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2015 年 3 月十三校联考高三英语试卷 2015.03 听力(略) II. Grammar and vocabulary Section A Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. A Latin study can help Chinese learn English In 1988, I went and started to learn Mandarin in Taiwan. At first it was just the mysterious Eastern culture 25.________ attracted me, but after I read on Confucianism and Taoism, I was amazed by Chinese philosophy. In 1994, I was recommended by a friend to study with renowned philosopher Tang Yijie at Peking University as a doctoral student, 26.__________(focus) on the introduction and the spread of Christianity in China. Learning ancient languages enables us 27. __________(communicate) with ancient wise men. When I first read The Analects of Confucius in Chinese by looking up the dictionary word by word, I felt like I was talking to them who lived some 2,500 years ago, and it gave me tremendous joy. Nowadays, Chinese are crazy about learning English, 28. ________ many don’t know that English has been influenced by Latin in many ways, and if one wants to understand Western culture, one has to learn Latin. So I always wonder 29. __________ the Chinese are so content with superficial understanding instead of seeking the roots of the language. I used to have a dream of building a language school 30. _____________(dedicate) to Western classical languages, 31. ___________ now still seems unrealistic, but I have opened up courses in Renmin University and Beijing Normal University, and on weekends I do public teaching at the Xishiku cathedral (大教堂) and PostWave publishing company, so my dream is being partially realized. Besides teaching, I use my spare time writing books on classics studies and I 32. ___________(publish) more than 30 titles so far. I see my students as my children, and want to give them my best. B Modified food examined Studies on genetic modification(GM) 33. ______________(mention) six times in the annual No. 1 Central Document. This year’s document is the first to propose 34. __________(spread) scientific knowledge related to the use of genetic modification. This is a worthy move in that the authorities appear to have decided to break 35. ____________ long silence about GM technology, says Qing Chuan in an article in Rednet. cn. For too long, opinions on genetically modified crops in China have been divided. Advocates of GM accuse opponents 36. ___________ fear mongering( 兜 售 ) , while

opponents with either having been bought over by foreign seed companies, or ignoring threats to public health or national food security. The governmental authorities have been sponsoring studies for years but 37. ________ have not talked much about the unauthorized commercialization of research achievements exposed by some reports. Occasionally, government officials have complained about the public’s ignorance and “demonization”( 妖 魔 化 ) of GM technologies. Yet few of them succeeded in reassuring a worried public with 38. _______________ (convincing) explanations. GM technologies, GM food in particular, have been unpopular thus far not because they’ve been proven unsafe, but mostly because authorities 39. ___________ not have been unnecessarily quiet, says Qing. The public deserves to know 40. _______________ is being done and why, and such knowledge will contribute to their understanding of the issue. Section B Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. astonishing G. occurs B. processing C. ensure H. consequences I . admitted D. blame J. decent E. virtually K. estimated F. routinely

As many sit down to enjoy plentiful holiday meals this season, it’s also a good time to note the growing problem of food waste. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, it is 41._____________ that one-third of food produced for human consumption worldwide annually is lost or wasted. The economic and environmental implications of food loss and waste are 42. ____. More than a quarter of the world’s agricultural land is being worked to grow food that nobody eats. What’s the difference between food loss and food waste? Waste happens toward the back end of the food chain, at the retail and consumer level. Loss, on the other hand, mostly 43. _______ at the front of the food chain—during production, post-harvest, and 44. _____ —and it’s more common in the developing world, which tends to lack the base to deliver all of its food, in 45. ______ shape, to consumers. In developed nations, extreme-efficient farming practices, plenty of refrigeration, and first-rate transportation and storage 46. _______ that most of the food they grow makes it to the retail level. But things go rapidly south from there. Store managers 47. ______ over-order, for fear of running out of a particular product. The British supermarket chain Tesco, for example, 48. ______ throwing out nearly 50,000 tons of food within their UK stores during the latest financial year. Consumers are also to 49. ______. We often order too much food in restaurants without taking leftovers home. We overbuy when there is a discount for invitingly packaged food. When we store food, many of us take “use by” dates literally, and we suffer no 50. ______ for dumping eatable food into a bin. III. Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A,

