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The Format of Thesis
The thesis is written in English, including the citation.( 全文用英文书写, 包括引用 文献。) 2. What are some essential standard?Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Set the margins of your thesis to one-inch(2.54 centimeters)on all sides. The paper should be double-space typed. There is one space between every English words. There is no space between the words and punctuations. (用 12 号新罗马字体排版,双倍行距。页边距为 2.54 厘 米,16 开 A4 白色纸打印,英文单词之间相距一个空格。单词和标点符号之间没 有空格。) 3. How to deal with the first page? 第一页格式的处理。In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name; your number and your class; the tutor’s name; the course; and the date. The date in MLA format should be written as “day month year.”: i.e. 29 December 2011(without comma between each word and the month should not be abbreviated.) Be sure to use double space. (第一页左上角,纵向排列 你的名字;学号、班级;指导老师的名字;课程名称;日期(格式是日月年,中 间不用标点符号,月份也不用缩写,如:29 December 2011) 4. How to write a title?(如何写标题?)The title is centered and written in 12-piont Times New Roman font. The title is not bold, underlined, or italicized. But use quotation mark or italic(s) if your title includes works (an article, a poem, or a story) or a book of others, do just as you would do in the text: quote the title of the article, the poem or the story while italicize the book. (标题居中,用 12 号新罗马字 体。标题不用黑体,下划线或斜体,如果标题中有已出版的文章,文章部分用双 引号, 如果是书籍, 书籍部分用斜体。 如: Symbolism in “Young Good Man Brown.” 或 Sybolism in Scarlet Letter。 5. How to indent the first paragraph? (如何编辑段落?)Indent the first sentence of each paragraph 0.5inch. Microsoft Word suggests using the Tab ky. (每一段第 一句缩进半英寸(1.75 厘米) ,用 Tab 键。 6. How many parts are there basically in a thesis? (论文最基本应该包括几部 分 ? )The thesis should have an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs for developing ideas and a paragraph for conclusion. (论文应该包括一段引言部分、几 段论证部分和一段结论部分。) 7. How to write the introduction? Is it the introduction of the author or the introduction of the plot of the story? (如何写论文的引言部分?它是作者的生平介 绍 吗 ? 它 是 小 说 的 故 事 情 节 介 绍 吗 ? ) No, The introduction is neither the introduction of the author nor that of the plot of the story you study. It is an introduction of the paper you are writing. It should set the context for the rest of the

paper. It tells your readers why you are writing and why your topic is important. It ends with a thesis statement which is the position you will develop and support throughout the paper. The thesis statement guides and controls your paper.(引言部 分既不是你所研究的文章的作者介绍,也不是作品的故事情节介绍,而是对你写 的论文大致介绍。 它为整篇文章定下基调, 告知读者你的论文的必要性和重要性; 引言部分用一个句子作为全文中心论点结束,中心论点是需要论证阐释的观点, 指导和控制全文,使整篇文章不至于偏题。) 8. How to Make the Ideas of a Long Thesis Easier for the Reader to Grasp? ( 如何使 一篇篇幅较长的论文便于读者理解?)If your thesis is a long one, you may want to write about how your paper is organized. This can help your reader to follow your ideas.(如果你的论文比较长, 在引言之后接下来一段, 你可以介绍你论文的结构, 便于读者理解你的观点。) 9. What are the elements for the body paragraphs? (正文段落的有哪些要素?) Body paragraphs have these four elements: a transition, a topic sentence, evidence and a brief wrap-up sentence. At the beginning of your developing paragraphs, make sure you have transitory words, phrases or paragraphs to have each part connected logically together. You’d better begin each paragraph with a topic sentence and several other sentences of instances to support it, and the last sentence to wrap up for a conclusion while transitioning to the next paragraph.(每一个自然段开始,要注 意用过渡段的连接词,词组或句子,把每一部分串联成一个符合逻辑的整体。每 一段开始用一个中心句, 接下来用列子证明, 句与句之间要有表示逻辑关系的词, 词组,最后用一句话概括整段大意,并与下一段自然过渡。) 10. How to quote in the text? (如何在正文中引用文献?)In-text citations occur after the quote but before the period. The author’s/authors’ name/s go before the page number with no comma in between. i.e. “A lone woman is troubled with such dreams and such thoughts that she’s afraid of herself sometimes” (Hawthorne 431). If you go on to quote the same work, put the page number in a bracket only. i.e. “She’s a blessed angel on earth; and after this one night I’ll cling to her skirts and follow her to heaven”(432). 文中引用文献的标注在引用部分后面,句号前面,作 者姓空格页码,中间没有逗号) ,如果同一页引用同一作品,则只标页码。 14. Use block quote when quotations are longer than four-typed lines. Block quotations begin on a new line, are double-spaced and indented one-inch from the margin. Do not use quotation marks. The citation information (the author’s name and the page number) follow. (如果被引用的部分超过三行,则引用整段。整段 引用另起一行, 双倍行距, 自页边空白整体缩进一英寸 (2.54 厘米) , 不用引号, 末尾添加引用来源(作者姓空格页码) 。 15. If you delete words from the original quote, insert an ellipsis, three periods with a space before and after each one.(如果你去掉引文中的一些单词,用省略号 (三个前后有空格的小圆点) 。

