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Knowledge Management For SMEs In Developing Countries

Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2010

Knowledge Management For SMEs In Developing Countries
Iftikhar Hussain ?, Steven Si ?, Adnan Ahmed ? ? Shanghai University, China, ? Muhammad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan

ABSTRACT: Knowledge management helps in increasing productivity, effectiveness and efficiency in operations. Overlooking KM can seriously hamper the growth and prosperity of a SME. A comprehensive literature study was undertaken. The study accessed the status of KM in SMEs in developing countries and also examined the factors that influence the adoption of KM for SMEs in developing countries. Many organizations have profited from KM because they recognize the importance of the KM in business growth and development. However the study found SMEs, in developing countries have not realized this importance and still are vulnerable. The study takes this factor into consideration and proposed a KM approach specific to SMEs in developing countries. The study contributes on KM and SMEs literature in developing countries and is one of the few studies conducted in developing countries. Keywords: Knowledge management, SME, Developing countries, Organization

1.

Introduction

KM helps in increasing productivity, effectiveness and efficiency in operations. Overlooking KM can seriously hamper the growth and prosperity of an SME. KM creates alternate profitable prospects for SMEs. The study considered the literature on KM with a view to ascertaining how this might be applied to SMEs in developing countries. This is important because KM have received renewed interest with the emergence of the knowledge economy. Many organizations have profited from KM because they recognize the importance of the KM in business growth and development. However the study found SMEs, in developing countries have not realized this importance and still are vulnerable. The study takes this factor into consideration and proposed a KM approach specific to SMEs in developing countries. The study contributes on KM and SMEs literature in developing countries and is one of the few studies conducted in developing countries.

The potential which KM offers in improving efficiency and innovation has been cited as a key source of competitive advantage (MacKinnon et al., 2002). Despite this pressing need, it is widely accepted that small companies – even the most knowledge-intensive ones – are characterized by a lack of uptake of KM initiatives (Nunes et al., 2006). Perhaps due to the reason that KM systems are expensive to purchase, use and maintain. The aim of this study was to propose an alternative approach to developing KM systems for SMEs in developing economies. Instead of usual approaches, where KM needs heavy financial and other resources, study suggested solution centric approach (Patrick & Dotsika, 2007). Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) make substantial contributions to national economies and are estimated to account for 80 percent of global economic growth (Pavic et al., 2007). Today the business environment has become more competitive than ever before. In this competitive environment knowledge is thought to be the primary resource. The conventional factors of production have become secondary. It is straightforward to obtain them, provided there is knowledge (Chen et al., 2006). Davidson and Griffin (2003) pointed out small businesses have contributed many innovative ideas and technological breakthroughs to our society. In order to maintain and develop further their innovative skills SMEs need to develop their understanding of knowledge management (KM), as a key business driver rather than as a resource-intensive additional initiative (Zanjani et al., 2008). “KM has become the latest strategy in increasing organizational competitiveness” (DeTienne & Jackson, 2001). The critical assumption of KM is that organizations that manage organizational and individual knowledge better will deal more successfully with the challenges of the new business environment. KM is seen as a vital factor in realizing and sustaining organizational success for improved efficiency and innovation. Today, knowledge is the primary source of competitive advantage and the key to success for organizations in the knowledge economy (MacKinnon et al., 2002; Patriotta, 2003). This study analyzed different aspects of KM with respect to developing countries and proposed strategies for better implementation of KM programs in developing countries. The study consists of six sections. Following introduction, section 2 contains literature about knowledge, KM, SMEs, and KM & SMEs. Section 3 discussed the role of SMEs in developing countries and the need for KM in SMEs. Section 4 highlighted the benefits of KM for SMEs and section 5 contains the research findings. Section 6 concludes the paper and provides future research directions. 2. Literature Review

