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chapter1 exercises


Chapter 1 Language, Linguistics and Lexicology 1. Can you give the description of the term language from different angles? 2. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word according to the text. 1) Language is a system of symbols based on ______, ______, and _____. It is a special _____action and carrier of ______ used for human_______ in a society. 2) Language is a _______ of society. 3) Man's thought is _____to language just as ______is inseparable from society. 4) There is no ______character to language itself, but the way in which a person uses a language has an obvious ______ character. 5) The aim of the course in English lexicology is to give a ______ description of the English _________. 6) Without _ ______there is no word because every word is a unity of _________and meaning. 7) Stylistics is concerned with language variety differing according to _____ rather than ______ . The same user may use different varieties for _____purposes, _____ situations, in conversation with _______people, to produce _______ effects. 8) Historical linguistics studies words from the viewpoint of____, whereas

lexicology studies words from the viewpoint of both______ and______ , but especially of ______. 3. Is it right that language is a product of society? Why? Give your reasons.
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4. There are two main forms of language itself, which one is more important? 5. Complete the following statements by adding an appropriate word to each blank. 1) A synchronic approach is an approach to the study of a language at one ____of time, whereas a diachronic approach is an approach to the study of the _____in a language that took place ______ a period of time. 2) The Latin word Januarius, meaning ______in English, was derived from _____ , the Roman god of gates and doors. Januarius means '_____', so

January is the ______of the year. 3) The Latin word Augustus was anglicized to______, the name of the eighth month in English. 4) Diachronically, the terms Sunday, Monday, etc. existed as______ in old English. 5) The names of seven days of the week are of the _____origin, although they have _____influence in some degree. The early Germanic peoples translated the Latin names into the _______equivalents. 6) According to the diachrony we know that the Modern English word fond meant '______' , but now it means '______'. 7) The word comrade originally meant '______', but now it means '______'. 8) Synchronically, we consider words like eventful, talkative, etc. as ________. Diachronically, they were _______. 6. Translate the following terms into Chinese.
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1) diachrony 2) synchrony 3) hybrid 4) derivative 5) compound 6) word-formation 7) lexicology 8) linguistics 9) applied linguistics 10) general linguistics 11) sociolinguistics

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ ________________ _________________

7. Are there two main approaches to the study of English lexicology? What are they? And give their definitions respectively. 8. What is lexicology? 9. Do you think that English lexicology course is an important course for the majors in the English language and literature, why? your opinions.

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答案 Chapter 1 Language, Linguistics and Lexicology l. We may define the term language from the following aspects: l) Language is a social action and a carrier of information. 2) Language is a system of structure. It contains phonetics and phonology, vocabulary and meaning, morphology and syntax. 3) Language is a social phenomenon because it is an instrument of human communication in a society. 4) Language is a physiological phenomenon because it is connected with the organs of speech, the nervous system and muscular activities. 5) Language is a psychological phenomenon because it is closely related to man's psychological activities. 6) Language is also a physical phenomenon owing to the propagation of speech sounds. From the above-mentioned points we may draw the conclusion as follows: Language is a system of symbols based on physiology, psychology and physics. It is a specific social action and a carrier of information used for human communication in a society.
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2. l) physiology, psychology, physics, social, information, communication 2) product 3) indispensable, language 4) class, class 5) systematic, vocabulary 6) sound, sound 7) use, user, different, different, different, different 8) diachrony, synchrony, diachrony, synchrony

People live, work and play in a society. They communicate each other by language in daily life. Language as a necessary tool makes communication very freely and easily in a society. Without society, there would be no language. Without language, there would be no communication between people. The appearance and application of language depend on the existence of society. Therefore, language is a product of society.
3.
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4. There

are two main forms of language itself: one is the spoken words, the other is written symbols. But language is first and foremost a spoken thing. So the spoken form is more important than the written symbols, because the written language is but a symbol of spoken words.

5. 1) period, change, over 2) January, Janus, door, door 3) August 4) compounds 5) Germanic, Latin, Germanic 6) foolish, like or affectionate 7) roommate. fellow member of a political party 8) derivatives, hybrids 6. 1) diachrony 2) synchrony 3) hybrid 4) derivative 5) compound 历时分析 共时分析 混合词 派生词 复合词 构词法

6) word-formation 7) lexicology

词汇学
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8) linguistics

语言学 应用语言学 普通语言学 社会语言学

9) applied linguistics 10) general linguistics 11) sociolinguistics

7. There are two main approaches to the study of English lexicology: synchronic and diachronic. A synchronic approach is an approach to the study of a language at one period of time, whereas a diachronic approach is an approach to the study of the change in a language that took place over a period of time. 8. Comprehensively speaking, lexicology is the branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. It deals with words, their origin, development, history, structure, meaning and application. In short, it is the study of the signification and application of words.

All the words in a language together constitute what is known as its vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of three elements of language: speech sounds, grammar and vocabulary. In learning a foreign language, it is very important to enlarge one's vocabulary. In order to learn and use English words correctly, those who major in the English language and literature should acquire a basic knowledge of English lexicology.
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