B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. Do you often feel tried in the morning even though you’ve been in bed for seven or eight hours the night before? Like many people, you are not sleeping as much as you think you are. _51_, your sleep efficiency is not that good. Sleep experts _52_ “sleep efficiency” as the percentage of time that you are actually sleeping. According to explanatory journalism website Vox.com, the science of sleep efficiency is still young. There is no _53_ number for efficiency that’s been proven as linked to poor health. However, according to a New York Times report about sleep _54_, some experts make a rough estimate of 85 percent or above as a decent place to be. Besides avoiding caffeine intake after lunch and _55_ physical exercise before bed, here are more tips for improving sleep efficiency. Avoid blue light at night Short wavelength blue light, _56_ by the sun and by the screens of computers, iPads and smartphones, stops production of the sleep-stimulating hormone melatonin (褪黑激素) and makes you feel more _57_. Blue light tells your brain it’s daytime. Experts suggest turning off your computers and smartphones one hour or at least 30 minutes before bed. You can also try installing apps that can filter blue light on your _58_. Keep a _59_ sleep schedule Go to bed and wake up at the same time, or _60_ the same time, every day. Avoid excessive sleeping on the weekend. Consistency is the key to a good night’s sleep, especially when it comes to waking up. When you have a consistent wake-up time, your brain _61_ to this and moves through the sleep cycle in preparation for you to feel rested and alert at your wake-up time. Roughly an hour before you wake, hormone levels increase gradually (along with your body temperature and blood pressure), _62_ you to become more alert. Take naps One of the biggest _63_ in melatonin production happens during the 1 to 3 pm time frame, which explains why most people feel sleepy in the afternoon. If you aren’t getting enough sleep at night, you’re likely going to feel _64_ to sleep in the afternoon. When this happens, you’re better off taking a short nap (less than 30 minutes) than turning to caffeine or strong tea to keep you awake. A short nap will give you the rest you need to _65_ the rest of the afternoon, and you’ll sleep much better in the evening than if you drink caffeine or take a long afternoon nap. 51. A. By contrast B. In other words C. In conclusion D. On the contrary 52. A. treat B. serve C. work D. define 53. A. specific B. effective C. general D. precious 54. A. quantity B. absence C. quality D. advance 55. A. undertaking B. restricting C. performing D. referring 56. A. given off B. given away C. given in D. given over 57. A. sleepy B. unconscious C. exhausted D. alert 58. A. installations B. appliances C. devices D. computers 59. A. various B. distinct C. habitual D. changeable 60. A. relatively B. exactly C. gradually D. respectively 61. A. adopts B. adapts C. devotes D. dedicates

62. A. commanding 63. A. problems 64. A. depressive 65. A. see to

B. permitting B. peaks B. accurate B. break through

C. reminding C. advantages C. desperate C. take to

D. causing D. weaknesses D. attentive D. get through

Section B Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read. (A) You will never stay the same person. Several recent research studies show a person’s personality naturally changes over time in response to life events and most people tend to improve their personalities as they mature. “Personality means a characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving that is consistent over time and across situations,” says Christopher Soto, a research psychologist at Colby College in Maine, US., who thinks that personality is about 50 percent innate and 50 percent learned. Psychologists usually use the Big Five personality model ——the human personality can be divided into five broad categories—openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism(神经质)and extroversion(外向). Some personality types are more successful than others. Soto says people who are more conscientious tend to do better in the workplace and school. People who score high on agreeableness and low on neuroticism tend to have more satisfying and stable relationships. Extroverts do better in social and entrepreneurial (创业)occupations. According to Soto, even small changes in a person’s personality can produce important effects on relationships, career, health and happiness. But change takes time. “You start by changing the behavior and then, if you can maintain that new behavior over time, it gets cultivated,” Soto says. Where do you start? “First, we have to recognize which pieces of our personality affct us,” says Richard Levak, a well-known personality expert. “If I am always getting fired because I get into arguments with co-workers and always blame others, then I have to realize that I have to change something,” he says. Don’t set your expectation too high. Be patient. Warren Kennaugh, a behavioral strategist in Sydney, Australia, says it’s important to start small. Identify a first step and then practice it without worrying about the primary results. “It’s like learning to kick a football, you focus on the steps, not whether it goes in the goal,” The Wall Street Journal quoted him as saying. You should also let the people close to you know what you’re doing. “Not only can they be supportive,” Kennaugh says, “but a change for you can also mean a change for them—one they may not want or be ready for, if they aren’t told beforehand.” 66. The word “innate” (paragraph 3) is closest in meaning to _________________. A. instructive B. inborn C. indifferent D. informative 67. If Steve is a successful sales manager, who always gets well along with others, he

probably has the personality model of _____________. A. agreeableness and extroversion B. conscientiousness and neuroticism] C. agreeableness and neuroticism D. openness and neuroticism 68. We can learn from the passage that both Soto and Kennaugh think that _________ A. adequate time and patience are needed in developing new personalities B. when in trouble, one always needs to reflect on his own behaviors C. one must begin with small things to cultivate new personalities D. we are often not sure of the impact of our personalities on our life 69. What is this passage mainly about? A. People tend to be changeable as they mature. B. We can easily alter our personalities in a short time C. Only those of great patience can change their personalities D. We can our personalities with some proper strategies.

