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Control of spatiotemporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks


In China, a demonstration program for the fuel cell bus fleet operated at the Beijing Olympics in 2008 and the Shanghai Expo in 2010. It is necessary to develop comprehensive proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) diagnostic tools to increase the reliability of these systems. It is especially critical for fuel-cell city buses serving large numbers of passengers using public transportation. This paper presents a diagnostic analysis and implementation study based on the signed directed graph (SDG) method for the fuel-cell system. This diagnostic system was successfully implemented in the fuel-cell bus fleet at the Shanghai Expo in 2010.

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Article Outline

Nomenclature 1. Introduction 2. Diagnosis combining quantitative with qualitative analysis 2.1. Stack model 2.2. Hydrothermal system model 2.3. Air system model 3. Fuel cell system SDG diagnosis model 4. Conclusion Acknowledgements References

Highlights

? Combination of qualitative and quantitative modeling for fuel cell system diagnosis. ? Establishment of the SDG diagnosis model for PEM fuel cell system. ? The fuel cell system failure and components degradation can be well detected and observed at the Shanghai Expo demonstration in 2010.

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A probabilistic cellular automata model for highway traffic simulation Original Research Article Procedia Computer Science, Volume 1, Issue 1, May 2010, Pages 337-345 Marcelo Zamith, Regina Célia P. Leal-Toledo, Mauricio

Kischinhevsky, Esteban Clua, Diego Brand?o, Anselmo Montenegro, Edgar B. Lima
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Abstract

This work presents a probabilistic model for the microscopic simulation of traffic roads based on Nagel-Schreckenberg’s model. Each driver’s behavior is described through the combination of a continuous probability function with an anticipatory feature that leads to a counter flow velocity tunning. The simulations developed and described herein give rise to a phase diagram which resembles and enriches the fundamental diagram, in its theoretical as well as for real data.

244

A model for vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions of particles along Swedish roads Original Research Article Atmospheric Environment, Volume 39, Issue 33, October Purchase 2005, Pages 6088-6097 $ 35.95 G. Omstedt, B. Bringfelt, C. Johansson
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Abstract

One of the most important parameters that controls the suspension of road dust particles in the air is road surface moisture. This is calculated every hour from a budget equation that takes into account precipitation, evaporation and runoff. During wet conditions a road dust layer is built up from road wear which strongly depends on the use of studded tyres and road sanding. The dust layer is reduced during dry road conditions by suspension of particles due to vehicle-induced turbulence. The dust layer is also reduced by wash-off due to precipitation. Direct non-tailpipe vehicle emissions due to the wear and tear of the road surface, brakes and tyres are accounted for in the traditional way as

constant emission factors expressed as mass emitted per vehicle kilometre.

The model results are compared with measurements from both a narrow street canyon in the city centre of Stockholm and from an open highway outside the city. The model is able to account for the main features in the day-to-day mean PM10 variability for the street canyon and for the highway. A peak in the PM10 concentration is typically observed in late winter and early spring in the Nordic countries where studded tyres are used. This behaviour is due to a combination of factors: frequent conditions with dry roads, high number of cars with studded tyres and an accumulated road dust layer that increases suspension of particles. The study shows that using a constant emission factor for PM10 or relating PM10 emissions to NOx cannot be used for prediction of day-to-day variations in PM10 concentrations in the traffic environments studied here. The model needs to describe variations in dust load, wetness of the road and how dust suspension interacts with these processes.

Article Outline

Nomenclature 1. Introduction 2. Methodology and measurement sites 2.1. The street canyon site 2.2. The highway site 2.3. Model description 2.4. Reference emission factors 3. Results 3.1. Street canyon site 3.2. Highway site 3.3. Sensitivity analysis 4. Discussion

5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

245

Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong Original
Research Article

Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 38, Issue 6, November 2006, Pages 1157-1161 Kelvin K.W. Yau, H.P. Lo, Sherrice H.H. Fung
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Abstract

‘Multiple-vehicle traffic accident’ refers to a crash between two or more moving objects. Unlike single-vehicle accidents, not all drivers involving in a multiple-vehicle accident are responsible for the occurrence of the event. Accordingly, variables such as road type, speed limit and number of vehicles involved in the accident are expected to play a much more important role in association with injury severity in multiple-vehicle accidents. To study the factors influencing injury severity of multiple-vehicle traffic accidents, a population-based study was conducted. The traffic accident data was obtained from the Traffic Accident Data System (TRADS), which was developed by the Transport Department, Police Force and Information Technology Services Department, Hong Kong. Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents (N = 10,630) occurring during the 2-year period 1999/2000 were considered. Potential risk factors such as district, human, vehicle, safety, environmental and site factors were examined. Categorizing injury severity into “fatal/serious” and “slight”, a stepwise logistic regression model was applied to the population data set. The district board, time of the accident, driver's gender, vehicle type, road type, speed limit and the number of vehicles involved are significant factors influencing the injury severity. Identification of risk factors for severe traffic

accidents provides valuable information to help with new and improved road safety control measures.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Materials and methods 3. Results 4. Discussion Acknowledgements References

246

Finnish novice drivers’ competences – Successful driving test candidates 2000–2009 evaluated by driving examiners Original
Research Article

Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 66-75 Sami Mynttinen, Marita Koivukoski, Kari Hakuli, Esko Keskinen
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Abstract

