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新课标(人教版)必修一 Unit 2 课文详解


课文详解 Book 1-Unit 2

Edited by Yang Lei

1

Unit 2 必修一 I.Vocabulary .
subway n. 地下人行道; (美)地铁 elevator petrol oficial voyage conquer n. 电梯;升降机 n. 汽油 (=美 gasoline) adj. 官方的;正式的;公务的 n. 航行;航海 vt. 征服;占领

English around the World
fluent adj.

流利的;流畅的

fluently adv. 流利地;流畅地 such as frequent usage 例如……; 像这种的 adj. 频繁的;常见的 frequently adv.

n. 使用;用法;词语惯用法 n. & vt. 命令;指令;掌握

command

because of 因为;由于 native come up apartment actually base adj. 本国的;本地的 n. 本地人;本国人 走近; 上来; 提出 n. 公寓住宅;单元住在 adv. 实际上;事实上 n. 基部;基地;基础

have a good command of … 精通;掌握 request n. & vt. 请求;要求

at sb’s request 应某人邀请 dialect n. 方言 n. 词语;表示;表达 adj. 中西部的;有中西部特征的

expression midwestern

vt. 以……为根据

be based on 以……为根据 at present gradual 现在;目前 adj. 逐渐的;逐步的 adv. 逐渐地;逐步地 使富裕;充实;改善

play a part (in) 扮演了一个角色; 参与 eastern adj. 东方的;东部的 adj. 东南方的;来自东南的 adj. 西北方的;来自西北的

southeastern northwestern recognize lorry accent

gradually enrich vt.

vt. 辨认出;承认;公认

vocabulary n. 词汇;词汇量;词表 make use of 利用;使用 take advantage of 利用; 使用

n. (美= truck)卡车 n. 口音;强调;重音

lightning n. 闪电 straight block cab adv. 直接;挺直 adj. 直接的

spelling n. 拼写;拼法 latter adj. 较后的;后半的; (两着中)后者的

n. 街区;块;木块;石块 n. 出租车

identity n. 本身;本体;身份

II. Reading The Road to Modern English th At the end of the 16 century, about five to seven million people spoke English.译文 译文:在 16 世
纪末,大约有 500 万至 700 万人说英语。 注释 【注释 注释:at the end of …:在…末尾;at the end of the day 最终,到 头来;be at (have come to) the end 结束,完成;be at the end of 到了…的尽头;几至耗尽; all ends up 完全 地,彻底地;in the end 最后,终于;by the end of…:到…为止。 Nearly all of them lived in England. 】 译文:他们几乎都住在英格兰。 Later, in the next century, people from England made voyages to 译文

conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries.译文 译文:后来,在随后的一个世纪里,来自英格兰的人航行征服其它地方,因此,在许多其它国家
开始说英语。 注释:because of 意为“因为,由于” 【注 ,后跟名词、代词或动名词,在句中作状语;owing to 意为 “把成绩或功劳归功于…”,在句中作状语和表语, 如: has made great progress in English owing to your He tutorship.. 而 due to 则是指 “把失败或挫折归咎于…” 在句中作状语和表语,如: Due to the extreme cold, we , were unable to plant the trees.由于天气很冷, 所以我们无法去植树。 thanks to 意为“幸亏” ,只作状语,如: This is a great success,—— thanks to your help.】 Today, more people speak English as their first,

second or a foreign language than ever before.译文 译文:如今,人们比以前更多地把英语当成第一、第二
或一门外语。 【注释:as 介词,意为:当作,作为。 】

Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. 译文 译文:即使当地说英语的人说的不是同一种英语,他们也能彼此懂得。 【注释:①native speaker
说本族语的人,。native(常与 to 连用,指动植物)特产的,原产于; (也可以指品质)与生俱来的,

课文详解 Book 1-Unit 2

Edited by Yang Lei

2

天赋的,天生的。如:1)Banana is native to Taiwan.香蕉是台湾的土特产。2) He has a great deal of native intelligence, ability, charm, etc. 他天生聪明、能力强、有魅力等。②even if = even though 意为“即使,尽管” , 引导让步状语从句。 I wouldn't lose courage even if I should fail ten times.即使要失败十次, 我也绝不灰心。 如: {试题:⑴ Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, ____ they knew it to be valuable. A. as if B. now that C. even though D. so that

