

Passage Two Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism from coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount of anxiety or stress for young athletes (运动员). Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychological, and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout. Burnout has been described as dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable. The early years of development are critical years for learning abut oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to cooperate with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives. Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can greatly affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents‘ and coaches‘ criticisms to heart and find a flaw (缺陷) in themselves. Coaches and parents should also be cautious that youth sport participation does not become work for children. The outcome of the game should not be more important than the process of learning the sport and other life lessons. In today‘s youth sport setting, young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of enjoying themselves and the sport. Following a game, many parents and coaches focus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters‘ performances. Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism. Again, criticism can create high levels of stress, which can lead to burnout. 16. An effective way to prevent the burnout of young athletes is ________. A) to make sports less competitive B) to make sports more challenging C) to reduce their mental stress D) to increase their sense of success 17. According to the passage sport is positive for young people in that ________. A) it can help them learn more about society B) it teaches them how to set realistic goals for themselves C) it enables them to find flaws in themselves D) it can provide them with valuable experiences 18. Many coaches and parents are in the habit of criticizing young athletes ________. A) without realizing criticism may destroy their self confidence B) in order to make them remember life‘s lessons C) believing that criticism is beneficial for their early development D) so as to put more pressure on them 19. According to the passage parents and coaches should ________. A) help children to win every game B) pay more attention to letting children enjoy sports C) enable children to understand the positive aspect of sports D) train children to cope with stress 10. The author‘s purpose in writing the passage is ________. A) to persuade young children not to worry about criticism B) to stress the importance of positive reinforcement to children

C) to discuss the skill of combining criticism with encouragement D) to teach young athletes how to avoid burnout Passage Three Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Humanity uses a little less than half the water available worldwide. Yet occurrences of shortages and droughts (干旱) are causing famine and distress in some areas, and industrial and agricultural by-products are polluting water supplies. Since the world‘ population is expected to double in the next 50 years, many experts think we are on the edge of a widespread water crisis. But that doesn‘t have to be the outcome. Water shortages do not have to trouble the world—if we start valuing water more than we have in the past. Just as we began to appreciate petroleum more after the 1970s oil crises, today we must start looking at water from a fresh economic perspective. We can no longer afford to consider water a virtually free resource of which we can use as much as we like in any way we want. Instead, for all uses except the domestic demand of the poor, governments should price water to reflect its actual value. This means charging a fee for the water itself as well as for the supply costs. Governments should also protect this resource by providing water in more economically and environmentally sound ways. For example, often the cheapest way to provide irrigation (灌溉) water in the dry tropics is through small-scale projects, such as gathering rainfall in depressions (凹地) and pumping it to nearby cropland. No matter what steps governments take to provide water more efficiently, they must change their institutional and legal approaches to water sue. Rather than spread control among hundreds or even thousands of local, regional, and national agencies that watch various aspects of water use, countries should set up central authorities to coordinate water policy. 21. What is the real cause of the potential water crisis? A) The world population is increasing faster and faster. B) Half of the world‘s water resources have been seriously polluted. C) Humanity has not placed sufficient value on water resources. D) Only half of the world‘s water can be used. 22. As indicated in the passage, the water problem ________. A) has been exaggerated by some experts in the field B) is underestimated by government organizations at different levels C) poses a challenge to the technology of building reservoirs D) is already serious in certain parts of the world 23. According to the author, the water price should ________. A) correspond to its real value B) be reduced to the minimum C) stimulate domestic demand D) take into account the occurrences of droughts 24. The author says that in some hot and dry areas it is advisable to ________. A) build big lakes to store water B) construct big pumping stations C) channel water from nearby rivers to cropland

D) build small and cheap irrigation systems 25. In order to raise the efficiency of the water supply, measures should be taken to ________. A) centralize the management of water resources B) increase the sense of responsibility of agencies at all levels C) guarantee full protection of the environment D) encourage local and regional control of water resources Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. We can see how the product life cycle works by looking at the introduction of instant coffee. When it was introduced, most people did not like it as well as ―regular‖ coffee, and it took several years to gain general acceptance (introduction stage). At one point, though, instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity, and many brands were introduced (stage of rapid growth). After a while, people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off (stage of maturity). Sales went into a slight decline (衰退) when freeze-dried coffees were introduced (stage of decline). The importance of the product life cycle to marketers is this: Different stages in the product life cycle call for different strategies. The goal is to extend product life so that sales and profits do not decline. One strategy is called market modification. It means that marketing managers look for new users and market sections. Did you know, for example, that the backpacks that so many students carry today were originally designed for the military? Market modification also means searching for increased usage among present customers or going for a different market, such as senior citizens. A marketer may re-position the product to appeal to new market sections. Another product extension strategy is called product modification. It involves changing product quality, features, or style to attract new users or more usage from present users. American auto manufacturers are using quality improvement as one way to recapture world markets. Note, also, how auto manufacturers once changed styles dramatically from year to year to keep demand from falling. 26. According to the passage, when people grow fond of one particular brand of a product, its sales will ________. A) decrease gradually B) remain at the same level C) become unstable D) improve enormously 27. The first paragraph tells us that a new product is ________. A) not easily accepted by the public B) often inferior to old ones at first C) often more expensive than old ones D) usually introduced to satisfy different tastes 28. Marketers need to know which of the four stages a product is in so as to ________. A) promote its production B) work out marketing policies C) speed up its life cycle D) increase its popularity

29. The author mentions the example of ―backpacks‖ (Line 4, Para. 2) to show the importance of ________. A) pleasing the young as well as the old B) increasing usage among students C) exploring new market sections D) serving both military and civil needs 30. In order to recover their share of the world market, U.S. auto makers are ________. A) improving product quality B) increasing product features C) modernizing product style D) re-positioning their product in the market Part III Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 31. By the time he arrives in Beijing, we ________ here for tow days. A) have been staying B) have stayed C) shall stay D) will have stayed 32. According to the American federal government, residents of Hawaii have the longest life ________: 77.2 years. A) scope B) rank C) span D) scale 33. The millions of calculations involved, had they been done by hand, ________ all practical value by the time they were finished. A) had lost B) would lose C) would have lost D) should have lost 34. As a public relations officer, he is said ________ some very influential people. A) to have been knowing B) to be knowing C) to have known D) to know 35. Our hopes ________ and fell in the same instant. A) aroused B) arose C) raised D) rose 36. With the development in science and technology man can make various flowers ________ before their time.

A) be bloomed B) blooming C) bloom D) bloomed 37. A season ticket ________ the holder to make as many journeys as he wishes within the stated period of time. A) grants B) promises C) entitles D) presents 38. ________ in the office had made a mistake, and the firm regretted causing the customer inconvenience. A) Some B) Anyone C) One D) Someone 39. In recent years much more emphasis has been put ________ developing the students‘ productive skills. A) over B) onto C) in D) on 40. Only a selected number of landladies in the neighbourhood have been allowed by the university to take in ________. A) residents B) inhabitants C) lodgers D) settlers 41. The fire was finally brought under control, but not ________ extensive damage had been caused. A) after B) before C) since D) as 42. Purchasing the new production line will be a ________ deal for the company. A) profitable B) tremendous C) forceful D) favorite 43. Rod is determined to get a seat for the concert ________ it means standing in a queue all night. A) provided B) whatever C) even if

D) as if 44. We hadn‘t met for 20 years, but I recognized her ________ I saw her. A) for the moment B) the moment when C) at the moment when D) the moment 45. Though he was born and brought up in America, he can speak ________ Chinese. A) smooth B) fluent C) fluid D) flowing 46. Government reports, examination compositions, legal documents and most business letters are the main situations ________ formal language is used. A) in which B) on which C) in that D) at what 47. Fifty years ago, wealthy people liked hunting wild animals for fun ________ sightseeing. A) than to go B) rather than to go C) more than going D) other than going 48. If the building project ________ by the end of this month is delayed, the construction company will be fined. A) to be completed B) is completed C) being completed D) completed 49. He wrote an article criticizing the Greek poet and won ________ and a scholarship. A) status B) fame C) faith D) courage 50. Jack wishes that he ________ business instead of history when he was in university. A) had studied B) study C) studied D) had been studying 51. The older New England villages have changed relatively little ________ a gas station or two in recent decades. A) except B) besides C) in addition to D) except for

52. The Car Club couldn‘t ________ to meet the demands of all its members. A) ensure B) guarantee C) assume D) confirm 53. Extensive reporting on television has helped to ________ interest in a wide variety of sports and activities. A) gather B) generate C) assemble D) yield 54. The president promised to keep all the board members ________ of how the negotiations were going on. A) informed B) inform C) be informed D) informing 55. Eating too much fat can ________ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A) contribute to B) attribute to C) attend to D) devote to 56. All the tasks ________ ahead of time, they decided to go on holiday for a week. A) had been fulfilled B) were fulfilled C) having been fulfilled D) been fulfilled 57. This article ________ more attention to the problem of cultural interference in foreign language teaching and learning. A) calls for B) applies for C) cares for D) allows for 58. He was punished ________ he should make the same mistake again. A) unless B) lest C) if D) provided 59. Petrol is refined from the ________ oil we take out of the ground. A) fresh B) original C) rude D) crude 60. ________ in the United States, St. Louis has now become the 24th largest city.

