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国际商务 Chap12 中文翻译


Shandong Economic University

International Business
国际商务

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University

Shandong Economic University

Chapter 12

The Strategy of International Business

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University

Introduction
? What actions can managers take to compete more effectively as an international business? ? How can firms increase profits through international expansion? ? What international strategy should firms pursue?

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-3

Strategy And The Firm
? A firm’s strategy refers to the actions that managers take to attain the goals of the firm ? Profitability收益率 can be defined as the rate of return the firm makes on its invested capital ? Profit growth收益增长率is the percentage increase in net profits over time ? Expanding internationally can boost profitability and profit growth

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-4

Strategy And The Firm
Figure 12.1: Determinants of Enterprise Value

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-5

Value Creation
? The value created by a firm is measured by the difference between V (the price that the firm can charge for that product given competitive pressures) and C (the costs of producing that product)一个公司创造的价值可以 由V(公司可以为有竞争力的商品标的价格)和C(这个产 品的制作成本)的差值来衡量。 ? The higher the value customers place on a firm’s products, the higher the price the firm can charge for those products, and the greater the profitability of the firm ? 消费者对一个公司的产品认为的价格越高,公司可以要的 价格就越高,公司的盈利就越大。
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-6

Value Creation
Figure 12.2: Value Creation

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-7

Classroom Performance System
What is the rate of return the firm makes on its invested capital? a) Profit growth b) Profitability c) Net return d) Value created

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-8

Value Creation
Profits can be increased by: ? adding value to a product so that customers are willing to pay more for it – a differentiation strategy ? lowering costs – a low cost strategy ? Michael Porter argues that superior profitability goes to firms that create superior value by lowering the cost structure of the business and/or differentiating the product so that a premium price can be charged

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-9

Strategic Positioning
? Michael Porter argues that firms need to choose either differentiation or low cost, and then configure internal operations to support the choice迈克尔.波特认为公司需 要选择区分化或是低成本(战略),并且确认为支持此选 择作出的行动。 公司须如下做来最大化长期投资的回报: ? pick a viable position on the efficiency frontier ? configure internal operations to support that position ? have the right organization structure in place to execute the strategy
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-10

Strategic Positioning
Figure 12.3: Strategic Choice in the International Hotel Industry

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-11

Operations: The Firm As A Value Chain
? A firm’s operations can be thought of a value chain composed of a series of distinct value creation activities, including production, marketing, materials management, R&D, human resources, information systems, and the firm infrastructure一个公司的业务可以 被认为是一种独特的价值创造活动,包括生产,销售系列组成的价值 链,物料管理,研发,人力资源,信息系统,该公司基础设施 ? Value creation activities can be categorized as primary activities (R&D, production, marketing and sales, customer service) and support activities (information systems, logistics, human resources) 价值创造活动可以分为主要活动(研发,生产,营销和销售,客户服 务)和支持活动(信息系统,物流,人力资源)

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-12

Classroom Performance System
Which of the following is not an example of a primary activity? a) Logistics b) Marketing and sales c) Customer service d) Production

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-13

Operations: The Firm As A Value Chain
Figure 12.4: The Value Chain

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-14

Global Expansion, Profitability, And Profit Growth
? 公司可以经由在国际范围销售本土研发的货物或者服务来 增加成长 ? 公司国际化扩展的成功取决于他们销售的产品或者服务, 以及他们的核心竞争力 (公司里那些其他公司无法轻易匹 敌或模仿的技术) ? 核心竞争力使得公司减少创造价值的成本和/或创造使得 公司可以获得更好出价的方式的价值

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-15

Expanding The Market: Leveraging Products And Competencies
? Firms can increase growth by selling goods or services developed at home internationally ? The success of firms that expand internationally depends on the goods or services they sell, and on their core competencies (skills within the firm that competitors cannot easily match or imitate) ? Core competencies enable the firm to reduce the costs of value creation and/or to create perceived value in such a way that premium pricing is possible

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-16

Location Economies
? When firms base each value creation activity at that location where economic, political, and cultural conditions, including relative factor costs, are most conducive to the performance of that activity, they realize location economies (the economies that arise from performing a value creation activity in the optimal location for that activity, wherever in the world that might be)当公司将价值创造活动 定基于经济、政治、文化环境,包括减少相关要素成本,都有助于 (价值创造)活动的效果更好的位置的时候,他们就是在实行地方经 济 (由世界上任何最适合创造价值活动的地点发展起来的价值创造活 动)

? 通过发展地方经济公司可以: ? lower the costs of value creation and achieve a low cost position ? differentiate their product offering
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-17

Location Economies
? Firms that take advantage of location economies in different parts of the world, create a global web of value creation activities利用世界上 不同地方的地方经济创造了一个创造价值活动的全球网络。 ? Under this strategy, different stages of the value chain are dispersed to those locations around the globe where perceived value is maximized or where the costs of value creation are minimized在这个 战略下,价值链的不同阶段被分散到全球的这些价值最大化或价值创 造成本成本最小化的位置。

警告: transportation costs, trade barriers, and political risks complicate this picture

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-18

Classroom Performance System
What is created when different stages of a value chain are dispersed to locations where value added is maximized or where the costs of value creation are minimized?

a) Experience effects b) Learning effects c) Economies of scale d) A global web

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-19

Experience Effects
? 经验曲线效应 指的是在生产的过程中被观测到的生产成 本的系统化减小 ? 学习效应 是指由工作过程中的学习造成的成本减小。 ? 所以,当劳动生产率增加的时候个人会习得完成个人工作 的最有效率的方式,而管理层则习得如何更有效率的掌控 新的行动。