16. If a source has more than three authors, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” i.e. (Barker et al. 23) (如果文献作者是三位以上,文中引用只 用第一位作者的姓,后面是空格加“et al." 再空格加页码) 17. Conclusion wrap up what you have discussed in your paper. Because it is B-level, the first paragraph is not indented. (结尾部分总结论文中讨论的话题。 因它 是 B 级标题,第一段不缩进。) 18. How to format the Work/s Cited page ?(引用作品格式) The Work/s Cited page is a list of all the sources you cited in your paper. It includes books, journals, magazines, online resources, films, CD-Rom, interview,classroom notes, blog, e-mail, diaries, etc.(“引用作品”页是在你论文最后列出你文中引用的 信息的来源, 包括书籍,期刊,报刊,网络,电影,光盘,访谈,课堂笔记,博 客,电子邮件,日记等) The Works Cited page begins on a new page. Center the title Works Cited without underlining, bolding, italicizing it. If there is only one entry, write Work Cited. 引用作 品页置于尾注页之后,另起一页。将 Works Cited 的标题居中,不加下划线,不 加斜体。如果只引用一项,则用单数“Work Cited." List the entries in the alphebetically order. 按照字母表的顺序排列。 MLA now requires all sources to have a publication marker. For example, books receive the marker “print” after the citation. Online sources have the marker of "Web." CD-Rom, E-mail, Blog for resources from CD-Rom, E-mail, and Blog respectively. 现在 MLA 要求所有引用文献要有一个“出版标志." 比如,书藉后用 "Print.," 网络信息用"Web" ,光盘用 CD-Rom,博客用 Blog.电子邮件用 e-mail.(详见 以下例子。 ) If a source doesn’t have a list of publisher, and you can infer who the publisher is. Place the publisher’s name in brackets.(如果原文没有出版社,但你能够猜到出 版商是谁,可以用括号把出版商括起来。 Online Resources Citation: MLA no long requires URLs in the Works Cited, instead, you must write “web” before the date of access in the entry. This serves as the entry’s publication marker. i.e.Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date. Web. Date of access. 对于网络 信息, MLA 不再要求给出详细网址, 但你必须在你访问网址的时间之前注明“Web” 作为出版标记。如:作者姓,名. “文章名”. 网站,最后编辑日月年. Web. 访问日 月年. Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 4 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 July 2010. Note: 短篇小说课本引用格式:小说作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 论文集名称. Ed. 论 文集编者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print. Lawrence,D.H. "The Rocking Horse Winner." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Ed. R.V.Cassill. 5th. ed. New York: Norton, 1995. 543-559. Print. -------------------

注意: 1. 独著 姓,名. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. Bambrough, Renford. The Philosophy of Aristotle. New York: The New American Library, 1963.Print. 2. 两至三名作者 姓,名, 名姓, 名姓, and 名姓. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. Horton, Rod W., and Herbert W. Edwards. Backgrounds of American Literary Thought. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1952.Print. Atwan, Robert, Donald Mcquade, and John Wright. Edsels, Luckies, and Frigidaires: Advertising the American Way. New York: Dell, 1979.Print. 3. 四名或以上作者 姓,名, et al. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. Belenky, Mary Field, et, al. Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic, 1986.Print. 4. 机构作者 机构名称. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association, 1994.Print. 5. 匿名作者 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. The New York Times Atlas of the World. New York: New York Times Books, 1980. Print. 6. 同一作者两本以上著作 以书名第一个主要单词的首字母顺序排列先后, 作者的姓名放在第一条文献条目 前,第二条文献条目前用三个连字号。 Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence, a Theory of Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.Print. ---. A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.Print. 7. 编著 一名编者: 姓, 名, ed. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print. Frye, Northrop, ed. Romanticism Reconsidered. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.Print. 两名编者: 姓, 名, and 名姓, eds. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print. Glotfelty, Cheryll, and Harold Fromm, eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Atherns: The University of Georgia Press, 1966.Print. 三名以上的编者: 第一编者姓, 名, et al. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print. Donadio, Stephen, et al., eds. Emerson and His Legacy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986.Print. 8. 译著

