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【英语】专题20完形填空之议论文和说明文类-三年高考(2016-2018)英语试题分项版解析Word版

2018 年高考题(无) 2017 年高考题(无) 2016 年高考题 【2016· 上海】Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work. In any case, despite so much evidence to the X. They believe, 53 52 , many managers still agree to Theory , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work 54 without consultation. This, of course, effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers. Different cultures have different ways of 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot. A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without of the trend towards downsizing: 59 60 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part the number of management layers in companies. After 61 with just a top level of senior managers, de-layering in this way, a company may be front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has 62 been the case. Empowerment and 63 that the overall business plan is delegation mean new forms of management control to being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less. Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail 65 and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them. 51. A. desire 52. A. contrary 53.