2.1. Knowledge Knowledge has been defined in multiple ways. Davenport and Prusak (1988) defined knowledge as follows: ‘Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the

minds of knower. In organizations, it is often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms.’ Knowledge is the primary resource for individuals, organizations and the economy. Delahaye (2003) concluded that knowledge is a distinctive source as it has no law of diminishing returns, grows from sharing. Wiig (1997) argued that knowledge is not a new concept, from very early times people have transferred knowledge by succession to the next generation. In ancient cultures, this has taken the form of narratives and songs, which were intended to teach the new generation new skills and survival techniques. Samuel (1775) wrote in his early dictionary "Knowledge is of two kinds: we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it”. Knowledge can be divided into two categories: tacit and explicit. Explicit knowledge refers to the knowledge which can be articulated in formal language such as grammatical statements, mathematical expressions, specifications, manuals, and thus can be transmitted across individuals formally and easily. On the contrary, tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge which is hard to articulate with formal language, but is personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involves intangible factors such as personal belief, perspective, and value systems (David, 2006; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). 2.2. Knowledge Management KM involves knowledge identification, creation, acquisition, transfer, sharing and exploitation. KM is vital for efficiency and organizational competitiveness (Egbu, 2001). Boh (2007) described that KM is a systematic process for acquiring, organizing, sustaining, applying, sharing and renewing both the tacit and explicit knowledge of employees to enhance organizational performance and create value. Menkhoff et al., (2002) defined KM as the task of developing and exploiting both tangible and intangible knowledge resources of an organization. Pillania (2006c) defined KM as “a systematic, organized, explicit and deliberate ongoing process of creating, disseminating, applying, renewing and updating the knowledge for achieving organizational objectives''. KM is a process which involves the management of explicit and tacit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). 2.3. SMEs And Their Role In Developing Countries According to OECD (2000) SMEs make-up the largest proportion of businesses all over the world and play tremendous roles in employment generation, provision of goods and services, creating a better standard of living, as well as immensely contributing to the gross domestic products (GDPs) of many countries. The European Commission gave rise to the term SME in 1996 and defined the term as organizations employing fewer than 250 people (Burns, 2001). In developing countries, SMEs are defined differently for various countries. The term SME covers a heterogeneous group of businesses in a developing economy, ranging from a single artisan working in a small shop making handicrafts for a village market to sophisticated engineering firms

selling in overseas markets (Fischer & Reuber, 2003). Generally SMEs in developing countries have not more than 250 employees. Some important characteristics of SMEs include: The company is characterized by the entrepreneur who very often also is the owner of the company. The entrepreneur normally is the “general manager”, thus he acts on his own risk. The entrepreneur has a network of personal contacts to customers, suppliers and the relevant public sector. So the contact is close and rather informal. The company usually acts very local. The products offered can be very individual to the customer’s needs. The form of organization is rather informal and flat. The company can react quickly to changes in the environment. The company is not dominated or ruled by another company, e.g. part of big business concern. The market share is normally small. The products are little diversified. About 36% of the SMEs are not older than 10 years (specific development stage). SMEs are the backbone of the industrialization process of many developing countries and play a vital part in expanding a country's economy. In Thailand, SMEs account for more than 90% of the total number of establishments, 65 per cent of employment and 47 per cent of manufacturing value added while in Philippines, SMEs comprise 99 per cent of the total manufacturing establishments and contribute 45 per cent of employment and 18 per cent of value added in the manufacturing sector. Across the South Asia, the contribution of SMEs to the overall economic growth and the GDP is high. It was estimated that SMEs contribute 50% of Bangladesh’s industrial GDP and provide employment to 82% of the total industrial sector employment. In Nepal, SMEs constitute more than 98% of all establishments and contribute 63% of the value-added segment. In India, SMEs' contribution to GDP is 30% (Mahmood, 2008). According to economic survey of Pakistan (2008-09) SMEs have made the most significant contribution to the economic growth in 2008-09. SMEs’ sector has emerged as a lifeline of Pakistan’s economy constituting nearly 99.06 percent of all economic establishments. These establishments jointly contribute 30 percent to GDP employing 80 percent of the non-agricultural labor force, 25 percent to total export and 35 percent to manufacturing value addition. SMEs’ contain various advantages in income growth, entrepreneurial training, creation of technological capabilities, greater flexibility to changing market circumstances, job creation and lower wage inequality and dispersion of industry away from urban areas and regional development (Berry, 1998; Katrak and Strange, 2002). Other benefits of promoting SMEs in a developing country like Pakistan are: i) SMEs foster an

entrepreneurial culture and provide resilience in the economy ii) contribute to exports iii) poverty reduction through employment generation iv) facilitate learning geographically and across the sectors v) Their efficiency in resource allocation is higher vi) reduce inequalities in the economy by distribution of wealth (Mahmood, 2008). 3. The Need For KM In SMEs

