当前位置:首页 >> 环境科学/食品科学 >>

光纤复合纤维的开发电力水力和冒口脐和连接器


OTC 5918 Development of Composite Fiber Optic, Electric Power, and Hydraulic Riser Umbilical and Connector
by M. Yamaguchi and T. Hagihara, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd" and S. Yato, Japan Nat!. Oil Corp.

This paper was presented at the 21st Annual OTC in Houston, Texas, May 1-4, 1989. This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference or its officers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract,of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented.

ABSTRACT Suitable optical fiber units for composite umbilicals were selected from eight different units through six tests, and two types of composite umbilicals were designed and manufactured. The umbilicals selected showed only slight optical transmission losses in the tests, which were simulated under field conditions. Connectors with two optical, three electrical and three hydraulic contacts were manufactured and tested. With hydraulic power, the optical connection loss of the connectors did not exceed 3 dB under 35 kgf/cm in a pressure vessel. Tests results showed that it is possible to use the developed riser umbilical and the connector under atua1 field conditions. INTRODUCTION Hydraulic systems have been used in oil production systems for a long time. Currently, a combined electric and hydraulic system is becoming popular; especially in offshore production. Moreover, recent offshore systems require mass data communication between the platform and the subsea equipment. With this trend, fiber optic cables have advantages of lighter weight and accurate (low noise) mass data transmission capacity against an usual copper wire base coaxial cable, generally applied as a data transmission line, but has never been used under dynamic conditions for long periods. Composite fiber optic, electric power, and hydraulic umbilical riser system was developed from 1985 to 1988, jointly by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) and Japan National Oil

!n this development, suitable optical fiber units were examined for a dynamic riser system, and composite fiber optic, electric power and hydraulic riser umbilicals were evaluated. In floating production systems, it is necessary to connect/disconnect the umbilical under water. For this purpose, an optical, electrical, and hydraulic multi-wet connector will be required. The optical wet connector, in particular, represents new technology in this field. MODEL RISER SYSTEM The catenary cable system using a submerged buoy was selected for the model riser system. The system shown in Fig. 1 can be utilized for various water depths. The umbilicals used in the system need good mechanical characteristcs, especially for dynamic waves. Therefore the motion of the model floating platform (Length: 104.5m, Breadth: 67.0m, Depth: 35m) was analyzed under two sea conditions (Table 1). Based on the analysis, the bending moments of the raiser umbilical were calculated. The calculated umbilical model is shown in Table 2. The calculated conditions are shown in Table 3 and the results are shown in Table 4. The results show that the point which appeared to have the maximum dynamic bending moments is the lower terminal in the North Sea. The values are 36.2 kg.m (Surge) and 47.2 kg.m (Heave). EVALUATION METHODS OF RISER UMBILICAL The eight laboratory tests were used to evaluate the umbilical over a five year period.

Corporation (JNOC).
References and illustrations at end of paper

377

---_.......~-

2

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITE FIBER OPTIC, ELECTRIC POWER AND HYDRAULIC RISER UMBILICAL AND CONNECTOR

OTC 5918

(1) Simulated motion test The umbilical is set up in the shape of a catenary on the simulated motion test equipment (Fig. 2). The upper terminal of the umbilical can be moved. For five years, the riser umbilical could not be damaged due to bending moments. The required dynamic characteristics of the riser umbilical shown in Table 5 are based on the motion analysis of the model system. On the other hand, the motion simulation test equipment can apply the bending moments (Table 6) to the umbilical in excess of 100 kg.m. The fatigue destruction of the umbilical caused by repeated bending is related to bending cycles and bending stress and is in proportion to bending moment. When the test equipment applies more stress than in sea conditions, it is possible to show the fatigue characteristics under fewer cycles during use. The umbilical is made mainly of plastic, and the fatigue characteristics are presumed to agree with that of the plastic. Fig. 3 shows the relations between the bending moment and the bending cycles. The conditions shown in Table 5 are plotted and the relation line is drawn from the plotted point, based on characteristics of the plastic. The test conditions decided are repeating cycles of 2 x 10 5 cycles at the maximum bending moment of the test equipment. (2) Repeated bending test This test simulates an actual laying condition of the umbilical. The purpose of this test is to investigate the influence of partial repeated bending. The umbilicals, 1 m in length are bent with 1500 mm radius which are under the maximum bending radius of the umbilical. The numbers of repeated cycles are 1.25 x 10 7 cycles, which correspond to the total cycles for five years of waves with a interval of thirteen seconds. (3) Tensile test The tension of the umbilical in laying is about 1.5 tons if the water depth is 300 m and the umbilical's weight in water is about 4.3 kg/m. The test tension is 10 tons considering the terminal weight and the acceleration caused by waves ?. (4) Bending and twisting test