A) The fourth biggest city it was B) Once the fourth biggest city C) Being the fourth biggest city D) It was once the fourth biggest city Part IV Cloze (15 minutes) Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. More than forty thousand readers told us that they looked for in close friendships, what they expected __61__ friends, what they were willing to give in __62__, and how satisfied they were __63__ the quality of their friendships. The __64__ give little comfort to social critics. Friendship __65__ to be a unique form of __66__ bonding. Unlike marriage or the ties that __67__ parents and children, it is not defined or regulated by __68__. Unlike other social roles that we are expected to __69__—as citizens, employees, members of professional societies and __70__ organizations—it has its own principle, which is to promote __71__ of warmth, trust, love, and affection __72__ two people. The survey on friendship appeared in the March __73__ of Psychology Today. The findings __74__ that issues of trust and betrayal (背叛) are __75__ to friendship. They also suggest that our readers do not __76__ for friends only among those who are __77__ like them, but find many __78__ differ in race, religion, and ethnic (种族的) background. Arguably the most important __79__ that emerges from the data, __80__, is not something that we found—but what we did not. 61. A) on B) of C) to D) for 62. A) addition B) reply C) turn D) return 63. A) about B) of C) with D) by 64. A) results B) effects C) expectations D) consequences 65. A) feels B) leads C) sounds D) appears 66. A) human

B) mankind C) individual D) civil 67. A) bind B) attach C) control D) attract 78. A) discipline B) law C) rule D) regulation 79. A) keep B) do C) show D) play 70. A) all B) any C) other D) those 71. A) friendship B) interests C) feelings D) impressions 72. A) between B) on C) in D) for 73. A) print B) issue C) publication D) copy 74. A) secure B) assure C) confirm D) resolve 75. A) neutral B) main C) nuclear D) central 76. A) ask B) call C) appeal D) look 77. A) most

B) more C) least D) less 78. A) people B) who C) what D) friends 79. A) conclusion B) summary C) decision D) claim 80. A) moreover B) however C) still D) yet Part V Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter. Suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write at least 100 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese. 1. 表示欢迎 2. 提出对度假安排的建议 3. 提醒应注意的事项 A letter to a Schoolmate June 23, 2001 Dear Xiao Wang, Yours, Zhang Ying 答案 Part I 1. D 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. A Part II 11. D 12. B 13. D 14. A 15. A 16. C 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B 21. C 22. D 23. A 24. D 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. B 29. C 30. A Part III

31. D 32. C 33. C 34. C 35. D 36. C 37. C 38. D 39. D 40. C 41. B 42. A 43. C 44. D 45. B 46. A 47. C 48. A 49. B 50. A 51. D 52. B 53. B 54. A 55. A 56. C 57. A 58. B 59. D 60. B Part IV 61. B 62. D 63. C 64. A 65. D 66. A 67. A 68. B 69. D 70. C 71. C 72. A 73. B 74. C 75. D 76. D 77. A 78. B 79. A 80. B 2002 年 1 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案 Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Example: You will hear: You will read: A) At the office. B) In the waiting room. C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they will start at 9 o‘clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) ―5 hours‖ is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1. A) She has to post a letter instead. B) She has to turn down the man‘s request. C) She‘s not sure if the computer is fixed. D) She can‘t send the message right now. 2. A) He didn‘t get the book he needed. B) He had no idea where the book was. C) The library is closed on weekends. D) He was not allowed to check out the book. 3. A) Play a tape recorder. B) Take a picture.

C) Repair a typewriter. D) Start a car. 4. A) The woman rejected the man‘s apology. B) The woman appreciated the man‘s offer. C) The man had forgotten the whole thing. D) The man had hurt the woman‘s feelings. 5. A) The woman is meeting the man at the airport. B) They are complaining about the poor airport service. C) They are discussing their plan for Christmas. D) The man is seeing the woman off. 6. A) She plans to go to graduate school. B) She will drop out of school. C) She will stop working and concentrate on her studies. D) She will take a part-time job. 7. A) He needs another job as research assistant. B) He asked Professor Williams for assistance. C) He assists Professor Williams with his teaching. D) He is doing research with Professor Williams. 8. A) She thought there were no tickets left for the show. B) She thought the seats on the left side were fully occupied. C) The show was planned a long time ago. D) The audience were deeply impressed by the show. 9. A) Mr. Long‘s briefing was unnecessarily long. B) The woman should have been more attentive. C) Mr. Long‘s briefing was not relevant to the mission. D) The woman needn‘t have attended the briefing. 10. A) In a bank. B) In a school. C) In a clothing store. D) In a barbershop. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage one Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. A) Because the bird couldn‘t repeat his master‘s name. B) Because the bird screamed all day long. C) Because the bird uttered the wrong word. D) Because the bird failed to say the name of the town. 12. A) The cruel master. B) The man in the kitchen.

C) The pet bird. D) The fourth chicken. 13. A) The bird bad finally understood his threat. B) The bird managed to escape from the chicken house. C) The bird had learned to scream back at him. D) The bird was living peacefully with the chickens. Passage Two Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. A) They are kept in open prisons. B) They are allowed out of the prison grounds. C) They are ordered to do cooking and cleaning. D) They are a small portion of the prison population. 15. A) Some of their prisoners are allowed to study or work outside prisons. B) Most of their prisoners are expected to work. C) Their prisoners are often sent to special centers for skill training. D) Their prisoners are allowed freedom to visit their families. 16. A) They are encouraged to do maintenance for the training centre. B) Most of them get paid for their work. C) They have to cook their own meals. D) They can choose to do community work. Passage Three Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 17. A) Because they have a driving license. B) Because they have received special training. C) Because the traffic conditions in London are good. D) Because the traffic system of the city is not very complex. 18. A) Two to four months. B) About three weeks. C) At least half a year. D) Two years or more. 19. A) Government officers are hard to please. B) The learner has to go through several tough tests. C) The learner usually fails several times before he passes it. D) The driving test usually last tow months. 20. A) They don‘t want their present bosses to know what they‘re doing. B) They want to earn money from both jobs. C) They cannot earn money as taxi drivers yet. D) They look forward to further promotion. Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage one

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Some pessimistic experts feel that the automobile is bound to fall into disuse. They see a day in the not-too-distant future when all autos will be abandoned and allowed to rust. Other authorities, however, think the auto is here to stay. They hold that the car will remain a leading means of urban travel in the foreseeable future. The motorcar will undoubtedly change significantly over the next 30 years. It should become smaller, safer, and more economical, and should not be powered by the gasoline engine. The car of the future should be far more pollution-free than present types. Regardless of its power source, the auto in the future will still be the main problem in urban traffic congestion (拥挤). One proposed solution to this problem is the automated highway system. When the auto enters the highway system, a retractable (可伸缩的) arm will drop from the auto and make contact with a rail, which is similar to those powering subway trains electrically. Once attached to the rail, the car will become electrically powered from the system, and control of the vehicle will pass to a central computer. The computer will then monitor all of the car‘s movements. The driver will use a telephone to dial instructions about his destination into the system. The computer will calculate the best route, and reserve space for the car all the way to the correct exit from the highway. The driver will then be free to relax and wait for the buzzer (蜂鸣器) that will warn him of his coming exit. It is estimated that an automated highway will be able to handle 10,000 vehicles per hour, compared with the 1,500 to 2,000 vehicles that can be carried by a present-day highway. 21. One significant improvement in the future car will probably be ________. A) its power source B) its driving system C) its monitoring system D) its seating capacity 22. What is the author‘s main concern? A) How to render automobiles pollution-free. B) How to make smaller and safer automobiles. C) How to solve the problem of traffic jams. D) How to develop an automated subway system. 23. What provides autos with electric power in an automated highway system? A) A rail. B) An engine. C) A retractable arm. D) A computer controller. 24. In an automated highway system, all the driver needs to do is ________. A) keep in the right lane B) wait to arrive at his destination C) keep in constant touch with the computer center D) inform the system of his destination by phone 25. What is the author‘s attitude toward the future of autos? A) Enthusiastic.

B) Pessimistic. C) Optimistic. D) Cautious. Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Foxes and farmers have never got on well. These small dog-like animals have long been accused of killing farm animals. They are officially classified as harmful and farmers try to keep their numbers down by shooting or poisoning them. Farmers can also call on the services of their local hunt to control the fox population. Hunting consists of pursuing a fox across the countryside, with a group of specially trained dogs, followed by men and women riding horses. When the dogs eventually catch the fox they kill it or a hunter shoots it. People who take part in hunting think of as a sport; they wear a special uniform of red coats and white trousers, and follow strict codes of behavior. But owning a horse and hunting regularly is expensive, so most hunters are wealthy. It is estimated that up to 100,000 people watch or take part in fox hunting. But over the last couple of decades the number of people opposed to fox hunting, because they think it is brutal (残酷的), has risen sharply. Nowadays it is rare for a hunt to pass off without some kind of confrontation (冲突) between hunters and hunt saboteurs (阻拦者). Sometimes these incidents lead to violence, but mostly saboteurs interfere with the hunt by misleading riders and disturbing the trail of the fox‘s smell, which the dogs follow. Noisy confrontations between hunters and saboteurs have become so common that they are almost as much a part of hunting as the pursuit of foxes itself. But this year supporters of fox hunting face a much bigger threat to their sport. A Labour Party Member of the Parliament, Mike Foster, is trying to get Parliament to approve a new law which will make the hunting of wild animals with dogs illegal. If the law is passed, wild animals like foxes will be protected under the ban in Britain. 26. Rich people in Britain have been hunting foxes ________. A) for recreation B) in the interests of the farmers C) to limit the fox population D) to show off their wealth 27. What is special about fox hunting in Britain? A) It involves the use of a deadly poison. B) It is a costly event which rarely occurs. C) The hunters have set rules to follow. D) The hunters have to go through strict training. 28. Fox hunting opponents often interfere in the game ________. A) by resorting to violence B) by confusing the fox hunters C) by taking legal action D) by demonstrating on the scene 29. A new law may be passed by the British Parliament to ________. A) prohibit farmers from hunting foxes