原作者姓, 名. 书名. Trans. 译者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: Norton, !961.Print. 9. 再版著作 姓,名. 书名. 版别序号 ed. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. 5th ed. Ft. Worth: Harcourt, 1993. Print. 10. 论文集中的文章 文章作者姓, 名 . “ 文章标题 .” 论文集名称 . Ed. 论文集编者名姓 . 出版地 : 出版 社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print. Wellek, Rene. “Romanticism RE-examined.” Romanticism Reconsidered. Ed. Northrop Frye. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963. 75-98.Print. Hall, Stuart, “Minial Selves.” Studying Culture. Eds. Ann Gray and Jim McGuigan. Arnold: Hodder Headline Group, 1993. 131-42. Print. Note: 短篇小说课本引用格式:小说作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 论文集名称. Ed. 论 文集编者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print. Lawrence,D.H., "The Rocking Horse Winner." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Ed. R.V.Cassill. 5th ed.New York: Norton, 1995. 543-559. Print. 11. 多卷、多册或再版著作 书名后注明第几册或第几卷.(带翻译) 姓, 名. 书名. 卷目 vols. Trans.译者姓名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print. Plato. Laws. 2 vols. Trans. R. G. Bury. Leob Classical Libery. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1926. Print. 12. 前言,后记 前言作者姓,名. “Introduction (或 Forewords 或 Preface).” 书名. By 书目作者名 姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 前言起始页码.Print. 后记作者姓,名 . “Afterwords.” 书名. By 书目作者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年 代. 后记起始页码.Print. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. “Introduction.” Pioneer Women: Voices from the Kansas Frontier. By Joanna L. Stratton. New York: Simon, 1981. 11-15.Print. 13. 期刊文章 文章作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 杂志名称 卷号. 期号 (出版年代): 起始页码.Print. Maguire, James H. “The Canon and the 'Diminished Thing.” American Literature 60 (1988): 645-52.Print. Davis, Sherri Heckler. “The Zen Art of Prewriting.” New Mexico English Journal12. 1 (1988): 21-23.Print. 14. 周刊或双周刊文章 文章作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 杂志名称 出版日月年: 起始页码..Print. Hoagland, Edward. “Standing Tough in the Desert.” New York Times Book Review 7 May 1989: 44-45.Print. 15. 月刊或双月刊文章 文章作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 杂志名称 出版月年: 起始页码..Print. Weiss, Philip. “The Book Thief: A True Tale of Bibliomania.” Harper’s January 1994: 37-56.Print.

16. 报纸文章 文章作者姓, 名. “文章标题.” 报纸名称 出版日月年, 版, 栏, 页码..Print. Intraub, Anna Jinagwang. “How I learned to Read.” New York Times. 13 January 2002, Section 4, Column 6, Page 16.Print. 如果作者未知, 版栏信息缺失, 格式为: “文章标题.” 报纸名称 出版日月年: 页码..Print. “Learn English through Football.” 21st Century Supplement 21 Feb. 2002: III.Print. 17. Multimedia sources: (多媒体资料) MLA format for multimedia Sources requires a medium description at the end of the citation. Film, DVD, Radio, Web. E-mail, Presentation and other descriptions should be used to indicate the type of multimedia that is being referrenced. MLA 格式要求多媒体资料的引用要在应用信 息后面加上媒体形式:如电影,DVD,收音机,网络,电子邮件,演讲等。 ⑴ 网络著作 l General Format: Author(corporations, governments): Title of Site. Sponsor. Date Created (use n.d. if not given) medium. Date accessed. 基本格式:作者(机构,政府) :网页标题。网站,网页制作日月年(若无,用 n. d.)媒介. 访问日月年。 l 整个网站:如:United States Environmental Protection Agency: Drinking Water Standards. EPA, 8 July 2004. Web. 24 Jan. 2006. l 网页上一篇不知发表日期的文章: Shiva. “Biothics: A Third World Issue.” Nativeweb. Nativeweb, n. d. Web. 22 Feb. 2006 l 网上著作 作者姓, 名. 书名 出版年代. 检索日月年.Web Emerson, Ralph waldo. Essays: First Series.1841.12 Feb. 1997. Web. l 网络文章 作者姓, 名. 文章名称. 来源名称. 最后编辑日月年.Web. 检索日月年 Fischer, Michael F. “Worthless Words for the Day.” 21 November 2005.Web. 8 May 2007 19. l 博客:作者姓, 名. 博客名称. 来源名称 最近编辑日月年.Web. 检索日月年 : Li ChengPeng. Li Cheng Peng. Sina.com, 30 Dec. 2011. Web. 4 Jan. 2011. ⑵电邮:作者. 主题. 电邮大意. 发邮件日月年. E-mail. i.e. Mu Xinghua. “Re: The Main Characters in ‘Flowering Judas’”. Message to the teacher. 20 Dec. 2011. E-mail. ⑶光盘: 作者姓, 名. “条目标题.” 光盘名称. (其他信息). CD-ROM. 出版地: 出版 社, 出版年代. “Communion.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992. ⑷ 视频: 作者. “视频标题.” 视频用途. 网站 上传日月年. Web. 访问视频日月年. Wang Xinguoet. al. “Kew Gardens: A CWNU Version.” Project: Assignment. Sina.com. 7 July 2006. Web. 4 Jan. 2012 ⑸演讲: (Lecture, or Public Address) 演讲者,演讲场合,演讲地点,时间 Presentation. Wang Yan. et. al. “Success and Morality.” International CCTV Cup English Speech

Contest. SWNU. 11 Nov. 2011. Presentation.

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