(5) Repeated bending on the sheaves test This test simulates the condition of repeated bending of the umbilical on the sheaves while it is being lowered in the sea for laying and maintenance. The sheave diameter is 1.6 m. The tension is 5.2 tons, four times as large as large as the umbilical's weight in water (1.3 tons 4.3 kg/m x 300 m). 1000 repeated bending cycles are applied. (6) Compression test This test simulates the condition of radial compression between the umbilical and the sheave. The compression force (P) is related by P T(Tension)/R(radius of sheave). The tension is 5.2 tons as mentioned above, and the radius of the sheaves is 1.8 m, fifteen times as long as the diameter of the umbilical. So the compression force is about 3 kg/mm. (7) Internal pressure test The purpose of this test is to investigate the influence of an internal pressure equal to 210 kgf/cm 2 on hydraulic lines. (8) Flexural rigidity test The purpose of this test is to investigate the flexibility of the umbilical. The flexural rigidity of the umbilical is calculated from the applied weight to the umbilical and the deflection. TRIAL PRODUCTION OF RISER UMBILICAL The key point of development of a composite fiber optic, electric power and hydraulic raiser umbilical is the selection of the optical fiber unit. The units must be composed of electric power lines and hydraulic lines and must withstand all sea conditions. Trial Production of optical fiber units Trial production of optical fiber units, should reveal the following physical characteristics: o o o The transmission characteristics of optical fiber should not change during manufacturing The optical unit should be easy to lay and join in the field The advantages of lighter weight and small diameter should not lost Optical fibers should experience low tensile stress, even when large tensile force are applied to the umbilical. Optical fibers should withstand compressive stresses from adjacent electric power and hydraulic lines, and optical fibers should be protected from water pressure.

This test simulates the condition of bending and twisting of the umbilical while suspended in the sea during laying and maintenance. The bending cycles corresponding to five years are 7000 cycles in case the speed of dropping down once a year is 2 m/sec and water depth is 300 m. The test construction is shown in Fig. 4.

o o

378

---_.......~-

OTC 5918

M. YAMAGUCHI, T. HAGlHARA AND S. YATO

3

Two types of optical fiber units have been adopted to investigate the above points. One type is called a spacer type (Fig. 5(a)). Optical fibers are put in the grooves in a spacer. The other type is called a twisted type (Fig. 5(b)). In this case, optical fibers are twisted around a central tension member. The two types of optical fiber units are filled with a compound or covered with a metal tube for waterproofing. The four types of optical fibers for the units are adopted as shown in Fig. 6. The characteristics of glass fibers of four types are the same for each. The core diameter of each fiber is 50~m, and the c1ading diameter is 125 ~m. The material is silica glass having a graded refractive index. Eight types of optical fiber units (Table 7) were designed and manufactured to combine two types of optical fiber units and four types of optical fibers. Test and evaluation of optical fiber units The six tests ?1) - (6)) in the eight tests for the umbilical were selected to comparatively evaluate the eight types of optical fiber units. The optical fiber units were evaluated with the optical transmission loss change and construction change in the test conditions. The comparative evaluation of the eight types of optical fibers are shown in Table 8. The results show that the more flexible GS-5, L-1 and L-2 design were better than the others. GS-1, GS-2, GS-3 and GS5 which have a metal spacer performed worse in the fatigue test. Only small differences were observed among the four types of optical fibers in the tensile and compression tests. Construction of riser umbilical As a. result of the evaluation of optical fiber units, five types were selected for trial production of composite fiber optic, electric power and hydraulic raiser umbilical. Two types of raiser umbilicals were manufactured. The basic arrangement of two types of umbilicals are shown in Table 9. The size of hydraulic lines is 1/2 inch. Stainless steel type and aramid fiber tape are adopted as the reinforcement of inner pressure. The tension members of hydraulic lines and umbilicals are aramid fiber reinforced plastic rods. The cross section of the umbilical is shown in Fig. 7. TEST AND EVALUATION OF RISER UMBILICAL The eight tests were carried out. The umbilicals were evaluated with the optical transmission loss change and construction change under test conditions. The test results shown in Table 10. The values in Table 10 show the increase of optical transmission loss.