B) forbid hunting foxes with dogs C) stop hunting wild animals in the countryside D) prevent large-scale fox hunting 30. It can be inferred from the passage that ________. A) killing foxes with poison is illegal B) limiting the fox population is unnecessary C) hunting foxes with dogs is considered cruel and violent D) fox-hunting often leads to confrontation between the poor and the rich Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. For an increasing number of students at American universities, Old is suddenly in. The reason is obvious: the graying of America means jobs, coupled with the aging of the baby-boom (生育 高峰) generation, a longer life span means that the nation‘s elderly population is bound to expand significantly over the next 50 years. By 2050, 25 percent of all Americans will be older than 65, up from 14 percent in 1995. The change poses profound questions for government and society, of course. But it also creates career opportunities in medicine and health professions, and in law and business as well. ―In addition to the doctors, we‘re going to need more sociologists, biologists, urban planners and specialized lawyers,‖ says Professor Edward Schneider of the University of Southern California‘s (USC) School of Gerontology (老年学). Lawyers can specialize in ―elder law,‖ which covers everything from trusts and estates to nursing-home abuse and age discrimination (歧视). Businessmen see huge opportunities in the elder market because the baby boomers, 74 million strong, are likely to be the wealthiest group of retirees in human history. ―Any student who combines an expert knowledge in gerontology with, say, an MBA or law degree will have a license to print money,‖ one professor says. Margarite Santos is a 21-year-old senior at USC. She began college as a biology major but found she was ―really bored with bacteria.‖ So she took a class in gerontology and discovered that she lied it. She says, ―I did volunteer work in retirement homes and it was very satisfying.‖ 31. ―... Old is suddenly in‖ (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means ―________‖. A) America has suddenly become a nation of old people B) gerontology has suddenly become popular C) more elderly professors are found on American campuses D) American colleges have realized the need of enrolling older students 32. With the aging of America, lawyers can benefit ________. A) from the adoption of the ―elder law‖ B) from rendering special services to the elderly C) by enriching their professional knowledge D) by winning the trust of the elderly to promote their own interests 33. Why can businessmen make money in the emerging elder market? A) Retirees are more generous in spending money. B) They can employ more gerontologists. C) The elderly possess an enormous purchasing power. D) There are more elderly people working than before. 34. Who can make big money in the new century according to the passage?

A) Retirees who are business-minded. B) The volunteer workers in retirement homes. C) College graduates with an MBA or law degree. D) Professionals with a good knowledge of gerontology. 35. It can be seen from the passage that the expansion of America‘s elderly population ________. A) will provide good job opportunities in many areas B) will impose an unbearable burden on society C) may lead to nursing home abuse and age discrimination D) will create new fields of study in universities Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. The decline in moral standards—which has long concerned social analysts—has at last captured the attention of average Americans. And Jean Bethke Elshtain, for one, is glad. The fact the ordinary citizens are now starting to think seriously about the nation‘s moral climate, says this ethics (伦理学) professor at the University of Chicago, is reason to hope that new ideas will come forward to improve it. But the challenge is not to be underestimated. Materialism and individualism in American society are the biggest obstacles. ―The thought that ?I‘m in it for me‘ has become deeply rooted in the national consciousness,‖ Ms. Elshtain says. Some of this can be attributed to the disintegration of traditional communities, in which neighbors looked out for one another, she says. With today‘s greater mobility and with so many couples working, those bonds have been weakened, replaced by a greater emphasis on self. In a 1996 poll of Americans, loss of morality topped the list of the biggest problems facing the U.S. and Elshtain says the public is correct to sense that: Data show that Americans are struggling with problems unheard of in the 1950s, such as classroom violence and a high rate of births to unmarried mothers. The desire for a higher moral standard is not a lament (挽歌) for some nonexistent ―golden age,‖ Elshtain says, nor is it a wishful (一厢情愿的) longing for a time that denied opportunities to women and minorities. Most people, in fact, favor the lessening of prejudice. Moral decline will not be reversed until people find ways to counter the materialism in society, she says. ―Slowly, you recognize that the things that matter are those that cant‘ be bought.‖ 36. Professor Elshtain is pleased to see that Americans ________. A) have adapted to a new set of moral standards B) are longing for the return of the good old days C) have realized the importance of material things D) are awakening to the lowering of their moral standards 37. The moral decline of American society is caused manly by ________. A) its growing wealth B) the self-centeredness of individuals C) underestimating the impact of social changes D) the prejudice against women and minorities 38. Which of the following characterizes the traditional communities?

A) Great mobility. B) Concern for one‘s neighbors. C) Emphasis on individual effort. D) Ever-weakening social bonds. 39. In the 1950s, classroom violence ________. A) was something unheard of B) was by no means a rare occurrence C) attracted a lot of pubic attention D) began to appear in analysts‘ data 40. According to Elshtain, the current moral decline may be reversed ________. A) if people can return to the ―golden age‖ B) when women and mean enjoy equal rights C) when people rid themselves of prejudice D) if less emphasis is laid on material things Part III Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 41. By the time you get to New York, I ________ for London. A) would be leaving B) am leaving C) have already left D) shall have left 42. The article suggests that when a person ________ under unusual stress he should be especially careful to have a well-balanced diet. A) is B) were C) be D) was 43. The lawyer advised him to drop the ________, since he stands little chance to win. A) event B) incident C) case D) affair 44. Sometimes children have trouble ________ fact from fiction and may believe that such things actually exist. A) to separate B) separating C) for separating D) of separating 45. He is quite sure that it‘s ________ impossible for him to fulfill the task within two days. A) absolutely B) exclusively C) fully

D) roughly 46. There was a big hole in the road which ________ the traffic. A) set back B) stood back C) held up D) kept down 47. Many a delegate was in favor of his proposal that a special committee ________ to investigate the incident. A) were set up B) was set up C) be set up D) set up 48. In the Chinese household, grandparents and other relatives play ________ roles in raising children. A) incapable B) indispensable C) insensible D) infinite 49. Eye contact is important because wrong contact may create a communication ________. A) tragedy B) vacuum C) question D) barrier 50. There was such a long line at the exhibition ________ we had to wait for about half an hour. A) as B) that C) so D) hence 51. There is no ________ to there house from the main road. A) access B) avenue C) exposure D) edge 52. ________ energy under the earth must be released in one form or another, for example, an earthquake. A) Accumulated B) Gathered C) Assembled D) Collected 53. He wasn‘t appointed chairman of the committee, ________ not very popular with all its members. A) to be considered B) considering C) being considered

D) having considered 54. The twentieth century has witnessed an enormous worldwide political, economic and cultural ________. A) tradition B) transportation C) transmission D) transformation 55. The ________ stuck on the envelope says ―By Air‖. A) diagram B) label C) signal D) mark 56. Mobile telecommunications ________ is expected to double in Shanghai this year as a result of a contract signed between the two companies. A) capacity B) potential C) possession D) impact 57. Reading ________ the lines, I would say that the Government are more worried than they will admit. A) behind B) between C) along D) among 58. My brother‘s plans are very ________; he wants to master English, French and Spanish before he is sixteen. A) arbitrary B) aggressive C) ambitious D) abundant 59. Things might have been much worse if the mother ________ on her right to keep the baby. A) has been insisting B) had insisted C) would insist D) insisted 60. The statistical figures in that report are not ________. You should not refer to them. A) accurate B) fixed C) delicate D) rigid 61. Contrast may make something appear more beautiful than it is when ________ alone. A) seen B) is seen C) to be seen

D) having been seen 62. The football game comes to you ________ from New York. A) lively B) alive C) live D) living 63. None of us expected the chairman to ________ at the party. We thought he was still in hospital. A) turn in B) turn over C) turn up D) turn down 64. The mother didn‘t know who ________ for the broken glass. A) blamed B) be blamed C) to blame D) would blame 65. He ________ to his customers and halved the price. A) leaked B) drew C) quoted D) yielded 66. Tryon was extremely angry, but cool-headed enough to ________ storming into the boss‘s office. A) prevent B) prohibit C) turn D) avoid 67. All flights ________ because of the terrible weather, they had to go there by train. A) having been canceled B) had been canceled C) having canceled D) were canceled 68. The author of the report is well ________ with the problems in the hospital because he has been working there for many years. A) informed B) acquainted C) enlightened D) acknowledged 69. The boy spent as much time watching TV as he ________ studying. A) does B) had C) was D) did