Both large and small firms, require continuous generation, sharing and implementation of knowledge in order to maximize their competitiveness and survival chances in the modern information society (Nunes et al., 2006; Pillania, 2008b). However SMEs relatively need more focused approach towards KM as they face severe competition. Saloja et al., (2005) described that a more conscious and systematic approach to KM enhance SMEs performance and competitive advantage. KM also promotes innovation and business entrepreneurship, help manage change, and empower employees (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). Zanjani et al., (2008) stated that SMEs need to make operational, tactical and strategic decisions and without accurate information they are unable to undertake this role. The knowledge of employees of an organization is an important asset and such knowledge should be garnered for the ultimate good of the company. Wong and Aspinwall (2004) described two complementary perspectives about KM importance in SMEs. "Pull" perspective, which identifies the potential benefits or improvements that are crucial for small businesses, include for example improved competency, efficiency, innovation, learning and knowledge sharing. And "push" perspective, which deals with the external or environmental thrusts that push them to the forefront of KM, include amongst others, competitive pressure, globalization, movement of large companies toward knowledge based organizations (Davenport & Prusak, 1988). There are some other underlying reasons for which SMEs need to manage their knowledge resources. i) SMEs compete on the basis of their competencies and knowledge is an important resource to be competent, hence have to use knowledge more than traditional resources. ii) The owner of SMEs, usually are also manager needs to transfer knowledge to employees. iii) SMEs usually did not find or unable to retain good minds; hence they must settle for less qualified but motivated human resources. iv) Key stake holders like lending institutions, investors, suppliers, and customers, judged SMEs on the basis of their knowledge and strategies to put knowledge in right use. (Zanjani, Mehrasa & Modiri, 2008). Another factor, which explains the emergence of KM concepts, is the continuous ‘rightsizing’ trend. Starting in the 1980s, corporate downsizing measures led to the loss of valuable information and knowledge resources and subsequently to the emergence of KM as strategic countermeasure. The driving forces like globalization have lead individuals and organizations to appreciate the important role of knowledge in an increasingly competitive world market (Davenport & Prusak, 1988). SMEs as a part of business sectors are no different from any other business sector. KM plays an important role for many SME companies

in gaining competitive advantage and business survival. Knowledge in a company should be properly managed and controlled to be effective and competitive, therefore, there is no excuse or option to them to manage individual and organizational knowledge to continuously improve their process and compete in market. By and large, SMEs have a set of distinctive needs as described earlier that call for the deployment of a KM system for generating, sharing, and refining organizational knowledge. However, in practice, SMEs are still very reluctant to take KM principles into their strategic thinking and daily routines (McAdam & Reid, 2001; Nunes et al., 2006). SMEs usually lack resources such as land, labor, and capital. Therefore, SMEs must do more with less (Desouza & Awazu, 2006). SMEs need to be creative in working in order to manage knowledge with limited resources (Zanjani et al., 2008). Though SMEs in developing countries, in comparison with large enterprises are on back step for the availability of resources to manage knowledge. SMEs do have certain advantages in KM practice. i) SMEs flat structure and short decision making process allows shorter and faster information flow which can improve communication, as well as easier to permeate new change initiatives. ii) SMEs flexible culture provides a good foundation for a change, for example the practices of quality initiatives. iii) People dominated together with organic behaviour, rather than bureaucratic and system dominated, and this helps improve the chances of success for new initiatives. iv) The high incidence of innovativeness can nurture a continuous improvement culture. Knowledge, if properly harnessed, enables SMEs to stand out in the competition and outperform their rivals, thus maintaining a competitive edge (Wong, 2005). 4. Challenges For KM

Organizations have a wealth of knowledge which, is embedded in people’s head, work practices, and systems. The challenge for organization is to be able to capture that knowledge and to leverage it throughout the organization. Spender (2002) asserts that the intangible nature of knowledge makes it harder to identify and manage; consequently it cannot be treated in the same way as other organizational assets. SMEs in developing countries have to face many challenges regarding KM adoption. Many SME owner-managers lack even fundamental concepts about KM and are unaware about underlying benefits of KM. Cultural barriers such as distrust, lack of recognition and communication, knowledge is power mindsets, retrenchment concerns and so forth act as demotivators with regard to effective knowledge sharing and utilization of ‘what we know’. Organizational culture plays a critical role in adoption and successful implementation of KM in SMEs. Von Krogh (1998) stated “high organizational care culture” as a key element in KM development as its helps people to share ideas, information and knowledge. Developing KM competencies and visionary leadership is also challenging for SMEs. Other challenges SMEs face regarding KM are; i) SMEs rarely have a KM policy on strategic level; ii) Delegation of decision-making authority; iii) use of more sophisticated KM tools (Von Krogh, 1998). Handzic and Hasan (2003a)