As a result of the tests, it was learned that GS-5, L-1 and L-2 have characteristics for practical use. The twisted type and plastic spacer type optical fiber units are suitable for the umbilical. This shows that the flexibility of the optical fiber unit of the riser umbilical is significant. COMPOSITE FIBER OPTIC ELECTRIC POWER AND HYDRAULIC CONNECTOR In the model systems, it is necessary to connect/disconnect the umbilical under the sea. For this purpose, a composite optical, electrical, and hydraulic multi-wet connector has been designed and manufactured. Whereas electrical and hydraulic underwater connectors are already well established, optical wet connectors are not. The composite optical, electrical and hydraulic wet connectors were through1y tested following manufacture. They were connected at an under water depth of 300 m by hydraulic power and were controlled remotely. The following differences between manual optical connectors and those connectors using mechanical power were revealed: o The connector must accomodate about 1 mm gaps between the optical axes of the male connector and female connector. The tips of the connectors receive the by mechanical power during connection. stress

o

The method to connect with expanded and collimated optical beam for cylindrical lenses was adopted as the measure of gaps of optical axes. The principle sketch is shown in Fig. 8. The theoretical connection loss increase without using lenses at the glass fiber core diameter of 50 ~m and using lenses at the lens diameter of 1.8 mm are shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9 shows the loss increase related with the distance and gaps of optical axes between the male and the female connector. The results shown that connection loss are widely improved when using lenses. Moreover, the flexible top of the male connector can connect at the gaps of up to 1 mm, and withstand the stress during connection. The optical connectors considered the above were manufactured and tested. The construction as shown in Fig. 10. Optical connectors, electrical connectors and hydraulic connectors were combined and manufactured. The arrangements of composite connectors are shown in Table 11. The appearance of the connectors is shown in Fig. 11. The arrangement of the test equipment which can connect/disconnect the composite connectors by using hydraulic power under the water pressure of 35 kgf/cm 2 , is shown in Fig. 12.

379

4

DEVELOPMENTOF COMPOSITEFIBER OPTIC, ELECTRICPOWER AND HYDRAULICRISER DMBILICALAND CONNECTOR

OTC 5918

The prototype composite connectors were “ connected and disconnectedten times repeatdly using the equipment. The characteristics of the tenth time are shown in Table 12. The optical connectors were evaluatedwith the connection lose. The ele~tricalconnectorswere evaluated with the insulationresistance. The hydraulic connectorswere evaluatedwith the leakage. the optical connecAs a result of the test, tion loss was under 3 dB in the composite connector. The valuea ean be applied to optical data transmissionsystem.

Test results from the simulation of field conditionsshowed that it is possible to use the developed raiser umbilicaland the connector in actual field conditions. The next step is to confirm the ability of them in the actual field. The multi-mode (H/E/0)control system using the results of this developmentwill contributeto a highly reliable and efficient subsea oil productionsystem.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors appreciateTechnology Research Center of Japan National Oil Corporation for providing us technicaljfinancialsupport and kindly granting us to write and publish this paper.

CONCLUSIONS The raiser umbilicalsto be selected hardly increased the optical transmissitmloss in the tests. (Simulated motion test of two hundred thousand cycles, repeatedbending test of twelve million cycles etc.). The optical connection loss of the connectorsdid not exceed 3 dB. This ‘;nne;;~~ test was carried out ten times under in a pressurevessel by using hydraulic power.

REFERENCE (1) Morris Grossman: “FOCUS on fiber-opticconnectors: Low-cost linking still a challenge”, ElectronicsDesign, November 12, 255-268, (1981) .

Table 1

Sea conditionsof North Sea and SoutheastAsia at Maximum Operation

Max. Operation Items North Sea Maximum wave height (m) Wave cycle (see) Velocity of the wind (m/see) Current (kt) Water depth (m) 10
13.0 15.0 2.0

SoutheastAsia
3.9

6.0 15.4 1.5
90

150

Table 2

Calculatedmodel of riser umbilical

. Weight in water . Young’s modulus . Bending rigidity . Diameter . Minimum bending radius . Drag coefficient

4.3 kglm 1,000 kg/mm2 5
X

108 kg.mm2

122 mm 1.85 m 1.2

380

Table 3

Conditionsto calculatebending moinents of the riser umbilical

Item Water Depth (m) Level di,a.tance between the, upper terminaland the lower (I(l) umbilical lepgth (m) Buoyancy o< the buoy (kg) Surge (m) Motion of the upper terminal Heave (m) Cycle (see) current (kt)