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-20

Experience Effects
Figure 12.5: The Experience Curve

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-21

Experience Effects
? Economies of scale规模经济 指的是由于大规模生产某产品发生的单 位成本减少

规模经济的来源包括: ? spreading fixed costs over a large volume ? utilizing production facilities more intensively ? increasing bargaining power with suppliers

? By moving down the experience curve, firms reduce the cost of creating value ? To get down the experience curve quickly, firms can use a single plant to serve global markets
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-22

Leveraging Subsidiary Skills
? 如下行为对经理人很重要: ? recognize that valuable skills that could be applied elsewhere in the firm can arise anywhere within the firm’s global network (not just at the corporate center) ? establish an incentive system that encourages local employees to acquire new skills ? have a process for identifying when valuable new skills have been created in a subsidiary

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-23

Summary
? 经理人在作出关于定价的策略决定的时候需要一直注意盈 利率和盈利成长的关系。 ? 在某些场合下,为了获得市场共有,给产品定价略低于产 品的价值是有价值的。

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-24

Cost Pressures And Pressures For Local Responsiveness
那些在全球市场中竞争的公司经常会很典型的面对两个问题: pressures for cost reductions降低成本 ? pressures to be locally responsive

? 这些压力对公司提出了相冲突的要求: ? Pressures for cost reductions force the firm to lower unit costs, but pressure for local responsiveness require the firm to adapt its product to meet local demands in each market—a strategy that raises costs降低成本的压力强迫 公司降低单位成本,但是地方应答性压力需要公司适应不 同市场的需求——这是个会升高成本的策略。
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-25

Cost Pressures And Pressures For Local Responsiveness
Figure 12.6: Pressures for Cost Reductions and Local Responsiveness

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-26

Pressures For Cost Reductions
降低成本的压力是最大的: ? 在生产满足日常需求(那些不同地方的人即使不同也会相 似的需求)的行业,价格是最有竞争力的武器。 ? 当主要竞争对手处于低成本的基础上的时候 ? 拥有过剩产能的时候 ? 当消费者很强大,面对的选择成本较低的时候

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-27

Pressures For Local Responsiveness
由于地方适应性产生的压力来源于: ? differences in consumer tastes and preferences消费者品 位和喜好不同- strong pressures for local responsiveness emerge when consumer tastes and preferences differ significantly between countries ? differences in traditional practices and infrastructure传统 习惯和基础设施的不同 - pressures for local responsiveness emerge when there are differences in infrastructure and/or traditional practices between countries

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-28

Pressures For Local Responsiveness
? differences in distribution channels分销渠道不同 - a firm's marketing strategies needs to be responsive to differences in distribution channels between countries ? host government demands当地政府的需求 - economic and political demands imposed by host country governments may necessitate a degree of local responsiveness

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-29

Classroom Performance System
Which of the following is not a pressure for local responsiveness? a) Excess capacity b) Host government demands c) Differences in consumer tastes and preferences d) Differences in distribution channels

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-30

Choosing A Strategy
There are four basic strategies to compete in the international environment: ? global standardization国际标准化 ? localization地方化 ? Transnational超越国界 ? International国际化 ? The appropriateness of each strategy depends on the pressures for cost reduction and local responsivness in the industry每一个策略的适当程度取决于行业中成本压力 和地方适应性压力。
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-31

Choosing A Strategy
Figure 12.7: Four Basic Strategies

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-32

Global Standardization Strategy
? The global standardization strategy focuses on increasing profitability and profit growth by reaping the cost reductions that come from economies of scale, learning effects, and location economies 国际标准化策略 关注于通过降低来自规模经济、学习效应和地方经济的成 本来增加盈利率和利润成长 ? The strategic goal is to pursue a low-cost strategy on a global scale 战略的目标是在全球规模内形成低成本的战 术。 具备如下条件时此战术成立: ? 面对巨大的降低成本的压力 ? 地方适应性压力较小

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-33

Localization Strategy
? The localization strategy地方化战略 focuses on increasing profitability by customizing the firm’s goods or services so that they provide a good match to tastes and preferences in different national markets 当具备如下条件的时候成立: ? 不同国家的消费者喜好具有明显区分度; ? 成本压力不大

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-34

Transnational Strategy
跨国战略 试图同时达到如下效果: ? achieve low costs through location economies, economies of scale, and learning effects ? differentiate the product offering across geographic markets to account for local differences ? foster a multidirectional flow of skills between different subsidiaries in the firm’s global network of operations

当具备如下条件成立: ? cost pressures are intense ? pressures for local responsiveness are intense
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-35

International Strategy
? The international strategy国际化战略 involves taking products first produced for the domestic market and then selling them internationally with only minimal local customization The international strategy makes sense when当具备如下条 件的时候成立: ? there are low cost pressures ? low pressures for local responsiveness

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-36

Classroom Performance System
Which strategy tries to simultaneously achieve low costs through location economies, economies of scale, and learning effects, and differentiate the product offering across geographic markets to account for local differences? a) Internationalization b) Localization c) Global standardization d) Transnational
山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-37

The Evolution of Strategy
? 一个国际的战略可能不会在长期内一直可行 ? 为了生存,公司可能需要在竞争者之前提升到国际标准化 战略或者跨国战略。 ? 相似的,地方化可能给公司带来竞争力,但是如果这个公 司面对着侵略性的竞争对手,这个公司也必须降低他的成 本结构,唯一的方法就是向跨国战略转变。

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-38

The Evolution of Strategy
Figure 12.8: Changes in Strategy over Time

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-39

Classroom Performance System
Which strategy makes sense when pressures are high for local responsiveness, but low for cost reductions? a) Global standardization strategy b) International strategy c) Transnational strategy d) Localization strategy

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University 1-40

Shandong Economic University

International Business

End of Chapter
Thank You!

山东经济学院· 国际贸易学院 School of International Trade, Shandong Economic University


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