70. The ships‘ generator broke down, and the pumps had to be operated ________ instead of mechanically. A) manually B) artificially C) automatically D) synthetically Part IV Cloze (15 minutes) Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. One summer night, on my way home from work I decided to see a movie. I knew the theatre would be air-conditioned and I couldn‘t face my __71__ apartment. Sitting in the theatre I had to look through the __72__ between the two tall heads in front of me. I had to keep changing the __73__ every time she learned over to talk to him, __74__ he leaned over to kiss her. Why do Americans display such __75__ in a public place? I thought the movie would be good for my English, but __76__ it turned out, it was an Italian move. __77__ about an hour I decided to give up on the movie and __78__ on my popcorn (爆 玉米花). I‘ve never understood why they give you so much popcorn! It tasted pretty good, __79__. After a while I heard __80__ more of the romantic-sounding Italians. I just heard the __81__ of the popcorn crunching (咀嚼) between my teeth. My thought stated to __82__. I remembered when I was is South Korea (韩国), I __83__ to watch Kojak on TV frequently. He spoke perfect Korean—I was really amazed. He seemed like a good friend to me, __84__ I saw him again in New York speaking __85__ English instead of perfect Korean. He didn‘t even have a Korean accent and I __86__ like I had been betrayed. When our family moved to the United States six years ago, none of us spoke any English. __87__ we had begun to learn a few words, my mother suggested that we all should speak English at home. Everyone agreed, but our house became very __88__ and we all seemed to avoid each other. We sat at the dinner table in silence, preferring that to __89__ in a difficult language. Mother tried to say something in English but it __90__ out all wrong and we all burst into laughter and decided to forget it! We‘ve been speaking Korean at home ever since. 71. A) warm B) hot C) heated D) cool 72. A) crack B) blank C) break D) opening 73. A) aspect B) view C) space D) angle 74. A) while

B) whenever C) or D) and 75. A) attraction B) attention C) affection D) motion 76. A) since B) when C) what D) as 77. A) Within B) After C) For D) Over 78. A) concentrate B) chew C) fix D) taste 79. A) too B) still C) though D) certainly 80. A) much B) any C) no D) few 81. A) voice B) sound C) rhythm D) tone 82. A) wonder B) wander C) imagine D) depart 83. A) enjoyed B) happened C) turned D) used 84. A) until B) because C) then D) therefore 85. A) artificial

B) informal C) perfect D) practical 86. A) felt B) looked C) seemed D) appeared 87. A) While B) If C) Before D) Once 88. A) empty B) quiet C) stiff D) calm 89. A) telling B) uttering C) saying D) speaking 90. A) worked B) got C) came D) made Part V Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus. You should write at least 100 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below: 假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环 境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼有而有之。 January 12th, 2002 Dear Mr. President, 答案 Part I 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. A 11. D 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. A 16. B 17. B 18. D 19. B 20. C Part II 21. A 22. C 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. A 27. C 28. B 29. B 30. C

31. B 32. B 33. C 34. D 35. A 36. D 37. B 38. B 39. A 40. D Part III 41. D 42. A 43. C 44. B 45. A 46. C 47. C 48. B 49. D 50. B 51. A 52. A 53. C 54. D 55. B 56. A 57. B 58. C 59. B 60. A 61. A 62. C 63. C 64. C 65. D 66. D 67. A 68. B 69. D 70. A Part IV 71. B 72. D 73. D 74. C 75. C 76. D 77. B 78. A 79. C 80. C 81. B 82. B 83. D 84. A 85. C 86. A 87. D 88. B 89. D 90. C

2002 年 1 月四级听力原文 1. M: Jessica, could you this emails to all the club members? W: Sorry, the computer broke down this morning. I will for you as soon as I have fixed. Q: What does the woman imply? 2. W: Did you find the book for your reading assignment in the library? M: It closed before I got there. I had no idea that it closes so early on weekends. Q: What does the man mean? 3. M: Did you check the power plug and press the play button? W: Yes, the power indicator was on, and it was running, but somehow the sound didn‘t come through. Q: What was the woman probably trying to do? 4. M: Juana, I am awfully sorry. I didn‘t mean to hurt you. Shall we have a beer and forget the whole thing? W: OK, we can drop it this time. But don‘t do it again. Q: What do we learn from the conversation? 5. W: Airports are sad places. M: Sometimes, I guess. But we‘ll keep in touch. And I will fly over to see you with Christmas. Q: What are the speakers doing? 6. M: Are you going to return to your present job after the vacation? W: No, I plan to graduate next semester. That means I‘ll have to be a full-time student. Q: What will the woman do? 7. W: John, are you doing research for Professor Williams this semester? M: Actually, I am working as his teaching assistant. Q: What does the man mean? 8. M: I heard there are a few seats left for the show tonight.

W: Really? I was under the impression that the tickets were sold out a long time ago. Q: What do we know from the woman‘s reply? 9. W: Mrs. Long‘s briefing seems to go on forever. I was barely able to stay awake. M: How could you sleep through that? It was very important for the mission we were going to carry out. Q: What does the man imply? 10. W: You seem very confident about the job interview, don‘t you? M: Yes, I feel ready for it. I bought a good suit and clothing store and I had my hair cut. I had studied almost everything about finance and economics. Q: Where is the man probably going to work? Passage One There was once a man in South America who had a parrot, a pet bird that could imitate human speech. The parrot was unique. There was no bird like him in the whole world. He could learn to say any word except one. He could not say the name of his native town, Ketunnel. The man did everything he could to teach the parrot to say Ketunnel, but he never succeeded. At first he was very gentle with the bird. But gradually, he lost his temper. ―You stupid bird. Why can‘t you learn to say that one word? Say Ketunnel or I will kill you.‖ But the parrot would not say it. Many times the man screamed, ―Say Ketunnel, or I‘ll kill you.‖ But the bird would never repeat the name. Finally, the man gave up. He picked up the parrot and threw him into the chicken house. ―You are even more stupid than the chickens.‖ In the chicken house, there were four old chickens, waiting to be killed for Sunday‘s dinner. The next morning, when he went out of the chicken house, the man opened the door. He was shocked by what he saw. He could not believe his eyes and ears. On the floor lay three dead chickens. The parrot was screaming at the fourth, ―Say Ketunnel, or I‘ll kill you.‖ Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. Why did the man lose his temper? 12. Who killed the three chickens? 13. Why was the shocked at the scene the next morning? Passage Two In Britain, if you are found guilty of a crime, you can be sent to prison or be fined or be ordered to do community work such as tidying public places and helping the old. You may also be sent to special centers when you learn special skills like cooking, writing and car maintenance. About 5 percent of the present population are women. Many prisons were built over one hundred years ago. But the government will have built 11 new prisons by next year. There are two sorts of prisons: the open sort and the closed sort. In the closed sort, prisoners are given very little freedom. They spend three to ten hours outside their cells when they exercise, eat, study, learn skills, watch TV and talk to other prisoners. All prisoners are expected to work. Most of them are paid for what they do, whether it is doing maintenance or cooking and cleaning. Prisoners in open prisons are locked up at night, but for the rest of the time, they are free within the prison grounds. They can exercise, have visitors, or study. And some are allowed out of the ground to study or to do community work. Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. What do we know about women prisoners in Britain? 15. In what way are open prisons different from closed prisons?

16. What do we learn about prisoners in Britain? Passage Three London taxi drivers know the capital like the back of their hands. No matter how small or indistinct the street is, the driver will be able to get you there without any trouble. The reason London taxi drivers are so efficient is that they all have gone through a very tough training period to get special taxi driving license. During this period, which can take two to four years, the would-be taxi driver has to learn the most direct route to every single road and to every important building in London. To achieve this, most learners go around the city on small motorbikes practicing how to move to and from different points of the city. Learner taxi drivers are tested several times during the training period by government officers. The exams are terrible experience. The officers ask you ―How do you get from Birmingham palace to the Tower of London?‖ and you have to take them there in the direct line. When you get to the tower, they won‘t say ―well done‖. They will quickly move on to the next question. After five or six questions, they will just say ―See you in two months‘ time.‖ and then you know the exam is over. Learner drivers are not allowed to work and earn money as drivers. Therefore, many of them keep their previous jobs until they have obtained the license. The training can cost quite a lot, because learners have to pay for their own expenses on the tests and the medical exam. Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 17. Why are London taxi drivers very efficient? 18. How long does the training period last? 19. Why does the speaker think the driving test is a terrible experience? 20. Why do learner drivers have to keep their present jobs? 2002 年 6 月全国大学英语四级考试真题和答案 Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Example: You will hear: You will read: A) At the office. B) In the waiting room. C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they had to finish in the evening. This is most likely to have taken place at the office. Therefore, A) ―At the office‖ is the best answer. You should choose [A] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the center. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1. A) His father.