identify two major challenges for KM: achieving an objective picture of the field, based on formal and sound research, which integrates diverse perspectives of researchers and practitioners; and bridging the gap between theory and practice, thereby providing well-established KM strategies, tools and procedures for managers. Consequently such challenges and resistance to change in KM adoption and successful implementation is natural. This resistance was manageable as it was because of lack of KM knowledge and lack of training about KM implementation. 5. KM Strategy For SMEs In Developing Countries

KM strategy depicts the general approach an organization aim to take to align its knowledge resources and capabilities to the intellectual requirements of its strategy, thus reducing the knowledge gap existing between what a company must know to perform its strategy and what it does know. (Zanjani et al., 2008) Considering the nature and requirements of SMEs in developing countries, researchers proposed personalization strategy for KM. Personalization is a strategy to manage the knowledge that is formed via human communication. Personalization strategy focuses on dialogue between individuals, not knowledge objects in a database. It is a person-to-person approach where knowledge is shared not only face-to-face, but also by electronic communications, thus building networks of people (Cendan et al., 2007). Personalization, on the other hand, provides a rich medium for communication, as it is concerned with the use of people as a mechanism for sharing knowledge (Boh, 2007). If the business strategy focuses on generating new or customer specific solutions or product innovations the personalization strategy should be chosen rather than the codification strategy (Greiner et al., 2007). Personalization strategy is more suitable for SMEs conducting tasks that are more innovative in nature (Zanjani et al., 2008). Through the suggested KM strategy of personalization, SMEs will able to leverage upon its tangible and intangible assets, to learn from past experiences, whether successful or unsuccessful, and to create new knowledge. This KM strategy needs to implement at three different levels in SMEs, people level, organizational level and technological level as described in figure 1. At the people level, KM needs to emphasis on the competencies, education and learning abilities of organizational members to create KM awareness and make them more creative and innovative. At organizational level, KM is concerned about the development of a visionary leadership and a sound organizational culture to ensure maximum sharing of innovative and creative knowledge. Chan and Mauborgne (2003) also suggested constructive leadership behavior and development of a healthy organizational culture as important enabler of KM. Technologically, effective KM requires the efficient organization of a suitable communication and information infrastructure (e.g. intranet) based on suitable and relevant taxonomies and knowledge repositories (where applicable).

Figure 1: KM Strategy For SMEs

People Level

Organization Level

KM Strategy Emphasis on the competencies, education and learning abilities of organizational members to create KM awareness and make them more creative and innovative

Organization Level

Creating and developing a visionary leadership for KM, understanding and developing KM oriented organizational culture and structure

Developing an efficient communication and information infrastructure to integrate several organizational components
6. Conclusion

SMEs in developing countries have done very little for KM development in their organizations. It’s not necessary that KM development will solve all the problems SMEs presently face. However SMEs will be in position to deal effectively with demands of present competitive era by managing individual and organizational knowledge. SMEs in developing countries need to make knowledge resources more productive with the help of proposed KM strategy. SMEs in developing countries need to create such an environment which can boost interaction between individuals and teams, ensure maximum participation and a high level of motivation to become more creative, innovative and competitive. The proposed strategy will help them in achieving stated objectives. In summary, the KM personalization approach is most relevant to SMEs in developing countries because this has the greatest potential for the sharing of valuable tacit knowledge.

The governments in developing countries also need to develop specific policy to help SMEs in their countries to built KM awareness. Government agencies, chambers of commerce and SMEs need to commit more resources and work collectively to make the KM more profitable for SMEs. Also the owners and managers of SMEs need to change their attitudes and think positively about adopting new changes like KM adoption to remain competitive. 7. References