(B) It’s often interesting to take a look at some of the lists that arrive toward the end of the year such as top devices, best gadgets, most desirable high-tech gift and more. Apart from cell phones and tablets, and Apple and Samsung products, this year many other gadgets made it on the most wanted list from Yahoo Tech and the most searched list from Bing. com. Read on to find out what they are. Wireless headphone Portable Bluetooth headphones represent the next evolution in headphone technology. If you have a compatible smartphone with Bluetooth, the obvious benefit is that you can get rid of the wires snaking from your backpack or pocket. Many of the wireless headphones in the market also have a built-in microphone for taking calls hands-free. Product to buy: Beats Studio Wireless Features: Signature look, and powerful audio performance with intense bass and high-mid boosting, plus plenty of accessories. Price: 1898 yuan Smartwatch The primary advantage of a smartwatch over traditional watches is that they reduce how often you have to pull your phone out of your pocket. With it, the information on your smartphone goes straight to your wrist, and you can decide first if they are worth dealing with. Product to buy: Pebble smartwatch Features: Understated design, with easy setup and instant information, and customizable watch faces, plus synes(同步)with Android or IOS. Price: $99 (about 612 yuan) Portable Bluetooth speaker Bluetooth speakers are steadily growing in popularity because they let you take the party anywhere. They can be paired with your music device, and they are able to withstand incidental bumps. Though small in size, Bluetooth speakers provide a steady soundtrack for even the lengthiest bacchanalia (狂欢)。 Product to buy: Logitech UE Boom

Features: Water and stain resistant, 360-degree sound, 15 hour battery life, with a variety of color patterns. Price: 1499 yuan Fitness band Basically, fitness bands are smartwatches without the watch. They keep track of your exercise progress and, at the same time, allow you to monitor vitals such as your heart rate, calories burned and amount of time spent exercising. Some even monitor your sleep patterns. Product to buy: Fitbit Flex Features: Long battery life (five days), with silent vibrating alarm, and wireless syncing to smartphones. Price: 898 yuan 70. Which of the following words can best summarize the common feature of the above products? A. Cheap B. Android C. Wireless D. Wearable 71. How much money is he likely to spend on some of the products if a man is an enthusiastic musical fan? A. 2510 yuan B. 3397 yuan C. 2397 yuan D. 1510 yuan 72. According to the first paragraph, a smartphone that __________ is a compatible one. A. has a large capacity B. represents technological evolution C. goes with other devices D. has signature look 73. Which of the following statements is Not True according to the passage? A. Tablets are on the most wanted list of high-tech products of this year B. Beats Studio Wireless features plenty of accessories. C. Smartwatch and Fitness band are similar products to some extent. D. All the products can sync with Android or iOS

(C) America’s businesses are getting older and fatter, while many new businesses are dying in infancy. A study last month by the Brookings Institution found that the proportion of older firms has grown steadily over several decades, while the survival rate of new companies has fallen. In addition, young people are starting companies at a sharply lower rate than in the past. A new report from the National Association of Manufacturers shows a major cause: The cost of obeying government regulations has risen to more than $2 trillion (12.26 trillion yuan) annually, or 12 percent of the GDP, and this cost falls disproportionately on smaller, newer businesses. It’s risky, difficult and expensive to start a business, and getting more so. Governments are imposing various new rules on a seemingly daily basis: health insurance, minimum wage increases and, most recently in California, compulsory paid sick days for even hourly employees. These regulations shift huge social welfare costs directly onto often-struggling small businesses, while being proportionally much less costly for larger companies. This is partly an unintended issue of resources—established companies can cope with new costs more easily—but it’s also deliberate. For instance, big insurance companies got a