B) His mother. C) His brother. D) His sister. 2. A) A job opportunity. B) A position as general manager. C) A big travel agency. D) An inexperienced salesman. 3. A) Having a break. B) Continuing the meeting. C) Moving on to the next item. D) Waiting a little longer. 4. A) The weather forecast says it will be fine. B) The weather doesn‘t count in their plan. C) They will not do as planned in case of rain. D) They will postpone their program if it rains. 5. A) He wishes to have more courses like it. B) He finds it hard to follow the teacher. C) He wishes the teacher would talk more. D) He doesn‘t like the teacher‘s accent. 6. A) Go on with the game. B) Draw pictures on the computer. C) Review his lessons. D) Have a good rest. 7. A) She does not agree with Jack. B) Jack‘s performance is disappointing. C) Most people will find basketball boring. D) She shares Jack‘s opinion. 8. A) The man went to a wrong check-in counter. B) The man has just missed his flight. C) The plane will leave at 9:14. D) The plane‘s departure time remains unknown. 9. A) At a newsstand. B) At a car dealer‘s. C) At a publishing house. D) At a newspaper office. 10. A) He wants to get a new position. B) He is asking the woman for help. C) He has left the woman a good impression. D) He enjoys letter writing. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the

center. Passage one Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. A) They are interested in other kinds of reading. B) They are active in voluntary services. C) They tend to be low in education and in income. D) They live in isolated areas. 12. A) The reasons why –people don‘t read newspapers are more complicated than assumed. B) There are more uneducated people among the wealthy than originally expected. C) The number of newspaper readers is steadily increasing. D) There are more nonreaders among young people nowadays. 13. A) Lowering the prices of their newspapers. B) Shortening their news stories. C) Adding variety to their newspaper content. D) Including more advertisements in their newspapers. Passage Two Questions 14 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. A) A basket. B) A cup. C) A egg. D) An oven. 15. A) To let in the sunshine. B) To serve as its door. C) To keep the nest cool. D) For the bird to lay eggs. 16. A) Branches. B) Grasses. C) Mud. D) Straw. 17. A) Some are built underground. B) Some can be eaten. C) Most are sewed with grasses. D) Most are dried by the sun. Passage Three Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 18. A) To examine the chemical elements in the Ice Age. B) To look into the pattern of solar wind activity. C) To analyze the composition of different trees. D) To find out the origin of carbon-14 on Earth. 19. A) The lifecycle of trees. B) The number of trees. C) The intensity of solar burning. D) The quality of air. 20. A) It affects the growth of trees.

B) It has been increasing since the Ice Age. C) It is determined by the chemicals in the air. D) It follows a certain cycle. Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. In the 1960s, medical researchers Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe developed a checklist of stressful events. They appreciated the tricky point that any major change can be stressful. Negative events like ―serious illness of a family member‖ were high on the list, but so were some positive life-changing events, like marriage. When you take the Holmes-Rahe test you must remember that the score does not reflect how you deal with stress—it only shows how much you have to deal with. And we now know that the way you handle these events dramatically affects your chances of staying healthy. By the early 1970s, hundreds of similar studies had followed Holmes and Rahe. And millions of Americans who work and live under stress worried over the reports. Somehow, the research got boiled down to a memorable message. Women‘s magazines ran headlines like ―Stress causes illness!‖ If you want to stay physically and mentally healthy, the articles said, avoid stressful events. But such simplistic advice is impossible to follow. Even if stressful events are dangerous, many—like the death of a loved one—are impossible to avoid. Moreover, any warning to avoid all stressful events is a prescription (处方) for staying away from opportunities as well as trouble. Since any change can be stressful, a person who wanted to be completely free of stress would never marry, have a child, take a new job or move. The notion that all stress makes you sick also ignores a lot of what we know about people. It assumes we‘re all vulnerable (脆弱的) and passive in the face of adversity (逆境). But what about human initiative and creativity? Many come through periods of stress with more physical and mental vigor than they had before. We also know that a long time without change or challenge can lead to boredom, and physical and metal strain. 21. The result of Holmes-Rahe‘s medical research tells us ________. A) the way you handle major events may cause stress B) what should be done to avoid stress C) what kind of event would cause stress D) how to cope with sudden changes in life 22. The studies on stress in the early 1970‘s led to ________. A) widespread concern over its harmful effects B) great panic over the mental disorder it could cause C) an intensive research into stress-related illnesses D) popular avoidance of stressful jobs 23. The score of the Holmes-Rahe test shows ________. A) how much pressure you are under

B) how positive events can change your life C) how stressful a major event can be D) how you can deal with life-changing events 24. Why is ―such simplistic advice‖ (Line 1, Para. 3) impossible to follow? A) No one can stay on the same job for long. B) No prescription is effective in relieving stress. C) People have to get married someday. D) You could be missing opportunities as well. 25. According to the passage people who have experienced ups and downs may become ________. A) nervous when faced with difficulties B) physically and mentally strained C) more capable of coping with adversity D) indifferent toward what happens to them Passage Two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. Most episodes of absent-mindedness—forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room—are caused by a simple lack of attention, says Schacter. ―You‘re supposed to remember something, but you haven‘t encoded it deeply.‖ Encoding, Schacter explains, is a special way of paying attention to an event that has a major impact on recalling it later. Failure to encode properly can create annoying situations. If you put your mobile phone in a pocket, for example, and don‘t pay attention to what you did because you‘re involved in a conversation, you‘ll probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in you wardrobe (衣柜). ―Your memory itself isn‘t failing you,‖ says Schacter. ―Rather, you didn‘t give your memory system the information it needed.‖ Lack of interest can also lead to absent-mindedness. ―A man who can recite sports statistics from 30 years ago,‖ says Zelinski, ―may not remember to drop a letter in the mailbox.‖ Women have slightly better memories than men, possibly because they pay more attention to their environment, and memory relies on just that. Visual cues can help prevent absent-mindedness, says Schacter. ―But be sure the cue is clear and available,‖ he cautions. If you want to remember to take a medication (药物) with lunch, put the pill bottle on the kitchen table—don‘t leave it in the medicine chest and write yourself a note that you keep in a pocket. Another common episode of absent-mindedness: walking into a room and wondering why you‘re there. Most likely, you were thinking about something else. ―Everyone does this from time to time,‖ says Zelinski. The best thing to do is to return to where you were before entering the room, and you‘ll likely remember. 26. Why does the author think that encoding properly is very important? A) It helps us understand our memory system better. B) It enables us to recall something form our memory. C) It expands our memory capacity considerably. D) It slows down the process of losing our memory. 27. One possible reason why women have better memories than men is that ________. A) they have a wider range of interests

B) they are more reliant on the environment C) they have an unusual power of focusing their attention D) they are more interested in what‘s happening around them 28. A note in the pocket can hardly serve as a reminder because ________. A) it will easily get lost B) it‘s not clear enough for you to read C) it‘s out of your sight D) it might get mixed up with other things 29. What do we learn from the last paragraph? A) If we focus our attention on one thing, we might forget another. B) Memory depends to a certain extent on the environment. C) Repetition helps improve our memory. D) If we keep forgetting things, we‘d better return to where we were. 30. What is the passage mainly about? A) The process of gradual memory loss. B) The causes of absent-mindedness. C) The impact of the environment on memory. D) A way if encoding and recalling. Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. It is hard to track the blue whale, the ocean‘s largest creature, which has almost been killed off by commercial whaling and is now listed as an endangered species. Attaching radio devices to it is difficult, and visual sightings are too unreliable to give real insight into its behavior. So biologists were delighted early this year when, with the help of the Navy, they were able to track a particular blue whale for 43 days, monitoring its sounds. This was possible because of the Navy‘s formerly top-secret system of underwater listening devices spanning the oceans. Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian scientists after the cold war as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system built over the decades to track the ships of potential enemies. Earth scientists announced at a news conference recently that they had used the system for closely monitoring a deep-sea volcanic eruption (爆发) for the first time and that they plan similar studies. Other scientists have proposed to use the network for tracking ocean currents and measuring changes in ocean and global temperatures. The speed of sound in water is roughly one mile a second—slower than through land but faster than through air. What is most important, different layers of ocean water can act as channels for sounds, focusing them in the same way a stethoscope (听诊器) does when it carries faint noises from a patient‘s chest to a doctor‘s ear. This focusing is the main reason that even relatively weak sounds in the ocean, especially low-frequency ones, can often travel thousands of miles. 31. The passage is chiefly about ________. A) an effort to protect an endangered marine species B) the civilian use of a military detection system C) the exposure of a U.S. Navy top-secret weapon

D) a new way to look into the behavior of blue whales 32. The underwater listening system was originally designed ________. A) to trace and locate enemy vessels B) to monitor deep-sea volcanic eruptions C) to study the movement of ocean currents D) to replace the global radio communications network 33. The deep-sea listening system makes use of ________. A) the sophisticated technology of focusing sounds under water B) the capability of sound to travel at high speed C) the unique property of layers of ocean water in transmitting sound D) low-frequency sounds traveling across different layers of water 34. It can be inferred from the passage that ________. A) new radio devices should be developed for tracking the endangered blue whales B) blue whales are no longer endangered with the use of the new listening system C) opinions differ as to whether civilian scientists should be allowed to use military technology D) military technology has great potential in civilian use 35. Which of the following is true about the U.S. Navy underwater listening network? A) It is now partly accessible to civilian scientists. B) It has been replaced by a more advanced system. C) It became useless to the military after the cold war. D) It is indispensable in protecting endangered species. Passage Four Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage. The fitness movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s centered around aerobic exercise (有氧操). Millions of individuals became engaged in a variety of aerobic activities, and literally thousands of health spas developed around the country to capitalize (获利) on this emerging interest in fitness, particularly aerobic dancing for females. A number of fitness spas existed prior to this aerobic fitness movement, even a national chain with spas in most major cities. However, their focus was not on aerobics, but rather on weight-training programs designed to develop muscular mass, strength, and endurance in their primarily male enthusiasts. These fitness spas did not seem to benefit financially form the aerobic fitness movement to better health, since medical opinion suggested that weight-training programs offered few, if any, health benefits. In recent years, however, weight training has again become increasingly popular for males and for females. Many current programs focus not only on developing muscular strength and endurance but on aerobic fitness as well. Historically, most physical-fitness tests have usually included measures of muscular strength and endurance, not for health-related reasons, but primarily because such fitness components have been related to performance in athletics. However, in recent years, evidence has shown that training programs designed primarily to improve muscular strength and endurance might also offer some health benefits as well. The American College of Sports Medicine now recommends that weight training be part of a total fitness program for healthy Americans. Increased participation in such training is one of the specific physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives.