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________________________________________ 摘要: 知识管理有助于提高营运效率, 有效性和效率。 知识可以俯瞰严重阻碍了中小企业的增长和 繁荣。一个全面的文献研究进行。在这项研究访问的中小企业知识管理的地位,在发展中国 家和还研究了影响因素,发展中国家的中小企业采用知识。许多组织都得益于知识,因为他 们认识到在业务增长和发展知识的重要性。然而,研究发现中小型企业,在发展中国家还没 有意识到这一点的重要性,现在仍然是脆弱的。这项研究考虑到这个因素,并提出了具体的 知识管理方法, 在发展中国家的中小企业。 这项研究有助于对文学知识和中小企业在发展中 国家,是在发展中国家进行的几项研究之一。 关键词:知识管理,中小型企业,发展中国家,组织 ________________________________________ 1。简介 知识管理有助于提高营运效率, 有效性和效率。 知识可以俯瞰严重阻碍了中小型企业的增长 和繁荣。知识管理为中小企业创造有利的替代前景。这项研究认为,以确定如何查看这可能 是适用于发展中国家的中小型企业对知识管理的文献。 这一点很重要, 因为知识已收到了知 识经济的出现产生了兴趣。 许多组织都得益于知识, 因为他们认识到在业务增长和发展知识 的重要性。然而,研究发现中小型企业,发展中国家还没有意识到这一点的重要性,现在仍 然是脆弱的。这项研究考虑到这个因素,并提出了具体的知识管理方法,在发展中国家的中 小企业。 这项研究有助于对文学知识和中小企业在发展中国家, 是在发展中国家进行的几项 研究之一。 公里的潜力,提高效率和创新提供了已被列为竞争优势的主要来源(麦金农等。 ,2002) 。 尽管这样的迫切需要,它已被广泛接受,小公司 - 即使是最知识密集的国家 - 是由摄取的 特点是缺乏知识管理的倡议(努涅斯等人,2006 年。。也许由于知识管理系统的原因,是 )

昂贵的购买, 使用和维护。 这项研究的目的是提出一个替代方法来制定发展中经济体中小企 业的知识管理系统。与通常的方法,其中知识管理需求的沉重的财政和其他资源,而不是, 研究建议的解决方案中心的方法(帕特里克&Dotsika,2007) 。 中小型企业(SME)对国民经济作出重大贡献,估计占全球经济增长的 80 姊(Pavic 等。 , 2007) 。现今的商业环境已变得比以往更具竞争力。在这个竞争激烈的环境知识被认为是第 一资源。生产传统的因素已经成为次要的。它可以直接获得这些,只要有知识(陈等人。 , 2006) 。戴维森和 Griffin(2003)指出,小企业贡献了许多创新的想法和我们的社会的技术 突破。为了保持和进一步发展的中小型企业创新能力需要发展自己的知识管理(KM)理解 为一个重要的商业驱动, 而不是作为一个资源密集型的其他倡议, (Zanjani 等。 2008) “知 , 。 识已成为提高组织竞争力的最新战略”(DeTienne&杰克逊,2001) 。对知识管理的关键假 设是, 组织和个人的知识管理组织更好地将涉及新的商业环境的挑战更成功。 知识被视为在 实现和维持, 以提高效率和创新的组织成功的重要因素。 今天, 知识是竞争优势的主要来源, 为在知识经济组织的成功键(麦金农等人,2002 年;。Patriotta,2003) 。本研究分析方面 向发展中国家和拟议的战略, 以便更好地在发展中国家的知识管理方案的实施知识管理的不 同方面。 这项研究包括六个部分。下面的介绍,第 2 节包含有关知识,知识管理,中小型企业,中 小企业和 KM&文学。 3 节讨论了在发展中国家的中小企业和中小企业的知识管理需要的 第 作用。第 4 条强调了中小型企业知识管理的好处和第 5 条载有研究成果。第 6 节总结了文 件,并提供未来的研究方向。 2。文献回顾 2.1。知识 知识已被定义多种方式。达文波特和普鲁萨克(1988)所界定的知识如下:'知识是框架的 经验,价值观,背景资料,专家的见解,提供了评估,并纳入新的经验和信息框架液混合。 它起源并在认知者的头脑中的应用。在组织中,它往往成为不仅在嵌入式文件或资料库,而 且在组织程序, 过程, 实践和准则。 '知识是个人, 组织和经济的主要资源。 德拉哈耶 (2003) 认为知识是一种独特的来源,因为它没有收益递减规律,从分享成长。威格(1997)认为, 知识是不是一个新概念,从很早就被人转移到下一代继承知识经济时代。在古代文化中,这 已采取了叙述和歌曲,这是为了教授新一代技术,新技能和生存形式。 塞缪尔(1775)在他的早期说词典“知识有两种是:我们知道自己有一个主题,或者我们知 道哪里可以找到有关的信息”知识可以分为两类:。隐性和显性知识是指明确可挂接的正式 。 语言, 例如语法语句, 数学表达式,规格,手册,从而认识不同的个体可以传染正式和轻松。 相反,隐性知识是指知识,是很难清晰的正式语言,但个人的知识,涉及到个人的经验嵌入 式如个人信念,观点,价值体系(大卫,2006 年;野中与竹内,1995 年)无形因素。 2.2。知识管理 知识管理涉及知识识别,创造,获取,传输,共享和剥削。知识管理是提高效率和组织竞争 力(Egbu,2001 年)是至关重要的。嘘(2007)描述的是一个获取知识,组织,维持,运 用,分享和更新无论是员工隐性与显性知识,以提高组织绩效,创造价值的系统过程。 Menkhoff 等。 (2002)界定为开发利用这两个组织的有形和无形的知识资源,知识管理的 任务。 Pillania(2006 年 c)定义为“有系统,有组织,有明确的和蓄意制造,传播,应用, 更新,更新''组织目标的实现持续的过程知识管理的知识。知识管理是一个过程,涉及到显 性和隐性知识(野中与竹内,1995 年)的管理。 2.3。中小企业及其在发展中国家的作用 根据经合组织(2000)中小企业化妆的比例最大的企业遍布世界各地,发挥了巨大作用在 创造就业机会,提供的商品和服务,创造一个更好的生活水平,以及极大促进了国内生产总