⑵ Allow children the space to voice their opinions, _____ they are different from your own. A. until B. now that C. even though D. as though}】

Look at this example: 译文 译文:看这个例子: British Betty: Would you like to see my flat?译文 英国的 Betty:你愿意来看我的公寓吗? 注释 译文: 【注释 注释:
Would you like to …:愿意,意欲】

American Amy: Yes. I’d like to come up to your apartment.译文 译文:美国的 Amy: 好的,我很想来
看你的公寓。 注释 【注释 注释:①come up:走近,上来,发芽,发生, (意见、观点)被提出, (太阳、月亮)生起。 如:1) He came up and introduced himself. 他走上前来作自我介绍。 2) I’ll let you know if anything comes up.如果发生什么事的话, 我会让你知道的。 注意: come up with 表示: 想出, 提出。 I came up with a proposal 如: and it soon came up at the meeting.我想提出一条建议, 很快这条建议在会上被提出来了。 {试题: They thought about it for a long time, but still couldn’t ____ a solution. with D. come out} A. come up B. come up with C. get along

②flat (英)公寓;apartment (美)公寓。③I’d like to …: 我愿意…; 我很想…。如:

I’d like to help you with your English.】

So why has English changed over time? 译文 译文:为什么英语会随时间而改变呢?【注释 注释:over time 随着 注释
时间的过去。 Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate 】

with each other.译文 译文:实际上,在文化碰撞和交流过程中,所有语言都会改变和发展。 【注释:①meet with
偶然碰到,碰到;遭受,受到;和…会面。如:1)She met with an old friend at a dinner party.她在一次宴会 上偶然遇到一位老朋友。 Again and again the test met with no success.这一试验一再遭到失。 He met with 2) 3) the Prime Minister of Japan for an hour.他和日本首相会见了一个小时。 ②communicate with…:与…联系, 与… 交流,与…沟通。如:I communicate with him regularly by letter.我与他定期通信。 At first the English 】

spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today.译文 起初, 译文: 在公元 450 年至公元 1150 年在英国所说的英语不同于现在所说的英语。 【注释: ①at first
起初,开始。②spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 是过去分词短语作定语,相当于定语从句 which was spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150. 注意:过去分词作定语表示该分词与所修饰的 词之间的关系式被动关系。 ③be different from…: 与…不同。 {考题:1. (09 全 I-35) Now that we’ve discussed our problem, are people happy with the decisions ___? A. take B. taking C. taken D. to take

2. (09 京-24) For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ____ on his own farm. A. grown B. being grown C. to be grown D. to grow

3. (09 申-33) With the government’s aid, those ____ by the earthquake have moved to the new settlements. A. affect B. affecting C. affected D. were affected

4. (09 赣-22) ____ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given

5. (08 湘-26) The trees ____ in the storm have been moved off the road. A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down

6. (08 赣-28) We finished the run in less than half the time _____ . A. allowing B. to allow C. allowed D. allows

7. (08 浙-13) It is one of the funniest things _____ on the Internet so far this year.

课文详解 Book 1-Unit 2 A. finding B. being found

Edited by Yang Lei C. to find D. found

3

8. (08 闽-33) —— Can those ____ at the back of the classroom hear me? —— No problem. A. seat B. sit C. seated D. sat

9. (07 湘-34) “Things ____ never come again!” I couldn’t help talking to myself. A. lost B. losing C. to lose D. have lost

10. (06 京-28) There have been several new events ____ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A. add B. to add C. adding D. added

11. (06 鲁-29) Five people won the “China’s Green Figure” award, a title _____ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. A. being given B. is given C. given D. was given

12. (05 京-32) The prize of the game show is $ 30,000 and an all expenses ____ vacation to China. A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid

答案 1-12: CACDB CDCAD CB}】 It was based more on German than the English we speak at present.译文 译文:当时的英语更多地是以德语为基础,而我们今天所说的英语则不是。 【注释:
more… than …:与其说… 不如说….。如:He is more lazy than stupid.与其说他蠢笨,不如说他懒惰。 注 意:⑴more than + 名词,表示“不仅是,不只是” ,相当于 not only; 如:Hibernation is more than sleep.冬 眠不仅仅是睡觉。 ⑵ more than + 数词, “超过, 表示 多于” 相当于 over; 如: , There’re more than 50 students in our class. 在我们班有 50 多名学生。⑶ more than + 形容词/副词,表示“非常,十分” ,与“very”同义; 如: class, she is more than attentive.在课堂上, In 她非常认真听课。 ⑷ more than + that sb. can/could do oneself. 表示“超出某人能力范围,或超出了…范围” 。如:The job is more than I can do myself 那工作超出了我的 能力范围。 ⑸ no more than 意为“只有、仅仅”,相当于 only; 而 not more than 表示“至多,不超过” , 相当于 at most; more or less {试题 Mr. Brown is ____ a teacher to us; we look on him as our friend. 试题: 试题 D. more and more } A. more than B.

C. less than

②be based on …:以…为基础。注意:可以用 based on

的独立结构形式作状语, 类似于 according to.

On the base of…: 以…为基础。 试题 ____ on this report, the {试题 试题: A. Having based

English government decided to ask Captain James Cook to go and look for this continent. B. Basing C. Based D. To be based }

③at present 目前,现在。 For the present 现在,目前。

Be present at …:出席…。 Present sth. to sb.把某物作为礼物送给某人。 Then gradually between about 】

AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoke first Danish and later French. 译文:然后,在公元 800 年至公元 1150 年期间,由于那些统治英格兰的人先说 译文
丹麦语,后来又说法语,这样英语就逐渐变得不像德语了。 【注释:① become less like 变得不像。 ②who ruled England 是由 who 引导的定语从句,who 为关系代词,代指前面的先行词 those,用于指“人” ③{辨 。 辨 析:rule, govern, control 都有“管理,支配,控制”之意,当 govern 和 rule 用作“统治,控制”一个国家 时,可以互换。但,⑴rule 是正式的、庄重的的用语,常用贬义,比 govern 更专权地管理或统治,含有专 制或独裁的意味。⑵govern 指靠权力、专制或按宪法来系统地管理、统治国家、城市、机构等,含有需要 知识和判断力来治理和管理的意味。 ⑶control 指人对事物的一般控制与约束, 含有强制使其服从的意味。 {试 题:1)Alexamder the Great _______ (over) a large empire. 答案:1) ruled; 2) control} }】 2) She couldn’t __________ herself that moment.

These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its

vocabulary.译文:这些新定居者丰富了英语语言,尤其是在词汇方面。 【注释:①enrich 是 en + rich 构成
的派生词,意为“使丰富” ,其结构式为“en + 形容词” 。 ②especially 表示递进关系,意为“尤其是” , 而 specially 则表示目的,意为“专门地,特殊地” 试题:1)he despised them all, _______ Sylvester.他瞧 。 不起他们所有的人,尤其是西尔维斯特。2) I came here ___________ to see you.我特地到这里来就是为了看 你。 答案: especially; 2) 1) specially。 So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider 】

vocabulary than ever before. 译文 译文:所以,到了十七世纪莎士比亚比以前能使用更为宽泛词汇。 【注释:

课文详解 Book 1-Unit 2

Edited by Yang Lei

4

make use of…利用,使用; make full use of…充分利用;make good use of…好好利用;make little use of … 不充分利用;take full advantage of…充分利用。例如:1) We should consider what use can be made of such a material. 2) In my opinion, the old shopping bag can still be made use of. 试题: 1) The money collected A. of helping B. to

should be made good use ____ the people who suffered a lot in this terrible earthquake. help C. to helping D. of to help

2) The manager of the company told us that very little ____ was A. cost B. value C. use D. matter】In 1620 some British

made of the waste material in the past.