North Sea
150

SoutheastAsia
90

106

66

240
500

140 300

3 3 13 2

2 1.15 6 1.5

Table 4

moments of Distributionof dynamic bending. riser umbilical for two sea arefls (unit: kg.m) Riser Base side Platform side Hanging low of buoy (C) point (D) of buoy (B)

I
1

sea Area \

I Heave ISurge

Heave 35.1 21.6 14.8
30.0 10.7 6.1 7.4

Table 5

of Required dynamic characteristics riser umbiiical

Item I Heave (kg.m) Surge (kg.m) \ Cycle (see) ]

North Sea t 36.2 47.2 13

SoutheastAsia I
30.0

14.8

I

6 2.63
X

1’
107

I

Repeatingcycles 1.22 x 107 for five years

I

I

Table

6

Distribution of dynamic umbilical in the motion

bending moments of riser simulation test equipment (unit: kg.m)

One side vibration (m) 1.5

Cycle

(see)

Platform side of buoy SURGE HEAVE 105.6

Hanging low point SURGE 51.6 HEAVE 18.5

18.8

113.3

30.0
*) L=9m, H1=7m

112.0
(see Fig.2)

104.6

51.1

18.1

Table

7

Combination

of eight

types of optical

fiber units

Optical Model Unit type N Gs-I Spacer 0 TA 0

Fiber NN -

type c Spacer material stainless steel Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Plastic
— —

Metal

cover

Cushion in the grooves —

Sheath material PE

Steel

Gs-2

Spacer Spacer Spacer Spacer Twisted Twisted Twisted

0
0

0
0

-

-

Aluminum Steel Aluminum —
— —

— — 0 —
— —

PE
PE

GS-3
Gs-4

0 0 -

0 0
0 0

0 0

-

PE
PE PE LAP LAP

Gs-5
L-1 L-2 L-3

-

-

0







N: Nylon Sheath WN: Nylon Double

Fiber Sheath

Fiber

TA: Tube Armor Fiber C: Fiber Cord

PE: Polyethylene LAP: Polyethylene

with Al laminate

tape

Table

8

Comparative

evaluation

of eight

types of optical

fibers

Test Simulated
uiocf.on

n
Repeated bending Bending and Cwist ing Repeated bending on the sheave omp res sion 1 Total evaluation

Uodel \ GS-I GS-2 Gs-3 GS-4 Gs-5 L-1 L-2 L-3

@OA
--G%--

Table

9

Basic arrangement

of tvva types of umbilicals

TTPE Element Optical Fiber Unit Power Line

L

TfPE

2

Gs-3 , GS-5 , L-2

GS-5, L-L, L-2 polyethylene lines

I

Electric

I

Three 600 V cross-linked insulated electric power Three nylon pipes reinforced stainless steel tape for 210 kgf/cm2

I

Hydraulic

line

Three nylon pipes reinforced aramid fiber tape for 210 kg f/cm2

382

Table 10

Test results and evaluationof riser umbilicals

lest Item Test conditions GS-3 TA N * GS-5 ‘IA

SimulatedRepeated Tensile
moti~n bending

Bending and Repeated bending Compres- Internal pressure twisting over the aheave sion 1000 cycles R=l.6m 5.2 tons 0.18 dB 0.12 0.26 0.18 0.18 0.18 -:.08 0 0.02 0

Flexural rigidity

7000 cycles 2x105 cyclea 1.25x107 Max. 10 Max angle Max Moment cycles tons R=1500MM 33 cycles k 40° 112 kg.m 0.01 dB 0.47 0.01 0.03 -0.06 -0.03
*

210 kgf/cm2 1.5 m 3 kg/mm 3 cycles 20 cycles length 0.04 dB 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.05 -0.02 0 -0.02 -0.03 -0.05 0.04 dB 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.05 -0.02 0.04 -0.02 0.01 0.04 4.93X108 kg,mm2 1.18x109 kg.rmn2

Optical Umbilical fiber units evaluation evaluation

1.42 dB -0.01 -0.08 -0.12 0.08 0.59 0.04 0.25 0.21 0.04 0.07

0.03 dB 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.84 0.04 -0.04 -0.05 0 0.04 0.01