36. The word ―spas‖ (Line 3, Para. 1) most probably refers to ________. A) sports activities B) places for physical exercise C) recreation centers D) athletic training programs 37. Early fitness spas were intended mainly for ________. A) the promotion of aerobic exercise B) endurance and muscular development C) the improvement of women‘s figures D) better performance in aerobic dancing 38. What was the attitude of doctors towards weight training in health improvement? A) Positive. B) Indifferent. C) Negative. D) Cautious. 39. People were given physical fitness tests in order to find out ________. A) how ell they could do in athletics B) what their health condition was like C) what kind of fitness center was suitable for them D) whether they were fit for aerobic exercise 40. Recent studies have suggested that weight training ________. A) has become an essential part of people‘s life B) may well affect the health of the trainees C) will attract more people in the days to come D) contributes to health improvement as well Part III Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions: There are 3.0. incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center. 41. You would be ________ a risk to let your child go to school by himself. A) omitting B) attaching C) affording D) running 42. He is always here; it‘s ________ you‘ve never met him. A) unique B) strange C) rare D) peculiar 43. There has been a great increase in retail sales, ________? A) does there B) isn‘t there C) hasn‘t there D) isn‘t it

44. We‘d like to ________ a table for five for dinner this evening. A) preserve B) retain C) reserve D) sustain 45. Although a teenager, Fred could resist ________ what to do and what not to do. A) being told B) telling C) to be told D) to tell 46. The European Union countries were once worried that they would not have ________ supplies of petroleum. A) proficient B) efficient C) potential D) sufficient 47. In fact, Peter would rather have left for San Francisco than ________ in New York. A) to stay B) stayed C) staying D) having stayed 48. He soon received promotion, for his superiors realized that he was a man of considerable ________. A) ability B) future C) possibility D) opportunity 49. Britain ahs the highest ________ of road traffic in the world—over 60 cars for every mile of road. A) popularity B) density C) intensity D) prosperity 50. How is it ________ your roommate‘s request and yours are identical? A) if B) so C) what D) that 51. In my opinion, he‘s ________ the most imaginative of all the contemporary poets. A) in all B) at best C) for all D) by far 52. He didn‘t have time to read the report word for word: he just ________ it.

A) skimmed B) observed C) overlooked D) glanced 53. The leader of the expedition ________ everyone to follow his example. A) promoted B) reinforced C) sparked D) inspired 54. What a lovely party! It‘s worth ________ all my life. A) remembering B) to remember C) to be remembered D) being remembered 55. Who would you rather ________ with you, George or me? A) going B) to go C) have gone D) went 56. The ________ goal of the book is to help bridge the gap between research and teaching, particularly between researchers and teachers. A) intensive B) concise C) joint D) overall 57. The owner and editor of the newspaper ________ the conference. A) were attending B) were to attend C) is to attend D) are to attend 58. We left the meeting, there obviously ________ no point in staying. A) were B) being C) to be D) having 59. Their products are frequently overpriced and ________ in quality. A) influential B) inferior C) superior D) subordinate 60. The neighborhood boys like to play basketball on that ________ lot. A) valid B) vacant C) vain

D) vague 61. These people once had fame and fortune; now ________ is left to them is utter poverty. A) all that B) all what C) all which D) that all 62. To our ________, Geoffrey‘s illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared. A) anxiety B) relief C) view D) judgment 63. Many people like white color as it is a ________ of purity. A) symbol B) sign C) signal D) symptom 64. The residents, ________ had been damaged by the fire, were given help by the Red Cross. A) all of their homes B) all their homes C) whose all homes D) all of whose homes 65. This research has attracted wide ________ coverage and has featured on BBC television‘s Tomorrow‘s World. A) message B) information C) media D) data 66. I would never have ________ a court of law if I hadn‘t been so desperate. A) sought for B) accounted for C) turned up D) resorted to 67. Investigators agreed that passengers on the airliner ________ at the very moment of the crash. A) should have died B) must be dying C) must have died D) ought to die 68. The energy ________ by the chain reaction is transformed into heat. A) transferred B) released C) delivered D) conveyed 69. ________ their work will give us a much better feel for the wide differences between the

two schools of thought. A) To have reviewed B) Having reviewed C) Reviewing D) Being reviewed 70. During the process, great care has to be taken to protect the ________ silk from damage. A) sensitive B) tender C) delicate D) sensible Part IV Short Answer Questions (15 minutes) Directions: In this part there is a short passage-with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). As researchers learn more about how children‘s intelligence develops, they are increasingly surprised by the power of parents. The power of the school has been replaced by the home. To begin with, all the factors which are part of intelligence—the child‘s understanding of language, learning patterns, curiosity—are established well before the child enters school at the age of six. Study after study has shown that even after school begins, children‘s achievements have been far more influenced by parents than by teachers. This is particularly true about learning that is language-related. The school rather than the home is given credit for variations in achievement in subjects such as science. In view of their power, it‘s sad to see so many parents not making the most of their child‘s intelligence. Until recently parents had been warned by educators who asked them not to educate their children. Many teachers now realize that children cannot be educated only at school and parents are being asked to contribute both before and after the child enters school. Parents have been particularly afraid to teach reading at home. Of course, children shouldn‘t be pushed to read by their parents, but educators have discovered that reading is best taught individually—and the easiest place to do this is at home. Many four-and five-year-olds who have been shown a few letters and taught their sounds will compose single words of their own with them even before they have been taught to read. Questions: (注意:答题尽量简短,超过 10 个词要扣分。每条横线限写一个英语单词,标点符号 不占格) S1. What have researchers found out about the influence of parents and the school on children‘s intelligence? S2. What do researchers conclude about children‘s learning patterns? S3. In which area may school play a more important role? S4. Why did many parents fail to make the most of their children‘s intelligence? S5. The author suggests in the last paragraph that parents should be encouraged to Part V Writing (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below:

1. 上图所示为 1990 年、1995 年、2002 年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化; 2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明); 3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。 Student Use of Computers 答案 Part I 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. D 10. A 11. C 12. D 13. C 14. B 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. A 19. C 20. D Part II 21. C 22. A 23. A 24. D 25. C 26. B 27. D 28. C 29. A 30. B 31. B 32. A 33. C 34. D 35. A 36. B 37. B 38. C 39. A 40. D Part III 41. D 42. B 43. C 44. B 45. A 46. D 47. B 48. A 49. B 50. D 51. D 52. A 53. D 54. A 55. D 56. D 57. C 58. B 59. B 60. C 61. A 62. B 63. A 64. D 65. C 66. D 67. C 68. B 69. C 70. C S1. Parents have greater influence than the school./Parent‘s influence is greater than the school‘s. S2. They are established well before the age of six. S3. Science subjects. S4. They were told by educators not to educate their children. S5. teach reading at home. 2002 年 6 月四级听力原文 1. W: I suppose you‘ve bought some gifts for your family. M: Well, I‘ve bought a shirt for my father and two books for my sister. But I haven‘t decided what to buy for my mother probably some jewels. Q: Who did the man buy the books for? 2. W: Look, it says they want a junior sales manager and it seems like it‘s a big company. That‘ll be good for you might have to travel a lot. M: Do they say anything about the experience?

Q: What are they talking about? 3. W: I think we‘ve covered everything. What about a cup of coffee before we move onto the next item? M: Good idea. I really can‘t wait another minute. Q: What does the woman suggest doing? 4. W: But what happens if it rains. What are we going to do then? M: We‘ll have to count on good weather. But if it does rain the whole thing will have to be canceled. Q: What do we learn from the conversation? 5. W: You took an optional course this semester didn‘t you? How is it going? M: Terrible. It seems like the more the professor talks the less I understand. Q: How does the man feel about the course? 6. W: Mark is playing computer games. M: Should he do that when the final exam is drawing near? Q: What does the man think Mark should do? 7. M: Jack seems to think this year‘s basketball season will be disappointing. W: That‘s his opinion. Most others think differently. Q: What does the woman mean? 8. M: Is this the check-in counter for Flight 914 to Los Angeles? M: Yes, but I‘m sorry the flight is delayed because of a minor mechanical problem. Please wait for further notice. Q: What do we learn from this conversation? 9. M: Excuse me. I‘d like to place an advertisement for a used car in this Sunday edition of your paper. W: Ok, but you have to run your advertisement all week. We can‘t quote rates for just Sunday. Q: Where is the conversation most probably taking place? 10. M: I spend so much time polishing my letter application. W: It‘s worthwhile to make the effort. You know just how important it is to give impression. Q: What do we know about the man? Passage One Not everybody reads the daily newspaper. People who don‘t read newspaper are sometimes referred to as non-readers. Early research has shown that the non-readers are generally low in education low in income either very young or very old. In addition non-readers are more likely to live in rural areas and have less contact with neighbours and friends. Other studies show that non-readers tend to isolate themselves from the community and less likely to own a home and seldom belong to local voluntary organizations Why don‘t these people read daily paper? They say they don‘t have the time they prefer radio or TV they have no interest in reading a tale and besides they think newspapers are too expensive. Recent surveys however, have indicated the portrait of the non-reader is more complicated than first thought. There appears to be a group of non-readers that do not fit the type mentioned above. They are high in income and fall into the age group of 26 to 65. They are far move likely to report that they don‘t have the time to read the papers and they have no interest in the content. Editors and publishers are attempting to win them back. First they are also adding news briefs and comprehensive indexes. This will help overcome the time problem.