值(国内生产总值)的许多国家。欧盟委员会就产生了长远的中小企业在 1996 年和定义为 雇用少于 250 人(伯恩斯,2001 年)组织的任期。在发展中国家,中小企业的定义为不同 国家不同。这个词涵盖了中小企业发展中经济的企业异质性,从单一的在一个小市场,为一 个村庄工程公司以精良的工艺品在(Fischer 和 Reuber,2003)海外市场销售店的工匠的 工作范围。发展中国家的一般中小企业不超过 250 名雇员。中小型企业的一些重要特征包 括: 公司的特点是谁的企业家往往也是公司的所有者。? 企业家通常是“总经理”,因此他的行为对他自己的风险。? 企业家有接触的个人客户,供应商和有关公共部门的网络。?因此,接触密切,而非正式的。 公司通常的行为非常本土化。? 可提供极个别客户的需求的产品。? 组织形式是非正式的,而不是持平。? 公司能作出快速反应的环境变化。? 该公司并没有支配或统治由另一家公司,如?部分大企业的关注。 市场份额通常是小。? 产品是小多元化。? 约 36%的中小企业没有 10 岁以上(具体的发展阶段) 。? 中小型企业是许多发展中国家的工业化进程中发挥骨干和扩大一国经济的重要组成部分。 在 泰国,中小企业超过 90 的单位总数,占制造业产值占百分之 65 的就业和 47%以上,而在 菲律宾增加,中小企业占总数的百分之 99 和制造业机构有助于百分之 45 就业,占增加价 值的百分之 18 在制造业部门。在整个南亚地区,中小企业的贡献,对整体经济的增长和 GDP 高。据估计,中小企业贡献的 50 孟加拉国的工业生产总值%和提供就业机会的 82%, 占工业部门就业。在尼泊尔,中小型企业构成超过 98%的受访机构和贡献 63 增值部分%。 在印度,中小型企业对 GDP 的贡献为 30%(马哈茂德,2008) 。 据巴基斯坦(2008-09)中小企业经济调查取得的最重大的贡献,在 2008-09 年度的经济增 长。 中小型企业的部门已经成为一个巴基斯坦的经济构成几乎所有的经济单位 99.06 百分之 生命线。这些机构共同促进国内生产总值的百分之三十至百分之八十聘用非农业劳动人口, 百分之 25 至百分之 35 的总出口和制造增值。 中小企业含有多种优势,在收入增长,创业培训,技术创新能力,更大的灵活性,以不断变 化的市场环境,创造就业机会,降低工资不平等和分散的行业,从市区及区域发展(贝里, 1998 年走; Katrak 奇特, 2002 年) 。促进中小企业的其他好处在巴基斯坦这样的发展中国 家是:一)促进中小企业的创业文化,并提供经济第二韧性)促进出口三)贫困,通过创造 就业机会减少四) 促进学习和跨部门地理五) 及其在资源配置效率更高六) 减少财富分配 (马 哈茂德,2008 年)的经济不平等。 3。中小企业需要在对知识管理 大型和小型企业,需要不断产生,分享和知识,以最大限度地实现在现代信息社会中的竞争 力和生存机会(努涅斯等人,2006 年;。Pillania,2008b) 。但需要更多的中小企业相对集 中的办法,因为他们对知识管理面临的激烈竞争。 Saloja 等。 (2005 年)中描述,一个更 加自觉和系统的方法来提高中小企业的知识管理绩效和竞争优势。 知识创新和业务还促进创 业,帮助管理变化,并赋予员工(野中与竹内,1995) Zanjani 等。 。 (2008)指出,中小 企业需要使业务,战术和战略决策和不准确的信息,他们无法承担这一角色。 对一个组织员工的知识是一个重要的资产, 这些知识应该为良好的公司的最终囊括。 Wong 和阿斯平沃尔(2004)中描述的两个约公里,中小型企业的重要性互补的观点。 “拉”的角 度,以识别潜在利益或改进对小企业是至关重要的,例如改进的能力,效率,创新学习,包