3.87 dB 1.64 0.37 0.09 0.45 0.58 0.19 0.10 0.07 -0.04 0.30

A @

g
L-2
GS-5

N

o

TA WN
TA

0
@ o @ @

N y g ‘-1 L-3 :: C

0.07 %!1 0.24

TA: Tube Armor Fiber WN: Nylon Double Sheath Fiber

N: Nylon Sheath Fiber C: Fiber Cord

* not to be measured

Table 11 Compositeoptical, electricaland hydraulicwet connector Electrical 440 V, 42 mm2 Hydraulic 210 kgf/cm2

Optical

I I

Type

Core diameter:50 pm Type: Graded Index
2

Contact Numbers

3

3

Table 12 Result of connect/disconnect test of compositeconnector , Connectorcontact
I

I

I

I

In Air

In Water

Under water pressure (35 kgflcmz) 2.8 2.8
>1000 >1000

Optical Connector (dB)

No.1 No.2

2.3 2.4 >1000 >1000 >1000 No leakage No leakage No leakage

2.8 2.7 >1000 >1000 >1000 -

No.1 Electrical Connector (Mfl) No.2 No.3 Hydraulic Connector No.1 No.2 No.3

>1000

I +’oa’ing “a’form
Riser g o q x Umbilical J3ubmerged Buoy
R=l .5

a z
&

I

D

F
using a submerged buoy

L (5-15m)

-1

Fig.1 Catenary

cable

system

Fig.2 Construction of motion test equipment

simulation

kg-m 110 g ~

-

Test

Condition \

s

g z :

100 90 80 ;; .

uH

S

Framei S : Surge H : Heave ,

~a~TwiSting —

equipment

Test umbilical

II
(bending angle) (twisting angle)

% -

North

Sea

$
AH

Southeast
I 1’04 I 1

Asia
1

AS
Bending equipment -

10s 2X105
repeating

10”
cycles

10’

Fig.3

Fatigue

characteristics

of riser

umbilical

Fig.4 Bending

and twisting test

fixture

(a) Optical Fiber Units (Spacer Type) Fig.5 Construction

o

Sheath Sheath Grooved spacer Optical fiber Optical fiber Central tansion member Filler

Glass Fiber Buffer @ Second Sheath

Tube Armor (Stainless steel) Glass Fiber Buffer (b) Tube armor fiber



Cushion

(a) Nylon sheath fibel

(b) Optical Fiber Units (Twisted

of two typee of optical fiber units

Glass Fiber

(c) Nylon double sheath fiber Fig.6

(d) Fiber cord

Construction of four types of optical fiber

/

Serving

Fiber

Reinforced

Plastic

Rod

Fiber Ilers Wire Tape

Unit

y

&
Y

Aramid Tape

Fiber

Reinforced

Plastic Rod

@ Stainless Steel Tape @ Aramid Fiber Tape Tape

~

1-

0122!

I

~ Type @ Type

1 (GS-3, 2 (GS-5,

GS-5, L-2) L-1, L.-3)

Fig.7 Cross section of Composite fiber optic, electric power and hydraulic riser umbilical (Type h, Type 2)

Cylindrical Optical Fiber ~--”-

lens +~ Optical Fiber

Fig.8

Principle sketch of method to connect with

expanded

and collimated

optical beam.

without

lenses (theory)

iii u
1

without

lenses (theory)

I

I

a)

:3 5

S2
with lenses (experiment) v
I

UJ ql .5 0 P C 0 ,. u

with lenses (experiment)

. w
I

0.1

0.2

0.3

(mm)

H._uJ 0.1

0.2

0.3

(mm)

Distance between male and female connectors (a)

Gaps between the optical axes of “male and female connectors (b)

Fig.9 Connection loss increase of optical connector (a) Distance between male and female connectors (b) Gaps between the optical axes of male and female connectors.

385

Resin Optical Fiber Flexible Tube Optical Fiber

6 r’

1 4

i

Fig.10 Construction

of optical

connector

Fig.11

Composite optical, wet connector.

electrical

and

hydraulic

Light Source De=} t /

Water tight bulkhead

xOptical

fiber

T

)

Female

Extension

rod

lClamp

\

‘Clamp ‘Pressure vessel (35kg/cm2)

Fig.12

Test equipment to connect/disconnect connectors by hydraulic power under

the wet water pressure


相关文章:
电力光缆介绍.doc
电力光缆介绍近年来,智能电网、FTTx 和 3G 网络建设...蝶形光缆因施工接续时可采用快速连接器进行冷接,...开发的适用于额定电压 3.6/6~26/35kV 的光纤复合...