And they are also giving variety to newspaper content to help build the reader‘s interest. Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard. 11. What is typical of non-readers according to early research? 12. What are the finds of recent surveys? 13. What are editors and publishers doing to attract the non-readers? Passage Two Did you know that there‘s a kind of bird that can sew? This called the tailor bird uses its mouth as a needle. It sews leaves together in the shape of a cup then it adds a layer of straw to the inside of the cup and lays its eggs there. Each bird species builds its own special kind of nest. The most common materials used for nests are grasses branches and feathers. A bird must weave these materials into a nest. Just imagine building a house without cement or nails to hold together. Another bird is called the weaver bird. The weaver bird builds a nest that looks like a basket the nest shaped like a pear with a hole in the middle. The hole is the door of the nest. A third bird is called the oven bird. The oven bird makes a nest that is very solid. The nest is made of mud. The oven bird forms the mud into the shape of an oven and then let it dry in the sun. The sun bakes the mud making it very hard. Not all birds make their homes in branches. Some birds build their nests on the ground while others bury their eggs under the ground. And some birds do not build nests at all. So when you look for nests and eggs in branches of the trees and bushes remember that some nests may be right your feet. Questions 14 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard. 14. What does the nest built by tailor bird look like? 15. Why is there a hole in the weaver bird‘s nest? 16. What is the oven bird‘s nest made of? 17. What might surprise us about birds‘ nests according to the speaker? Passage Three You can tell the age of a tree by counting its rings but these records of trees‘ life really say a lot more. Scientists are using tree rings to learn what‘s being happening on the sun‘s surface for the last ten thousand years. Each ring represents a year of growth. As the tree grows it adds a layer to its trunk taking up chemical elements from the air. By looking up the elements in the rings for a given year scientists can tell what elements were in the air that year. Doctors Stevenson is analysing one element—carbon-14 in ring from both living and dead trees. Some of the rings go back almost ten thousand years to the end of the Ice Age. When Stevenson followed the carbon-14 trail back in time he found carbon-4 levels change with the intensity of solar burning. You see the sun has cycles. Sometimes it burns fiercely and other times it‘s relatively calm. During the sun‘s violent periods it throws off charged particles in fast moving strings called solar winds. The particles interfere with the formation of carbon-14 on earth. When there‘s more solar wind activity less carbon-14 is produced. Ten thousand years of tree rings show that the carbon-14 level rises and falls about every 420 years. The scientists concluded that the solar wind activity must follow the same cycle. Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 18. What is the purpose of the scientists in studying tree rings? 19. What affects the amount of carbon-14 on earth? 20. What do we learn from the passage about the solar wind activity?

2002 年 12 月大学英语四级真题 与答案
Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions:In this section,you will hear 10 short conversations.At the end of each conversation,a q uestion will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the question will be spoken o nly once.After each question there will be a pause.During the pause,you must read the four choice s marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer.Then mark the corresponding lette r on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Example:You will hear: You will read: A) At the office. B) In the waiting room. C) At the airport. D) In a restaurant. From the conversation we know that the two were talking about some work they had to finish in th e evening.This is most likely to have taken place at the office.Therefore,A)"At the office" is the be st answer.You should choose on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centr e. Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] 1.A) They are both anxious to try Italian food. B) They are likely to have dinner together. C) The man will treat the woman to dinner tonight. D) The woman refused to have dinner with the man. 2.A) It‘s only for rent, not fof sale. B) It‘s being redecorated. C) It‘s not as good as advertised. D) It‘s no longer available. 3.A) Colleagues. B) Employer and employee. C) Husband and wife. D) Mother and son 4.A) She contacts her parents occasionally. B) She phones her parents regularly at weekends. C) She visits her parents at weekends when the fares are down. D) She often calls her parents regardless of the rates. 5.A) The next bus is coming soon. B) The bus will wait a few minutes at the stop. C) There are only two or three passengers waiting for the bus. D) They can catch this bus without running. 6.A) The assignment looks easy but actually it‘s quite difficult. B) The assignment is too difficult for them to complete on time. C) They cannot finish the assignment until Thursday. D) They have plenty of time to work on the assignment. 7.A) The man will go to meet the woman this evening. B) The man and the woman have an appointment at 7 o‘clock. C) The woman can‘t finish making the jam before 7 o‘clock. D) The woman won‘t be able to see the man this evening.

8.A) She‘s learned a lot from the literature class. B) She‘s written some books about world classi cs. C) She‘s met some of the world‘s best writers. D) She‘s just back from a trip round the world . 9.A) The exam was easier than the previous one. B) Joe is sure that he will do better in the nex t exam. C) Joe probably failed in the exam. D) The oral part of the exam was easier than the writte n part. 10.A) She is tired of driving in heavy traffic. B) She doesn‘t mind it as the road conditions are good. C) She is unhappy to have to drive such a long way every day. D) She enjoys it because she‘s go od at driving. Section B Compound Dictation 注意:听力理解的 B 节(Section B)为复合式听写(Compound Dictation),题目在试卷二上, 现 在请取试卷二。 Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions:There are 4 passages in this part.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinis hed statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decid e on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line thro ugh the centre. Passage One Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. Like many of my generation, I have a weakness for hero worship. At some point, however, we a ll begin to question our heroes and our need for them. This leads us to ask: What is a hero? Despite immense differences in cultures, heroes around the world generally share a number of c haracterstics that instruct and inspire people. A hero does something worth talking a about. A hero has a story of adventure to tell and a com munity who will listen. But a hero goes beyond mere fame. Heroes serve powers or principles larger than themselves. Like high? voltagetransformers, her oes take the energy of higher powers and step it down so that it c an be used by ordinary people. The hero lives a life worthy of imitation. Those who imitate a genuine hero experience life with new depth, enthusiasm, and meaning. A sure test for would? beheroes is what or whom do they s erve? What are they willing to live and die for? If the answer or evidence suggests they serve only their own fame, they may be famous persons but not heroes. Madonna and Michael Jackson are fa mous, but who would claim that their fans find life more abundant? Heroes are cantalysts( 催 化 剂 ) for change. they have a vision from the mountain top. They have the skill and the charm to mo ve the masses. They create new possibilities. Without Gandhi, India might still be part of the Britis h Empire. Without Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr., we might still have segregated ( 隔 离 的 ) buses, restaurants, and parks. It may be possible for large scale change to occur without leader

s with magnetic personalities, but the pace of change would be slow, the vision uncertain, and the committee meetings endless 11.Although heroes may come from different cultures, they _____________________. A) generally process certain inspiring characteristics B) probably share some weaknesses of ordi nary people C) are often influenced by previous generations fans D) all unknowingly attract a large number of

12.According to the passage, heroes are compared to high-voltage transformers in that _______ . A) they have a vision from the mountaintop B) they have a warm feelings and emotions C) they can serve as concrete examples of noble principles D) they can make people feel stronger and more confident 13.Madonna and Michael Jackson are not considered heroes because _________ . A) they are popular only among certain groups of people B) their performances do not improve t heir fans morally C) their primary concern is their own financial interests D) they are not clear about the principles t hey should follow 14.Gandhi and Martin Luther King are typical examples of outstanding leaders who ___________ . A) are good at demonstrating their charming characters B) can move the masses with their force ful speeches C) are capable of meeting all challenges and hardships D) can provide an answer to the problem s of their people 15.The author concludes that historical changes would ________ . A) be delayed without leaders with inspiring personal qualities B) not happen without heroes making the necessary sacrifices C) take place if there were heroes to lead the people D) produce leaders with attractive personalities Passage Two Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: According to a survey, which was based on the responses of over 188,000 students , today‘s tra ditional? agecollege freshmen are "more materialistic and less ? altruistic? ( 利 他 主 义 的)" than at any time in the 17 years of the poll. Not surprising in these hard times, the student‘s major objective "is to be financially well off. L ess important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life." It follows then that today t he most popular course is not literature or history but accounting. Interest in teaching, social service and the "altruistic" fields is at a low. On the other hand, enro llment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up. That‘s no surprise either. A friend of mine (a sales representative for a chemic al company) was

making twice the salary of her college instructors her first yea r on the job-even before she compl eted her two? yearassociate degree. While it‘s true that we all need a career, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an i ncredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own and that we are better for our understanding of these other contributions- be they scientific or artistic. It is equally true that, in st udying the diverse wisdom of others, we learn how to think. More important, perhaps, education t eaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see beyond our immediate needs. Weekly we read of unions who went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer o ut of business. No company: no job. How shortsighted in the long run ! But the most important argument for a broad education is that in studying the ac cumulated wis dom of the ages, we improve our moral sense. I saw a cartoon recently which shows a group of bu sinessmen looking puzzled as they sit around a conference table; one of them is talking on the ? i ntercom? ( 对 讲 机 ) : "Miss Baxter ," he says, "could you please send in someone who can distinguish right from wrong ?" From the long? termpoint of view, that‘s what education really ought to be about. 16.According to the author‘s observation, college students __________ . A) have never been so materialistic as today B) have never been so interested in the arts C) have never been so financially well off as today D) have never attached so much importance to moral sense 17.The students‘ criteria for electing majors today have much to do with ________ . A) the influences of their instructors B) the financial goals they seek in life C) their own interpretations of the courses D) their understanding of the contributions of oth ers 18.By saying "While it‘s true that... be they scientific or artistic" (Lines 1-3, Para. 5),the author me ans that _____. A) business management should be included in educational programs B) human wisdom has accumulated at an extraordinarily high speed C) human intellectual development has reached new heights D) the importance of a broad education should not be overlooked 19.Studying the diverse wisdom of others can ________ . A) create varying artistic interests B) help people see things in their right perspective C) help improve connections among people D) regulate the behavior of modern people 20.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A) Businessmen absorbed in their career are narrow? minded. B) Managers often find it hard to tell right from wrong. C) People engaged in technical jobs lead a more rewarding life. D) Career seekers should not focus on immediate interests only. Passage Three