括知识共享。而“推”的角度来看,这与外部或环境推力是他们推到最前沿的知识处理,包括 除其他外,竞争压力,全球化,对知识基础的组织(达文波特和普鲁萨克,1988)大公司 的运动。还有一些其他潜在的原因是中小型企业需要管理的知识资源。我)中小企业市场上 竞争的能力和知识基础是一个重要的资源胜任,因此必须使用比传统资源知识。二)中小企 业老板,经理通常也需要将知识传授给员工。三)中小型企业通常没有找到或无法留住优秀 的头脑,因此他们必须解决欠合格的,但人力资源的积极性。四)如贷款机构,投资者,供 应商和客户的关键利益相关者, 在他们的知识和策略的基础判断中小企业投入使用知识的权 利。 (Zanjani,Mehrasa&Modiri,2008) 。另外一个因素,这说明了知识管理概念的出 现,是连续'rightsizing'趋势。在 20 世纪 80 年代开始,企业裁员措施导致了有价值的信息 和知识资源的损失及随后的知识管理作为战略对策的出现。 像全球化的驱动力量导致个人和组织在竞争日益激烈欣赏世界市场(达文波特和普鲁萨克, 1988)知识的重要作用。作为业务部门的一部分中小型企业没有任何其他业务部门不同。 知识管理中起着获得竞争优势和企业生存的许多中小型企业公司的重要作用。 知识在一个公 司应妥善管理和控制,以有效和有竞争力,因此,没有任何借口或选择他们管理个人和组织 的知识,不断提高自己的过程,在市场竞争。 总的来说, 中小企业需要有一种独特的一套描述过, 呼吁为创造, 共享知识管理系统的部署, 组织知识和精炼。然而,在实践中,中小企业仍然很不愿意考虑到他们的战略思维和日常生 活知识原则(麦克亚当和里德,2001;努涅斯等人,2006 年。。 ) 中小企业通常缺乏,如土地,劳动力和资本资源。因此,中小企业必须做以下(Desouza &Awazu,2006)更多。中小型企业需要在工作中以有限的资源来管理知识创作(Zanjani 等。 ,2008) 。虽然发展中国家的中小企业在与大企业相比,是对资源的可用性,管理知识 后蹬。中小企业知识管理实践中确实有一定的优势。我)中小企业扁平结构和决策过程中允 许短更短,更快的信息流动,可以改善通讯,以及更容易渗透到新的改革举措。二)中小企 业提供了一个灵活的文化改变了良好的基础比如,质量措施的做法。第三)的人把持连同有 机的行为,而不是官僚体制为主,这有助于提高对新举措的成功机会。四)创新高发病率可 以培育一个持续改进的文化。知识,如果妥善利用,使中小企业在竞争中脱颖而出,并超越 对手,从而保持竞争优势(黄,2005) 。 4。知识管理面临的挑战 组织有丰富的知识财富,是在人们的头顶,工作实践和制度之中。对于组织的挑战是能够捕 获整个组织的知识,并充分利用它。富豪(2002)断言,知识的无形性使得它更难识别和 管理, 因此它不能以同样的方式对待其他组织的资产。 发展中国家的中小企业必须通过知识 管理方面遇到许多挑战。 许多中小企业主, 管理人员缺乏有关知识甚至基本概念和知识管理 是效益的标的不知道。文化障碍,如不信任,认可和缺乏沟通,知识就是力量的心态,裁员 等问题,与有关有效的知识共享和利用 demotivators 法'我们知道'。组织文化在知识管理成 功的通过和实施对中小企业的关键作用。冯克罗(1998)指出的一个关键因素“高关怀组织 文化”,发展为知识可以帮助人们交流思想,信息和知识。发展知识的能力和富有远见的领 导也极具挑战性的中小型企业。中小型企业面临的其他挑战方面知识的,我)中小企业很少 有战略层面上的知识管理政策;二)决策授权;三)使用更先进的知识管理工具(冯克罗, 1998) Handzic 和 Hasan(2003 年)确定的知识管理两大挑战:实现该领域的目标图片, 。 在正式和完善的研究, 为一体的研究人员和从业人员的不同观点, 以及弥合理论与实践之间 的差距,从而提供良好建立知识管理战略,工具和管理程序。因此这种挑战和变革的阻力昆 明通过并成功实施是自然的。 这种阻力是可以管理的, 因为对知识的认识和有关知识缺乏是 实施培训。 5。知识管理策略对于发展中国家的中小企业