Examiners assessed 440,472 successful Finnish driving test candidates’ competences before solo driving in traffic. It is well known that novice drivers’, especially male novices’, early solo driving period is prone to accidents. However, whether the novice drivers’ initial competences change or remain the same in the long run is not known. The changes of the participants’ initial competences (vehicle control, control of the traffic situations, vulnerable road users, adaptation to traffic flow and planning, recognising and avoiding risks and economical driving) between 2000 and 2009 were examined by ANCOVA analysis. The competence of vehicle control decreased during the 10 years, while the other competences remained unchanged. The 18-year-old participants scored better than their

older counterparts in vehicle control and economical driving. Nonprofessional participants scored better than driving school participants in vehicle control as well as in adaptation to traffic flow and planning. The participants’ low number of errors in the test of interpreting 50 still pictures related to competences other than vehicle control and adaptation to traffic flow and planning. Male participants’ scores were high in all competences. In addition, the uniformity of the candidate and examiner assessments was related to high scores in all competences.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Method 2.1. Participants 2.2. Instruments and procedures 2.3. Statistical analyses 3. Results 3.1. Description of the data 3.2. ANCOVA analysis 3.2.1. Vehicle control 3.2.2. Control of the traffic situations 3.2.3. Vulnerable road users 3.2.4. Adaptation to traffic flow and planning 3.2.5. Recognising and avoiding risks 3.2.6. Economical driving 4. Discussion 4.1. Successful Finnish driving test candidates’ competences from 2000 to 2009 4.1.1. Reduction in the vehicle control competence 4.1.2. Youngest participants and nonprofessional participants had high scores in vehicle control

4.1.3. Low number of errors in still-pictures test related to high competence scores 4.1.4. Males were assessed as more competent than females 4.1.5. High uniformity of the assessments was related to high competence scores 4.2. Limitations 4.3. Implications References

Research highlights

? The successful Finnish driving test candidates’ competence of vehicle control decreased during the 10 years, while the other competences remained unchanged. ? The 18-year-old participants scored better than their older counterparts in vehicle control and economical driving. ? Nonprofessional participants scored better than driving school participants in vehicle control as well as in adaptation to traffic flow and planning. ? The participants’ low number of errors in the theory test (interpreting 50 still pictures) related to high scores of other competence but not the vehicle control and adaptation to traffic flow and planning. ? Male participants’ scores were higher than females’ in all competences. ? The uniformity of the candidate and examiner assessments (assessed by the examiners) was related to high scores in all competences.

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Characterization of vehicle driving patterns and development of driving cycles in Chinese cities Original Research Article Purchase Transportation Research Part D: Transport and $ 41.95 Environment, Volume 13, Issue 5, July 2008, Pages 289-297 Qidong Wang, Hong Huo, Kebin He, Zhiliang Yao, Qiang Zhang
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Abstract

Current driving cycles used in China are not able to accurately assess vehicle emissions due to their inadequate representation of real-world driving. We in

this study analyzed the driving characteristics and developed the driving cycles in Chinese cities, then compared them to the European test cycle and the American Federal Test Procedure. Eleven cities were selected, covering different city sizes and geographical locations. Car chasing technique was employed in each city to collect speed–time data on freeways, arterials, and residential roads during traffic peak and non-peak periods. The data collected were adjusted by the traffic adjustment factors to reflect the overall traffic. Eleven driving parameters were used to characterize driving characteristics and develop driving cycles. The results indicate that city size, local road infrastructure, and driving behavior are the most important factors that lead to the significant differences in vehicle driving patterns among the cities. The comparison with the European and US cycles suggests that the emission factors produced from the European or US cycles-based tests could be significantly different than those from the driving cycles in China.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Data and methodology 3. Results 4. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

248

Development of the management strategies of the ECU for an internal combustion engine: Computer simulation Review Article Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 22, Purchase $ 35.95 Issue 6, August 2008, Pages 1356-1373 Ernesto Gutiérrez González, Jesús Alvarez Flórez, Sebastién Arab
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Abstract

This project is about the simulation design of an engine control unit (ECU) for an Otto cycle engine with electronic fuel injection (EFI). The simulation includes a model for the ECU as well as physical parameters of the engine, which allows closed-loop control and monitoring of various systems.

This simulation has been realized using Simulink and Stateflow, which are components of Mathworks’ MATLAB software.

The program allows control of various parameters of the ECU, as well as the simulation of failures to verify that the designed ECU is fault-tolerant and can control the engine using an open loop control. The main function the ECU provides is fuel metering.

Subsequently, this program could be used as a tool to quickly develop and test models of ECU in order to control an engine in laboratory for gas emission, fuel economy and engine performance improvements purposes.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. The engine control unit (ECU) 2.1. Introduction to the role of the ECU in electronic fuel injection strategy 2.2. Basic pulse width calculation: the lookup table 3. Closed-loop control of the engine: the “lambda correction” block 4. Corrections of pulse width based on air and coolant temperatures 4.1. Correction for intake air temperature 4.2. Correction for coolant temperature 5. The control logic system: Stateflow subsystem

5.1. Introduction to the control logic system 5.2. Injection hold: cut-offs 5.2.1. Throttle: strong negative variation 5.2.2. Over-speed cut-off 5.2.3. Gear and brake pedals cut-off 5.3. Evaporative emission control (EVAP) and enrichment of mixture 5.4. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system 5.5. EGO system 5.6. Fault-tolerant control system 5.6.1. Non-critical failures 5.6.1.1. Temperature sensors failure 5.6.1.2. EOBD signals failure 5.6.2. Critical failures 6. Model validation 6.1. Closed-loop and open-loop control 6.2. Physical behavior 7. Conclusions References

249

Proschema: A Matlab application for processing strong motion records and estimating earthquake engineering parameters Original Research Article Computers & Geosciences, Volume 36, Issue 7, July 2010,Purchase $ 19.95 Pages 977-986 M. Segou, N. Voulgaris
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250

Design of a hybrid polygeneration system with solar collectors and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Dynamic simulation and economic assessment


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