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage: New technology links the world as never before. Our planet has shrunk. It‘s now a "global villa ge" where countries are only seconds away by fax or phone satellite link. And, of course, our abilit y to benefit from this high-tech communications equipment is greatly enhanced by foreign langua ge skills. Deeply involved with this new technology is a breed of modern businesspeople who have a gro wing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad. In modern markets, success overse as often help support domestic business efforts. Overseas assignments are becoming increasingly important to advancement within executive ra nks. The executive stationed in another country no longer need fear being "out of sight and out of mind." He or she can be sure that the overseas effort is central to the company‘s plan for success, a nd that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad. If an employee can succeed in a difficult assignment overseas, superiors will have greater confidence in his or her ability to co pe back in the United Sates where cross? culturalconsiderations and foreign language issues are b ecoming more and more ? prevalent(普遍的). Thanks to a variety of relatively inexpensive communications devices with business application s, even small businesses in the United States are able to get into international markets. English is still the international language of business. But there is an ever? growingneed for pe ople who can speak another language. A second language isn‘t generally required to get a job in b usiness, but having language skills gives a candidate the edge when other qualifications appear to be equal. The employee posted abroad who speaks the country‘s principal language has an opportunity to fast? forwardcertain negotiations, and can have the cultural insight to know when it is better to m ove more slowly. The employee at the home office who can communicate well with foreign client s over the telephone or by fax ma chine is an obvious asset to the firm. 21.What is the author‘s attitude toward high-tech communications equipment ? A) Critical. B) Indifferent. C) Prejudiced. D) Positive. 22.With the increased use of high-tech communications equipment, business people __________. A) have to get familiar with modern technology B) are gaining more economic benefits from do mestic operations C) are attaching more importance to their overseas business D) are eager to work overseas 23.In this passage, "out of sight and out of mind" (Lines 2? 3,Para. 3) probably means ________ . A) being unable to think properly for lack of insight B) being totally out of touch with business at home C) missing opportunities for promotion when abroad D) leaving all care and worthy behind 24.According to the passage, what is an important consideration of international corporations in e mploying people today? A) Connections with business overseas. B) Ability to speak the client‘s language.

C) Technical know? how .

D) Business experience.

25.The advantage of employees having foreign language skills is that they can _______ . A) better control the whole negotiation process B) easily find new approaches to meet market needs C) fast? forward their proposals to headquarters D) easily make friends with businesspeople a broad 转贴于 考试大 Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage: In recent years, Israeli consumers have grown more demanding as they‘ve become wealthier an d more wordly-wise. Foreign travel is a national passion; this summer alone, one in 10 citizens wil l go abroad. Exposed to higher standards of service elsewhere, Israelis are returning home expecti ng the same. American firms have also begun arriving in large numbers. Chains such as KFC, Mc Donald‘s and Pizza Hut are setting a new standard of customer service, using strict employee train ing and constant monitoring to ensure the friendliness of frontline staff. Even the American habit o f telling departing customers to "Have a nice day" has caught on all over israel. "Nobody wakes u p in the morning and say, ‘Let‘s be nicer,‘" says Itsik Cohen, director of a consulting firm. "Nothi ng happens without competition." Privatization, or the threat of it, is a motivation as well. ? Monopolies( 垄 断 者) that until recently have been free to take their customers for granted now fear what Michael Pe rry, a marketing professor, calls "the revengeful( 报 复 的 ) consumer." When ghe government opened up competition with Bezaq, the phone company, its international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates. Says Perr y, "People wanted revenge for all the years of bad service." The electric company, whose monopol y may be short? lived, has suddenly stopped requiring users to wait half a day for a repairman. No w, appointments are scheduled to the half? hour.The graceless EI Al Airlines, which is already at auction( 拍 卖 ), has retrained its employees to emphasize service and is boasting about the results in an ad ca mpaign with the slogan, "You can f eel the change in the air." For the first time, praise out number s complaints on customer survey sheets. 26.It may be inferred from the passage that _________ . A) customer service in Israel is now improving B) wealthy Israeli customers are hard to please C) the tourist industry has brought chain stores to Israel D) Israel customers prefer foreign products to domestic ones 27.In the author‘s view, higher service standards are impossible in Israel ________ . A) if customer complaints go unnoticed by the management B) unless foreign companies are intro duced in greater numbers C) if there‘s no competition among companies D) without strict routine training of employ ees

28.If someone in Israel today needs a repairman in case of a power failure, _________ . A) they can have it fixed in no time B) it‘s no longer necessary to make an appointment C) the appointment takes only half a day to make D) they only have to wait half an hour at most 29.The example of El Al Airlines shows that ______________ . A) revengeful customers are a threat to the monopoly of enterprises B) an ad campaign is a way out for enterprises in financial difficulty C) a good slogan has great potential for improving service D) staff retraining is essential for better service 30.Why did Bezaq‘s international brance lose 40% of its market share? A) Because the rates it offered were not competitive enough. B) Because customers were dissatisfied with its past service. C) Because the service offered by its competitors was far better. D) Because it no longer received any support from the government. Part Ⅲ Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes) Directions:There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part.For each sentence there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).Choose the ONE answer that bestcompletes the sentence.Then mark the c orresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. 31.Such crimes may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone ________ them. A) discovered B) will discover C) would have discovered D) discovers 32.Though ______ in a big city, Peter always prefers to paint the primitive scenes of country life. A) grown B) raised C) tended D) cultivated 33.The careless man received a ticket for speeding. He _______ have driven so fast. A) can‘t B) wouldn‘t C) shouldn‘t D) mustn‘t 34.If people feel hopeless, they don‘t bother to _______ the skills they need to succeed. A) adopt B) acquire C) accumulate D) assemble 35.If I _______ harder at school, I would be sitting in a comfortable office now. A) worked B) were to work C) had worked D) were working 36.The shop assistant was dismissed as she was ________ of cheating customers . A) accused B) charged C) scolded D) cursed 37.All her energies are __________ upon her children and she seems to have little time for anythi ng else. A) guided B) aimed C) directed D) focused 38.While crossing the mountain area, all the men carried guns lest they _________ by wild animal

s. A) should be attacked B) had been attacked

C) must be attacked

D) would be attacked

39.Everyone should be ___________ to a decent standard of living and an opportunity to be educa ted. A) attributed B) entitled C) identified D) justified 40.His wife is constantly finding __________ with him, which makes him very angry. A) errors B) shortcomings C) fault D) flaw 41.Vitamins are complex ________ that the body requires in very small amounts . A) matters B) materials C) particles D) substances

42.Apart from caring for her children, she has to take on such heavy _____ housework as carrying water and firewood. A) time? consumed B) timely? consumed C) time? consuming D) timely? consuming 43.Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely _______ to the outside world. A) having been lost B) to be lost C) losing D) lost 44.The police are trying to find out the _______ of the woman killed in the traffic accident. A) evidence B) recognition C) status D) identity 45.All human beings have a comfortable zone regulating the ______ they keep from someone they talk with. A) distance B) scope C) range D) boundary 46.We have planned an exciting publicity _______ with our advertisers. A) struggle B) battle C) campaign D) conflict 47.________ the help of their group, we would not have succeeded in the investigation. A) Besides B) Regardless of C) But for D) Despite 48.______ much is known about what occurs during sleep, the precise function of sleep and its dif ferent stages remains largely in the realm of assumption. A) Because B) For C) Since D) While 49.John doesn‘t believe in ______ medicine; he has some remedies of his own . A) standard B) regular C) routine D) conventional 50.Owing to ________ competition among the airlines, travel expense have been reduced consider ably. A) fierce B) strained C) eager D) critical 51.They always give the vacant seats to comes first.

A) whoever

B) whomever

C) who

D) whom

52.In Africa, educational costs are very low for those who are _________ enough to get into unive rsities. A) ambitious B) fortuante C) aggressive D) substantial 53.Professor Wang,_______ for his informative lectures, was warmly receive d by his students. A) knowing B) to be known C) known D) having known 54.Our manager is _______ an important customer now and he will be back this afternoon. A) calling on B) calling up C) calling in D) calling for 55.A fire engine must have priority as it usually has to deal with some kind of _______ . A) precaution B) crisis C) emergency D) urgency 56.He said that the driver must have had an accident; otherwise he _____ by then. A) would have arrived B) should arrive C) must have arrived D) would arrive 57.The film provides a deep _______ into a wide range of human qualities and feelings. A) insight B) fancy C) imagination D) outlook

58.It is high time that such practices __________ . A) are ended B) be ended C) were ended

D) must be ended

59.Urban crowdedness would be greatly relieved if only the _____ charged o n public transport w ere more reasonable. A) fees B) payments C) fares D) costs 60.The doctor had almost lost hope at one point, but the patient finally _________ . A) pulled out B) pulled up C) pulled through D) pulled over Part Ⅳ Cloze (15 minutes) Directions:There are

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