知识管理战略描绘了一个组织的总体方针的目标是采取调整其知识资源和能力, 其战略的智 力要求,从而降低了知识差距,必须知道什么是公司的战略和执行什么它知道存在。 (Zanjani 等。 ,2008) 考虑到自然和发展中国家的中小企业的需求, 研究人员提出了知识管理的个性化战略。 个性 化是一个战略管理是通过人际交往形成的知识。 个性化的战略重点是个人之间的对话, 而不 是在一个数据库知识的对象。它是一种人对人的知识是共享的方法,即不仅面对面,还以电 子通讯,从而建立了人际网络(Cendan 等。 ,2007) 。个性化,另一方面,提供了丰富的沟 通媒介,因为它与人们作为分享知识(嘘,2007 年)机制的运用。如果企业的战略上产生 新的或客户的具体解决方案或产品创新聚焦在应该选择个性化的战略, 而不是编纂策略 (格 雷纳等。 ,2007) 。更个性化的策略是进行任务,具有创意性的中小型企业适合的(Zanjani 等。 ,2008) 。 通过个性化建议的知识管理战略, 中小企业将能够根据其有形和无形资产, 利用汲取以往的 经验,无论成功还是失败,并创造新的知识。这种知识管理战略需要在三个中小型企业,人 的水平,组织水平和技术水平的不同层次的执行,如图 1 所示。在民众层面上,需要对知 识的能力, 教育和组织成员的学习能力以建立知识管理的认识, 使他们更具有创造力, 创新。 在组织层面, 知识管理关注的是一个有远见的领导力发展和完善的组织文化, 以确保创新和 知识创新的最大共享。陈和 Mauborgne(2003)也提出建设性的领导行为和健康知识的重 要力量,作为组织文化的发展。技术上,有效的知识管理需要一个合适的通信和信息基础设 施(如内部网)在适当和有效的组织相关的分类和知识信息库(如适用)的基础。 图 1:知识管理策略对中小企业 6。结论 在发展中国家的中小企业做了非常公里, 他们的组织难以发展。 这是没有必要的知识管理发 展将解决所有中小企业目前面临的问题。但是中小型企业将能够处理在当前竞争的时代要 求, 通过管理个人和组织的知识有效。 发展中国家的中小型企业需要做出更多的知识资源与 知识管理策略的建议帮助生产力。 发展中国家的中小型企业需要创造这样一个环境, 可以提高个人和团队之间的互动, 确保最 大限度的参与和动机高的水平,成为更具创造性,创新性和竞争力。拟议的战略将帮助他们 实现既定目标。总之,知识管理的个性化的做法是在发展中国家最相关的,因为这对宝贵的 隐性知识共享的最有潜力的中小型企业。 发展中国家的政府还需要制定具体政策, 帮助其建立国家中小企业知识管理的认识。 政府机 构, 商会和中小企业商会需要投入更多的资源和集体努力, 以使更多的中小企业知识有利可 图。 此外中小企业的业主和管理人员需要改变他们的态度, 并认为对于采取积极采纳新的变 化一样知识保持竞争力。


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