th settlers moved to America.译文 译文:在 1620 年,一些英国移民移到美国。 Later in the 18 century some British people were taken to Australia too.译文 译文:后来,在 18 世纪一些英国人也被带到澳大利亚。 【注 释: sb. is taken to sp.某人被带到某处。 English began to be spoken in both countries.译文 】 译文:在这两

个国家开始说英语。

Finally by the 19th century the language was settled.译文 译文:最终,到 19 世纪这种语言稳定下来。
【注释 settled 注释: 注释 adj. 不变的,不大可能改变的,稳定的. 例如: Once we get settled, we must ask the neighbours in for coffee.我们一安顿下来,就一定请邻居来家里喝咖啡。 At that time two big changes in English 】

spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language.译文 当时, 译文: 英语拼写出现两大变化: 首先 Samuel Johnson 写了一部词典,后来 Noah Webster 写了美国英语词典。 注释 【注释 注释:at that time 当时,在那时】 The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling.译文 译文:后者对美国英语拼写给予单独特性。 注释 【注释 注释:the
latter 后者;与其意思对应的是 the former“前者” latter ; 迟的,晚到的;later 你最近见到过他吗? adj. 后者的,后半的,接近终了的; late adj. adv 较晚地; lately adv. 近来,最近,不久前。例如:1)Have you seen him lately? 2)We later learnt that this wasn't true at all.我们后来了解到根本不是这么回事。 】

English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia.译文 译文:现在在南亚, 英语也作为一门外语或第二语言。 For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947.译文 译文:例如,由于英国从 1765 年至 1947 年统
治印度,所以印度拥有大量的能流利说英语的人。 注释 【注释 注释:①a large number of …许多,大量的。 注意以下 短语后跟的名词不同: (1) a large/ great/ good number of a great/ good many a good few quite a few (3) a lot/ lots of a great/ large quantity of large quantities of plenty of + 可数名词复数 或不可数名词 n.[u,c] + 可数名词 n.[c] (2) a great/ good deal of a great/ large amount of quite a little the number of + n.[c] (4) an amount of + n.[u] 后跟单数式谓语动词 a quantity of + n. [c,u] amounts of + n.[u] 后跟非单数式谓语动词 quantities of + n.[u,c] A. was keeping B. keep 试题: you can see, the number of cars on our roads ____ rising these days. As C. keeps D. were keeping 】 + 不可数名词 n.[u]

During that time English became the language for government and education. 译文 译文:在此期间,英语成为用于政府和教育的语言。English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. 译文 译文:在新加
坡、马来西亚以及非洲一些国家如南非也说英语。 注释 【注释 注释:such as 用来列举出前文所讲的同类人或事

物的部分内容, 意为 “例如, 比如” 如: dislike people such as him.我们不喜欢像他这号人。 Today 。 We 】

the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly.译文:如今,中国学英语 译文 的人数在快速增长。 【注释:the number of …作主语时,其后的谓语动词使用三单式形式】 In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. 译文 译文:事实上,中国可能拥有学英语的 人数最多。 【注释:in fact 事实上。 】 Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell.译文 译文:中国英语会形成自己的特色吗?只有时间才能告诉我们。

课文详解 Book 1-Unit 2

Edited by Yang Lei

5

7.Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English.
【精提取】 【巧应用】 even if 或 even though 意为“即使,尽管”,引导让步状语从句。 即使我得一路走着去,我也要走到那里。

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ all the way,I’ll get there. 答案:Even if I have to walk 8. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. 【精提取】 【巧应用】 more...than...与其说……倒不如说…… 造成她不愉快的原因,与其说是他所说的话,倒不如说是他的说话方式。

It was ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________what he said that made her unhappy. 答案:more the way he said it than 9. However,on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. 【精提取】 the way+定语从句,定语从句的引导词在从句中作状语时,可用 that,in which,也可以省略。 【巧应用】 我不喜欢你嘲笑她的那种方式。

I don’t like ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ . 答案:the way in which you laughed at her


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