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2014_2018高考英语试题分项版解析专题20完形填空之议论文和说明文类含解析_219英语精选

专题 20 完形填空之议论文和说明文类 2018 年高考题 (无) 2017 年高考题 (无) 2016 年高考题 【2016·上海】Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work. In any case, despite so much evidence to the They believe, 53 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work 54 without consultation. This, of course, effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers. Different cultures have different ways of some cultures, particularly in Asia, are 55 well people. Unlike authoritarian management, known for the consultative 56 nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot. A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without towards downsizing: 59 60 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in 61 with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers this way, a company may be and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委 托) much further than has management control to 63 62 been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less. Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and 65 of the the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them. 51. A. des