seat at the table to help write Obamacare, but less politically powerful firms —like medical device manufacturers—got squeezed. Mature, successful corporations can employ ex-lawmakers with connections, distribute campaign contributions and even write regulations for themselves. They are also more likely to want to protect steady revenue streams than revolutionize their industry. Major companies that have been so ill-managed they would otherwise collapse—airlines, car companies and banks—stagger(蹒跚)on because politicians ride to the rescue with bags of taxpayer money. The genius of our unique system of government is the determination to protect and defend the rights of the individual over the rights of the nation. As such, the rise of a well-connected oligarchy(寡头政治)that protects big business at the expense of small business, and the established over the new, is opposite to American ideals. Income inequality—which is directly caused by faulty government policy—is being promoted as the reason to impose more of that bad policy. But let’s be perfectly clear, we do not have a free market but one where government picks winners and losers through regulations and financial aids. Politics is, and always has been, about balancing competing interests seeking to benefit themselves, and that’s as it should be, but the force of government should never be used to reduce competition, kill innovation or support and extend artificial monopolies (垄断)by harming the consumer, the taxpayer and the economy. Policy must breed our new and small businesses or see the as-yet undreamed of innovations that could be our bright future die in infancy. 74. We can learn from the passage that ______________. A. over several decades, new companies have grown steadily B. The cost of obeying government regulations falls equally on all businesses C. less politically powerful firms also have their voice in making regulations D. mature, successful corporations prefer to maintain their stable incomes 75. We can infer from the last three paragraphs that ____________. A. the rise of a well-connected oligarchy is contrary to American ideals B. the state economy may depends on those innovative businesses C. income inequality is what the government should take action to resolve D. the government picks winners and losers through the law of free market 76. It can be concluded from the passage that _______________ A. Larger and older firms have a command of resources of various aspects B. most of the ex-lawmakers work in mature, successful corporations C. politicians like providing financial aids to the companies of worse operation D. big insurance companies have better relationship with Obama 77. As to the development of smaller businesses, the writer is _______________ A. contented B. confident C. concerned D. convinced Section C Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. The European Space Agency landed a probe (探查器) on a comet (彗星) on Nov 12, a first

in space exploration and the highlight of a 10-year journey. Despite some initial faults during the probe’s landing procedure, Philae is now stable on the surface of the comet and sent back its first images on Nov 13. Besides the technical and operational lessons learned from this event, scientists hope that samples drilled out from the comet, known as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, will unlock details about how the planets- and possibly even life- evolved. Leroy Chiao, a former NASA astronaut, explained in an article that there are theories that impacting comets helped seed the Earth with most of its water, and perhaps with the basic chemical building blocks of life itself. Philae, if successful, will analyze the comet’s soil and determine the quantities of water, nucleic (核素的) and amino (氨基的) acids present. These data will help cast more light on comet-seeding theories. In short, says Chiao, Philae and Rosetta (the mother ship) are prepared to help answer fundamental questions on one possible mechanism of the creation of life. The comet 67P was discovered in 1969. It is a roughly 3-by-5 km rock moving around the sun at 65,983 kilometers per hour. Rosetta, reached it in an extremely complicated path in August after a journey of 6.4 billion km that took 10 years, five months and four days, a mission that cost close to $1.8 billion (11billion yuan). The US has a small part in the Rosetta mission as some NASA instruments are on board. Scott Martelle, writing in the Los Angeles Times, says the mission thrills us not just because of the knowledge the mission might bring us, but “because of what it says about the fruits of international cooperation, of imagination and vision, and of endless curiosity.” We spend so much time on the close horizons of our lives, Martelle says: “But moments like the landing of the Philae give us a reason to look up, above the horizon. This is where the future of civilization lies, in these joint explorations pressing the edges of our shared ignorance to see what we can learn.” (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS) 78. Scientists are excited about the samples to be drilled out from the comet, in hope of ________________________________________________________________ 79. The comet-seeding theories seem to imply that ______________________________ provided by the crashing comets may have helped create the life on earth. 80. Give another example of the excitement this mission can bring besides the new knowledge. 81. According to Martelle, what should we do for better future civilization?

第 II 卷(共 47 分) I. Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1. 青年人应该满怀理想。 (ambition)

2. 明天的幸福在于你今日的努力。 (determine)

3. 他迟到的原因是交通堵塞,不是睡懒觉。 (It)

4. 由于好奇和担忧,一些家长往往会查看孩子的手机,弄清他们经常跟谁练习。 (out of)

5. 我们过于依赖电脑,常常在要写字时才意识到我们已经“提笔忘字”了。 (So)


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上海市十三校2015届高三第二次联考英语试题含答案 - 2015 年 3 月十三校联考高三英语试卷 2015.03 听力(略) II. Grammar and vocabulary Sectio...
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